SMART PARKING TECHNOLOGIES

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SMART PARKING

TECHNOLOGIES:

Myths & Realities

1


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PARKING MANAGEMENT IS ONE OF THE KEY ASPECTS OF

URBAN MOBILITY: ALL CARS TRAVELLING THROUGH CITIES

MUST LOCATE A PARKING SPACE AT THEIR JOURNEY’S END,

OR BEFORE TAKING ANOTHER FORM OF TRANSPORT.

Cars searching for a parking place represent

20 to 30% of all traffic, with a huge impact on

the mobility and quality of life of residents.

A wide range of technical innovations to improve

parking management has emerged in recent

years: cashless payment, the development of

parking meters towards multi-service devices and

technologies which gather data in real time on

parking availability, the latter types being known as

“Smart Parking” solutions.

A number of pioneering large cities have opted for

smart parking strategies, installing a host of different

technologies across significant areas of their city

centres, and with more or less successful outcomes

in view of their original objectives, most having had

to undertake subsequent technology adjustment

and reinforcement phases. Equally, many smaller

projects have focused on local issues and have also

noted very encouraging results from the perspective

of return on investment. Take-up, however, remains

far behind estimates made in early 2010’s, in

particular due to a lack of confidence on the part

of decision-makers - primarily concerning the

appropriateness and impact of such deployments

on mobility, and also in terms of the reliability of the

technology.

This 'White Paper' is intended to offer an overview

of the experience accumulated by Urbiotica over

the last 8 years, which have seen solutions tailored

to specific conditions and technical constraints in

nearly 20 countries on 3 continents. More than 10,000

U-Spot sensors for detecting vehicles, generating

nearly 3 million daily observations to date, are in

operation and used by our customers to manage

parking on a daily basis. The 1 st systems deployed

are now over 5 years in use, and they continue to

operate. The pioneers who placed their trust in us

now enjoy the full range of recent innovations by

way of the "Sensing as a Service" (SEaaS) strategy of

cloud-based intelligence, which is also a cornerstone

of the durability of the system.

We also look back at the many economic and social

outcomes of the projects we have implemented:

increases in direct revenue from parking, workforce

productivity, and reductions in conflict, traffic

and disturbance to local residents... Those are

unfortunately not always adequately measured.

While technology plays a critical role in Smart Parking

projects (it must work), its acceptance by users must

also be considered as a key factor to success which is

sometimes ignored, as well as individual

project integration within

the wider global

mobility policy.

We hope this document

affords a better

perspective on the

myths and realities

of Smart Parking.

sales@urbiotica.com • +34 93 169 17 31 • www.urbiotica.com


CONTENTS

SMART PARKING TECHNOLOGIES:

Myths & Realities

2

4

7

12

16

26

29

31

32

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PREFACE

THE CHALLENGES OF URBAN PARKING

INTRODUCTION

HOW TO MEET THIS CHALLENGE?

ON-STREET VEHICLE DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES

REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES

SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATIONS OF

SMART PARKING SOLUTIONS

Regulated On-Street Parking Management

Dynamic Urban Guidance

Dynamic Guidance In Private Parkings

More Smart Parking Stories

“SENSING AS A SERVICE”

WHAT SETS IT APART

CONCLUSION

ABOUT URBIOTICA

SOURCES


PREFACE

The Challenges

of Urban Parking

4


PREFACE The Challenges of Urban Parking

The urban population is set to continue to grow

exponentially in the coming decades, leading

to a dramatic increase of 300% in the number

of vehicles by 2050, according to the IMF (2.9M

against 1M today). While public transport is

developing adequately, and cars create lower and

lower levels of pollution, without the introduction

of additional technologies, cities will not be able to

cope with the expected increase in traffic that this

growth will surely generate.

Among the main observed causes of congestion,

the search for a vacant parking space represents

on average almost 30% of traffic in congested city

centres, and takes up an additional 9 to 14 minutes

of motorists’ time.

This represents a huge waste of time and

energy and also results in a considerable level

of pollution, stress and discomfort, not only for

motorists but also for pedestrians and residents.

The discomfort inherent in many city centres,

large and small, results directly from this situation:

deserted by consumers who prefer to take refuge

in neighbourhood shopping malls, numerous

small and medium-sized towns suffer from this

syndrome of saturation, affecting business footfall

and the overall economy of the areas concerned.

Given the importance of this issue, mobility

management is continually improved through the

development of “ITS” (Intelligent Transport System)

technologies.

But they seem to have forgotten parking,

particularly on-street, in which the last notable

development before 2000 (not considering

payment methods) was the creation of the

parking meter (1935).

TESTIMONIALS

“By 2050, seven out of ten people will live in cities, which will account for

six billion people living in urban areas. That phenomenon is central to all

the challenges humanity faces. If there is an issue to be addressed, then

it is certainly happening in cities and therefore must be considered on

an urban scale.”

EDUARDO PAES

Mayor of Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) (1).

“A surprising amount of traffic isn’t caused by people who are

on their way somewhere. Rather it is caused by people who

have already arrived. Our streets are congested, in part, by

people who have gotten where they want to be but are

cruising around looking for a place to park.”

DONALD SHOUP

Professor of urban planning at the University

of California, Los Angeles (2).

KEY POINT

Urban parking policy, often

passed over for investment

by decision-makers, is at

the heart of the challenges

currently facing mobility.

5


INTRODUCTION

How to Meet

this Challenge?

7


INTRODUCTION How to Meet this Challenge?

In this context, the emergence of technologies

related to the Internet of Things raises high

expectations among actors in the mobility sector,

particularly in relation to the management of

on-street parking spaces.

Local authorities and private managers, for whom

parking management is a persistent headache, face a

host of challenges to which a suitable response must

be identified:

• Controlling and reducing the rate of fraud and

enforcing the maximum occupation time of parking

spaces.

• Combining the management of parking space

occupation with payment systems to facilitate

dynamic pricing and the implementation of new

services.

• Reducing the time spent by motorists to find

parking spaces, improving the local provision

of mobility solutions and reducing greenhouse

emissions.

• Establishing a reasonable return on investment.

In order to achieve this, it is essential to have access

to accurate information on occupancy levels and

profiles of parking spaces in real time, as well

as statistically. The Internet of Things, through

developments in autonomous and wireless sensors,

can determine in real time the status of any parking

space, particularly in urban environment where

communications infrastructure is unavailable.

Among the dozens of pilot schemes, demonstrations

and projects that have installed this type of sensor,

primarily from 2010 onward, it is useful to highlight

the cases of San Francisco, Nice, Moscow and London,

which are notable from the point of view of volume

(> 1000 sensors deployed), and specific project

requirements.

The ambitious goals associated with these major

projects have not always been realised, and some

users, particularly in the municipal sector, have

expressed disappointment with the reliability of the

solutions implemented. This has led to a debate on

the level of maturity of this technology and questions

surrounding the suitability of using single space sensors

to improve the management of on-street parking.

The purpose of this “White Paper” is to share the

experiences of Urbiotica and to present the projects

we have implemented worldwide in addressing the

problem of urban parking, and to provide responses

as to the level of maturity and reliability of the

technologies used.

8


INTRODUCTION How to Meet this Challenge?

TESTIMONIALS

CRISTIAN AGUILA,

DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF IT AT ENTEL

“From the resident’s point of view, a

reduction in travel times and more effective

movement are the 1st expectations in

terms of mobility; we have seen that

“Smart” solutions, particularly Smart

Parking, can meet these challenges. The

potential benefits are numerous, from

the management of payment fraud and

misuse, to pricing structure changes

according to periods of use.”

CRISTIAN

ESTROSI,

DEPUTY MAYOR OF NICE

“At any given time, about 20% of

cars in the city center are actively

looking for a parking space, with

all that this implies in terms of

pollution, traffic congestion... But

even at peak times, 13 to 14% of

spaces remain vacant!” (3).

SIMON MORGAN, THE CHANGE OFFICER OF CITY MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITIES,

CITY OF WESTMINSTER, LONDON.

“The diverse nature of Westminster and the many

people who live, work and visit it creates high

demand for the limited parking space available.

The problems of congestion and poor air

quality are often compounded by the

time taken for motorists to find parking

as their drive around the city,” (4).

KEY POINT

Technology can provide

concrete, sustainable and

profitable solutions to the

problems posed by urban

parking.

9


INTRODUCTION How to Meet this Challenge?

The selection of projects and outcomes, focusing both on the reliability of the technology and on benefits

to users, are presented along the document to illustrate with real use cases our analysis.

CITY OF NICE (FRANCE)

535,000 inhabitants

10,000 spaces in the city centre

L’ESCALA (SPAIN)

10,000 inhabitants

Population x10 in summer

CASTELLÓN (SPAIN)

170,000 inhabitants

LAS CONDES (CHILE)

280,000 inhabitants

> 10M visitors / year to

commercial area

SANTA BARBARA OESTE

(BRAZIL)

190,000 inhabitants

80% avg. humidity

SCS VIENNA SHOPPING MALL

(AUSTRIA)

> 25M visitors / year

10


INTRODUCTION How to Meet this Challenge?

NICE, FRANCE (2011)

City Centre

CHRISTIAN ESTROSI, DEPUTY MAYOR OF NICE

“At any given time, about 20% of cars in the city center are actively looking for a

parking space, with all that this implies in terms of pollution, traffic congestion...

But even at peak times, 13 to 14% of spaces remain vacant!” (3).

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

• 30 minutes to find a space in city-centre

• 25% of the traffic searching for spaces

• Pollution and nuisance for residents

• High rate of fraud

• Non-compliance with parking restrictions

SOLUTION IMPLEMENTED

• Over 4,500 U-Spot sensors already deployed in the city-centre

• Mobile application to indicate available spaces

• Web-based on-street parking management software with dynamic guidance for

enforcement workforce

INNOVATIONS DEVELOPED

• Installation of sensors on the curbs and footpaths and process optimization

• Automatic calibration algorithm

• Frequency of measurement down to 10 seconds

• Filter to identify passing cars to ensure the integrity of rotation statistics

Detection reliability >

98%

(> 1,000 on site obs.)

1 ST

Major European

Project

DETECTION RELIABILITY: The availability of spaces is monitored on site using a mobile application to confirm the activation of each

parking zone; the results are then compared to the data on the platform to calculate reliability.

11


ON-STREET

Vehicle Detection

Technologies

12


ON-STREET Vehicle Detection Technologies

Since the late 2000’s, several technologies

have been deployed in order to determine the

availability of parking spaces, both in commercial

carparks and on-street in urban areas. Each

having its advantages and disadvantages, these

technologies do not provide a uniform level of

quality and availability of information, and some

all short of the standards required for a real and

lasting improvement in mobility that meets

the expectations of public authorities,

operators and citizens.

The selection criteria usually applied by

decision-makers are:

• Capacity to provide information on occupation

of each space (free / occupied), but also vehicle

rotation: arrival and departure of the vehicle, and

thereby the duration of occupancy.

• Reliability of information over time: frequency of

measurement, quality of detection, resistance to

interference and obstacles to measurement.

• Latency and continuous availability of information

on the presence of a vehicle.

• "Total Cost of Ownership" (TCO) of the solution:

the need for continuous power supply, lifetime

of the device, maintenance requirements, ability

to integrate with third-party systems, large-scale

constraints to deployment on-street.

The following are some of the currently available

technologies used in the field of road vehicle

detection:

• Detection sensor in the road surface or nearby

(curb or footpath): magnetic, optical, radar

/ ultrasonic or infrared, or a combination of

technologies

• Pole-mounted camera or radar detection system

• In-vehicle embedded camera

• Statistics based on parking meter data

• Collaborative applications

While decision-makers focus primarily on the

detection device (sensors, camera, etc...), any

solution must be considered in the context of the

wider system, as the computerised data processing

and exchange component form a significant part

of the quality and reliability of their investment.

Collaborative applications, which are attractive

due to their educational value and low cost, as

with on-board cameras, do not provide reliable

and continuous information, and thus complicate

the implementation of the intended guiding

or regulation services. However, these solutions

are excellent complements to more

comprehensive systems.

13


ON-STREET Vehicle Detection Technologies

In terms of pole-mounted camera or

radar detection technologies, many

technical and economic constraints

currently hamper their large-scale

deployment: 24/7 power supply, high

initial and maintenance costs, sensitivity

to obstacles... They are primarily used for

monitoring hot spots offering appropriate

conditions for their installation.

CRISTIAN AGUILA,

DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF IT AT ENTEL

ENTEL (leading telecoms operator in Chile)

decided to install single space magnetic

sensors for their “level of precision in

comparison to other technologies tested

(camera, mobile applications).”

Solutions based on single space

sensors - wireless and self-powered -

have been the preferred option to date.

Among the single space detection

sensors, several options have been

used: infrared, optical, radar, magnetic,

as well as combinations of these

technologies.

Solutions based on single space

magnetic field sensors represent

almost all of the observed large-scale

deployments in the world to date. They

therefore seem best positioned to meet

the stated functional requirements.

Doubts still exist as to the use of this

type of sensor, because of difficulties

or failures encountered during the

implementation of projects with this

technology. Doubts also arise as to

the feasibility of deployment and

maintenance, as well as the reliability

of data provided on the "total cost of

ownership" and return on investment.

Urbiotica has chosen a technology

solution called "Sensing As A Service"

(SEaaS), with a detection system

based on the sensing of changes in the

magnetic field at each parking space

coupled with powerful computing

algorithms in the cloud to provide

decision making.

The next paragraph - on the selection

of Smart Parking projects based on

technology developed by Urbiotica,

each of which present project-specific

conditions and individual challenges

- aims to demonstrate that solutions

based on single space magnetic sensors

meet the functional and economic

requirements of the Smart Parking

market.

KEY POINT

There is no “best technology” in the

Smart Parking sector; the most

suitable technology depends on

project-specific conditions and the

challenges at hand. In cities, various

technologies can coexist depending

on local issues.

14


ON-STREET Vehicle Detection Technologies

LAS CONDES, CHILE (2014)

Apumanque Area

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

• High level of congestion at access points of shopping centres in the area

• No indication of the availability of places

• Time and energy lost for visitors, stress and impact on their ability to purchase

SOLUTION IMPLEMENTED

• 150 U-Spot sensors and U-Flow counting sensors to record entry / exit for a total

of 650 parking spaces monitored

• Mobile Application and installation of variable message signs to guide

motorists

INNOVATIONS DEVELOPED

• 1st deployment of entry / exit counting solution

• 360º visibility of indoor and outdoor parking

• 1st integration of variable message signs with management platform

CARLOS RODRIGUEZ, DIRECTOR OF INNOVATION AT ENTEL

“We are convinced that this innovation will provide a real service to users, by

allowing them to find parking spaces in an easy and effective manner, saving

time and fuel as well as reducing congestion in these areas.” (5).

20%

Reduction in time

spent looking for

parking space

80%

of users satisfied

with application

and panels

15


REAL STORIES

IN TODAY CITIES

Specific Implementations

of Smart Parking Solutions

16


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

While such technologies have been developed to

meet the global problem of urban mobility, the

approaches taken in specific cases encountered

worldwide in the smart parking sector are rich

and varied.

Examples include the optimization of the operation

of a service which is at times managed in an

archaic manner and characterised by a very high

level of fraud, a focus on the user experience of the

driver and the impact of the mobility policy on

quality of life, not to mention cases of private

use - all uses cannot be addressed here.

We have decided to concentrate on the most

notable systems deployed, as well as more

specific categories tailored to these situations:

• Regulated on-street parking management

• Dynamic urban guidance

• Dynamic guidance for outdoor private parking

These various applications have been rolled out

by Urbiotica since 2008 throughout the globe,

strengthening the experience of the company

both technologically and operationally in its ability

to deploy systems in very different contexts. These

years of development and adaptive solutions to

problems and constraints have led to a reliable,

flexible, easily installed solution which lends

itself to integration within existing environments.

From the initial concept to the detection system

available today, nearly 50,000 man-days of R&D

and application on the ground form the backbone

of the company.

17


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

REGULATED

ON-STREET PARKING

MANAGEMENT

OPTIMIZING THE USE

OF EXISTING SPACE

And the global parking economy,

and improving mobility

SURVEILLANCE

OF TIME-LIMITED

PARKING SPACES

Favouring rotation of

vehicles in shopping areas

MONITORING OF RESERVED

PARKING SPACES

Ensuring compliance with

parking space restrictions

DYNAMIC PAYMENT

CONTROL

Maximizing revenue and

resource allocation

18


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

SANTA BÁRBARA

D’OESTE, BRAZIL (2013)

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

• Low productivity for fraud monitoring

• Many cars “feeding the meter”

• Significant time spent searching for spaces

• Chronic dissatisfaction of motorists

SOLUTION IMPLEMENTED

• 150 U-Spot sensors deployed

• Cross referencing of occupancy data with payment data

• Notification of availability of places

• Web-based on-street parking management software

INNOVATIONS DEVELOPED

• Adaptation of the frequency of equipment to local

regulations (915MHz)

• Network equipment powered by solar panel

• Improved resistance to heat and humidity

19


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

DINAMIC URBAN

GUIDANCE

REDUCING TIME SPENT LOOKING

FOR A PARKING SPACE

Improving traffic flow and reducing

discomfort for residents

MANAGEMENT OF OUTDOOR

CARPARKS

Guiding motorists to available

parking spaces

DYNAMIC GUIDANCE WITHIN

TOURIST AREAS

Avoiding congestion during

peak season

20


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

L’ESCALA, SPAIN

(2015)

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

• A small coastal tourist town with parking in the

centre and periphery

• Population multiplies by between 5 and 10 during

holiday periods

• High level of traffic generated by vehicles looking for

parking in the centre

SOLUTION IMPLEMENTED

• A central carpark with 71 spaces, several entrances,

equipped with U-Spot

• Two carparks out of town equipped with U-Flow

• 7 variable message signs installed to guide visitors

INNOVATIONS DEVELOPED

• Full integration of ITINERE panels with project

management software and equipment

• Added new features to allow simplified remote

maintenance

21


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

CASTELLÓN, SPAIN (2016)

City Centre

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

• Many vehicles in the city centre searching

for a parking spot

• No indication of the availability of spaces

• Population exposed to pollution and noise

generated by traffic

SOLUTION IMPLEMENTED

• 603 U-Spot sensors deployed

• 10 variable message signs installed to guide

motorists

CARMEN ALBERT,

MOBILITY ADVISOR, CASTELLÓN

“Motorists can see immediately and in real time

how many places are free, which enables them

to decide if they will park their vehicle where they

are, or continue to other parking areas. This means

they do not drive around the city needlessly, and so

they save time. With the digital signage, we want to

improve mobility in different areas of the city, prevent

congestion, and thereby reduce pollution arising

from traffic.” (6).

22


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

DINAMIC GUIDANCE IN

PRIVATE PARKINGS

IMPROVING THE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

AND MAXIMIZING FOOTFALL

P

P1 143 P2 55 P3 3

23


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

VIENNA, AUSTRIA (2012)

SCS Shopping Mall

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

• An enormous shopping centre with 10,000 parking spaces and 25M visitors / year

• An area served by the motorway and public transport

• Significant congestion results outside parking area

SOLUTION IMPLEMENTED

• More than 3 500 U-Spot sensors to monitor the nearest spaces from the mall

• Over 100 digital guiding signs at highway exits to guide motorists toward

different spaces available in the carpark

INNOVATIONS DEVELOPED

• Adaptation of detection algorithms to high use carpark and computerised back

up recording frequent rotation patterns

• Optimisation of filters for disturbance caused by nearby trains (< 20m)

• Installation in harsh winter conditions

HARALD SCHMITT, CEO MSR TRAFFIC

“We are convinced that this innovation will provide a real service to users, by

allowing them to find parking spaces in an easy and effective manner, saving

time and fuel as well as reducing congestion in these areas.”

Detection reliability >

97,8%

35O0

units installed

DETECTION RELIABILITY: Tests were conducted by external consultants acquired by SCS, over 2 monitoring sessions with more than 3,000

spaces assessed at each session.

24


REAL STORIES IN TODAY CITIES Specific Implementations of Smart Parking Solutions

MORE SMART PARKING STORIES

EASY INSTALLATION / REMOVAL:

• Flexibility: development necessary for

time-based parking areas and rules,

ability of technology to adapt

• Efficiency: rapid and simple project

implementation from design to

maintenance

LIFETIME AND IMPROVABILITY:

• Profitability:

maximizing service life to maximize return

on investment

• Adaptability: sharing developments

for the benefit of all

existing customers via

innovations in the

SEaaS remote decision

intelligence strategy

ROBUST AND

RELIABLE:

• Resistance: 100%

resinated products

to avoid moisturerelated

problems

• Certifications: certified

conditions of use -33 to + 65ºC

(Sweden, Canada, South America)

• Control: professional operational

engineering and support

services

FABIO E.C. BATISTELLA,

AREA TECHNOLOGIA

BRAZIL

Urbiotica offers the best

cost to benefit factor on

the market. We conducted

comparative tests with other

sensor manufacturers, in which U-Spots

demonstrated the highest reliability levels.

It is also important to note the quality and

responsiveness of their service and the

availability of their teams.

INTEGRATION WITH OPERATOR BUSINESS MODELS:

25


SENSING AS

A SERVICE

What Set’s it Apart

26


SENSING AS A SERVICE What Set’s it Apart

This quick overview of projects undertaken by

Urbiotica highlighted the benefits of the SEaaS

strategy through advances which ensure the

success of each project. We will now look in more

detail at the key aspects of this strategy, which

enables us to implement Smart Parking projects

with guaranteed success. We will also focus here

on the differences in operating features between

Urbiotica’s SEaaS approach and the approach

using sensor-based decision making:

CALIBRATION

• All magnetic sensors require initial calibration; for

sensor-based decision, this requires the removal of

all vehicles.

• While the surrounding magnetic field will naturally

change, any adjustment to calibration will require

the operation to be repeated, and "manual"

updating of the sensor’s embedded firmware.

• Urbiotica’s SEaaS approach enables automatic

calibration over time via the continuous learning

algorithms upon which the system relies.

INSTALLATION & OPERATION

• Directly related to the previous point, the issue of

complications during installation may discourage

the decision-makers where vehicle removal is

necessary: ​unusable spaces during the installation

phase, heavy machinery, user dissatisfaction…

• The SEaaS approach means the sensor can be

installed on the curb or footpath, and therefore

much more easily, with higher productivity (only

10 minutes per sensor); as a result, detection

algorithms adapt to the conditions at the time of

installation of each sensor to ensure reliability of

information.

• In addition, the completion of all parameter

setting at the time of installation, by utilising

dedicated remote operations, is an additional

guarantee of reliability.

• With automatic calibration, maintenance costs

are close to zero; all operations can be performed

remotely through a dedicated web tool.

RELIABILITY

• The location of decision algorithms in the Cloud

allows the measurements of multiple sensors and

external parameters to be taken into account,

according to the specific conditions of use and

the operating environment: for example, it allows

you to filter interference that may disrupt the

magnetic field generating false rotation patterns

(erroneous detection of arrival or departure of

vehicles). The accuracy in the recording of rotations

is a very important point for the regulated parking,

occupancy of single spaces alone is not sufficient to

improve parking management. Urbiotica’s SEaaS

approach allows for rotation periods to be recorded

to within 5 seconds.

• Tests conducted by third parties in real conditions

have certified a level of reliability of more than 98%

for the Urbiotica system.

CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT

• The capacity to continually develop the remote

detection algorithms according to the installation

conditions and the direct environment of the

sensor allows for new and unexpected conditions

to be managed with group IT intervention.

• Sensor-based decision making requires

maintenance or upgrades that entail additional costs.

TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP

• Both from the point of view of calibration,

installation and lifetime, the overall cost of

implementation and operation of the SEaaS

cloud-based approach is considerably lower.

USEFUL LIFETIME

• Remote sensor decision making greatly reduces

the required computing power, and hence the

energy consumption of the sensor, maximizing its

useful lifetime by limiting the work done locally.

• By emphasizing strength rather than on-board

electronics, the risk of failure inherent in their

installation in urban conditions - considered severe

compared to conventional industrial use - is reduced.

• The useful lifetime of Urbiotica sensors is over

10 years.

27


SENSING AS A SERVICE What Set’s it Apart

TESTIMONIALS

FABIO E.C. BATISTELLA, AREA TECNOLOGIA

“Urbiotica offers the best cost to benefit factor on the market. We conducted

comparative tests with other sensor manufacturers, in which U-Spots demonstrated

the highest reliability levels. It is also important to note the quality and

responsiveness of their service and the availability of their teams”

CRISTIAN AGUILA, DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF IT AT ENTEL

“From our point of view, the three key advantages of the Urbiotica solutions we have

installed are: first, rapid deployment - very important in the case of working urban

infrastructure. Also, and in line with the first point, the solution is minimally invasive

from the point of view of existing facilities, and finally we can remotely control its

operation and perform post-installation adjustments. ENTEL chose Urbiotica for “the

best frequency measurement on the market (10 s) and the option for communication

hubs (WiFi, Ethernet, GPRS). Commercially speaking, it is a turnkey solution.”

KEY POINT

Also based on detecting changes in a

magnetic field, the Urbiotica approach

differs from that of other sensor

manufacturers in its use of the SEaaS

strategy, enabling high reliability (>

98%), and quick installation without

constraints (< 10min), maximised

lifetime (> 10 years), a guarantee of

single- and multi-project scalability and

reduced cost.

28


CONCLUSION

Smart Parking Technologies:

Myths & Realities

29


CONCLUSION Smart Parking Technologies: Myths & Realities

Actors working in the field of urban parking

management have gained an awareness of

the inherent technological requirements of

their profession: without knowledge of the

availability of single parking spaces in real time,

it is impossible to envisage a parking policy

to adequately meet the challenges posed by

mobility.

The generally conflicting pressures of motorists,

pedestrians, local authorities, environmental

protection associations and other stakeholders

are aligned in this instance: what is required is the

optimization of existing space, the ability to control

the coveted urban area represented by on-street

parking, and the dynamic guidance of traffic in

their search to secure these spaces.

Even though the argument concerning the lack

of the right technology persists, the solutions

which meet this challenge today, or which claim

to do so, have multiplied since year 2000. From

theory to practice, not all have proven equal to the

challenges posed by project implementation in

complex urban conditions subject to many external

factors. Nonetheless, there are now a host of useful

solutions capable of meeting all or part of the

stated requirements, each with advantages and

constraints of use and each addressing well defined

local use cases.

Urbiotica chose to pursue an innovative solution,

and to depart from the prevailing technological

approach, based on the “Sensing As A Service”

strategy, whose main feature is the location of

decision making algorithms in the cloud.

This helps to address the key constraints of the

installation of single space magnetic field sensors

and has been proven on an industrial scale from

the standpoint of:

• Quality, availability and reliability of data, to meet

the real-time needs of the sector

• Deployment and maintenance costs, the latter

being almost zero

In light of long standing feedback, provided the

project framework and investment objectives are

properly understood, we can now point to concrete

results which support the deployment of a unitary

parking space approach: the return on investment

is less than 3 years on the basis of the increase in

parking-related revenue and the optimization of

productivity on the part of enforcement workforce,

not to mention less quantifiable benefits in terms of

improved mobility and a reduction in disturbances,

economic revitalization of city centres and

improved wellbeing enjoyed by residents.

It should also be noted as part of this conclusion

that, from our point of view, far more ambitious

developments can now be envisaged on the basis

of a robust sensing solution: dynamic pricing

related to supply and demand (piloted as part

of SFPark), the identification of parked vehicles,

the integration of parking space availability data

on GPS-enabled devices and generic guidance

applications...

Opportunities for development abound!

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About

URBIOTICA

We make the Internet of Things a reality

in urban areas: We develop and deploy the

next generation of detection systems which

provide real-time data and key information in

the fields of mobility, waste management and

environmental monitoring. Our strategic alliances

with innovative companies and leaders in their

field allow us to offer complete solutions that

help make cities more sustainable, efficient and

comfortable for their inhabitants.

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SOURCES

Smart Parking Technologies:

Myths & Realities

32


SOURCES Smart Parking Technologies: Myths & Realities

WHITE PAPER

1. Eduardo Paes’ four commandments for

ensuring that cities are a great place to live,

TED presentation, February 2012

http://blog.ted.com/four-commandments-forcities-of-the-future-eduardo-paes-at-ted2012/

2. Donald Shoup, “The High Cost of Free Parking”,

2005, APA Planners Press

http://www.uctc.net/research/papers/351.pdf

3. Christian Estrosi, inauguration of the Smart

Parking System, 2013

http://www.lefigaro.fr/actualite-fra

ce/2013/03/11/01016-20130311ARTFIG00467-nice-lance-une-application-pour-se-garer-plus-rapidement.

php

4. Simon Morgan, about the deployment of the

Smart Parking System, 2016

http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?14043

5. Carlos Rodriguez, about the the deployment of

the Smart Parking System, 2014

http://www.innovacion.cl/2014/12/entel-lanza-herramienta-para-encontrar-estacionamiento/

INFOGRAPHICS

1. Research from Allianz insurance, May 2011

https://www.allianz.co.uk/news/8-hours.html

2. City council of Madrid (Spain), 19th of November

2015 council

http://www.madrid.es/UnidadWeb/

Contenidos/Publicaciones/JuntaDistritos/

ActasCiudadLineal/2015/Actasesextra19Nov2015.pdf

3. Rider Levett Bucknall, Quarterly Construction

Cost Report, Third Quarter (2012)

4. « Le stationnement, enjeu de mobilité urbaine

», Fédération des Villes Moyennes de France in

partnership with Effia, 2013

http://www.villesdefrance.fr/upload/document/

doc_201307030357190.pdf

5. World Health Organization Study, Air Pollution

Cost in Europe, 2015

http://www.euro.who.int/en/media-centre/sections/

press-releases/2015/04/air-pollution-costs-europeaneconomies-us$-1.6-trillion-a-year-in-diseases-anddeaths,-new-who-study-says

6. Carmen Albert, about the the deployment

of the Smart Parking System, 2015

http://castellonconfidencial.com/tag/carmen-albert/

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sales@urbiotica.com • +34 93 169 17 31 • www.urbiotica.com

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