1. Introduction India today combines the fastest growth in the number of internet users in the world, a vibrant and diverse legacy news media sector in both print and broadcast, and widespread concerns that some news media are compromised by their pursuit of short-­‐‐term profit, by weak professional ethics, outside pressures on journalists, and by conflicts of interest related to their owners’ other business and political activities. In this report, we review a range of digital journalism start-­‐‐ups in India that all aim to build on the opportunity afforded by rapid growth in internet use while navigating between on the one hand legacy news media competitors and international technology companies who increasingly expand their online activities and on the other hand the economic, professional, political, and proprietor-­‐‐related pressures many journalists in India have to confront. 1 The cases we look at in some detail – the Quint, Scroll, Inshorts, DailyHunt, The Wire, and Khabar Lahairya – all represent different approaches to digital journalism in India, in terms of their content strategies, their distribution strategies, and their strategies for funding journalism on a for-­‐‐profit or non-­‐‐profit basis. At this stage, none of them compare with the reach and editorial muscle of leading legacy news media like the Times of India, NDTV, or Dainik Bhaskar. In India, as elsewhere, established media dominate digital news provision and employ the vast majority of journalists. 2 But all of the cases we discuss here represent important examples of how digital journalism might be done in new ways and by new players in India. By extension, they also shed light on how digital journalism might evolve in other growing low-­‐‐income democracies with a rapidly developing digital media market, like Bangladesh or even Indonesia. In this opening section, we will briefly outline the rapidly growing digital media market these start-­‐‐ups are navigating and summarise some key features of how digital journalism start-­‐‐ups have developed in other countries that help us understand the situation in India. In the second section, we discuss two cases that are both for-­‐‐profit content-­‐‐based start-­‐‐ups with a clear editorial focus, namely the Quint and Scroll. In the third section, we examine two cases that are for-­‐‐profit aggregators with a greater emphasis on technology, namely Inshorts (formerly NewsInShort) and DailyHunt (formerly NewsHunt). In the fourth section, we look at two examples of non-­‐profit content-­‐‐based start-­‐‐ups with very different editorial ambitions, namely 1 For recent research on developments in Indian media and journalism, see e.g. Parthasarathi and Srinivas (2012), Kohli (2013), Mehta (2015), and Ramaprasad et al. (2015). For a recent journalistic treatment, see e.g.­‐‐big-­‐‐five-­‐‐the-­‐‐media-­‐‐companies-­‐‐that-­‐‐the-­‐‐modi-­‐‐government-­‐‐must-­‐scrutinise-­‐‐to-­‐‐fulfill-­‐‐its-­‐‐promise-­‐‐of-­‐‐ending-­‐‐crony-­‐‐capitalism. The most recent review of press freedom by Reporters without Borders highlight increasing pressures on journalists from religious groups, political actors, and commercial interests: Painter (2013) presents a range of journalists’ perspectives on contemporary Indian journalism. 2 See e.g.­‐‐report and Newman et al. (2015). 5

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