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atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 1 ı January



UK Is Leading the Way With Clear Strategy

for Nuclear

NucNet | Page 10

The UK is Europe’s most prominent leader in nuclear

development because of the government’s clear

strategy of supporting nuclear energy as part of its

future energy mix, a senior official from ­US-based

nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse

Electric Company said. Mr Kirst told that the UK

­government’s decision to support the financing of

new energy projects, including nuclear, by way of a

contract for difference scheme was a breakthrough.

Additionally potential for nuclear development in

other EU member states is possible in Poland and the

Czech Republic where also new nuclear capacities

are possible. Potential exists also in non-EU countries

like Turkey and the Ukraine.

ETSON Strategic Orientations on Research

Activities. ETSON Research Group Activity

J.P. Van Dorsselaere, M. Barrachin, D. Millington,

M. Adorni, M. Hrehor, F. Mascari, A. Schaffrath,

I. Tiselj, E. Uspuras, Y. Yamamoto, D. Gumenyuk,

N. Fedotova, O. Cronvall and P. Liska | Page 13

In 2011, ETSON published the “Position Paper of

the Technical Safety Organizations: Research Needs

in Nuclear Safety for Gen 2 and Gen 3 NPPs”. This

paper, published only a few months after the

Fukushima- Daiichi severe accidents, presented the

priorities for R&D on the main pending safety

­issues. It was produced by the ETSON Research

Group (ERG) that has the mandate of identifying

and prioritizing safety research needs, sharing

­information on research projects in which ETSON

members are involved, defining and launching new

research projects and disseminating knowledge

among ETSON members. Six years after this

publication, many R&D international projects

­finished in diverse frames, and other ones have

started. In particular a lot of work was done (and is

going on…) on the analysis of the Fukushima-

Daiichi severe accidents. Meanwhile a roadmap on

research on Gen. 2 and 3 nuclear power plants

(NPP), including safety aspects, was produced by

the NUGENIA association, followed by a more

­detailed document as “NUGENIA global vision”. It

was also demonstrated that the ETSON R&D

priorities were consistent with the implementation

of the 2014 Euratom Directive on safety of nuclear


Council Regulation of the European Dual

Use Regulation – A Never Ending Story?

Ulrike Feldmann | Page 19

For the first time, the EC Council Regulation of

19 December 1994 established a Community ­regime

for the control of exports of dual-use items. In 2000,

the first major revision of the dual-use regime came

into force, subjecting not only sensitive material, i.

e. plutonium and highly enriched uranium, but also

the entire category 0 (nuclear material, installations,

equipment) to a licensing requirement for intra-

Community shipments. This revision was revised a

few months later due to inappropriate content by

removing a small proportion of nuclear goods. A

further comprehensive new revision was published

in 2009. However, the EU Commission’s current

proposal to revise Annex IV of the regulation does

not do justice to the objective of free trade of goods

and the maintenance of the competitiveness of

European industry from the point of view of the

European nuclear industry, as well as from the point

of view of the non-nuclear industry in the EU.

Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards:

An Application of an Integrated Approach

Howard Chapman, Jeremy Edwards,

Joshua Fitzpatrick, Colette Grundy,

Robert Rodger and Jonathan Scott | Page 21

National Nuclear Laboratory has recently produced

a paper regarding the integrated approach of

nuclear safety, security and safeguards. The paper

considered the international acknowledgement of

the inter-relationships and potential benefits to be

gained through improved integration of the nuclear

‘3S’; Safety, Security and Safeguards. It considered

that combining capabilities into one synergistic

team can provide improved performance and value.

This approach to integration has been adopted, and

benefits realised by the National Nuclear ­Laboratory

through creation of a Safety, Security and

Safeguards team. In some instances the interface is

clear and established, as is the case between safety

and security in the areas of Vital Area Identification.

In others the interface is developing such as the

utilisation of safeguards related techniques such as

nuclear material accountancy and control to

enhance the security of materials. This paper looks

at a practical example of the progress to date in

implementing Triple S by a duty holder.

Clearance of Surface-contaminated Objects

from the Controlled Area of a Nuclear

Facility: Application of the SUDOQU


F. Russo, C. Mommaert and T. van Dillen | Page 29

The lack of clearly defined surface-clearance levels in

the Belgian regulation led Bel V to start a collaboration

with the Dutch National Institute for Public

Health and the Environment (RIVM) to evaluate the

applicability of the SUDOQU methodology for the

derivation of nuclide-specific surface-clearance

criteria for objects released from nuclear facilities.

SUDOQU is a methodology for the dose assessment

of exposure to a surface-contaminated object, with

the innovative assumption of a time-dependent

­surface activity whose evolution is influenced by

removal and deposition mechanisms. In this work,

calculations were performed to evaluate the annual

effective dose resulting from the use of a typical

­office item, e.g. a bookcase. Preliminary results ­allow

understanding the interdependencies between the

model’s underlying mechanisms, and show a strong

sensitivity to the main input parameters. The results

were benchmarked against those from a model described

in Radiation Protection 101, to investigate

the impact of the model’s main assumptions. Results

of the two models were in good agreement.

The SUDOQU methodology appears to be a flexible

and powerful tool, suitable for the proposed application.

Therefore, the project will be extended to

more generic study cases, to eventually develop surface-clearance

levels applicable to objects leaving

nuclear facilities.

Carbon-14 Speciation During Anoxic

Corrosion of Activated Steel in a Repository


E. Wieland, B.Z. Cvetkovic, D. Kunz,

G. Salazar and S. Szidat | Page 34

Radioactive waste contains significant amounts

of 14 C which has been identified a key radionuclide

in safety assessments. In Switzerland, the 14 C inventory

of a cement-based repository for low- and

intermediate-level radioactive waste (L/ILW) is

mainly associated with activated steel (~85 %). 14 C

is produced by 14 N activation in steel parts exposed

to thermal neutron flux in light water reactors.

Release of 14 C occurs in the near field of a deep

geological repository due to anoxic corrosion of

activated steel. Although the 14 C inventory of the

L/ILW repository and the sources of 14 C are well

known, the formation of 14 C species during steel

corrosion is only poorly understood. The aim of the

present study was to identify and quantify the

14 C-bearing carbon species formed during the

anoxic corrosion of iron and steel and further to

determine the 14C speciation in a corrosion experiment

with activated steel. All experiments were

conducted in conditions similar to those anticipated

in the near field of a cement-based repository.

Review of Fuel Safety Criteria in France

Sandrine Boutin, Stephanie Graff,

Aude Foucher-Taisne and Olivier Dubois | Page 38

Fuel safety criteria for the first barrier, based on

state-of-the-art at the time, were first defined in the

1970s and came from the United States, when the

French nuclear program was initiated. Since then,

there has been continuous progress in knowledge

and in collecting experimental results thanks to the

experiments carried out by utilities and research

institutes, to the operating experience, as well as to

the generic R&D programs, which aim notably at

improving computation methodologies, especially

in Reactivity-Initiated accident and Loss-of-Coolant

Accident conditions. In this context, the French

utility EDF proposed new fuel safety criteria, or

reviewed and completed existing safety demonstration

covering the normal operating, incidental

and accidental conditions of Pressurised Water

­Reactors. IRSN assessed EDF’s proposals and presented

its conclusions to the Advisory Committee

for Reactors Safety of the Nuclear Safety Authority

in June 2017. This review focused on the relevance

of historical limit values or parameters of fuel safety

criteria and their adequacy with the state-of-the-art

concerning fuel physical phenomena (e.g. Pellet-

Cladding Mechanical Interaction in incidental conditions,

clad embrittlement due to high temperature

oxidation in accidental conditions, clad ballooning

and burst during boiling crisis and fuel melting).

AMNT 2017: Outstanding Know-How &

Sustainable Innovations – Technical Session:

Reactor Physics, Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

Enhanced Safety & Operation Excellence –

Focus Session: Radiation Protection

Joachim Herb, Erik Baumann and

Angelika Bohnstedt | Page 44

Summary report on the Key Topics “Outstanding

Know-How & Sustainable Innovations – Technical

Session: Reactor Physics, Thermo and Fluid

Dynamics” and “Enhanced Safety & Operation Excellence

– Focus Session: Radiation Protection” of

the 48 th Annual Meeting on ­Nuclear Technology

(AMNT 2017) held in Berlin, 16 to 17 May 2017.

‘Newcomer’ Nuclear Nation Leads Way Into

New Nuclear Year

John Shepherd | Page 66

At the start of a new year, it is appropriate that a

‘newcomer’ nuclear nation has launched work on

building its first nuclear power plant. First nuclear

safety-related concrete has been poured for the

plant at Rooppur in Bangladesh – making the South

Asia nation the first in 30 years to start building its

first commercial reactor unit following the United

Arab Emirates in 2012 and Belarus in 2013.

Despite setbacks that nuclear has endured in recent

years, there are nearly 60 reactors under construction

around the world, mostly in Asia. Some

447 commercial reactor units are in operation in

30 countries.

Abstracts | English

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