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Keywords: trademark value, loyalty to the trademark, cosmetic and perfumery products


In analysing the factors determining the development of the cosmetic and perfumery market in Bulgaria, it

can be said that this industry has excellent growth potential. The chemical industry, traditional for the country

and the high level of qualification of the specialist and scientific laboratories facilitate the accomplishment of

new and modern developments in this sphere. The climatic conditions of Bulgaria require special skin care,

which opens new possibilities for producers.

The overview of the cosmetics market in Bulgaria creates the impression of a total lack of strategy. All basic

marks are situated in one section, which creates difficulty to the potential customers in their choice of a

trademark. As a result of this they cannot differentiate clearly between the products of the different

manufacturers, which leads to increase of competition in one segment at the expense of “stripping” of others.

The few existing studies in the sphere of the trademark in fast-moving consumer goods also observe mistakes

in the approach on the part of Bulgarian companies, such as constant change of the style and the theme of the

advertisement, which does not allow the buyer enough time to form his/her positive attitude to the trademark.

Consumers have begun to have an increasingly more varied and “hard to please” way of life, despite the

difficulties of the period of transition of the market economy in Bulgaria. Manufacturers and retailers have to

take into account their changing demands in cosmetic and perfumery sector. All this makes it necessary to

analyse the Bulgarian consumers’ perception of trademarks in the cosmetic and perfumery sector.

The aim of the present article is to research the perception of trademarks by Bulgarian consumers in the

perfumery and cosmetic sector, the level of attachment to a trademark in a chosen group of goods in this

sector, as well as to establish the leading characteristics in the choice of cosmetic products.

Materials and methods

The research of consumers’ perception in Bulgaria was done in 2003. The tested population varied in age,

education, place of residence, number of persons in the family and income. The interview was conducted in the

form of an anonymous questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows was

used for the statistical analysis of the data. The chi-square test, Spearman’s correlation coefficients, Mann-

Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon W-test were chosen to test dependency between the variables, and the level of

significance used was α=0.05.

Results and discussion

The people interviewed clearly characterise trademark goods as ones of high and invariable quality. For

them advertising is a basic constituent of trademark together with its specific packaging and price. It can be

concluded that in characterising the trademark goods in this sphere, the Bulgarian consumer does not differ

much from consumers of perfumery and cosmetic goods in other countries.

The interviewed consumers do not deem “environment protection” as a major factor in characterising

trademark perfumery and cosmetic goods, which corresponds to the value attitudes of Bulgarian society at this


Together with the specific trademark features of a given product, the respondents can also well recognize

the features of the so-called trademark core - quality, which leads to safety and reliability during the use of the

product. It is not fortuitous that quality is placed first as a preference factor in cosmetic and perfumery

products. The ratio price/quality is in favour of quality in the motivation of buying such type of goods.

It can be concluded from the presented results that the trademark behaviour of the Bulgarian customer and

the level of her/his loyalty towards a trademark in the complex of cosmetic and perfumery products

respectively are very much differentiated. Loyalty to trademark is defined by those interviewed as a result of

experienced and respectively accepted quality differences of trademark which are both objective (product

specific), and subjective in their nature.

FORUM WARE 32 (2004) NR. 1 - 4

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