Applying Constraint Reasoning to Real-world Distributed Task ...

isi.edu

Applying Constraint Reasoning to Real-world Distributed Task ...

Other agents

DCSP

Communication

Inferences

from comm.

Agent

{T1 = U, T2 = P, T3 = NP}

Mapping

{T1 = 0.25, T2 = 0.7, T3 = 0.05}

Information from

Sensors

DCSP

Communication

Inferences

from comm.

���ÙÖ� � ����Ö�Ñ Ó� Ø�� ��×� �Ö ��Ø� ØÙÖ� �ÖÖÓÛ×

×�ÓÛ Ø�� Ñ��Ò ��ÒÒ�Ð× Ó� ÓÑÑÙÒ� �Ø�ÓÒ

��ÒÒ�Ð× Ó� ÓÑÑÙÒ� �Ø�ÓÒ �Ò� Ø�� �Ò�ÓÖÑ�Ø�ÓÒ Ø��Ø ­ÓÛ×

�ÐÓÒ� Ø�Ó×� ��ÒÒ�Ð× ÆÓØ� � Ø��Ø �Ò�ÓÖÑ�Ø�ÓÒ ­ÓÛ× �Ò �ÓØ�

��Ö� Ø�ÓÒ× � � �Ø ­ÓÛ× �ÓÛÒ �ÖÓÑ Ø�� ���� Ð�Ú�Ð Ò��ÓØ��Ø�ÓÒ

Ö��×ÓÒ�Ò� �Ò� ÙÔ �ÖÓÑ Ø�� ÐÓÛ Ð�Ú�Ð ×�Ò×ÓÖ Ö����Ò�× Ì��×

�ÐÐÓÛ× Ø�� ���ÒØ ØÓØ��� ��Ú�ÒØ��� Ó� �ÓØ� ÐÓ �Ð �Ò�ÓÖÑ�Ø�ÓÒ

� � ×�Ò×ÓÖ Ö����Ò�× �Ò� �ÐÓ��Ð �Ò�ÓÖÑ�Ø�ÓÒ � � �Ò��ÖÖ��

�Ò�ÓÖÑ�Ø�ÓÒ �ÖÓÑ ÓØ��Ö ���ÒØ× ��Ú�Ò� �Ø �Ò � ÙÖ�Ø� Ô� ØÙÖ�

Ó� Û�� � Ø�×�× �Ö� ÔÖ�×�ÒØ

Ì�� Ô�Ô�Ö �× ×ØÖÙ ØÙÖ�� �× �ÓÐÐÓÛ×� Ë� Ø�ÓÒ ��× Ö���× �

��× Ö���× Ø�� ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� �ÓÒ×ØÖ��ÒØ ÇÔØ�Ñ�Þ�Ø�ÓÒ ÔÖÓ�Ð�Ñ

� ×ØÖ� Ø ��Ò�Ö�Ð�Þ�Ø�ÓÒ Ó� ��×�ËÈ �Ò� �ÓÛ �Ø �Ò �� Ù×�� ØÓ

Ö�ÔÖ�×�ÒØ ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� Ê�×ÓÙÖ � �ÐÐÓ �Ø�ÓÒ Ë� Ø�ÓÒ Ø��Ò

ÔÖ�×�ÒØ× � Ò�Û �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ �ÓÖ ��ÇÈ Ø��Ø �ÐÐÓÛ× ���ÒØ× ØÓ

¬Ò� ÓÔØ�Ñ�Ð ×ÓÐÙØ�ÓÒ× ØÓ ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� ÓÔØ�Ñ�Þ�Ø�ÓÒ ÔÖÓ�Ð�Ñ×

Ë� Ø�ÓÒ � ÔÖ�×�ÒØ× Ø�� ��Ø��Ð× Ó� Ø�� ÔÖÓ����Ð�×Ø� �ÔÔÖÓ� �

ØÓ ��Ò�Ð�Ò� ÙÒ �ÖØ��ÒØÝ �Ò � ��ÇÈ �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ Ë� Ø�ÓÒ �

ÔÖ�×�ÒØ× Ö�×ÙÐØ× Ù×�Ò� Ø�� �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ ÓÒ Ö��Ð ��Ö�Û�Ö�

2. DCOP REPRESENTATION

Ì�� �ÓÐÐÓÛ�Ò� ×� Ø�ÓÒ ��× Ö���× Ø�� ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� �ÓÒ×ØÖ��ÒØ

ÇÔØ�Ñ�Þ�Ø�ÓÒ ��ÇÈ ÔÖÓ�Ð�Ñ �Ò� �ÓÛ Û� �Ò Ñ�Ô �Ø �ÒØÓ

� Ö�×ÓÙÖ � �ÐÐÓ �Ø�ÓÒ ÔÖÓ�Ð�Ñ

� ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� ÇÔØ�Ñ�Þ�Ø�ÓÒ ÈÖÓ�Ð�Ñ ÓÒ×�×Ø× Ó� Ò Ú�Ö�

��Ð�× Î � �Ü �Ü � ���ÜÒ� �� � �××��Ò�� ØÓ �Ò ���ÒØ Û��Ö�

Ø�� Ú�ÐÙ�× Ó� Ø�� Ú�Ö���Ð�× �Ö� Ø���Ò �ÖÓÑ ¬Ò�Ø� ��× Ö�Ø�

�ÓÑ��Ò× � �� � ���� �Ò Ö�×Ô� Ø�Ú�ÐÝ ÇÒÐÝ Ø�� ���ÒØ Û�Ó

�× �××��Ò�� � Ú�Ö���Ð� ��× ÓÒØÖÓÐ Ó� �Ø× Ú�ÐÙ� �Ò� �ÒÓÛÐ

���� Ó� �Ø× �ÓÑ��Ò �ÓÖ �� � Ô��Ö Ó� Ú�Ö���Ð�× Ü� Ü� Û�

�Ö� ��Ú�Ò � Ó×Ø �ÙÒ Ø�ÓÒ ��� � �� ¢ �� � Æ � Ì��

Ó×Ø �ÙÒ Ø�ÓÒ× �Ö� Ø�� �Ò�ÐÓ�Ù� Ó� ÓÒ×ØÖ��ÒØ× �ÖÓÑ ��×�ËÈ

Ì�� Ó��� Ø�Ú� �× ØÓ ¬Ò� � ÓÑÔÐ�Ø� �××��ÒÑ�ÒØ � £ Ó� Ú�ÐÙ�×

ØÓ Ú�Ö���Ð�× ×Ù � Ø��Ø Ø�� ØÓØ�Ð Ó×Ø �× Ñ�Ò�Ñ�Þ�� �Ò �×

×��ÒÑ�ÒØ �× ÓÑÔÐ�Ø� �� �ÐÐ Ú�Ö���Ð�× �Ò Î �Ö� �××��Ò�� ×ÓÑ�

Ú�ÐÙ� ÅÓÖ� �ÓÖÑ�ÐÐÝ Ð�Ø � � �� � � �× � ÓÑÔÐ�Ø� �××��Ò

Ñ�ÒØ Ó�Ú�ÐÙ�× ØÓ Ú�Ö���Ð�× �Ò Î � Ï� Û�×� ØÓ ¬Ò� � £ ×Ù �

Ø��Ø � £ � �Ö� Ñ�Ò � � � � Û��Ö�

� � � È

Ü ��Ü � Î

��� ����� � ��� � � ���

Ü� � �� �Ò �

Ì��× �× � ×ØÖ� Ø ��Ò�Ö�Ð�Þ�Ø�ÓÒ Ó� Ø�� ×Ø�Ò��Ö� Ö�ÔÖ�×�ÒØ�

Ø�ÓÒ Ó� Ø�� ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� �ÓÒ×ØÖ��ÒØ Ë�Ø�×�� Ø�ÓÒ ÈÖÓ�Ð�Ñ �ÓÖ

Agent 1

Agent 3

1

2

O

Sector Number

Target 1

Target 2

Agent 2

Agent 4

Grid Configuration:

. .

Target 1 Target 2

50 70

. .

Target 3 Target 4

80 20

���ÙÖ� � Ë�Ò×ÓÖ ×� ØÓÖ × ��Ñ�Ø� Ð��Ø �Ò� � �Ö��

Ð�ÝÓÙØ ÓÒ¬�ÙÖ�Ø�ÓÒ Û�Ø� Û����Ø�� Ø�Ö��Ø× Ö���Ø

�Ü�ÑÔÐ� � ���Ö�� ÓÒ×ØÖ��ÒØ �× ÑÓ��Ð�� �× ��Ú�Ò� �Ò¬Ò�Ø�

Ó×Ø �ÓÖ �ÐÐ Ô��Ö× Ó� Ú�Ö���Ð� Ú�ÐÙ�× Ø��Ø Ú�ÓÐ�Ø� Ø�� ÓÒ×ØÖ��ÒØ

�Ò� Þ�ÖÓ Ó×Ø ÓØ��ÖÛ�×�

Ï� �ÓÖÑÙÐ�Ø� ��×ØÖ��ÙØ� Ö�×ÓÙÖ � �ÐÐÓ �Ø�ÓÒ �× � ��ÇÈ

�Ò Ø�� �ÓÐÐÓÛ�Ò� Û�Ý �ÓÖÑ�ÐÐÝ Û���Ú� � ×�Ø Ó� �ÐÐ ÔÓ××��Ð�

Ø�×�× Ì� Û��Ö� �Ì�� � Ã Æ Ø�×�× Û�ÐÐ �� ÔÖ�×�ÒØ �Ø�ÒÝ

Ø�Ñ� Æ�à Ì�� ×�Ø Ó� Ø�×�× � ØÙ�ÐÐÝ ÔÖ�×�ÒØ �Ö� ÌÔ �ÌÔ� �

Æ �ÓÖ �� � Ø�×� �Ò Ì� � ��ÇÈ Ú�Ö���Ð� ��× � Ú�ÐÙ� �ÖÓÑ

��ÐÐÓ �Ø��� ÆÓØÈ Ö�×�ÒØ� Á�ÒÓÖ�� Ö�ÔÖ�×�ÒØ�Ò� ÔÖ�×�ÒØ ÒÓØ

ÔÖ�×�ÒØ �Ò� ��ÒÓÖ� Ö�×Ô� Ø�Ú�ÐÝ Ê�×ÓÙÖ �× ÑÙ×Ø �� �ÐÐÓ �Ø��

ØÓ �ÐÐ Ø�×�× Û�Ø� È Ú�ÐÙ� Á� � Ø�×� �× �××��Ò�� Ø�� Ú�ÐÙ�

Á � Ó×Ø �ÙÒ Ø�ÓÒ Û� Ì�� Æ � ÕÙ�ÒØ�¬�× Ø�� Ó×Ø Ó�

��ÒÓÖ�Ò� Ø�� Ø�×� Ì�� ��ÇÈ Ö�ÕÙ�Ö�× ���ÒØ× ØÓ �ÓÓ×�

Ú�ÐÙ� �ÓÖ Ú�Ö���Ð�× ×Ù � Ø��Ø Ö�×ÓÙÖ �× �Ö� �××��Ò�� ØÓ ÓÒÐÝ

Ø�� ÑÓ×Ø �ÑÔÓÖØ�ÒØ Ø�×�× �Ò� ��ÒÓÖ� Ø�×�× Û�Ø� ×Ñ�ÐÐ Ó×Ø×

Û��Ò Ö�×ÓÙÖ �× �Ö� Ð�Ñ�Ø�� Ë� Ø�ÓÒ ��× Ö���× ��ÓÔØ Ë�

�Ò �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ �ÓÖ ÓÔØ�Ñ�ÐÐÝ ×ÓÐÚ�Ò� ��ÇÈ ÔÖÓ�Ð�Ñ×

2.1 Sensor Network Domain

� ÓÒ Ö�Ø� �Ò×Ø�ÒØ��Ø�ÓÒ Ó� � Ö�×ÓÙÖ � �ÐÐÓ �Ø�ÓÒ ÔÖÓ�Ð�Ñ

�× Ø�� �ÓÐÐÓÛ�Ò� ��×ØÖ��ÙØ�� ×�Ò×ÓÖ Ò�ØÛÓÖ� �ÓÑ��Ò��℄ ÁØ

ÓÒ×�×Ø× Ó� ÑÙÐØ�ÔÐ� ¬Ü�� ×�Ò×ÓÖ× �� � ÓÒØÖÓÐÐ�� �Ý �Ò �Ù

ØÓÒÓÑÓÙ× ���ÒØ �Ò� ÑÙÐØ�ÔÐ� Ø�Ö��Ø× ÑÓÚ�Ò� Ø�ÖÓÙ�� Ø���Ö

×�Ò×�Ò� Ö�Ò�� �� � ×�Ò×ÓÖ �× �ÕÙ�ÔÔ�� Û�Ø� Ø�Ö�� Ö���Ö

����× �� � ÓÚ�Ö�Ò� ���Ö��× Ê�×ÓÙÖ � ÓÒØ�ÒØ�ÓÒ Ñ�Ý

Ó ÙÖ �� �Ù×� �Ò ���ÒØÑ�Ý � Ø�Ú�Ø� �Ø ÑÓ×Ø ÓÒ� Ö���Ö ����

ÓÖ ×� ØÓÖ �Ø � ��Ú�Ò Ø�Ñ� À�Ò � �� ��«�Ö�ÒØ Ø�×�× Ö�ÕÙ�Ö�

Ø��Ø ��«�Ö�ÒØ ×� ØÓÖ× �Ö� Ù×�� Ø��Ò �ÓØ� Ø�×�× �ÒÒÓØ ��

Ô�Ö�ÓÖÑ�� ×�ÑÙÐØ�Ò�ÓÙ×ÐÝ Ì�Ö�� ×�Ò×ÓÖ× ÑÙ×Ø ØÙÖÒ ÓÒ ÓÚ�Ö

Ð�ÔÔ�Ò� ×� ØÓÖ× ØÓ � ÙÖ�Ø�ÐÝ ØÖ� � � Ø�Ö��Ø �ÓÖ �Ü�ÑÔÐ� �Ò

���ÙÖ� Ð��Ø Û��Ò ���ÒØ ��Ø� Ø× � Ø�Ö��Ø �Ò �Ø× ×� ØÓÖ

�ØÑÙ×Ø ÓÓÖ��Ò�Ø� Û�Ø� Ò�����ÓÖ�Ò� ���ÒØ× ×Ó Ø��Ø Ø��Ý

� Ø�Ú�Ø� Ø���Ö Ö�×Ô� Ø�Ú� ×� ØÓÖ× Ø��Ø ÓÚ�ÖÐ�Ô Û�Ø� ���ÒØ ×

×� ØÓÖ Ì�Ö��Ø× �Ò � Ô�ÖØ� ÙÐ�Ö Ö���ÓÒ �Ö� Ø�×�× Ø��Ø Ò��� ØÓ

�� ÓÑÔÐ�Ø�� ØÖ� ��� �Ò� � �Ó� � Ó� Ø�Ö�� ×�Ò×ÓÖ× ØÓ ØÖ� �

� Ø�Ö��Ø ���ÙÖ� Ö���Ø ×�ÓÛ× � ÓÒ¬�ÙÖ�Ø�ÓÒ Ó� � ���ÒØ×

�Ò� �Ò �Ü�ÑÔÐ� Ó� Ö�×ÓÙÖ � ÓÒØ�ÒØ�ÓÒ Ë�Ò � �Ø Ð��×Ø Ø�Ö��

Ò�����ÓÖ�Ò� ���ÒØ× �Ö� Ö�ÕÙ�Ö�� ØÓ ØÖ� � �� � Ø�Ö��Ø �Ò� ÒÓ

���ÒØ �Ò ØÖ� � ÑÓÖ� Ø��Ò ÓÒ� ÓÒÐÝ ØÛÓ Ó� Ø�� �ÓÙÖ Ø�Ö��Ø×

�Ò �� ØÖ� ��� Ì�� ���ÒØ× ÑÙ×Ø ¬Ò� �Ò �ÐÐÓ �Ø�ÓÒ Ø��Ø

Ñ�Ò�Ñ�Þ�× Ø�� Û����Ø Ó� Ø�� ��ÒÓÖ�� Ø�Ö��Ø×

3. ALGORITHM FOR DCOP

Ï� �Ö��­Ý ��× Ö��� Ø�� ��ÓÔØ Ë� �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ �ÓÖ ��ÇÈ

��℄ ��ÓÔØ Ë� ��ÓÔØ Û�Ø� Ë�Ú� �ÓÒØ�ÜØ �× � Ú�Ö×�ÓÒ Ó�

Ø�� ��ÓÔØ �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ Û�� �×�Ú�× �ÐÐ ×��Ö � Ô�Ø�× �Ò ÓÖ��Ö

ØÓ �Ò Ö��×� �Æ ��Ò Ý��℄ Ì�� ��ÓÔØ Ë� �Ð�ÓÖ�Ø�Ñ Ö�ÕÙ�Ö�×

Ú�Ö���Ð�× ØÓ ��Ú� � ¬Ü�� ØÓØ�Ð ÔÖ�ÓÖ�ØÝ ÓÖ��Ö �ÒÝ ÓÖ��Ö�Ò� �×

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines