Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2012 - Ensi

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Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2012 - Ensi

of human performance in operation is expected to

remain significant for the safe operation of NPPs. Licensing

of new designs will require improved efforts

in analysing the new work environments and work

organisation and their influence on safety. Human

performance is therefore a key area of research.

The programme emphasises empirical research,

with special focus on experiments in HAMMLAB.

There is a strong focus on direct co-operation with

active groups in the member organisations within

this field of research. Main results:

HRA is one of the focus areas. The International

HRA Empirical study co-ordinated by HRP has

shown that it can be difficult for HRA analysts to

get a good understanding of how an emergency

scenario is likely to unfold, what challenges it

presents to the operators, how the operators are

likely to respond, and where the operators are

likely to get into performance problems. Some

HRA methods provide techniques for detailed scenario

analysis, while other methods leave it to the

analysts how deeply they wish to delve into the

scenario.

A follow-up study was performed at a U.S. nuclear

power plant. The aim was partly the same

as in the HAMMLAB study, to identify strengths

and weaknesses of HRA methods. The study was

run by the U.S. NRC, with the Halden Project as

a supporting organisation. The U.S. study confirmed

some of the findings from the HAMMLAB

study. Crew variability in the operation of the

difficult scenarios was observed in the training

simulator, as in HAMMLAB.

The aim is to answer a number of questions that

may lead to improved HRA practices and improved

HRA methods. These questions include:

How do analysts plan and conduct scenario analysis?

What issues do they focus on? Which aspect

of the scenario analysis is the most challenging?

What information do the analysts use (e.g. event

reports, HRA databases, site visits, expert interviews)?

How do they resolve uncertainties and

contradictions during the analysis? How do they

safeguard against biases and misinterpretations

during the analysis?

In 2012, the focus has been on two issues: (1)

How analysts conduct site interviews with operators

and subject matter experts, and how can

this process be improved; (2) How analysts use

HRA databases, whether the databases are designed

well enough for the needs of the analyst,

and how to safeguard against misinterpretation

of the data. The HRA diaries from the U.S.

HRA empirical study have been reviewed, and

analysis of the site interviews from this study has

started. The focus is to identify good practices

in scenario analysis and to identify differences in

the approach to scenario analysis between HRA

analysts. Regarding issue (2) above, we have

started planning an observational study of HRA

database use. We are in discussions with international

partners to determine which HRA database

to use and which HRA methods to include

in the study. Data collection is expected to start

in the first half of 2013. The analysis of HRA diaries

and the site interviews is under preparation.

The analysis of the HRA diaries showed variation

in the expertise of the analysis teams, in the

depth of the scenario analysis, and in the goals

of the scenario analysis e.g. focus on the timing

of events or on operator work practices. These

differences can be partly attributed to the HRA

methods used, however there was also variability

between teams using the same method. Similar

differences were found in the recording of the

interviews between HRA teams and process experts

(trainers from the participating plant). For

some HRA teams the interviews were opportunities

to confirm and discuss their assumptions

about crew response, while for others the focus

was on constructing the basic scenario evolution

e.g. procedure path.

NRC has put many resources into the assessment

group. The same is true for PSI from Switzerland,

supported by the Swiss regulatory body ENSI.

Human System Interface work

The Project member organisations are very interested

in research related to Human System Interfaces

(HSIs) and in particular the innovative aspects

going beyond traditional P&ID-based presentation.

Modernisation of nuclear power plant control

rooms is taking place in many countries, moving

from panel-based control rooms into hybrid solutions.

Utilising the full capabilities of computerised

solutions and at the same time maintaining the human

factors aspects are prioritised. Improved information

presentation will contribute to safer and

more efficient operation by supporting operators

in process understanding and creating enhanced

situation awareness.

The main objective is to develop, test and evaluate

an HSI concept addressing the near-term needs

of the industry to support on-going and planned

control room modernisation projects, and the main

results achieved are:

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ENSI Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2012

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