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90

SHORT VERSIONS (FORUM WARE INTERNATIONAL)

use of petroleum for the production of electrical energy, the low percentage represented by solid combustible

(coal) and the total absence of nuclear energy. The relatively high percentage of renewable sources is

represented by the hydroelectric plants.

COAL % OIL % GAS % RENEW % NUCLEAR % TOT.

Italy 11 45 22 22 0 100

E.U 36 10 8 10 36 100

OCSE 40 8 11 17 24 100

World 39 11 13 19 18 100

Tab. 2: Sources for electrical energy production 2000 (percentages).

Source: EC-DG XX, Energy in Europe, 2000- Annual Energy Review

For too long energy has been considered simply a consumer good because of a technical and economic

conception. In light of this, we speak of “energy production” when this is made available in economically

interesting forms and of “energy consumption” when it is qualitatively degraded from a form with economic

value to one without. The conviction that new choices in energy politics are essential in order to preserve

man’s own life environment has taken root only in the last decades and principally in industrialized countries.

This is the result of the undeniable evidence of the environmental impact of the present energy system and

in particular the atmospheric and climatic alterations it provokes.

* Laura Recchia * Cassino University Department of Economics and Territory Commodity Science Section, Via Mazzaroppi 03043

Cassino (Fr) Italy, Tel.: 0776/2993911, Fax: 0776/2993758 , E-mail: l.recchia@unicas.it

THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL CULINARY TREATMENT ON

SENSORY FEATURES OF SELECTED FOOD PRODUCTS

M. SZKUDLARE * , J. KOZIOL **

Keywords: thermal treatment, food, cooking, sensorial properties

Materials and methods

Cooking method and sensory assessment

Selected food products: deep-frozen carrots and green peas mixture (“Hortex”), fresh pork loin ("Pozmeat")

and potatoes (“Bryza” variety) were obtained from the local market.

Five methods of thermal treatment were applied utilizing five various vessels and under different

conditions: 1) a traditional method of cooking (bringing cold water to a boil), 2) high pressure cooking in

a Pressure-Cooker (maximum temperature was 120ºC), 3) cooking in hot steam using a Poki-steamer, 4)

heating in a Slo-Cooker – maximum temperature was 85ºC, and 5) a Thermomix, a cooking vessel with a

tight-fitting lid and constant boiling temperature. For the sensorial evaluation the pork loin was cooked in

0.6 % NaCl, then cut into 2.5 cm cubes.

Sensorial assessment was performed immediately after cooking by a group of trained panelists. The group

consisted of 30 people (21 women and 9 men) whose ages ranged from 23 – 26, and who were non-smokers.

Each food product was judged for particular features and was rated on a 5–point scale, with 1 meaning

“negative feelings” and 5 meaning “positive feelings” and the general quality was based on the sum of these

ratings. The panelists assessed the following food features:

• meat: appearance (color and intensity), smell (desirability and intensity), consistency, taste (desirability

and intensity), texture (tenderness and juiciness);

• potatoes: appearance (color and intensity), smell (desirability and intensity), consistency, taste (desirability

and intensity) and mealiness;

• carrots and green peas mixture: appearance (color and intensity), smell (desirability and intensity),

consistency, taste (desirability and intensity).

The sensorial evaluation of the products was performed at a temperature of 25-30ºC.

FORUM WARE 32 (2004) NR. 1 - 4

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