Activities 2006 - European Academy of Sciences and Arts

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Activities 2006 - European Academy of Sciences and Arts

EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES & ART

predicted. India is on the same track as China and will see explosive growth especially in

the IT and software branches. Regarding the number of patent pleas in India’s “mailbox”,

the country is already number two behind the United States. Not only locally, also internationally

India is gaining ground. Recent data shows that patents originating from India

granted by the US-PTO in drugs and bio affecting and body treating compositions have

been increasing steadily since 1997: the number of US patents in the pharmaceutical industry

granted to Indian inventors in 2001 is about six times higher than what was granted in

1997. This is also visible at the amount of published patent applications and patents in the

U.S. owned by the big Indian pharmaceutical companies such as Dr. Reddy’s and

Ranbaxy. This shows an increasing importance of the development of new drugs and

pharmaceuticals in India’s pharmaceutical industry away from generic production and clinical

trials.

Looking at the global ranking in R & D investment, with USD 60 billion China has already

reached the top group ranking only behind the US and Japan even preceding Germany

while also ranking eighth in terms of the national investment in research in percentage of

GDP. Taking into account particularly the rapid growth in the last years, this leads to the

expectation that the already visible positive trend in the development of China will

continue.

Apart from China and India, whose national economies are clearly ahead with 9 percent

and 7 percent growth, there are various other examples for the positive development in

developing and newly industrialised countries after TRIPS, like Latin American and

Caribbean countries with a growth of 4.5 percent, like e.g. Brazil with a trade surplus of

USD 14.2 billions and Argentina with a trade surplus of USD11.3 billions in 2005. Overall,

the national economies of the developing countries grow significantly faster (5.9 percent)

than those of the developed nations (2.5 percent). Also regarding GDP, poverty and secondary

school enrolment, there is a clearly visible positive development in countries like

Thailand, China, Philippines, Vietnam and Cambodia.

Already during the years 1985 – 2000, the number of US patents granted to developing

countries increased steadily, and, as shown before, this trend has continued if not intensified

for China and India as two of the major players.

In the course of his further presentation, J. Straus referred to some statements of

Lawrence Summers concerning anti-globalisation sentiment, in which Summers indicated

that globalisation is in fact a mixed blessing. It is advantageous for the very rich who own

or operate businesses and who can benefit from globalisation to rely on less expensive

labour and to sell their products in larger markets. It can also be so for some of the very

poorest in the world as they can improve their very low income, but at the same time it

squeezes people in the middle, who are actually the backbone of the society.

Before ending with some suggestions about the possible issues to be discussed J. Straus

concluded his presentation with an unexpected up-to-date quotation of Winston Churchill

from 1906, who said: “I do not want to see impaired the vigour of competition, but we can

do much to mitigate the consequences of failure. We want to draw a line, below which we

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