Methods in working with intangible cultural heritage - report

Report on a cooperative project between Музејнаотвореном СТАРО СЕЛО (The open-air museum “Old Village”), Sirogojno, Serbia and Ryfylkemuseet (The RyfylkeMuseum), Sand, Norway.

Report on a cooperative project between Музејнаотвореном СТАРО СЕЛО (The open-air museum “Old Village”), Sirogojno, Serbia and Ryfylkemuseet (The RyfylkeMuseum), Sand, Norway.


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<strong>Methods</strong> <strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> <strong>in</strong>tangible<br />

<strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong><br />

Report on a cooperative project between Музеј на отвореном СТАРО СЕЛО (The open-air<br />

museum “Old Village”), Sirogojno, Serbia and Ryfylkemuseet (The Ryfylke Museum), Sand,<br />

Norway<br />

Side 1 av 25

<strong>Methods</strong> <strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong><br />

Report on a cooperative project between Музеј на отвореном СТАРО СЕЛО (Staro Selo - The openair<br />

museum “Old Village”), Sirogojno, Serbia and Ryfylkemuseet (The Ryfylke Museum), Sand,<br />

Norway<br />

Ryfylkemuseet 2015<br />

The photo on the front cover is from Sirogojno and shows lunch be<strong>in</strong>g prepared <strong>in</strong> traditional clay<br />

pots from Zlakusa.<br />

The Open-Air Museum “Old Village” not only documents the production of traditional clay pots but<br />

also promotes the use of clay pots <strong>in</strong> their presentation of traditional cook<strong>in</strong>g of food.<br />

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Introduction<br />

The idea of start<strong>in</strong>g up a cooperative<br />

project between the Ryfylke Museum and<br />

the Staro Selo museum <strong>in</strong> Serbia to<br />

develop methods for work on <strong>in</strong>tangible<br />

<strong>heritage</strong> arose dur<strong>in</strong>g the annual<br />

conference of ICOM/ICR (The<br />

International Committee for Regional<br />

Museums) <strong>in</strong> 2012. The conference tour<br />

<strong>in</strong>cluded a visit <strong>in</strong> Sirogojno where we<br />

learned about the work done by the<br />

museum Staro Selo to preserve, present<br />

and promote <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>heritage</strong>. One year<br />

later, <strong>in</strong> 2013, the Ryfylke Museum<br />

arranged a tour to Sirogojno for its<br />

employees, giv<strong>in</strong>g us an opportunity to<br />

become better acqua<strong>in</strong>ted <strong>with</strong> the local<br />

museum’s work.<br />

ICR’s annual conference <strong>in</strong> 2012 also<br />

<strong>in</strong>cluded a visit to the Ethnographic<br />

Museum and The Central Institute for<br />

Conservation (CIK) <strong>in</strong> Belgrade. Both<br />

places have also welcomed us later. We<br />

now have an especially good relationship<br />

<strong>with</strong> the Institute. Although the Centre for<br />

The Intangible Cultural Heritage of Serbia<br />

is placed at the Ethnographic Museum,<br />

CIK has been assigned much of the<br />

responsibility for the development of work<br />

<strong>with</strong> the <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong>.<br />

In 2014 we were allotted a grant from the<br />

Arts Council Norway for a limited<br />

cooperative project. This fund<strong>in</strong>g has been<br />

a major factor <strong>in</strong> allow<strong>in</strong>g for a study tour<br />

to Sirogojno <strong>in</strong> 2014 and a sem<strong>in</strong>ar at Sand<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2015. Our discussions on experiences<br />

have provided us <strong>with</strong> a mutual<br />

understand<strong>in</strong>g about topics we have<br />

worked <strong>with</strong> and the methods used <strong>in</strong> our<br />

work. This will be expla<strong>in</strong>ed further <strong>in</strong> the<br />

follow<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

This <strong>report</strong> is based partly on written<br />

<strong>report</strong>s and articles from publications<br />

prepared by The Open-air Museum “Staro<br />

Selo” and The Central Institute for<br />

Conservation.<br />

Hosts and guests on our study tour to<br />

Sirogojno <strong>in</strong> October 2014. Front row, l/r:<br />

Snezana Tomić-Joković, Grete Holmboe, Sanja<br />

Ignjatić, Kjersti Moe, Bojana Bogdanović.<br />

Second row l/r: Jelena Toskić, Branko<br />

Blagojević, Dragan Cicvarić, Trygve Brandal,<br />

Roy Høibo.<br />

Sand, June 2015<br />

Roy Høibo<br />

Museum Advisor/PhD, Director of Ryfylke<br />

Museum between 1981 and 2014.<br />

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Summary<br />

While Ryfylke Museum has worked<br />

systematically over the past 20 years to<br />

understand, document and transmit<br />

traditional action-borne skills, especially<br />

those concern<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g techniques, the<br />

Staro Selo Museum <strong>in</strong> Serbia has worked<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce 2010 <strong>with</strong> the immaterial culture<br />

ly<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a broad sector of tradition. The<br />

aim of the present project has been an<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease of understand<strong>in</strong>g and knowledge<br />

about work <strong>with</strong> immaterial culture.<br />

Funds granted to the project have allowed<br />

participants from Ryfylke Museum to carry<br />

out a study tour to Beograd and Sirogjojno<br />

<strong>in</strong> October 2014 and for participants from<br />

The Central Institute of Conservation<br />

(CIK) and the museum Staro Selo to make<br />

a return visit to Ryfylke <strong>in</strong> May 2015. In<br />

addition to an <strong>in</strong>troduction concern<strong>in</strong>g<br />

project work at each museum and at CIK,<br />

to participatory observation and to<br />

presentation of the results, these study<br />

tours have also given general orientation<br />

about the work of the museums <strong>in</strong> which<br />

we have had special benefit of an exchange<br />

of experiences about work <strong>with</strong> the general<br />

public and <strong>with</strong> programs for children and<br />

young people.<br />

One ma<strong>in</strong> conclusion reached <strong>in</strong> this<br />

project is that documentation and<br />

presentation of knowledge concerned <strong>with</strong><br />

craftsmanship and home crafts, customs,<br />

food, music and dance must become as<br />

important part of museum work as is the<br />

preservation of build<strong>in</strong>gs, tools, equipment<br />

and <strong>in</strong>teriors.<br />

In Sirogjojno this understand<strong>in</strong>g arose as a<br />

natural consequence of the work <strong>with</strong><br />

establish<strong>in</strong>g the open-air museum. In<br />

Ryfylke we regard knowledge about<br />

perform<strong>in</strong>g handicrafts, use of tools, and<br />

understand<strong>in</strong>g materials as be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>tegral<br />

to the work of build<strong>in</strong>g preservation.<br />

The basic method of work is “learn<strong>in</strong>g by<br />

do<strong>in</strong>g” <strong>in</strong> which skilled tradition bearers<br />

demonstrate and advise. The museum’s<br />

mission is to create arenas for the<br />

transmission of traditions and to document<br />

what is done <strong>with</strong> the means allowed for<br />

by knowledge and economy.<br />

There are challenges connected both to<br />

f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g tradition bearers who will and can<br />

participate, and to recruit<strong>in</strong>g younger<br />

practitioners. One important precondition<br />

for success seems to be the ability to create<br />

attractive meet<strong>in</strong>g places.<br />

Sirogojno, Serbia: The “Old Village” and<br />

The Knitters’ Museum<br />

Village women have always processed<br />

their own wool, from the newly sheared<br />

fleece of their sheep to f<strong>in</strong>ished ske<strong>in</strong>s of<br />

yarn and spools of thread. They have<br />

always spun, woven and knitted cover<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

and clothes for their loved ones. Their craft<br />

is as old as the world they were born <strong>in</strong> and<br />

is someth<strong>in</strong>g they have always known and<br />

lived for. Anyth<strong>in</strong>g that could not be sewn<br />

of l<strong>in</strong>en and heavy cloth was knitted: warm<br />

woolen socks, gloves, a scarf or two, and<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ally sweaters.<br />

The first time the women from Sirogojno<br />

and adjacent villages displayed their<br />

handicrafts <strong>in</strong> public was at an exhibition<br />

<strong>in</strong> 1962. The bravest among them decided<br />

to set up their own organization, start<br />

knitt<strong>in</strong>g for the market and earn their own<br />

<strong>in</strong>comes. They then attended the first<br />

sem<strong>in</strong>ar on knitt<strong>in</strong>g. Soon after this event,<br />

Dobrilja Vasiljevic arrived, br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong><br />

all her knowledge and experience. She was<br />

a daughter-<strong>in</strong>-law <strong>in</strong> Pastor Smiljanic’s<br />

family, a famous corporate family of<br />

Zlatibor clergymen. As a fashion designer<br />

and a brilliant organizer <strong>with</strong> many<br />

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marvelous accomplishments, she rema<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

<strong>in</strong> Sirogojno for several decades afterwards<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to make her dreams come true by<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> the knitters.<br />

When it all started, only twenty fearless<br />

women accepted offers of additional<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g. By the 1990s, however, almost<br />

two thousand women knitters were do<strong>in</strong>g<br />

work for the world’s fashion markets.<br />

Over ten thousand hand-knitted garments<br />

made of soft Icelandic wool would be<br />

exported abroad annually, br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g foreign<br />

exchange revenue amount<strong>in</strong>g to millions of<br />

dollars. ‘A traditional handicraft was used<br />

to create high-quality, high-fashion<br />

cloth<strong>in</strong>g, of unique design and authentic<br />

style. Sweaters, jackets, coats, outfits,<br />

suits, caps and scarves from Sirogojno<br />

were seen and admired <strong>in</strong> fashion shows, at<br />

fairs, and <strong>in</strong> upmarket shop w<strong>in</strong>dows <strong>in</strong><br />

Sweden, Italy, France, Germany, USA and<br />

Japan. Numerous world-famous fashion<br />

magaz<strong>in</strong>es wrote about them, mention<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the Zlatibor knitters, these unknown<br />

women <strong>in</strong> their kerchiefs, gaz<strong>in</strong>g at their<br />

hands <strong>in</strong>terweav<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>in</strong>es, patterns, colors<br />

at <strong>in</strong>credible speed.<br />

Knitt<strong>in</strong>g is still a traditional custom <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Zlatibor region. These ladies gather at a<br />

crossroad every afternoon, weather permitt<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

to knit, dr<strong>in</strong>k coffee and have a good gossip.<br />

A unique project associated <strong>with</strong> the<br />

knitters <strong>in</strong>cluded patient and systematic<br />

efforts to educate women <strong>in</strong> rural areas,<br />

render them literate, enlighten them<br />

<strong>cultural</strong>ly and <strong>in</strong>form them about health<br />

care issues and <strong>in</strong> general elevate their<br />

lives. Scores of writers, pa<strong>in</strong>ters, doctors,<br />

and agri<strong>cultural</strong> experts began com<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

Sirogojno to show their respect for the<br />

knitters. Exhibitions, concerts, lectures,<br />

sem<strong>in</strong>ars, and workshops enabled them to<br />

overcome and make up for all the th<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

they had missed out <strong>in</strong> life and to <strong>in</strong>volve<br />

them and their environment <strong>with</strong><br />

contemporary trends. The knitters’<br />

additional <strong>in</strong>comes and the <strong>in</strong>creased rural<br />

development brought about by their<br />

association prevented migration from less<br />

favored areas (LFA) like these towards<br />

urban centers and to foreign countries.<br />

They thus preserved their mounta<strong>in</strong><br />

villages, while their knitt<strong>in</strong>g, be<strong>in</strong>g a new<br />

occupation, brought the first pensions as a<br />

reward to the most persistent and deserv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

women.<br />

The knitters’ association became <strong>in</strong>terested<br />

<strong>in</strong> new challenges. Additional efforts were<br />

now made to protect the traditional<br />

authentic architecture of the region <strong>in</strong> order<br />

to preserve the sett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> which these gifted<br />

women, the weavers and knitters, were<br />

accustomed to live and create. This<br />

resulted <strong>in</strong> the creation of a unique openair<br />

museum. 1<br />

The authorities of former Yugoslavia, a<br />

country <strong>with</strong> a very rich <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong><br />

and <strong>in</strong>valuable dist<strong>in</strong>ctions among the<br />

<strong>in</strong>terlaced lives of its nations and cultures,<br />

never paid adequate attention to the<br />

traditions of village lifestyle. Despite<br />

attempts to establish and develop<br />

monumental collections of ethnographical<br />

1 “The Knitters’ Museum”, Sirogojno, leaflet, not<br />

dated<br />

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objects, only one open-air museum has<br />

thus far been formed and brought to life –<br />

the open-air museum <strong>in</strong> Sirogojno,<br />

Zlatibor.<br />

The open-air museum “Old Village” thus<br />

represents the successful realization of the<br />

first project relat<strong>in</strong>g to an open-air museum<br />

<strong>in</strong> Serbia. It is widely recognized as a<br />

museum complex of huge importance, as a<br />

potential and developmental model of great<br />

significance for the nation’s culture.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>itial idea of build<strong>in</strong>g a museum of<br />

folk architecture, the “Old Village” <strong>in</strong><br />

Sirogojno, started <strong>in</strong> 1979 <strong>with</strong> the<br />

presentation of the project itself, the scope,<br />

plan and project for its construction and<br />

organization, furnish<strong>in</strong>g and arrangement,<br />

the f<strong>in</strong>aliz<strong>in</strong>g of its functional organization<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the production and tourism<br />

segments of the complex, and the f<strong>in</strong>al<br />

def<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the purpose, contents and<br />

function of the museum. All these phases<br />

were carried out by a group of experts<br />

headed by the architect Ranko F<strong>in</strong>drik and<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the ethnologists Dusan Drljaca,<br />

Nikola Pantelic and Bosa Rosic.<br />

Fifty build<strong>in</strong>gs have been placed <strong>in</strong> an area<br />

of 5 hectares. The selected facilities are<br />

representative of the richness of the<br />

architecture and the development of the<br />

vibrant culture of the Zlatibor region. They<br />

are outstand<strong>in</strong>g examples of traditional<br />

Zlatibor wooden architecture,<br />

characterized by special spatial and<br />

constructional features, and thus allow for<br />

the trac<strong>in</strong>g of the development tendency of<br />

this type of folk architecture. The “Old<br />

Village” was established as an open-air<br />

museum <strong>in</strong>stitution <strong>in</strong> 1992. 2<br />

2 “Open-air Museum Old Village”, Sirogojno,<br />

guidebook 2007<br />

The <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>heritage</strong> of Serbia – the<br />

national organizational structure<br />

Serbia ratified the UNESCO Convention<br />

for the Safeguard<strong>in</strong>g of Intangible Cultural<br />

Heritage <strong>in</strong> 2010. A National Committee<br />

was established to adopt and prepare a<br />

strategy for the safeguard<strong>in</strong>g of the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> of the Republic<br />

of Serbia, participate <strong>in</strong> harmoniz<strong>in</strong>g<br />

national legislation aim<strong>in</strong>g at <strong>in</strong>clusion of<br />

the <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> and adopt<br />

proposals for registration <strong>in</strong> the National<br />

Registry of the Intangible Cultural<br />

Heritage.<br />

The first regional sem<strong>in</strong>ar on the<br />

implementation of the Convention was<br />

held at the open-air museum “Staro Selo”<br />

<strong>in</strong> Sirogojno as early as October 2010.<br />

A Network of Regional Coord<strong>in</strong>ators has<br />

been established, aim<strong>in</strong>g at locat<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

identify<strong>in</strong>g elements of the <strong>in</strong>tangible<br />

<strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> and help<strong>in</strong>g to establish<br />

cooperation between communities, groups,<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividuals, experts, professional centers<br />

and research <strong>in</strong>stitutes <strong>in</strong> order to collect,<br />

document, store and preserve <strong>heritage</strong> data.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ator for Western Serbia is<br />

Snezana Tomic, an ethnologist and<br />

Museum Advisor at “Staro Selo”.<br />

The network collaborates <strong>with</strong> the Centre<br />

for the Intangible Cultural Heritage,<br />

established <strong>in</strong> 2012 and located at the<br />

Ethnographic Museum <strong>in</strong> Belgrade. The<br />

Centre implements the strategy for the<br />

safeguard<strong>in</strong>g of the <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong> of Serbia, <strong>in</strong>itiates activities of<br />

regional coord<strong>in</strong>ators, collects and stores<br />

proposals for registration <strong>in</strong> the National<br />

Registry of the Intangible Cultural<br />

Heritage, organizes professional<br />

Side 6 av 25

conferences, takes necessary measures to<br />

<strong>in</strong>form communities, groups, and<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividuals of the importance and value of<br />

their <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong>, handles<br />

publication and presentation of research<br />

results <strong>in</strong> the field, collaborates <strong>with</strong> other<br />

national, regional and <strong>in</strong>dependent<br />

organizations and coord<strong>in</strong>ates national,<br />

regional and <strong>in</strong>ternational programs and<br />

network<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Another important body for develop<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

task of safeguard<strong>in</strong>g the <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong> of Serbia is The Central Institute<br />

for Conservation <strong>in</strong> Belgrade (CIK). The<br />

Institute, which was officially established<br />

<strong>in</strong> September 2009, has a wide mission. It<br />

not only has a national character and<br />

significance, but also a regional one, <strong>in</strong> that<br />

it evolves from the fact that regional<br />

activities are logical first steps <strong>in</strong> unify<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the exchange of theoretical and<br />

methodological knowledge, practical<br />

experience, cont<strong>in</strong>uous scientific tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g,<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ancial resources, partnerships and<br />

<strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary teamwork, connect<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

coord<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g the development and<br />

implementation of overall strategies to<br />

preserve <strong>heritage</strong>. Its key responsibility is<br />

to organize an efficient protection service,<br />

which <strong>in</strong>volves all resources and activities<br />

aimed at <strong>heritage</strong> protection <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

uniform system.<br />

The old and almost forgotten techniques of<br />

mak<strong>in</strong>g objects of wood, metal, clay, etc are<br />

presented through the revival of old crafts.<br />

With these workshops, the Museum presents<br />

three men’s production crafts (coppersmith,<br />

blacksmith and pottery) allow<strong>in</strong>g visitors the<br />

opportunity to become familiar <strong>with</strong> the<br />

complete process of mak<strong>in</strong>g traditional<br />

handicraft products.<br />

A wide range of themes<br />

As early as the year after the regional<br />

sem<strong>in</strong>ar, <strong>in</strong> 2011, “Staro Selo” organized<br />

the first of a number of annual fairs of old<br />

crafts and professions. The goal of the<br />

program was to contribute to the<br />

conservation and development of craft<br />

skills, especially through their presentation<br />

and evaluation as be<strong>in</strong>g a vital part of the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> present <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Uzice region, which was seen as hav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

great potential for the susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development of the region. The program<br />

also aimed to provide access to <strong>cultural</strong><br />

benefits for its citizens, to contribute to the<br />

popularization and to promote promotion<br />

of the <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong>, and raise<br />

the quality of the services on offer at the<br />

open-air museum The “Old Village”.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g the five-day presentation of the<br />

Fair museum visitors were <strong>in</strong>troduced not<br />

only to the traditional techniques and skills<br />

for mak<strong>in</strong>g craft products as these have<br />

been preserved to the present day <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Uzice region, but also to the result<strong>in</strong>g<br />

products. By observ<strong>in</strong>g the master<br />

artisans, visitors could learn about their<br />

manufactur<strong>in</strong>g methods, craft techniques<br />

and the products they make; they were also<br />

able to participate actively <strong>in</strong> produc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

certa<strong>in</strong> objects. The follow-up programs<br />

for the Fair emphasized the usage value of<br />

craft products.<br />

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The fair of old crafts and trades is a<br />

presentation of traditional techniques and<br />

skills of mak<strong>in</strong>g craft products preserved to<br />

this day <strong>in</strong> the Užice region. Visitors are<br />

<strong>in</strong>vited to learn from the artisans about the<br />

craft techniques and to participate actively <strong>in</strong><br />

mak<strong>in</strong>g certa<strong>in</strong> objects. The support<strong>in</strong>g<br />

programs present the use value of craft<br />

products, as well as the preparation and<br />

tast<strong>in</strong>g of traditional dishes from the Užice<br />

region.<br />

The follow<strong>in</strong>g themes are among those<br />

presented at the Fair:<br />

Traditional preparation of food<br />

Carpentry<br />

Workshop for learn<strong>in</strong>g to knit<br />

Pottery craft<br />

Blacksmith<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Dressmak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Basket-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Leceder mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Bottle-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Chair-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Mak<strong>in</strong>g national costumes<br />

Embroidery<br />

Weav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Mak<strong>in</strong>g plum cake<br />

Prepar<strong>in</strong>g pie pastry<br />

Cook<strong>in</strong>g cabbage and beans<br />

Prepar<strong>in</strong>g Zlatibor polenta<br />

The program of the Fair has led to the<br />

realization “that <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> a culture, an object<br />

is someth<strong>in</strong>g that can be touched, smelled<br />

or used <strong>in</strong> different ways…”. “The<br />

engagement of other senses <strong>in</strong> museum<br />

exhibitions, especially smell and taste,<br />

would allow for a sensual assumption of<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation <strong>in</strong> addition to the spiritual<br />

appreciation <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> the observed/presented<br />

culture…” Craftsmen can be seen as<br />

actors accessible to an audience, among<br />

whom a dialogue based on everyday life<br />

can be carried out. Handmade products, <strong>in</strong><br />

contrast to <strong>in</strong>dustrial production, carry<br />

stories and messages <strong>in</strong> which we can seek<br />

alternatives for a modern way of life <strong>in</strong> the<br />

future. This program is significant because<br />

it presents another method for museum<br />

communication. This method acts by<br />

means of a direct communication between<br />

visitors and craftsmen and <strong>in</strong>cludes an<br />

opportunity for observ<strong>in</strong>g and participat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> the process of creation of the products. 3<br />

Even more important was the attention<br />

paid by the museum to field studies and to<br />

record<strong>in</strong>g the current state of trade <strong>in</strong> the<br />

field, to document<strong>in</strong>g, creat<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

curat<strong>in</strong>g collections of craft objects, to<br />

their presentation and publication, to<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g videos on craft techniques <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Museum workshops, to organiz<strong>in</strong>g tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> old skills, to regular communication<br />

<strong>with</strong> the artisans based on their advice<br />

about improv<strong>in</strong>g product quality, to sell<strong>in</strong>g<br />

craft products <strong>in</strong> the Museum shop as well<br />

as expand<strong>in</strong>g the range of their products<br />

through the production of copies of<br />

museum pieces and various types of useful<br />

objects through media affirmation.<br />

Among the crafts that have been<br />

documented <strong>in</strong> different ways are cask-<br />

3 Snezana Tomic-Jokovic <strong>in</strong> the catalogue of «The<br />

third fair of old crafts and professions», Open-air<br />

museum «Old Village», Sirogojno 2013.<br />

Side 8 av 25

mak<strong>in</strong>g, pottery blacksmith<strong>in</strong>g, mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

flutes, traditional production of dried meat,<br />

and bas<strong>in</strong>-mak<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

different ages, workshops for the youngest<br />

visitors are be<strong>in</strong>g designed <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> almost<br />

all aspects of program activities. 4<br />

Meet<strong>in</strong>g visitors<br />

The Fair of Traditional Crafts and<br />

Professions is not the only <strong>in</strong>itiative<br />

undertaken by “Staro Selo” to enable their<br />

visitors to become acqua<strong>in</strong>ted <strong>with</strong> actionborne<br />

traditions. In the autumn of 2013 the<br />

museum offered a program of wedd<strong>in</strong>g<br />

traditions, and a festival of decorated eggs<br />

at Eastertime 2014.<br />

The School for Pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g Easter Eggs is among<br />

the most popular of the programs <strong>in</strong>tended<br />

solely for children. In order to make various<br />

Museum activities available for children of<br />

different ages, workshops for the youngest<br />

visitors are be<strong>in</strong>g designed <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> almost all<br />

program activities.<br />

With the aim of present<strong>in</strong>g the rich <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong> that has been preserved <strong>in</strong> the field of<br />

perform<strong>in</strong>g arts to the public, the Museum<br />

began organiz<strong>in</strong>g The Festival World of Music<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2011. The audience enjoys a wide variety of<br />

music while listen<strong>in</strong>g to concerts of orig<strong>in</strong>al<br />

vocal groups, bands of musicians perform<strong>in</strong>g<br />

early medieval music, and also renowned<br />

artists whose music is based on tradition.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce children make up more than half the<br />

total number of visitors to the Museum,<br />

great attention is paid to these youngest<br />

guests <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> the program of activities. The<br />

follow<strong>in</strong>g are popular events <strong>in</strong> the<br />

programs <strong>in</strong>tended solely for children: the<br />

school for pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g Easter eggs and the<br />

Quiz “Bistrik” – an <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g test of<br />

knowledge about the Museum and folk<br />

tradition. In order to make various<br />

Museum activities available for children of<br />

4 For additional <strong>in</strong>formation about the work <strong>with</strong><br />

immaterial culture at the Open-air Museum “Old<br />

Village”, please see the annex by Snezana Tomic-<br />

Jokovic´: Application of the Results obta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong><br />

research on the Old Crafts and Occupation.<br />

Side 9 av 25

Sand, Norway:<br />

Intangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> at Ryfylke<br />

Museum<br />

Ryfylke Museum is the museum for the<br />

eight municipalities – Forsand, Strand,<br />

Hjelmeland, Suldal, Sauda, F<strong>in</strong>nøy,<br />

Rennesøy and Kvitsøy – that were merged<br />

<strong>in</strong> connection <strong>with</strong> a municipal unification<br />

process <strong>in</strong> the 1960s to form the Ryfylke<br />

Region. The forerunner of the regional<br />

museum was Rogaland Folkemuseum –<br />

Rogaland Folk Museum – established as a<br />

classic open-air museum <strong>in</strong> Stavanger<br />

1936, and reorganized as a regional<br />

museum for Ryfylke 1981. As a result of<br />

the reorganiz<strong>in</strong>g the headquarters were<br />

moved from the county capitol Stavanger<br />

to Sand, the centre of the municipality of<br />

Suldal.<br />

In its work <strong>with</strong> <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong>, Ryfylke Museum has largely<br />

concentrated on two topics: traditional<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g crafts and traditional music, song<br />

and dance. Other topics have also been<br />

addressed, however, and plans have been<br />

made for deal<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> new topics. We will<br />

expla<strong>in</strong> this work <strong>in</strong> the follow<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Search<strong>in</strong>g for build<strong>in</strong>g traditions<br />

An important part of the museum’s<br />

collections is made up of 77 ancient<br />

build<strong>in</strong>gs and a collection of traditional<br />

boats that also <strong>in</strong>cludes two sail<strong>in</strong>g vessels.<br />

Soon after the reorganization of the<br />

museum as a regional museum Ryfylke<br />

Museum realized that vital knowledge<br />

about traditional craftsmanship was<br />

necessary <strong>in</strong> order to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> the<br />

collections <strong>in</strong> a credible way. In 1985, the<br />

county plann<strong>in</strong>g authority <strong>in</strong>vited to<br />

participate <strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g out a county plan for<br />

<strong>heritage</strong> sites. In the recommendations<br />

submitted by the steer<strong>in</strong>g group <strong>in</strong> 1987,<br />

we po<strong>in</strong>ted out that protection of <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong> also should <strong>in</strong>clude protection of<br />

old crafts. We recommended that the<br />

county municipality ought to establish<br />

workshops <strong>in</strong> cooperation <strong>with</strong> the State<br />

and the municipalities, to provide the<br />

necessary professional assistance. Quite<br />

specifically, the group proposed that two<br />

antiquarian workshops be started as a<br />

short-range measure, one at Ryfylke<br />

Museum <strong>in</strong> Sand. Noth<strong>in</strong>g happened <strong>in</strong> the<br />

short range, however, but seen <strong>in</strong><br />

retrospect this was an important basis for<br />

the establishment of a build<strong>in</strong>g protection<br />

project at Ryfylke Museum <strong>in</strong> 1994.<br />

Ryfylkemuseet has worked systematically for<br />

twenty years to identify, document and spread<br />

knowledge about traditional crafts. Here<br />

museum craftsmen work together <strong>with</strong> older<br />

tradition bearers to restore a litle barn us<strong>in</strong>g<br />

traditional methods of stave construction.<br />

The project was well-supported by the<br />

County Governor, the district fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

office for Rogaland, Suldal bus<strong>in</strong>ess<br />

development and Rogaland County<br />

Municipality. It was a project <strong>with</strong><br />

extensive and ambitious goals, but its<br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g was humble. At this time the<br />

museum had only one permanently<br />

employed craftsman. The project allowed<br />

for engag<strong>in</strong>g one employee <strong>in</strong> a 50%<br />

position and part-time hir<strong>in</strong>g of craftsmen<br />

as <strong>in</strong>structors. Grete Holmboe was engaged<br />

Side 10 av 25

as project leader. She carried out the<br />

project <strong>in</strong> a most productive way, and was<br />

later appo<strong>in</strong>ted leader of the build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

department of the museum.<br />

The project began at the beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of 1995<br />

and lasted until 2001. Dur<strong>in</strong>g this period<br />

ten far-reach<strong>in</strong>g documentation projects<br />

were completed accord<strong>in</strong>g to the model<br />

proposed by Jon Bojer Godal at the<br />

Norwegian Crafts Development<br />

this a “knowledge-philosophical concept”<br />

that expresses someth<strong>in</strong>g about the<br />

connections that allow us to do someth<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

He dist<strong>in</strong>guishes between aptitude and<br />

awareness. Action-borne knowledge is,<br />

first and foremost, an aptitude.<br />

Jon Bojer Godal has been an important<br />

contributor to the understand<strong>in</strong>g of the<br />

visual part of craftsmanship. In an article<br />

<strong>in</strong> Folk i Ryfylke 2006, he wrote:<br />

Craftsmanship is primarily expressed <strong>in</strong><br />

the craft. This can be divided as process<br />

and product. The product is permanent,<br />

but the process is transitory and no longer<br />

visible when the product is f<strong>in</strong>ished. The<br />

product depends on this transitory<br />

substance of action, pattern of action, skill,<br />

perception, comprehension and<br />

understand<strong>in</strong>g for what is done. The<br />

process also <strong>in</strong>cludes tools, equipment,<br />

workplace and raw material that only<br />

<strong>in</strong>directly and partially are visible <strong>in</strong> the<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ished object. No matter how many words<br />

and how much can be said and written,<br />

craftsmanship <strong>in</strong> its primary form of<br />

expression is process and product.<br />

It has still been necessary to f<strong>in</strong>d the<br />

correct terms for what is done. The<br />

expression “action-borne knowledge” was<br />

arrived at as a result of attempts to f<strong>in</strong>d<br />

better terms than “experienced knowledge”<br />

or “silent knowledge” then used <strong>in</strong><br />

professional literature. The correct term<br />

arose at a meet<strong>in</strong>g at Maihaugen <strong>in</strong> 1993<br />

and while Jon Bojer Godal brought the<br />

child to be christened, it was Magne<br />

Velure who blessed it. Godal himself calls<br />

Learn<strong>in</strong>g by do<strong>in</strong>g. Marl<strong>in</strong>n Tveit was an<br />

apprentice at the museum between 2013 and<br />

2015.<br />

The basis for the work of strengthen<strong>in</strong>g<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g preservation at Ryfylke Museum<br />

was the idea proposed <strong>in</strong> the County Plan<br />

for Cultural Heritage <strong>in</strong> Rogaland <strong>in</strong> 1989<br />

about establish<strong>in</strong>g an antiquarian workshop<br />

at Ryfylke Museum <strong>in</strong> Sand. The county<br />

municipality did not follow up this<br />

proposal nor was the idea of hav<strong>in</strong>g one or<br />

more centers for build<strong>in</strong>g preservation <strong>in</strong><br />

Rogaland followed up.<br />

Side 11 av 25

The extreme prioritiz<strong>in</strong>g of build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

preservation at Ryfylke Museum has<br />

nonetheless led to the museum emerg<strong>in</strong>g as<br />

an important sett<strong>in</strong>g for build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

protection. In the Regional Plan for<br />

Museums produced <strong>in</strong> 2011, the need for<br />

strengthen<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g preservation was<br />

noted and <strong>in</strong> a study based on the plan,<br />

Ryfylke Museum has been chosen as a<br />

center for such protection.<br />

At present, no detailed plans for how such<br />

a center would function have been worked<br />

out, but we assume that one important role<br />

will be as a resource center for other<br />

museums, for municipalities and for<br />

owners of protected houses. There is a<br />

need for strengthen<strong>in</strong>g knowledge about<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g protection, develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

competence among those work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the<br />

field and on plac<strong>in</strong>g more emphasis on the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible portion of build<strong>in</strong>g protection<br />

(action-borne knowledge), on establish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

good systems for documentation, on<br />

complet<strong>in</strong>g research projects and on<br />

allow<strong>in</strong>g for provid<strong>in</strong>g better <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

to the public.<br />

Action-borne knowledge can only be<br />

preserved by keep<strong>in</strong>g it alive. It is still<br />

important, however, to document what we<br />

do when we work on the restoration and<br />

care of old build<strong>in</strong>gs. That is the only way<br />

we can be sure that real knowledge about<br />

what is done can be saved, and why th<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

were done as they were done when there is<br />

next a need of do<strong>in</strong>g ma<strong>in</strong>tenance work on<br />

a build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Documentation <strong>in</strong>cludes the condition<br />

before work is started, the work processes<br />

underway and the f<strong>in</strong>ished result. But it<br />

also <strong>in</strong>cludes search<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> other sources for<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation about the build<strong>in</strong>g, such as can<br />

be found <strong>in</strong> archives, literature, old<br />

photographs and among people who can<br />

contribute their recollections. We use<br />

photos and films, surveys, draw<strong>in</strong>gs, notes<br />

and <strong>in</strong>terviews. These are important source<br />

materials for <strong>in</strong>formation on build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>heritage</strong> and traditional craftsmanship, and<br />

<strong>in</strong> that way a basis for the spread of<br />

knowledge that is a duty for every<br />

museum.<br />

In 2005, Ryfylke Museum was granted<br />

funds on behalf of the Build<strong>in</strong>g Network<br />

(the network of museums do<strong>in</strong>g a lot of<br />

work on build<strong>in</strong>g protection) from ABM<br />

Development (now the Arts Council<br />

Norway) for a project called “Creat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

sources and assembl<strong>in</strong>g knowledge <strong>in</strong><br />

build<strong>in</strong>g protection”. The project led<br />

among other th<strong>in</strong>gs to a Handbook for<br />

Documentation of Build<strong>in</strong>gs that gives<br />

guidance on how one should proceed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

work of document<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g protection.<br />

At Ryfylke Museum we now began to feel<br />

we were rather good at this. We also got<br />

more employees. When funds were granted<br />

for a new position as craftsman <strong>in</strong> 2007,<br />

we hired Sven Hoftun, a young carpenter<br />

who had specialized <strong>in</strong> furniture-mak<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

attended technical school and had a career<br />

as Norwegian champion and participation<br />

<strong>in</strong> the World Skills Competition. In 2009<br />

we were granted another <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> our<br />

annual funds and could hire Kjell Gunnar<br />

Haraldseid who had an apprentice<br />

certificate as a woodworker and varied<br />

experience from the army’s eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g<br />

corps. We now had a build<strong>in</strong>g department<br />

<strong>with</strong> <strong>in</strong>creased capacity and high<br />

competence. We were given a commission<br />

to carry out a pilot project on build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

preservation at the museums of Rogaland<br />

for the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture. We were now<br />

among the foremost <strong>in</strong> this country<br />

Side 12 av 25

concern<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g protection and our<br />

self-confidence was so great that we<br />

<strong>in</strong>vited the annual conference <strong>in</strong> ICOM’s<br />

Committee for Historic Build<strong>in</strong>gs to<br />

Ryfylke <strong>in</strong> 2009. ICOM, the International<br />

Council of Museums, is the world<br />

organization for museums. The Committee<br />

for Historic Build<strong>in</strong>gs, DEMHIST, is an<br />

under-committee.<br />

Among the th<strong>in</strong>gs we showed these<br />

foreigners was the result of our work <strong>in</strong><br />

restor<strong>in</strong>g the cottar’s farm at Røynevarden.<br />

We thought that this little site high above<br />

Suldal Lake would be suitably exotic and<br />

besides, we could show exemplary<br />

illustrations of good restoration work.<br />

The barn at the cotter’s farm Røynevarden was<br />

restored <strong>in</strong> 2013-2014. The roof was covered<br />

<strong>with</strong> birchbark and sod <strong>in</strong> keep<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> roof<strong>in</strong>g<br />

traditions <strong>in</strong> these region of Ryfylke.<br />

We know much more now than when we<br />

started the project Build<strong>in</strong>g Protection <strong>in</strong><br />

Ryfylke <strong>in</strong> 1995, but we will never be<br />

over-qualified. In the olden days<br />

youngsters followed their fathers or<br />

masters for years. We have difficulties <strong>in</strong><br />

f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g master craftsmen. In many cases<br />

the tradition has become weak or is about<br />

to disappear. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the years we have<br />

worked <strong>with</strong> this, many of those we have<br />

had as tradition-bearers have passed away.<br />

And that always means shorter periods of<br />

learn<strong>in</strong>g or transmission of traditions. But<br />

over time we have built up our experience,<br />

and we have built up an environment<br />

whose members can support each other <strong>in</strong><br />

the development of the craft. We know of<br />

no better method, and hope that our own<br />

work, <strong>in</strong> collaboration <strong>with</strong> others <strong>in</strong> the<br />

networks that have been established, helps<br />

action-borne knowledge, that part of the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> made up of<br />

traditional crafts, cont<strong>in</strong>ue to be a sound<br />

foundation for the work of preservation<br />

and ma<strong>in</strong>tenance of historic build<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

An archive for song, music and dance<br />

Folk music was long someth<strong>in</strong>g that<br />

existed <strong>in</strong> an archive- and museum-free<br />

zone. In many countries it still does. In<br />

Norway, however, the collection of folk<br />

music and songs was <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the<br />

project of build<strong>in</strong>g the nation. It started late<br />

<strong>in</strong> Rogaland compared to the more wellknown<br />

fjord and dale districts. The history<br />

of the folk music archive for Rogaland is a<br />

history of doubts, hesitation and a great<br />

deal of idealism. Most doubt concerned<br />

whether there were any traditions to<br />

preserve, hesitation about whether this was<br />

worth spend<strong>in</strong>g money on. Idealism was<br />

l<strong>in</strong>ked to those who started out anyway.<br />

The first meet<strong>in</strong>g about collect<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

preserv<strong>in</strong>g and present<strong>in</strong>g folk music<br />

traditions <strong>in</strong> Rogaland was held <strong>in</strong> October<br />

1981. The subject was “Rogaland – The<br />

unexplored part of the musical map”. This<br />

meant the folk music map over the whole<br />

of Norway. The conclusion was that<br />

material from Rogaland could be found <strong>in</strong><br />

various archives and that it could be<br />

supplemented by means of notation and<br />

record<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The <strong>cultural</strong> committee of the county<br />

municipality appo<strong>in</strong>ted a commission <strong>in</strong><br />

Side 13 av 25

1982. Its recommendations to establish an<br />

archive for folk music and folkdance from<br />

Rogaland were submitted <strong>in</strong> May 1982. An<br />

important goal for this archive would be to<br />

“provide funds to stimulate <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> folk<br />

music and folkdance and use appropriate<br />

forms of presentation <strong>in</strong> an attempt to<br />

promote greater <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> this respect”.<br />

Ten years were to pass from this proposal<br />

to the open<strong>in</strong>g of a folk-music archive for<br />

Rogaland. The first, cautious grants for<br />

start<strong>in</strong>g work of collect<strong>in</strong>g were not<br />

followed up and county plann<strong>in</strong>g mills<br />

ground slowly. The break-through<br />

occurred <strong>with</strong> the mak<strong>in</strong>g of a museum<br />

plan for Rogaland. The resolution for<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g this plan was passed <strong>in</strong> 1987 and<br />

every museum was asked to jo<strong>in</strong> a group<br />

that would follow the work. Egil Harald<br />

Grude, the county antiquarian, wrote the<br />

plan. In his f<strong>in</strong>ished version the<br />

establishment of a part-time position at the<br />

folk-music archive was <strong>in</strong>corporated as a<br />

proposed prioritized measure. When the<br />

county council considered the plan <strong>in</strong> June<br />

1992, the proposal received its f<strong>in</strong>al<br />

political approval.<br />

Even more gratify<strong>in</strong>g was Suldal<br />

municipality’s adoption of generous funds<br />

allow<strong>in</strong>g for an additional part-time<br />

position. The museum now had the funds<br />

to f<strong>in</strong>ance operation of the folk-music<br />

archive. This cont<strong>in</strong>ued for four years, but<br />

from 1 January 1996, the county<br />

municipality took over responsibility for<br />

the position and from then on an entire<br />

curator position has been devoted to the<br />

work of the folk-music archive.<br />

teachers’ college <strong>in</strong> Bergen, and could both<br />

dance and play various <strong>in</strong>struments. After<br />

start<strong>in</strong>g from absolute scratch, she built up<br />

a collection of material over the next 30<br />

years that now forms the foundation of the<br />

folk-music archive. Her greatest<br />

achievements were <strong>in</strong> presentation, <strong>in</strong> that<br />

she held numerous courses, lectures,<br />

sem<strong>in</strong>ars and concerts. One po<strong>in</strong>t of effort<br />

has been the annual folk-music weekends<br />

<strong>in</strong> Suldal where performers of all ages have<br />

been able to receive <strong>in</strong>struction from the<br />

best performers from all over the country.<br />

Archive material has also been published<br />

<strong>in</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>t and as sound. Among the most<br />

important productions are the books on<br />

Christmas carols and on folk songs from<br />

the sea based on archival material, the<br />

textbook “Bewitched” and CDs <strong>with</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>strumental and vocal music. In 2011,<br />

much of the recorded material was<br />

digitalized. Work on catalog<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

prepar<strong>in</strong>g this material for digital<br />

presentation is now be<strong>in</strong>g carried out.<br />

Ida Katr<strong>in</strong>e Bråvoll is among the young people<br />

who play the Hardanger fiddle. Guro<br />

Nedrevåg watches <strong>in</strong> the background. Photo:<br />

Lise Bjelland.<br />

Ruth Anne Moen (1950-2011) was<br />

appo<strong>in</strong>ted to the post and started work on<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g up the archive. She had received<br />

her tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g as a music teacher at the<br />

Side 14 av 25

Other topics <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>heritage</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

worked <strong>with</strong> at Ryfylke Museum<br />

The pioneers at the museum were aware as<br />

early as the 1950s that many traditional<br />

crafts were <strong>in</strong> danger of be<strong>in</strong>g forgotten.<br />

They engaged a film maker and began<br />

document<strong>in</strong>g some of these crafts. This<br />

resulted <strong>in</strong> the film “Older methods of<br />

work <strong>in</strong> Suldal” [“Gamle arbeidsmåtar i<br />

Suldal”] issued by the museum <strong>in</strong> 1958 5 .<br />

The film documented the follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

activities:<br />

Traditional music and dance<br />

Saddle-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Rose-pa<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Card<strong>in</strong>g, sp<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g, weav<strong>in</strong>g; full<strong>in</strong>g<br />

woolen cloth <strong>in</strong> a water-powered<br />

full<strong>in</strong>g mill<br />

Angl<strong>in</strong>g for salmon<br />

Production of barrel hoops<br />

Haymak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> sickles, dry<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and transport<strong>in</strong>g hay us<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

carry<strong>in</strong>g-rope<br />

Transport of goods <strong>with</strong> a horse<br />

and a packsaddle<br />

Milk<strong>in</strong>g goats and mak<strong>in</strong>g goat<br />

cheese<br />

Thresh<strong>in</strong>g gra<strong>in</strong> <strong>with</strong> a wooden flail<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g the past ten years the museum has<br />

been established as an arena where<br />

immigrants and local people could make<br />

contact and where food has acted as an<br />

important mutual element. We have seen<br />

that cooperation on cook<strong>in</strong>g food and<br />

conversations held dur<strong>in</strong>g the result<strong>in</strong>g<br />

5 “Gamle arbeidsmåtar <strong>in</strong> Suldal” [“Old work<br />

methods <strong>in</strong> Suldal”], a film based on a manuscript<br />

written by Julius Bårdsen and Peder Heskestad.<br />

Photographed by Kolbjørn Rostrup. Rogaland<br />

Folkemuseum 1958.<br />

good meal generate good <strong>in</strong>tegration. In<br />

order to cont<strong>in</strong>ue this work, the museum<br />

has applied for grants for a project called<br />

“The more cooks, the better <strong>in</strong>tegration”.<br />

The many varieties of wood-burn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

hearths <strong>in</strong> Ryfylke Museum’s build<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

have put focus the need for <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

document<strong>in</strong>g and transmitt<strong>in</strong>g knowledge<br />

about wood and wood-burn<strong>in</strong>g. We are<br />

therefore work<strong>in</strong>g on a project that can<br />

allow us to work systematically <strong>with</strong> this<br />

concept.<br />

Communications <strong>in</strong> the Ryfylke district are<br />

<strong>in</strong> a process of radical change. After<br />

countless years of depend<strong>in</strong>g on ferry boats<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to cross its many fjords, the<br />

present-day construction of bridges and<br />

subsea tunnels will br<strong>in</strong>g immense changes<br />

to the means of travel, meet<strong>in</strong>g places and<br />

functions <strong>in</strong> many local communities.<br />

Ryfylke Museum hopes to carry out a<br />

project to document travel and the<br />

consequences that changes <strong>in</strong> the systems<br />

of travel will br<strong>in</strong>g about.<br />

The more cooks, the better <strong>in</strong>tegration. For the<br />

past ten years, Ryfylkemuseet has <strong>in</strong>vited<br />

people of vary<strong>in</strong>g religious and <strong>cultural</strong><br />

backgrounds to meet at the museum. Food has<br />

proved to be an excellent basis for build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

networks between people.<br />

.<br />

Side 15 av 25

The organization of work <strong>with</strong> the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> <strong>in</strong> Norway<br />

The convention on protection of the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>heritage</strong> was ratified by Norway<br />

on 1 January 2007. Traditional<br />

craftsmanship is def<strong>in</strong>ed as be<strong>in</strong>g a vital<br />

part of <strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>heritage</strong>. The<br />

convention’s radical perspective is that<br />

traditional craftsmen and the transmission<br />

process <strong>in</strong> itself are given priority ahead of<br />

the forms and products result<strong>in</strong>g from the<br />

work. This means that good conditions for<br />

the process of transmission must be<br />

assured. Action is more important than<br />

product, craftsmanship more important<br />

than the build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

It is the Arts Council Norway that has been<br />

assigned responsibility on behalf of the<br />

M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture for implement<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

convention on protection of the <strong>in</strong>tangible<br />

<strong>heritage</strong> <strong>in</strong> Norway. The Arts Council is to<br />

evaluate the need for establish<strong>in</strong>g a digital<br />

base for <strong>in</strong>tangible culture <strong>in</strong> relation to<br />

already exist<strong>in</strong>g registries, to develop<br />

procedures for nom<strong>in</strong>ation to <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

registries and to arrange courses and<br />

conferences so as to reach all those who<br />

might have <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> the topic.<br />

On a national level the Registry of Crafts<br />

was already established at Maihaugen <strong>in</strong><br />

Lillehammer <strong>in</strong> 1987. This was to be part<br />

of the work of protect<strong>in</strong>g traditional crafts<br />

and knowledge that was about to<br />

disappear. An important part of the work<br />

was to be a nation-wide register of<br />

craftsmen. The grounds for do<strong>in</strong>g this was<br />

that the competence held by one person<br />

could be spread out to a larger district. The<br />

Registry of Crafts later changed its name to<br />

the Norwegian Handicraft Development<br />

<strong>with</strong> the additional title Center for<br />

Intangible Cultural Heritage. The Center<br />

has been assigned responsibility for<br />

implement<strong>in</strong>g UNESCO’s Convention of<br />

17 October 2003 concern<strong>in</strong>g Protection of<br />

Intangible Cultural Heritage <strong>with</strong> emphasis<br />

on craftsmanship.<br />

<strong>Methods</strong> used <strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> the<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong><br />

Serbia and Norway have both ratified<br />

UNESCO’s convention on the <strong>in</strong>tangible<br />

<strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> and we have seen that the<br />

organization of the work is conducted<br />

along fairly similar l<strong>in</strong>es. Numerous<br />

museums <strong>in</strong> both Serbia and Norway have<br />

responded to the challenges. Some had<br />

identified the <strong>in</strong>tangible segment of culture<br />

as be<strong>in</strong>g an accepted field of work before<br />

UNESCO formulated it as a theme, while<br />

others have strengthened their efforts after<br />

the convention was ratified.<br />

There appear to be three ma<strong>in</strong> aspects that<br />

are essential to success:<br />

The first is to identify, establish<br />

relations <strong>with</strong> and encourage<br />

<strong>in</strong>volvement among the bearers of<br />

tradition <strong>in</strong> those themes that are<br />

found important to beg<strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>with</strong>.<br />

The second is to document their<br />

actions.<br />

The third is to transmit the<br />

traditions to younger practitioners.<br />

This is the most difficult aspect of<br />

the job.<br />

The challenge ly<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the first aspect is<br />

that one often becomes aware that a<br />

tradition, a skill or a craft is <strong>in</strong> danger of<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g lost only when the last practitioners<br />

are becom<strong>in</strong>g really old. If this then also<br />

<strong>in</strong>volves a tradition that has not been<br />

Side 16 av 25

actively practiced for a period, and whose<br />

tools and equipment have not been cared<br />

for, the chances for any authentic recovery<br />

or resumption of the tradition can be<br />

reduced.<br />

In Sirogojno, however, they are so close <strong>in</strong><br />

time to the tradition that it appears to have<br />

been easier to communicate <strong>with</strong> tradition<br />

bearers who can transmit their skills to<br />

both museum professionals and museum<br />

visitors. The challenge faced there is that<br />

many of these practitioners are grow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

old and it may prove difficult <strong>in</strong> the future<br />

to f<strong>in</strong>d younger ones who have these<br />

specific skills as a liv<strong>in</strong>g tradition.<br />

Mirka Kovčica Rožanstvo is one of the older<br />

tradition bearers <strong>with</strong> whom Staro Selo has<br />

collaborated. Here he shows how to make<br />

barrel hoops.<br />

Experience shows, however, that most<br />

tradition bearers take great pleasure <strong>in</strong><br />

transmitt<strong>in</strong>g their skills to others. Sourcecritical<br />

problems can arise concern<strong>in</strong>g<br />

questions about the status of the<br />

practitioners of a skill one has made<br />

contact <strong>with</strong> and whether that which is<br />

transmitted consists of primary or<br />

secondary knowledge. But this should not<br />

be more difficult to deal <strong>with</strong> than is the<br />

case <strong>in</strong> other fields of <strong>cultural</strong>-historical<br />

research.<br />

Documentation of the actions is done <strong>with</strong><br />

the use of various techniques: observ<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and not<strong>in</strong>g down what is observed,<br />

<strong>in</strong>terview<strong>in</strong>g, shoot<strong>in</strong>g photographs and<br />

films, register<strong>in</strong>g tools, equipment and<br />

even work spaces. Obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g suitable<br />

technical equipment for carry<strong>in</strong>g out<br />

documentation is not difficult. What is<br />

difficult, however, is acquir<strong>in</strong>g enough<br />

competence <strong>in</strong> the use of such technical<br />

equipment. Satisfactory use of<br />

photographic equipment seems especially<br />

demand<strong>in</strong>g of a standard of technical<br />

competence that most museum<br />

professional cannot reach. On the other<br />

hand, there are not many professional<br />

photographers who have competence <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>cultural</strong>-historical documentation.<br />

Successful documentary work should thus<br />

ideally be based on good and confident<br />

cooperation between documenter and<br />

photographer.<br />

The best documentation cannot however<br />

replace the practitioner of skill who<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s this skill as a liv<strong>in</strong>g tradition.<br />

Action-borne skills are embodied<br />

knowledge that not only deals <strong>with</strong><br />

know<strong>in</strong>g, but also <strong>with</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g, as shown<br />

above by Jon Bojer Godal. If we are unable<br />

to f<strong>in</strong>d younger people who can acquire<br />

this knowledge, the skill will die out. It<br />

will be extremely difficult to revive a skill<br />

on the basis of documentation and<br />

preserved tools and equipment if one has<br />

Side 17 av 25

not been able to learn the skill by<br />

practic<strong>in</strong>g it together <strong>with</strong> someone who<br />

can do it.<br />

At Ryfylke Museum we have made great<br />

efforts to build a network of people<br />

<strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> our work of collect<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

document<strong>in</strong>g and transmitt<strong>in</strong>g traditional<br />

crafts. We have experienced, however, that<br />

it can be difficult to br<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> people who<br />

are do<strong>in</strong>g active work <strong>in</strong> the field.<br />

Participation <strong>in</strong> a project for transmitt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

action-borne knowledge is time-consum<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and when the activities are not part of a<br />

process that has direct benefit for one’s<br />

daily work, it can be difficult to give<br />

priority to participation.<br />

It is easier to manage transmission of<br />

traditional music and dance. These are<br />

leisure-time activities for most<br />

practitioners and great <strong>in</strong>terest exists <strong>in</strong><br />

Norway for acquir<strong>in</strong>g competence <strong>in</strong> both<br />

music and dance, even among the very<br />

young.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Work <strong>with</strong> immaterial culture at the two<br />

museums and the result<strong>in</strong>g cooperation<br />

between them has had several positive<br />

results:<br />

Important sectors of the life style<br />

experienced <strong>in</strong> and between the<br />

build<strong>in</strong>gs have been documented and<br />

transmitted.<br />

An awareness of the fact that museum<br />

work also concerns immaterial culture<br />

has been re<strong>in</strong>forced.<br />

Presentation of and tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> traditions<br />

and customs has <strong>in</strong>creased the general<br />

public’s <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> the museums.<br />

We must admit, however, that work <strong>with</strong><br />

immaterial culture can result <strong>in</strong> new<br />

challenges. On the one hand, it can prove<br />

difficult to f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong>formants who have<br />

sufficient knowledge about the issues on<br />

which the museum wishes to work, while<br />

also hav<strong>in</strong>g the ability and the desire to<br />

transmit their expertise. On the other hand,<br />

it can also be difficult to recruit younger<br />

participants who are motivated enough to<br />

acquire traditional knowledge.<br />

One important factor for success is quite<br />

probably that of establish<strong>in</strong>g a social<br />

sett<strong>in</strong>g around the transmission of<br />

tradition. Participation must be seen as<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g attractive. Everyone must get<br />

someth<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> return for their participation,<br />

both <strong>in</strong> the form of knowledge and of<br />

comradeship. There are several ways to<br />

accomplish this. Breaks <strong>in</strong> work, food and<br />

coffee can provide the extra values that<br />

make participation attractive.<br />

Accommodation can also do that. Or the<br />

event itself can not only <strong>in</strong>spire a desire to<br />

participate, but can also create so much<br />

attention that this emphasizes the<br />

importance of what is be<strong>in</strong>g done.<br />

The most important conclusion is,<br />

however, that work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> handicrafts<br />

and home crafts, customs, food, music and<br />

dance must become just as important a part<br />

of museum work as preserv<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

tools and <strong>in</strong>teriors.<br />

This belief arose <strong>in</strong> Sirogojno as a natural<br />

consequence of their work <strong>in</strong> establish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the open-air museum. At Ryfylke, we<br />

consider skills <strong>in</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g handicrafts, us<strong>in</strong>g<br />

tools and understand<strong>in</strong>g materials to be an<br />

<strong>in</strong>tegral part of build<strong>in</strong>g conservation.<br />

Side 18 av 25

Both of the museums <strong>in</strong> question have<br />

given high priority to this work and can<br />

document excellent results. The fact still<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>s that there are enormous tasks still<br />

left undone, at the same time that a feel<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of too little time for accomplish<strong>in</strong>g this is<br />

apparent. Societal changes dur<strong>in</strong>g the last<br />

few generations have happened so quickly<br />

that traditions will disappear if noth<strong>in</strong>g is<br />

done to document and transmit them.<br />

There is a great need for museums to<br />

concentrate on tasks l<strong>in</strong>ked to life as it is<br />

lived.<br />

music. Discussions have already started<br />

about whether exchange visits can be made<br />

<strong>in</strong> connection <strong>with</strong> events and programs at<br />

the respective museums.<br />

There is also a possibility that the<br />

museums will benefit from carry<strong>in</strong>g out<br />

mutual documentation projects. Heat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>with</strong> an open fire may prove to be an<br />

acceptably limited project. The museums’<br />

approaches appear to be comparable, while<br />

the project itself has limited scope and will<br />

most probably br<strong>in</strong>g practical results.<br />

Future cooperation will be discussed <strong>in</strong><br />

connection <strong>with</strong> the <strong>in</strong>stitutions’ further<br />

plans of operation.<br />

Coffee cooked over an open fire adds to the<br />

appeal of work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a cold, w<strong>in</strong>tery forest.<br />

Cont<strong>in</strong>uation<br />

Some staff members at the two museums,<br />

and also some at CIK, have met <strong>with</strong> each<br />

other four times. This has allowed them to<br />

develop such positive personal bonds that<br />

there is def<strong>in</strong>ite belief <strong>in</strong> the benefits<br />

aris<strong>in</strong>g from their cooperative efforts.<br />

These cooperative efforts are also marked<br />

by mutual professional respect and<br />

pleasant get-togethers.<br />

Both Ryfylke museum and the Staro Selo<br />

museum see that their mutual <strong>in</strong>terests will<br />

make a further development of their<br />

cooperation even more mean<strong>in</strong>gful. The<br />

most obvious po<strong>in</strong>t of contact lies <strong>in</strong><br />

Side 19 av 25

Attachment<br />

Application of the Results Obta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong><br />

Research on the Old Crafts and<br />

Occupations<br />

Snezana Tomic-Joković, Ethnologist,<br />

Museum Consultant, Open-air Museum<br />

“Old Village”, Sirogojno<br />

Snezana Tomic-Joković, museum consultant,<br />

ethnologist, graduated from the Department of<br />

Ethnology and Anthropology, University of<br />

Belgrade. S<strong>in</strong>ce 1992, she has been employed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Open-air museum “Old Village” <strong>in</strong> Sirogojno. She<br />

studies the field of tangible and <strong>in</strong>tangible culture <strong>in</strong><br />

Zlatibor District and publishes research results <strong>in</strong><br />

professional and scientific articles and publications.<br />

She is the author of numerous ethnographic<br />

exhibitions, manager of projects, participant <strong>in</strong> the<br />

organization of professional and scientific<br />

conferences devoted to the protection of <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong>, participant at symposia and conferences.<br />

She is the associate of the Centre for the Protection<br />

of Intangible Cultural Heritage, and coord<strong>in</strong>ates its<br />

work <strong>in</strong> the region of Western Serbia.<br />

Abstract: This paper is go<strong>in</strong>g to discuss<br />

how the material on old trades and<br />

occupations obta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> the field research<br />

could be applied, i.e. returned to the<br />

studied community or an <strong>in</strong>dividual, as<br />

well as the experience ga<strong>in</strong>ed dur<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

research, and how they could improve the<br />

core activity <strong>in</strong> the Open-air museum “Old<br />

Village” <strong>in</strong> Sirogojno.<br />

Keywords: field research, traditional crafts<br />

and occupations, applied ethnology/<br />

anthropology, <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong>, susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development.<br />

Introduction<br />

In l<strong>in</strong>e <strong>with</strong> the activities of European (and<br />

out of Europe) Skansen museums that have<br />

shown a substantial commitment to the<br />

preservation of crafts 6 throughout their<br />

history, the Open-air museum, “Old<br />

Village” <strong>in</strong> Sirogojno pays great attention<br />

to protection of traditional crafts and<br />

6 Krstović, N. (2012): Zanati: gde posle muzeja?,<br />

<strong>in</strong>: Glasnik Etnografskog <strong>in</strong>stituta SANU LX (1),<br />

Beograd, 79-92<br />

occupations of Užice region, as one of the<br />

segments <strong>in</strong> the protection of <strong>cultural</strong><br />

<strong>heritage</strong>. It is implemented through a<br />

variety of activities: field studies and<br />

record<strong>in</strong>g the current state of crafts <strong>in</strong> the<br />

field, document<strong>in</strong>g material, form<strong>in</strong>g<br />

collections of the crafts’ objects and their<br />

expert analysis, their presentation and<br />

publication, then, mak<strong>in</strong>g video record<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

of the craft techniques, presentation of<br />

traditional craft techniques <strong>in</strong> the<br />

workshops of the Museum, organiz<strong>in</strong>g<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> performance of the traditional<br />

crafts, regular cooperation <strong>with</strong> the artisans<br />

<strong>in</strong> the field, where advice on how to<br />

improve product quality and market<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

craft products <strong>in</strong> the Museum store is<br />

given, as well as expand<strong>in</strong>g the range of<br />

their products through the production of<br />

copies of museum pieces, various types of<br />

everyday objects, offer<strong>in</strong>g traditional<br />

gastronomic specialties <strong>in</strong> the museum's<br />

“Tavern” and through media promotion.<br />

The tendency of the Museum is to keep the<br />

handicraft production from disappearance,<br />

but also from excessive commercialization,<br />

to preserve the form and structure of craft<br />

production <strong>in</strong> the community that needs to<br />

be developed through these activities, to<br />

adapt certa<strong>in</strong> products to modern needs of<br />

society, to identify vulnerable values and<br />

f<strong>in</strong>d ways to susta<strong>in</strong>.<br />

This paper will discuss application of<br />

results of the years of field research on old<br />

trades and occupations that were conducted<br />

<strong>in</strong> the period from 1992 to date.<br />

Field research<br />

In cognitive practices, on this topic, <strong>in</strong><br />

addition to the use of relevant literature<br />

which mostly dates from the first half of<br />

the XX century, field studies are of great<br />

significance.<br />

Fieldwork of the Open-air museum “Old<br />

Village” experts, <strong>in</strong> the period from 1992<br />

until now, proceeded sporadically <strong>in</strong> some<br />

areas of the municipalities of Čajet<strong>in</strong>a,<br />

Arilje, Baj<strong>in</strong>a Bašta, Nova Varoš and<br />

Side 20 av 25

Užice, and systematically dur<strong>in</strong>g the year<br />

2011 <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> the research project Record<strong>in</strong>g<br />

artisans and traditional craft skills and<br />

knowledge <strong>in</strong> the municipality of Čajet<strong>in</strong>a<br />

and mak<strong>in</strong>g proposals for the National<br />

Register of Intangible Cultural Heritage,<br />

whose goal is highlighted <strong>in</strong> the title of this<br />

project.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g field research, the techniques of<br />

surveys and <strong>in</strong>terviews <strong>with</strong> artisans were<br />

used and, when possible, <strong>with</strong> some of the<br />

family members. The process of mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

craft products was monitored at all stages -<br />

from preparation of materials, followed by<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g an object, to its sale. The process<br />

has been documented by photo material<br />

and audio-visual record<strong>in</strong>gs. Attention was<br />

paid to the economic aspect of a trade as<br />

well as of social status of craftsmen. But<br />

first, one should be acqua<strong>in</strong>ted <strong>with</strong> the<br />

relevant literature on a given topic.<br />

The importance of trades, as the most<br />

important part of a town's economy and<br />

culture, and guilds as old <strong>heritage</strong> of social<br />

organization and basis of social<br />

relationships <strong>in</strong> a town, was emphasized by<br />

Tihomir Đordjević as early as the<br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of XX century when he<br />

published Instructions 7 for collection of<br />

material about crafts and guilds <strong>in</strong> Serbian<br />

lands 8 .<br />

Although there appeared valuable works<br />

on crafts <strong>with</strong> an accent on changes and<br />

deterioration of trades related to the<br />

territory of Serbia 9 , there were no <strong>report</strong>s<br />

or guidel<strong>in</strong>es on test<strong>in</strong>g traditional crafts<br />

until 1990 when, <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> the UNESCO<br />

programme World Decade for Cultural<br />

7 Đorđević, T. (1913): Uputstvo za prikupljanje<br />

gradiva o zanatima i esnafima u srpskim zemljama,<br />

Beograd, Srpska kraljevska akademija, p. 1-80<br />

8 Đorđević, T. (1925): Arhivska građa za zanate i<br />

esnafe u Srbiji od drugog ustanka do esnafske<br />

uredbe 1847, Srpski etnografski zbornik, HHHIII,<br />

Beograd.<br />

9 Savić, M. M. (1954): Naša <strong>in</strong>dustrija i zanati,<br />

Sarajevo; Vučo, N. (1954): Raspadanje esnafa u<br />

Srbiji, knjiga prva, Beograd; Vučo, N. (1958):<br />

Raspadanje esnafa u Srbiji, knjiga druga, Beograd<br />

Development, a ten-year action plan for the<br />

development and revitalization of trades<br />

was given. A methodological booklet was<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ted <strong>in</strong> collaboration <strong>with</strong> the United<br />

Nations Development Programme (PNUD)<br />

and the Institute of African Culture (ICA).<br />

It conta<strong>in</strong>s a number of practical advice for<br />

collect<strong>in</strong>g items and the survey used to<br />

exam<strong>in</strong>e development of handicraft<br />

products and their sale 10 .<br />

Regard<strong>in</strong>g the current attitudes about the<br />

field research Zorica Ivanović po<strong>in</strong>ts out<br />

that each fieldwork means direct contact<br />

<strong>with</strong> those under the study. The<br />

construction of anthropological knowledge<br />

and authority should be observed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

context of broader social and symbolic<br />

sphere <strong>in</strong> which anthropology operates and<br />

that is a constitutive element of its<br />

discourse 11 . In this way we are look<strong>in</strong>g at<br />

problems of “locality” and issues relat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to belong<strong>in</strong>g to a group, community,<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>uity and group identity.<br />

“Ethnographic fieldwork, research practice<br />

based on direct and long-last<strong>in</strong>g social<br />

contact between the researchers and the<br />

researched (observation <strong>with</strong><br />

participation), which resulted <strong>in</strong> written<br />

ethnographies, has traditionally been<br />

regarded as not only one of the basic<br />

methodological values, but a dist<strong>in</strong>ctive<br />

feature of anthropology based on which,<br />

the difference <strong>in</strong> relation to other social<br />

sciences and humanities is constructed. So,<br />

it is a method that borders its discipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

field and marks the boundaries of the<br />

discipl<strong>in</strong>e itself, these limits or the content<br />

<strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> them are impossible to review<br />

<strong>with</strong>out reth<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g the very idea of “field”<br />

and “field work” 12 .<br />

10 Kovač, S. (1995): Tradicionalni zanati u Srbiji u<br />

svremeno doba, <strong>in</strong>: Etnoantropolški problemi, sv.<br />

10, Beograd, str. 83-93<br />

11<br />

Ivanović, Z. (2005): Teren antropologije i<br />

terensko istraživanje pre i posle kritike<br />

reprezentacije, <strong>in</strong>: Etnologija i antropologija: stanje<br />

i perspektive, ur. D.Radojičić, LJ.Gavrilović,<br />

Beograd, Etnografski <strong>in</strong>stitut SANU, str. 123-141<br />

12 The same, p. 123-141, 126<br />

Side 21 av 25

One of the results of field research on the<br />

old crafts is a publication Liv<strong>in</strong>g rural<br />

trades <strong>in</strong> Užice region and their protection<br />

<strong>in</strong> the examples of pottery, coppersmith’s<br />

and blacksmith's crafts. Its aim is to<br />

highlight the importance of the pottery,<br />

cooper and blacksmith<strong>in</strong>g crafts have had<br />

for the environment <strong>in</strong> which they evolved,<br />

to describe their history, traditional<br />

techniques of products mak<strong>in</strong>g, materials<br />

and tools used <strong>in</strong> production, changes <strong>in</strong><br />

production methods conditioned by<br />

modern way of life, to highlight the<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>uity of trade existence, their<br />

protection and relevance they have today<br />

<strong>in</strong> the development of family and local<br />

community 13 , and smaller publications like<br />

Užice meat process<strong>in</strong>g products, Bas<strong>in</strong><br />

makers from the village of Pilica, Mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Flutes and Double Flutes <strong>in</strong> Užice<br />

Region 14 . Publish<strong>in</strong>g of systematized field<br />

material is planned to be cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>in</strong> the<br />

next period.<br />

“It is particularly <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g to discuss<br />

contribution of ethnologists <strong>in</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

traditions of society <strong>in</strong> which they live,<br />

which is especially evident <strong>in</strong> the work of<br />

ethno-parks and museums. It is quite<br />

expected that members of a society<br />

experience their collective identity <strong>in</strong> the<br />

essential and static way, but an ethnologist<br />

should not share such attitudes of other<br />

members of the community; <strong>in</strong>stead he<br />

should approach identity (primarily<br />

national and ethnic) as a rational and<br />

dynamic phenomenon“. 15<br />

13 Tomić-Joković, S. i Toskić, J. (2010): Živi seoski<br />

zanati u Užičkom kraju i njihova zaštita na primeru<br />

grnčarskog, kačarskog i kovačkog zanata, Muzej na<br />

otvorenom ,,Staro selo” Sirogojno, Sirogojno<br />

14 Tomić-Joković, S. (2012): Užički suvomesnati<br />

proizvodi, Muzeja na otvorenom ,,Staro selo”<br />

Sirogojno; Toskić, J. (2012): Čančari iz sela Pilica,<br />

Muzeja na otvorenom ,,Staro selo” Sirogojno;<br />

Cicvarić, D. (2012): Izrada svirala i dvojnica u<br />

užičkom kraju, Muzej na otvorenom ,,Staro selo”<br />

Sirogojno.<br />

15 Ribić, V. (2005): Osnove nastave iz predmeta<br />

Primenjena etnologija: perspektive razvoja, <strong>in</strong>:<br />

Etnologija i antropologija: stanje i perspektive; ur.<br />

Application of research results<br />

Field work collected <strong>in</strong>formation about the<br />

real way of life and <strong>cultural</strong> models as we<br />

see them. “The task of anthropologists is to<br />

help people transform their awareness of<br />

social needs <strong>in</strong>to social action ... This<br />

means that the purpose of research is<br />

address<strong>in</strong>g real life problems of the studied<br />

population 16 ”. Systematization and<br />

process<strong>in</strong>g of field material provide a total<br />

of qualitative and quantitative data that do<br />

not stay trapped <strong>in</strong> documentary funds and<br />

depots, but are still used <strong>in</strong> implementation<br />

of various actions <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> the museum<br />

activity: permanent and thematic<br />

exhibitions, trade shows, educational<br />

programs, presentations.<br />

The permanent exhibition of the Museum<br />

<strong>in</strong>cludes three craft workshops: pottery,<br />

coppersmith’s and blacksmith’s. Beside<br />

displayed tools and craft products, quite<br />

significant is the narrative of craftsmen,<br />

artisans who were the owners of these<br />

workshops, as well as their engagement <strong>in</strong><br />

practical presentations of traditional craft<br />

skills 17 . Although “the activities were<br />

called crafts demonstrations and their<br />

<strong>in</strong>troduction to visitors through the<br />

museum obsolete measures of (folk)<br />

architecture facilities rehabilitation<br />

represented unsuccessful attempt of<br />

museum documentation resuscitation” 18 ,<br />

Dragana Radojičić, Ljiljana Gavrilović, Beograd:<br />

Etnografski <strong>in</strong>stitut SANU, str. 253-261<br />

16 Ribić, V. (2007): Primenjena antrolpologija:<br />

razvoj primenjenih antropoloških istraživanja u<br />

Velikoj Britaniji i Sjed<strong>in</strong>jenim Američkim<br />

Državama, Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar:<br />

Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog<br />

fakulteta u Beogradu, str. 104.<br />

17 Toskić, J. (2011): Lončarska radionica, Muzej<br />

na otvorenom ,,Staro selo” Sirogojno, Sirogojno;<br />

Tomić-Joković, S. (2011): Kačarska radionica,<br />

Muzej na otvorenom ,,Staro selo” Sirogojno,<br />

Sirogojno; Tomić-Joković, S. (2011): Kovačka<br />

radionica, Muzej na otvorenom ,,Staro selo”<br />

Sirogojno, Sirogojno.<br />

18 Krstović, N. (2012): Zanati: gde posle muzeja?<br />

<strong>in</strong>: Glasnik Etnografskog <strong>in</strong>stituta SANU LX(1), p.<br />

79-92.<br />

Side 22 av 25

they are nonetheless important <strong>in</strong><br />

present<strong>in</strong>g the craft, especially as this is<br />

about “live” crafts and artisans who are<br />

actively engaged <strong>in</strong> trade. In addition to<br />

craftsmen, dur<strong>in</strong>g the period of <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

number of visits to the Museum, a basket<br />

maker and some weavers were engaged <strong>in</strong><br />

workshops. For the next period, it is<br />

planned that all <strong>in</strong>volved artists achieve<br />

effective work and get the opportunity to<br />

sell their goods directly to the visitors.<br />

Economically, it would completely justify<br />

their <strong>in</strong>volvement <strong>in</strong> the Museum.<br />

Speak<strong>in</strong>g about the use of knowledge<br />

anthropologists obta<strong>in</strong>, “Gerald Bereman<br />

<strong>in</strong>sists that it is impossible to collect data<br />

and analyze them <strong>with</strong>out th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about<br />

their use, as well as that an anthropologist<br />

cannot get rid of the consequences of his<br />

scientific activity. Because of the<br />

possibility that anthropologic knowledge<br />

could be used for purposes that are outside<br />

control of anthropologists and opposed to<br />

the values they represent, Bereman<br />

suggests: “We must try to apply our<br />

knowledge and skills to real problems that<br />

we have def<strong>in</strong>ed, <strong>in</strong>stead of simply<br />

accept<strong>in</strong>g them from sources that provide<br />

our funds. We need to ask questions that<br />

po<strong>in</strong>t to the problems of our time, and not<br />

the ones that m<strong>in</strong>imize and obscure them<br />

...” 19 .<br />

In the preservation and revival of<br />

traditional crafts, <strong>in</strong> constant collaboration<br />

of the Museum experts <strong>with</strong> craftsmen<br />

from Užice region, production of some<br />

objects whose use is neglected by us<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustrial products (džban, br<strong>in</strong>e, photo<br />

frame and mirror, etc..) is resumed; the<br />

copies of museum exhibits are produced as<br />

well (d<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g tables, three-leg chair, cradle,<br />

woven bags, embroidered handkerchiefs,<br />

etc..). What makes these products valuable<br />

19 Ribić, V. (2007): Primenjena antrolpologija:<br />

razvoj primenjenih antropoloških istraživanja u<br />

Velikoj Britaniji i Sjed<strong>in</strong>jenim Američkim<br />

Državama, Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar:<br />

Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog<br />

fakulteta u Beogradu, str. 49.<br />

is the pursuit of artisans to be faithful to<br />

their orig<strong>in</strong>al objects <strong>in</strong> the material from<br />

which they are made, their form, but also<br />

<strong>in</strong> technology of their development; still <strong>in</strong><br />

creation of some objects, <strong>in</strong> addition to<br />

us<strong>in</strong>g manual, the mach<strong>in</strong>e process<strong>in</strong>g is<br />

also applied, which is adapted to modern<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions. The permanent sales<br />

exhibition of traditional craft products and<br />

herbal products typical of this area is<br />

organized <strong>in</strong> the Museum shop. This type<br />

of craft products’ exposure represents an<br />

important pathway by which historical<br />

knowledge is transmitted and has the same<br />

significance as other exhibitions <strong>in</strong> the<br />

museum activity, where the possibility of<br />

purchas<strong>in</strong>g becomes a new form of<br />

communication.<br />

Trade products whose use is applicable<br />

even <strong>in</strong> contemporary life were presented<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2005 at the exhibition The Products of<br />

Old Crafts, from Traditional to<br />

Contemporary <strong>in</strong> the Ethnographic<br />

Museum <strong>in</strong> Belgrade 20 , where exhibits<br />

were sold. These were the products that<br />

had already been offered <strong>in</strong> the Open-air<br />

Museum “Old Village” shop, but on this<br />

occasion, <strong>in</strong> collaboration <strong>with</strong> artisans,<br />

copies of the <strong>in</strong>terior objects were made<br />

(bed, chest of clothes, table, chairs,<br />

“stolovača” cab<strong>in</strong>et, shelves, etc.). These<br />

products, made of natural materials, <strong>in</strong> the<br />

time of environmental trends, have special<br />

value. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the exhibition, a significant<br />

<strong>in</strong>terest for these products was shown<br />

through their purchases. It offers a real<br />

possibility that, through cont<strong>in</strong>uous sales,<br />

these products become available <strong>in</strong><br />

Belgrade.<br />

If we accept the statement of Vladimir<br />

Ribić that anthropology must, both <strong>in</strong><br />

theory and <strong>in</strong> practice, serve to the benefit<br />

of all people and the action anthropologists<br />

use cl<strong>in</strong>ical, i.e. experimental method,<br />

which means not only to stick to<br />

20 Tomić-Joković, S. (2005): Proizvodi starih<br />

zanata, od tradicionalnog ka savremenom,<br />

catalogue, Sirogojno.<br />

Side 23 av 25

observation, but try to <strong>in</strong>fluence reality 21 ,<br />

then real aspects should be used.<br />

Very important activities are educational<br />

programmes and creative workshops <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Museum complex. On two occasions, the<br />

Museum organized tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g of young<br />

people <strong>in</strong> perform<strong>in</strong>g crafts: the first <strong>in</strong><br />

1997, <strong>in</strong> collaboration <strong>with</strong> the Labour<br />

market, <strong>with</strong> the project that <strong>in</strong>cluded three<br />

trades: carpentry, basketware and<br />

coppersmith's, and the other <strong>in</strong> 2005, <strong>in</strong><br />

cooperation <strong>with</strong> the Local community<br />

Sirogojno and the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Agriculture,<br />

Forestry and Water Management, which<br />

covered four crafts: weav<strong>in</strong>g, tailor<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

blacksmith’s and basketware 22 . The<br />

workshops <strong>in</strong>cluded local residents as<br />

carriers and transmitters of knowledge and<br />

skills, as well as the participants<br />

themselves 23 . Unfortunately, <strong>in</strong> both cases,<br />

the desired result was not achieved, and<br />

that was to get as many young unemployed<br />

people from Zlatibor villages qualified for<br />

deal<strong>in</strong>g <strong>with</strong> some of these crafts. This was<br />

an attempt to <strong>in</strong>fluence the current issue of<br />

depopulation and unemployment.<br />

However, there were very successful<br />

thematic workshops <strong>with</strong> students of the<br />

Faculty of Applied Arts, who applied their<br />

practical knowledge ga<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

workshops: Process<strong>in</strong>g wool <strong>in</strong> a<br />

traditional manner, hemp process<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a<br />

traditional way, Old techniques of weav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

on a horizontal loom, Old techniques of<br />

21 Ribić, V. (2007): Primenjena antropologija:<br />

razvoj primenjenih antropoloških istraživanja u<br />

Velikoj Britaniji i Sjed<strong>in</strong>jenim Američkim<br />

Državama, Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar:<br />

Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog<br />

fakulteta u Beogradu, str. 98<br />

22 Stari zanati i zanimanja: obuka u radionima<br />

Muzeja na otvorenom ,,Staro selo“ u Sirogojnu,<br />

Sirogojno: Muzej na otvorenom ,,Staro selo“, 2005.<br />

23 Tomić-Joković, S. (2011): Edukativne radionice<br />

u oblasti nematerijalnog kulturnog nasleđa, <strong>in</strong>:<br />

Nematerijalno kulturno nasleđe, ur. Dušica<br />

Živković, Beograd: M<strong>in</strong>istarstvo kulture<br />

<strong>in</strong>formisanja i <strong>in</strong>formacionog društva: Centar za<br />

zaštitu nematerijalnog kulturnog nasleđa pri<br />

Etnografskom muzeju u Beogradu, str. 80-87<br />

weav<strong>in</strong>g on a vertical loom, <strong>in</strong> their further<br />

practical work 24 .<br />

Promotion of <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong> is a key<br />

aspect <strong>in</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>cultural</strong> life. A very<br />

important programme was launched at the<br />

Museum <strong>in</strong> 2011. It is The Fair of<br />

Traditional Crafts and Occupations, whose<br />

organization is contribut<strong>in</strong>g to the<br />

preservation, popularization and evaluation<br />

of craft skills, <strong>cultural</strong> identity and<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible <strong>cultural</strong> <strong>heritage</strong>, promotion of<br />

the craft activity status and attract<strong>in</strong>g<br />

young people to trades 25 . The tendency of<br />

the Museum is to preserve the handicraft<br />

production from disappear<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

excessive commercialization, to preserve<br />

forms and structures of handicrafts <strong>in</strong> the<br />

local community that needs to be<br />

developed through this activity, to adapt<br />

certa<strong>in</strong> products to modern needs of<br />

society, to identify the endangered values<br />

and f<strong>in</strong>d ways to susta<strong>in</strong> 26 .<br />

The Fair of Traditional Crafts and<br />

Occupations is an ethnographic exhibition<br />

that presents everyday life, the liv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

legacy of craftsmanship. This is an<br />

exhibition of objects belong<strong>in</strong>g to the past,<br />

but that are currently be<strong>in</strong>g made, because<br />

there is a real need for their use. Some<br />

artisans create items <strong>in</strong> the presence of<br />

visitors. Artisanal product ga<strong>in</strong>s its value<br />

from its creator at the time and place of its<br />

creation, <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> the <strong>cultural</strong> context.<br />

Everyth<strong>in</strong>g that is happen<strong>in</strong>g here and now<br />

is be<strong>in</strong>g noted.<br />

The programme Fair of Traditional Crafts<br />

and Occupations gives the possibility that<br />

“an object of culture is someth<strong>in</strong>g one can<br />

feel, smell and use <strong>in</strong> a variety of ways...<br />

24 Tomić-Joković, S. (2008): Uloga Muzeja na<br />

otvorenom ,,Staro selo” u Sirogojnu u očuvanju i<br />

oživljavanju starih zanata i zanimanja, <strong>in</strong>: Muzeji,<br />

ur. Ljiljana Gavrilović, Beograd: Muzejsko društvo<br />

Srbije, str. 95-101<br />

25 Vašar starih zanata i zanimanja 1,2, Sirogojno:<br />

Muzej na otvorenom ,,Staro selo” Sirogojno, 2011/<br />

2012.<br />

26 Drugi vašar starih zanata, Sirogojno: Muzej na<br />

otvorenom ,,Staro selo” Sirogojno, 2012.<br />

Side 24 av 25

Involvement of other senses <strong>in</strong> the museum<br />

exhibitions, smell and hear<strong>in</strong>g primarily,<br />

would provide beside spiritual, a physical<br />

acceptance of <strong>in</strong>formation on the observed<br />

/ presented culture ...” 27 Artisans are actors<br />

accessible to the public, one can have a<br />

dialogue <strong>with</strong> them on everyday life.<br />

Handicraft products represent <strong>in</strong>dividual<br />

creativity <strong>with</strong> local and regional<br />

characteristics. Hand-made products versus<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustrial production convey stories and<br />

messages <strong>in</strong> which we look for alternatives<br />

to the modern way of life <strong>in</strong> the future.<br />

This program is important because it<br />

represents a k<strong>in</strong>d of museum<br />

communication - direct communication of<br />

visitors <strong>with</strong> artisans and the opportunity to<br />

watch and participate <strong>in</strong> the process of<br />

mak<strong>in</strong>g a product. The support programs of<br />

the Fair show the use values of craft<br />

products: cook<strong>in</strong>g (beans, cabbage, pie,<br />

strudel pie, buckwheat flour pie, etc.) <strong>in</strong><br />

ceramic pottery of the village of Zlakusa<br />

prepared on fireplace <strong>in</strong> the permanent<br />

exhibition of the Museum, prepar<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

tast<strong>in</strong>g polenta, mak<strong>in</strong>g traditional plum<br />

cakes, tast<strong>in</strong>g dairy (cheese, cream) and<br />

vegetable dishes (preserves, jam, brandy)<br />

and dried meat products (prosciutto,<br />

sausage, bacon).<br />

The educational aspect of the Fair is<br />

reflected <strong>in</strong> the organization of workshops<br />

for visitors: Learn to knit, Decorat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

garments of wool conducted by knitters<br />

from Sirogojno.<br />

Organiz<strong>in</strong>g the event offers visitors the<br />

experience of the space <strong>in</strong> which they are<br />

located, participat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the amenities and<br />

activities, learn<strong>in</strong>g and understand<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

life <strong>in</strong> the local community and eventually<br />

they take memories about their<br />

experiences. Presentation of <strong>heritage</strong><br />

through events and support<strong>in</strong>g contents<br />

contribute to the creation of extra value of<br />

<strong>cultural</strong> sites and <strong>in</strong>creases number of<br />

visits to the Museum.<br />

Conclusion<br />

People create their <strong>cultural</strong> tradition,<br />

cherish and pass it <strong>in</strong> succession. It is up to<br />

us to preserve and cherish traditional crafts<br />

and their techniques; we will succeed <strong>in</strong> it<br />

if we recognize them as an asset and as an<br />

important part of the environment <strong>in</strong> which<br />

they act, if we consider the possibilities of<br />

their susta<strong>in</strong>ability, if we f<strong>in</strong>d ways to<br />

improve the skills, if we promote them.<br />

Crafts and craft skills make regional<br />

cultures dist<strong>in</strong>ctive and they can enrich the<br />

tourist offer of the region. Preserv<strong>in</strong>g crafts<br />

should become ambition of the entire<br />

society <strong>in</strong> accordance <strong>with</strong> their needs.<br />

Contribution to their conservation could be<br />

provided particularly by <strong>in</strong>dividuals as<br />

bearers of knowledge, <strong>in</strong>stitutions of<br />

different professional orientation, local<br />

governments, public authorities,<br />

legislation, etc.. The task of a museum is to<br />

engage tradition <strong>in</strong> various forms of<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able development.<br />

“Self-def<strong>in</strong>ition of museum practice as<br />

applied ethnology / anthropology, which <strong>in</strong><br />

recent years more and more often appears<br />

<strong>in</strong> our literature, should mean that the<br />

knowledge created <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> ethnology /<br />

anthropology as “pure” science and,<br />

thereafter, applied <strong>in</strong> museological<br />

practice, produces visible short or longterm<br />

effects on social reality <strong>with</strong><strong>in</strong> which<br />

it is applied, or that it directly or <strong>in</strong>directly<br />

affects the ma<strong>in</strong>tenance or change <strong>in</strong><br />

everyday behaviour and/or thought<br />

patterns of people <strong>in</strong> the society <strong>in</strong> which a<br />

museum operates” 28 .<br />

27 Gavrilović, LJ. (2007): Kultura u izlogu: ka<br />

novoj muzeologiji, ur. Dragana Radojičić, Beograd:<br />

Etnografski <strong>in</strong>stitut SANU, p. 57<br />

28 The same, p. 95<br />

Side 25 av 25

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