Escuela Taller Magazine - Issue 1

escuelataller

Escuela Taller Magazine is the official magazine of Escuela Taller de Filipinas Foundation Inc. (ETFFI).

Escuela Taller is a training center situated in Intramuros, the historical walled city of Manila, whose main objective is to equip the youth with knowledge and specialized skills to help them uplift their economic status while focusing on the preservation of heritage structures. Our trainees are the protectors of the Philippine built heritage.

NOV 2016 | ISSUE 1


Escuela Taller Magazine

Escuela Taller Magazine

Issue no. 1. November, 2016

ISNN: 2545-9058

Escuela Taller Magazine is edited and

published biannually by Escuela Taller

de Filipinas Foundation Inc.

Revellin de Recoletos

Victoria Street, Intramuros

Manila City 1002, Philippines

Phone: +63 (02) 527-6623

Telefax: +63 (02) 525-198

www.escuelataller.org.ph

e-mail: info@escuelataller.org.ph

Editorial coordination

Philip Paraan

Isabel Pérez Gálvez

Art Direction & Design

Sonia Vázquez

Translation & Copy editing

Maria Luisa P. Young

Contributors

Jeffrey D. Cobilla, Eileen Bondoc-

Escueta, Joaquín García Álvarez, Ivan

Anthony S. Henares, Juan Ramón

Jiménez Verdejo, Mary Irma D. Lara,

Miguel Lizana Barco, Noriko Takiyama.

Texts © their authors

Pictures © their authors

Illustrations © their authors

Disclaimer: The views and opinions

expressed in these articles are those

of the authors and do not necessarily

reflect the position of the Escuela

Taller de Filipinas Foundation Inc.

Heritage is Future

Our national hero claimed Ang hindi marunong lumiñgon sa

pinánggaliñgan ay hindi makaráratíng sa paroroonan (One

who does not know how to look back to one’s starting

point will not reach his destination).

Our tangible heritage is evidence of our collective memory.

The past shapes our identity as individuals and as a nation

and built heritage allows us to more fully visualize who we

were, who we are, and who we want to be. In preserving

these built records, we increase our understanding

of ourselves and our past, enabling us to realize what

distinguish us as Filipinos.

Escuela Taller was organized in 2009 as a project of the

Philippine and Spanish governments. In 2013, the project

became the Escuela Taller de Filipinas Foundation, Inc.

that means to be an independent and self-supporting

training institution. For more than seven (7) years now,

therefore, Escuela Taller has been playing a special role

in the conservation of Philippine tangible heritage. It

transforms out-of-school youth into heritage protectors

by endowing them with construction skills needed for the

proper conservation and restoration of our built heritage.

Following its special “learning by doing” methodology,

Escuela Taller trainees participate in restoration projects,

working on actual projects to hone their skills and become

true heritage protectors.

With this digital magazine, Escuela Taller hopes to

share its aspirations, challenges and successes with

our countrymen and with friends abroad. This is in the

hope that building owners and custodians, Escuela Taller

experts and trainees, and the general public, can all join

hands in converting idle and unskilled youth into more

productive members of society, in expanding opportunities

for income and employment, in strengthening the national

identity pride in being Filipino, and in so doing, contribute

significantly in building a more progressive Philippines.

Jaime C. Laya, Ph.D.

Chairman


Escuela Taller Magazine

ISSUE 1

Table

09 33 45

Protectors of Built Heritage

In Action

56 65 71

Technical Approach #HeritagePH ETFFI Guest Sa Kanto

of

contents


In 1964, the family of then future First Lady of the Philippines, Imelda Romualdez

Marcos, acquired what would be the Bataan Shipping and Engineering Company

(BASECO), which would ultimately give its name to its location. It was a shipping

company whose loading, unloading and fleet repair zones were situated in the

so-called Engineer’s Island, between the Pasig River and the South Port of Manila.

Some of their workers lived there with their families and it was also the usual

stop of fishermen coming from Bataan, en route to the fishing grounds of Cavite.

Protectors

of Built

Heritage

8 9


Protectors of Built Heritage

Protectors of Built Heritage

He was born in Zaragoza,

Spain, in 1970 and

studied Photography

at the Kensington and

Chelsea College in

London. Afterwards, he

devoted himself to travel

and make documentary

photography essays

in Latin America,

progressively combining

social documentary work

with a more intimate and

personal approach to

photography.

In 2010, he began working

for the Communications

Department of the

Spanish Agency

for International

Development Cooperation

MIGUEL LIZANA BARCO

(AECID) focusing on

social projects such as

the one shown on this

digital magazine.

He has published two

books: El tubo: historia

de un abandono y Vidas

y Tránsitos, and some of

his pictures have been

included in a variety of

books and catalogues of

International Cooperation

agencies (United Nations,

UNICEF, AECID, etc.).

He has also had solo and

group exhibitions.

Miguel Lizana/AECID.

In the 1980s, one of the most

significant migration flows from

the provinces to the city in the

country’s recent history took

place. Thousands of people

moved from the entire Philippine

countryside to the capital in

search of opportunities --those

which could not be found in the

country’s rural areas which were

still waiting for agrarian reform, and

were characterized by the lack of

infrastructure, basic services and

jobs. A lot of these migrants ended

up in BASECO, building their houses

along the muddy banks of the Pasig

River, where the hustle and bustle

of the port could offer them a few

pesos working as porters or doing

some other job.

People from other marginalized

areas of the metropolis also

arrived at BASECO, having had their

shanties demolished or destroyed

in a fire. There were also Filipino

Muslims and Christians fleeing

from the conflict in Mindanao,

relatives from Pampanga, Batanes

or Zamboanga following the suit

of their family members who

first settled there. They all came

with the usual problems which

accompany poverty in areas such

The preservation of their country’s

historical legacy is in their hands.

Despite coming from the peripheries,

they have become protectors of the

physical memory that is part of the

social identity to which they belong.

as this one -- forgotten, brutally

lacking in structure, and the seed

of the underclass: delinquency,

weapons, crime, drugs, organ

trafficking.

It was here where a lot of the

students of the Escuela Taller de

Filipinas Foundation, Inc. (ETTFI)

were born. Some of the stories of

of these men and women – those

of the latter being twice as hard -

are examples of each one of the

chapters of the consequences of

marginalization: abandonment,

mistreatment, addiction, rape, and

exploitation. Nevertheless, these

stories also serve as an example of

improvement, of the desire to move

forward and seek a better future.

Having the opportunity to study

and acquire some technical

skills – in this case, those related

to traditional techniques of

construction and methods of

restoration – allow these young

men and women to have a greater

access to the labor market and to

attain better living conditions for

themselves and their families. This

also leads to social participation,

interaction in the public sphere,

and recognition as skilled persons

with the power to decide and

exert a positive influence on their

surroundings.

Given this description, the Escuela

Taller de Filipinas would be just

another training center for young

men and women at risk of social

exclusion. However, that is not the

case. The students of the Escuela

Taller have as their classrooms the

adobe walls of a historical church

in Santa Ana, the choir seats made

of narra in the San Agustin Church,

a structure that is considered

a World Heritage site by the

UNESCO, or the most emblematic

fortification of Intramuros – Fort

Santiago. That was how it began

in Spain and is being continued in

other Escuela Taller centers in Latin

America.

The preservation of their country’s

historical legacy is in their

hands. Despite coming from the

peripheries, they have become

protectors of the physical memory

that is part of the social identity to

which they belong. This symbolism

is a fundamental pillar in the

empowerment of these girls and

boys who wake up between the

tarpaulins of a house without

running water, and who end

their days painting the ceiling of

the house of the heroes of the

1896 revolution. As participants,

they become visible and redeem

themselves.

These are the trainees of the

Escuela Taller de Filipinas,

the protectors of the tangible

Philippine legacy.

10 11


Protectors of Built Heritage

Protectors of Built Heritage

JORDANIEL BACHICHA on the streets of his

neighborhood, BASECO. Jordaniel graduated from the

Escuela Taller last July as an “Oficial de Soldadura”

(Certificates in Shielded Metal Arc Welding, Electrical

Installation and Maintenance, and Plumbing). He now

works with the ETFFI, in the production, among others,

of the replica of the stairs of the Army Navy Club of

Manila, a building that dates from the American Period.

12 13


Section

Section

A tricycle at the entrance of BASECO.

That area, together with Tondo, is where

the majority of the trainees of Escuela

Taller comes from.

14 15


Section

LETICIA E. ALEGRE,

mother of Robie

Alegre, one of the

graduates of the

fourth batch, pictured

in the streets of Tondo.

Robie works as an

electrician at the

Metropolitan Hospital

in Binondo.

JUNIRENE S. GAMBOA who

holds an “Oficial de Carpintería”

Certificate (Traditional and Conventional

Carpentry Certificate), is

part of the fifth batch (2015-2016)

of the ETFFI. Seated beside is her

mother Ederene Sarmiento, near

their house in Tondo.

The parents of GELYN ESPIRITU,

a graduate of the Escuela Taller, at

their home in BASECO.

16 17


Protectors of Built Heritage

Protectors of Built Heritage

IN THE ETFFI, besides teaching

traditional construction techniques

as a center accredited by TESDA,

modern construction techniques

are also taught, helping students

complete their training.

REYNALD RUELO, a trainee of the

Carpentry and Woodworking Workshop,

one of the three workshops on

traditional techniques given by the

Escuela Taller. Painting and Finishing as

well as Masonry are also part of their

curriculum.

18 19


Section

Section

TONDO is one of the most

densely populated districts of

the Philippines. The collaboration

of barangays is essential in

spreading information about the

Escuela Taller and its processes.

20 21


Section

Protectors of built heritage

GILBERT TARRAYA, former student, carving

wood. ETFFI’s methodology is centered on

“learning by doing”. The students experience,

learn and apply their knowledge on the

different restoration projects of the ETFFI

during the year.

ELSA RICONALLA, a graduate of

the ETFFI, working on the restoration

of the transept of the

Malate Church.

22 23


Protectors of built heritage

Protectors of built heritage

RALPH DE SAGON AND GILBERT COTINO

were members of rival gangs, students of the first batch of the Escuela

Taller, and now, business partners. Together with Engelina B. De Sagon,

likewise a trainee of Escuela Taller, they created their own company of

electrical and plumbing services. Their office is located in an area full of

significance -- upon the gates of BASECO. Minor projects in the area can

contribute to the transformation of the economic and social fabric of the

community.

TONDO

24 25


Protectors of built heritage

Protectors of built heritage

ENGELINA B. DE SAGON, business partner

of Ralph de Sagon and Gilbert Cotino. ETFFI

contributes in such a way that Filipino women

may have training in traditionally male-dominated

sectors such as construction.

26 27


Section

Section

ERNESTO MARTINEZ JR., holder

of the Traditional and Conventional

Carpentry Certificate, a trainee of the

first batch, pictured with his family at

their home in BASECO.

Before entering the Escuela

Taller, ERNESTO used to

sell plastic at the Divisoria

market, and worked as a

cashier at a restaurant in

Bulacan. At present, besides

assisting in the Woodcarving

Workshop, he is also the

Safety and Warehouse

Officer of the Escuela Taller.

28 29


Section

Section

BASECO

30 31


Malate Church Conservation

Gainful dialogue between heritage experts and the

community.

When a fragment of adobe stone fell from the exterior moulding on the north side

of the church (Remedios Street), it prompted the parish to take a closer look at

the condition of the centuries-old church. Further ocular inspection of the walls

revealed that the building fabric underneath the cement plaster may be in its

advanced state of deterioration and a more detailed examination and intervention

must be carried out to preserve the precious heritage structure.

In Action

32 33


In Action

In Action

JEFFREY COBILLA

Arch. Jeffrey Cobilla is the

Head of the Technical Team

and Academics and Workshop

Coordinator of Escuela Taller de

Filipinas Foundation, Inc.. As a

conservation architect, he has

participated in a wide range of

projects involving documentation

and architectural mapping,

the conduct of studies about

the spirit of place of heritage

sites, towns and communities,

the conduct of surveys and

studies to determine cultural

significance, the preparation of

conservation management plans,

as well as the preparation of

intervention master plans for

monuments and sites. He earned

his Bachelor of Science degree

in Architecture at the College of

Architecture, University of the

Philippines in Diliman and is

currently pursuing his Masters

degree in Architecture at the

same institution, specialising in

the conservation of architectural

heritage.

34 35

Early in 2011, 5 graduates

of Escuela Taller

Intramuros started

working on the exterior

north wall of the church.

The initial preventive

maintenance works

done to the adobe wall

revealed more conditions

that needed attention

and intervention. Since

similar manifestations of

damage were observed all

throughout the exterior

walls, conservation

architects recommended

that same action be

applied to the walls.

Later that year, trainees

of Escuela Taller were

deployed to the project

as part of the learningby-doing

program of the

school. One of the first

tasks of the strengthened

workforce was to remove

the cement plaster that

trap water within the

walls which damage

the sensitive adobe

stones. This was done

by carefully chipping

the cement plaster from

the adobe wall using

chisels crafted by the

students themselves,

customized according

to the work needed. As

expected, the underlying

building fabric exposed

serious conditions similar

to what were initially

discovered—softened

and disintegrating

stones. These conditions

were meticulously

documented.

Main facade

before conservation.


In Action

In Action

Based on the gathered

information from the

documentation, it was

recommended that the

heavily damaged stones,

that usually were found

on the mouldings be

replaced by the same

stone, fashioned

traditionally, and walls

be plastered with a

compatible lime–based

mortar to protect it

from weathering and

act as a sacrificial

coat for the sensitive

adobe and at the

same time improve

the breathability of

the wall and prevent

accumulation of

moisture that contribute

to the fabric’s

deterioration. To respect

the recent memory of

the community around

the Malate Church and

all other stakeholders

familiar with the church,

lines simulating stone

courses were reinstated.

Portion of the wall

after plastering with

lime-based mortar.

The same respect for the recollection

of stakeholders of the church’s look

was considered for the main façade.

Condition of the

exterior wall after

cement plaster

was removed.

36 37


In Action

In Action

The parish commissioned a survey to evaluate the

community’s impression of how a restored Malate Church

would look. The result suggested that stakeholders,

may they be Malate residents or parishioners from other

places, want the structure to be conserved to be able to

stand for many more years but at the same time maintain

its romantic aged look. That meant that the approach

employed to the rest of the walls is not applicable to the

main façade that features rich details from its architectural

era. Nevertheless, the main goal remains the same—to

protect the building fabric and its ornamentation from

further deterioration. After consulting with the community

and experts, a conservative intervention was adopted

where most of the weathered details of main façade

were cleaned and left in its current condition to maintain

the old look. Avoiding actions based on conjecture, the

heavily damaged sacred hearts featured on both sides

of the main façade were reinstated based on the oldest

photo available that showed the icons in a relatively good

condition. After minor repairs were done, the entire main

façade was protected by a thin layer of lime with a colour

simulating the natural shade of adobe to reflect the

imperfections time has contributed to the iconic façade.

As the exterior walls slowly gained its renewed look, doors

and windows needed their own rehabilitation themselves.

Missing stained glass pieces of the church’s windows

were reinstated by the same company that first installed

them many years ago while Escuela Taller’s metal works

workshop helped in repairing and repainting of the window

frames and iron grilles. The huge and heavy wooden doors

which are made of Philippine hard wood species, such as

narra, yakal, ipil and mangkono, had to be detached and

disassembled to allow detailed investigation and needed

repair works. Added steel plate ornaments replicating

straps and hinges of old doors were removed due to heavy

corrosion that contribute further to the deterioration of

the more important wooden parts. Rotten parts were

carved out then patched up or replaced by the same

wood species. Replacement and new components were

fumigated to prevent termite attack. Fake wood grains

were meticulously painted over the new components to

blend with old ones before paraffin wax was pressed onto

the wood to protect the doors from moisture. The same

methods are being applied to the rest of the doors which

is targeted to be completed early next year. The main door

is temporarily substituted by a hollow-core one painted

using the “faux finish” and “trompe l’oeil” techniques to

simulate wood grains and other features of the actual

door to maintain the façade’s look that the community

remembers and other stakeholders to appreciate,

especially during photo opportunities for weddings and

other church activities.

Condition of the

exterior wall after

cement plaster was

removed.

Graduate of Escuela

Taller working on the

38 main facade.

39


40 41

A repaired door being

applied with wax for

protection.


In Action

Section

The main façade

after conservation.

It is often said that a conservation project is like opening a can of worms—repairing

one small part would lead to discovering other problems, bringing more challenge

to the project. For the Malate Church, the original intention to restore the exterior

walls had developed to include works on the interior, on the roof, and on the church

grounds.

The choir loft that was supported by a heavy steel beam inserted into the adobe

wall near the window opening had to be removed due to structural threats brought

about by corrosion and its sheer weight. The choir loft which will be of wood and

independent of the wall will be reinstated once the design is completed. While the

choir loft area is temporarily empty, it was decided to apply the same lime-based

mortar plastered on the exterior walls to further improve the breathability of the

walls, especially around the main façade. The porous and low thermal conductive

property of the lime-based plaster is also expected to improve temperature inside

the church. Eventually, the entire interior walls will be re-plastered as the exterior

walls. To further enhance thermal comfort, more ceiling and roof vents were added

to increase airflow and reduce accumulated heat and humidity inside the church.

The restoration of the church does not stop with the structure itself. Development

of the whole complex is also being addressed to enhance the architectural and

spiritual experience in Malate Church. Initial works have been done to improve

the side walk and drainage system of the site that led to the unearthing of bones

probably from the casualties of the Second World War and a cistern made of bricks

beside the south wall where the pietà is now located. Archeologists helped in

recovering the bones and in coordinating with the National Museum for tagging.

The cistern that was crudely filled with earth and rubble when it was discovered

was documented and systematically backfilled for stability. A design for the entire

church grounds is being developed which will feature improved parking layout,

walkways, a garden, and a fence that will match the architecture of the church.

The restoration of the Malate Church was a huge endeavour for Our Lady of

Remedies Parish, Escuela Taller, and the community, but the strong partnership

made things work. The conservation of Malate Church did not only repair the

damaged heritage structure but also restored hope in the lives of the young

graduates and trainees of Escuela Taller.

42 43


Material and flexural properties of

traditional masonry walls in the

Philippines

According to international statistics, the Philippines is the first country prone

to natural disasters. In 2013, in a short span of time the Visayas Region suffered

an earthquake in Bohol in October and super typhoon “Yolanda” in November,

dramatically affecting cultural heritage buildings.

The Philippines’ cultural heritage buildings from three centuries of Spanish Colonial rule consisted of 919

churches, 432 forts and a lot of old heritage houses 1 ). In 1521, the Spaniards arrived at the islands of Bohol and

Cebu. From 1565 they explored the rest of Visayas, and began to convert the natives to Christianity. In 1595, the

Jesuit priests established missions at Bohol. Four of these churches are declared as National Cultural Treasures

for their cultural, historical and architectural importance to the Filipino people. However the lack of protection,

restoration, conservation, historical and technical documentation, and specialists on restoration (also in

educational programs of Philippine universities) puts the conservation of these heritage structures at risk.

On the of 15th October 2013 at 8:12 AM an earthquake of 7,2 magnitude occurred in the island of Bohol.

The epicentre was located at Sagbayan. This earthquake is considered one of the five deadliest recorded

earthquakes in the Philippines since the 1600s. A total of 222 persons died, 876 were injured and 8 went missing.

The earthquake affected 3,221,248 persons. 73,002 houses were damaged (14,512 totally and 58,490 partially) 2 ).

All the cultural heritage buildings in Bohol were affected.

Figure.1 Loon Church, Bohol. February 2013 and November 2013.

Technical

Approach

44 45


Technical Approach

Technical Approach

Graduate School of

Environmental Planning,

University of Shiga

Prefecture, Shiga, Japan

JUAN RAMÓN JIMÉNEZ VERDEJO has a Ph. D in Art

Engineering from the Kobe Design University (Japan),

is an architect by E.T.S.A.S., School of Architecture

of Seville (Spain) and an Associate Professor at the

University of Shiga Prefecture School of Environmental

Science, Department of Design and Architecture.

His research fields are on town and architectural

planning as well as architectural history and design.

He is the author of The Grid City: the Origin, Formation

and Transformation of Spanish Colonial Cities (Kyoto

University Press, 2013). He has several studies related

to the urban formation process in the Philippines

and also about Spanish fortifications in Asia. Prof.

Juan Ramón Jiménez Verdejo participated in the :

Skills Development in the Preservation of Wooden

Structures” Conferences organized by the Escuela

Taller de Filipinas Foundation Inc., in August, 2015.

Through the University of Shiga Prefecture, he is

currently collaborating on the initial studies of the

restoration of the roof of the Jesuit House in Cebu, a

project by the Escuela Taller de Filipinas Foundation

Inc.

The survey on damaged cultural

heritage buildings in Cebu and

Bohol after the earthquake

was carried out from the 8th

to the 18th of November. The

survey team was formed by

JRVJ with students from the

University of Shiga Prefecture

in collaboraton with the

Department of Conservation

of SAFA 3 ) of the San Carlos

University in Cebu. According

to this previous disaster

research, 23 churches with

masonry structures in Bohol

were completely destroyed or

partially damaged due to their

poor seismic tolerance (figure

1, 2).

These churches are a place of

Catholic community assembly,

thus, they must be able to

withstand enough seismic

activity to minimize earthquake

damage. However, they were

built centuries ago without

any information regarding their

seismic performance. Moreover,

some constructions were

damaged by the earthquake,

while some were not.

Figure 2. Disaster effects of the

Bohol Earthquake on Cebu and

Bohol’s heritages churches.

NORIKO TAKIYAMA has a Doctorate degree in Art

Engineering by the Department of Architecture and

Architectural Engineering of Kyoto University. In 2009,

she was a Research Associate in same department.

In 2013, she became an Associate Professor at the

Division of Architecture and Urban Studies, Faculty

of Urban Environmental Sciences, of the Tokyo

Metropolitan University.

The walls of traditional

masonry churches in Bohol are

fixed using a rammed-earth

method; with this method,

mud containing stones, shells,

gravel, and lime paste is piled

up into layers and tamped

down 4 ).

Division of Architecture

and Urban Studies,

Tokyo Metropolitan

University, Tokyo, Japan

Her research fields are based on Timber Engineering

and the Dynamics of Structure and Regenerative

Preservation of Built Environment. Her recent studies

focus on masonry wall structure buildings in countries

affected by the latest natural disasters (earthquakes in

the Philippines, Nepal and Myanmar).

In this study, material tests

were conducted to assess

the strength of the walls

composed of various materials.

Furthermore, out-of-plane

flexural experiments were

conducted to elucidate the

mechanical characteristics

of the masonry walls present

in traditional churches. The

wall specimens were unique

compositions of several

materials.

46 47


Technical Approach

Technical Approach

2

MATERIAL TEST

The exterior surface materials of Philippine

heritages churches were built with coral

stones or bricks. In the case of the Visayas

Region, the churches were mainly built

with coral stones. The coral stones and the

bricks cover the traditional local concrete

mixture of mortars with rubble. (The rubble

is made up of coral chips, limestone chips,

brick chips and seashells). Because of

its thickness compared with stones, the

traditional local concrete of mixture of

mortar and rubble is the more important

material from a structural point of view.

However, there has been no information

about the mechanical properties of the

traditional local concrete.

Table 1. Combination and proportion of materials (volume ratio).

Mud mortar is made up

of stones, shells, gravel,

and lime paste. In this

study, the material tests

are made by cylinders

based on JIS A 1108 5 )

and JIS A 1113 6 ). For

this test, we created

cylinders having various

proportions of different

materials and conducted

strength tests to

understand the difference

of strength from material

combination and

proportion.

The material

combinations and

proportions of the test

cylinders are indicated

in Table 1. The main

materials are slaked

lime, sand, and water.

Furthermore, we

selected cement, egg

yolk, egg white, palm

fiber, and straw as

additional materials.

The volume ratio of

materials was changed

while a combination

of 01 to 11 indicated

only main materials,

and a combination of

12 to 21 indicated main

materials with one or two

additional materials. The

number of each cylinder

combination was four or

six. The curing period was

nominally 28 days based

on JIS A 1132 7 ), and when

it was short, the period

was a multiple of 28 days.

Material tests were conducted by compressive strength test and splitting tensile

test (Figure 3). The strength of each cylinder is illustrated in Figure 4, excluding

cases containing cement 8 ). Almost all cylinders were found to be very brittle. The

horizontal axis in Figure 3 is the ratio of slaked lime to sand. For compressive

strength, the cylinders without additional materials were stronger than contaminated

ones, expect for egg white. For the splitting tensile test, the strength increased as

the ratio of slaked lime to sand increased up to a value of 1.0, but with high variation.

Furthermore, like the compressive test, the cylinders without additional materials

were stronger than ones with contamination, expect for those with egg whites. The

strength of the cylinder containing palm fiber was uncertain.

(a) Compressive strength.

(b) Splitting tensile strength.

Figure 3. Compressive test and

Splitting tensile test.

Figure 4. Relationship between material strength and the ratio of lime to sand.

48 49


Technical Approach

Technical Approach

3

OUT-OF-PLANE

FLEXURAL

TEST

Based on former cylinder tests, a statically

destructive loading test was conducted on

four full-scale wall samples. The four wall

samples were constructed at the San Carlos

University in the Philippines on from the 15th

to 21st of September 2015.

The walls were 1500 mm

high, 650 mm thick and

1000 mm long. 300 mm

were constructed each

day, and the curing period

was four months. The

materials used included

lime mortar, slaked lime,

sand, water, and rock as

indicated in Table 2. Lime

mortar is a traditional

material commonly

used in the Philippines

until the 20th century,

and is typically cured

lime in water for three

months at a very high

concentration. However,

currently it is difficult and

very expensive to obtain,

so we substituted slaked

lime, in part, for lime

mortar, assuming that

slaked lime 2 was equal

to lime mortar 1.

For the construction of

wall samples A to D, a

raising mold out of timber

was built. Next, stone

plates were arranged on

both sides of the wall.

Then, the lime mortar,

slaked lime, and sand

were kneaded using

a mixer. Furthermore,

the kneaded materials

and rock were installed

among the stone plates.

This same process was

repeated five times over

for each wall sample

(Figure 5). Additionally,

five material test

cylinders were made at

the same time from the

material used to build

each wall specimen 9 ).

We designed a loading

system as shown in

Figure 6. Two wall

samples were laid faceto-face

of out-of-plane

on the steel member, the

chain block was used

to connect both tops of

the walls, and they were

pulled against each other.

The pulling loads are

measured by load cell.

The maximum loads are

indicated in Table 2 and

the destruction is shown

in Figure 7. For Wall B to

C, bending destruction

was found, but for only

Wall A, the foot of the

wall was broken, so the

maximum loading could

not be measured.

Figure 6. Loading system.

Table 2. Proportion of materials of the wall samples (volume ratio) and test results.

(a) Wall A.

(b) Wall B. (c) Wall C. (d) Wall D.

Figure 7. Main damage of wall samples.

Containing stone plates and

materials.

Raising mold.

Wall sample.

Figure 5. Construction of wall samples.

50 51


Technical Approach

Technical Approach

CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Through material and flexural

tests of traditional masonry walls

to study their properties, the

major findings of this study are

summarized as follows:

(1) Compressive tests and splitting

tensile tests were conducted for

various compositions of materials.

For both tests, the strength of

the cylinders without additional

materials was greater than that

with contamination, except for

the case with egg whites. For the

splitting tensile test, the strength

increased as the ratio of slaked

lime to sand increased up to a

value of 1.0, but demonstrated high

variability.

(2) Out-of-plane flexural

experiments were conducted

on four wall samples, and their

structural characteristics were

investigated. In the case of this

experiment, when the ratio of

slaked lime to sand was 0.5, the

maximum load was the highest.

NOTES & REFERENCES

Japan Consortium for International

Cooperation in Cultural

Heritage, Survey Report on the

Protection of Cultural Heritage

in Republic of the Philippines,

Japan, 2014.

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,

National Spatial Planning

and Regional Policy Bureau, An

Overview of Spatial Policy in

Asian and European Countries.

June 1, 2016. (in Japanese).

School of Architecture and

Fine Arts.

We are grateful to the Special Research Grant of University of Shiga Prefecture,

“Method of Damage Assessment, Preservation and Restoration of Stone Building that

was Affected by the Bohol Earthquake in the Philippines”, The Japan Foundation Asia

Center, Asia Center Fellowship Program “Japanese Philippine Restoration Taller for

Bohol Island’s Cultural Heritages”, Escuela Taller de Filipinas Foundation Inc., Jaime

Sy from “Jesuit House 1730” (Parian Cebu), and Arturo Rodriguez Jalili from CEMEX

Filipinas. We thank Arch. Troy Dino S. Elizaga, Professor of San Carlos University,

Akari Yamaguchi, Kohei Hara, Ikumi Osawa, Fumiaki Okamura and Naoto Idate, the

students of Tokyo Metropolitan University, and the students of San Carlos University

for their assistance in making wall samples and the statically destructive loading

tests.

JIS A 1113: Japan Industrial

Standard for Civil Engineering

and Architecture, Method

of test for splitting tensile

strength of concrete.

52 53

1

2

3

4

R Hanazato, T., Monitoring to

the Paoay Church, Philippines,

ICOMOS, 2000.

5

JIS A 1108: Japan Industrial

Standard for Civil Engineering

and Architecture, Method of

test for compressive strength

of concrete.

6

7

JIS A 1132: Japan Industrial

Standard for Civil Engineering

and Architecture, Method of

making and curing concrete

specimens.

8

Because the strength of the

cylinders with cement was

found to be twenty times that

of cylinders without cement,

the results with cement were

excluded from this paper.

9

Compressive strength tests

and splitting tensile strength

tests were conducted.

However, some test cylinders

broke prior to testing. For

splitting tensile strength,

when the ratio of slaked lime

for sand was 0.5, Wall B,

showed the highest strength

as indicated in Table 2.


Protecting community heritage in the

Philippines through local legislation and

incentives

Even before the enactment of Republic Act No. 10066 or the National Cultural

Heritage Act of 2009, local governments in the Philippines have crafted their

own ordinances to protect community heritage and grant incentives to owners

of heritage properties to encourage them to conserve and maintain them. These

local heritage ordinances have been vital to the preservation of community

heritage, given the difficulties and challenges in implementing national laws.

#HeritagePH

54 55


#HeritagePH

#HeritagePH

IVAN ANTHONY

S. HENARES

From a young age, Ivan Anthony

Henares has been a staunch advocate

for the preservation of Philippine

heritage. An Assistant Professor at

the Asian Institute of Tourism of the

University of the Philippines, Diliman,

he is the President of the Heritage

Conservation Society, Vice President

of the ICOMOS International Cultural

Tourism Committee (ICTC), Trustee

of the Nayong Pilipino Foundation

and Secretary of the NCCA National

Committee on Monuments and Sites.

He was named one of The Outstanding

Young Men (TOYM) for 2012 in the field

of Heritage Conservation.

One major flaw of the

current institutional setup

is the unfortunate

overlap of mandates

of various government

cultural agencies and the

lack of trained personnel

to monitor and address

the needs of all regions

of the country. In fact,

one of the possible

solutions is to create a

National Built Heritage

Commission that will

take over the heritage

conservation functions of

the National Commission

for Culture and the Arts

(in particular, the Heritage

Office), the National

Museum (built heritagerelated

functions of

the Cultural Properties,

and Restoration &

Engineering Divisions),

and the National

Historical Commission

on the Philippines

(Historic Preservation

and Materials Research

Conservation Divisions).

Despite the stronger

mandate given to them by

the Heritage Law, some

government cultural

agencies have also

avoided decisions against

private owners and

corporations, possibly

due to fear of lawsuits

if they protect heritage

over property rights. This,

despite the fact that the

protection of cultural

heritage is enshrined

in the Philippine

Constitution. An example

of heritage jurisprudence

is the decision of RTC

Branch 52 on Manila

Civil Case No. 07-117444

regarding the Intramuros

Sports Complex (April

7, 2008), “Moreover,

although admittedly, the

project site is on a parcel

of land owned by the

public respondent, Article

428 of the New Civil Code

provides that ‘the right

of an owner over his

property is not absolute

but is subject to certain

limitations established by

law”.

Local ordinances from

Vigan City, Ilocos Sur;

City of San Fernando,

Pampanga; Iloilo City;

Taal, Batangas; Silay

City, Negros Occidental;

and Angeles City, among

others, have been

successful in protecting

community heritage,

filling the gaps not

covered by national

legislation and cultural

56 57


#HeritagePH

policies. San Fernando was the first local government

unit to grant real estate tax exemption for heritage

properties in 2004. Similar exemptions have been

enacted in Iloilo City, Silay City, and Angeles City.

The rationale behind incentives is that conservation,

especially in the private sector, will not be sustainable

without economic activity to fund or fuel it. There

is a need for incentives to encourage private sector

conservation initiatives, participation, and compliance

with conservation guidelines.

Calle Real in Iloilo City has

benefitted immensely from

real estate tax discounts given

by the city government to

heritage buildings that have

been repainted or restored.

There are many studies outside the Philippines about

heritage incentives. Pickerill and Pickard (2007) found

that because government resources are limited

and increasingly inadequate to meet the needs of

heritage conservation, it was necessary to create fiscal

incentives to encourage the private sector to engage

in heritage conservation. They found that “the choice

and form of tax incentives is influenced by political

traditions in different countries”.

Tax incentives seem to be a common theme in many

studies that sought to encourage the participation of

the private sector in conservation. Bullen and Love

(2011) noted that “the ability to make heritage buildings

attractive to developers as viable reuse projects

relies heavily on the introduction of legislation that

reduces building code and planning requirements

and offers substantial financial incentives in the

form of tax concessions”. Bullen and Love (2009)

found that the LA adaptive reuse program is based

on ordinances that introduce financial incentives to

provide income and property tax reductions. Rojas

(2002) found that in Latin America and the Caribbean,

subsidies and incentives could be offered to induce

owners to preserve heritage. Benhamou (2003) cited

Tyler (2000) who found that in the United States,

below-market rates or guaranteed loans to owners of

heritage properties are given for their restoration or

rehabilitation work.

Aside from adaptive reuse, heritage tourism also

becomes an incentive for conservation as it provides

potential funding for maintenance and conservation

costs, as well as much needed returns on investment.

The good news is that the proposed heritage incentives

law, which the Heritage Conservation Society has been

working on since 2013, has been filed in the Philippine

Senate by Senator Bam Aquino as Senate Bill No. 1234

– An Act for the Stewardship and Conservation of Built

Cultural Heritage. A counterpart measure, House Bill

No. 4438, was filed by Ilocos Sur Representative DV

Savellano in the House of Representatives.

59


#HeritagePH

#HeritagePH

Lazatin House in San Fernando, Pampanga.

Heritage houses in the City of San Fernando,

Pampanga were the first beneficiaries of real

estate tax exemptions in 2004.

Henson-Hizon House, San

Fernando, Pampanga.

60 61


#HeritagePH

#HeritagePH

Among the possible incentives proposed in the law include:

1 2 3 4

5

6

7

8

Real estate tax exemption

or discount for declared

heritage properties

In many cases, heritage

properties can be found in

commercial zones where

real property values are

high. There are instances

where properties like

ancestral homes or idle

buildings are not earning

income for the owners. They

are however required to pay

real estate taxes. Granting

exemptions or discounts

give property owners an

incentive to preserve and

maintain.

Exemption from estate tax

for declared properties

One of the main reasons for

the loss of heritage is the

inheritance tax. Families

inherit an ancestral house

for example but don’t have

the cash to pay for the

taxes. They end up selling

the old house, paying the

taxes from the proceeds,

and dividing the remaining

income among the heirs.

If declared properties are

exempt from estate taxes,

it would encourage heritage

property owners to get their

properties declared and

preserve the said ancestral

properties with historical or

cultural value.

Tax incentives for

individuals or companies

that restore declared

heritage properties or

undertake adaptive reuse

We need to encourage

individuals or businesses

to restore and conserve

heritage properties. By

granting tax incentives,

the private sector

will be encouraged

to restore old houses

or buildings, provided

that the restoration

and corresponding

cost is approved by

government cultural

agencies. The approved

cost of restoration

can be deducted from

taxable income or can be

considered as tax credits.

Tax incentives for

businesses that locate in

heritage buildings

For heritage buildings

especially in commercial

areas to survive, they need

to earn income. There

should be regulations

similar to PEZA for heritage

buildings. If a business

chooses to locate in

a heritage building or

property, entitling them to

incentives will encourage

more businesses to do the

same.

Transfer development

rights

A TDR program seeks

to preserve landowners’

asset value by moving the

right to build a high-rise

building for example from

a location where high-rise

development is prohibited,

to a location where highrise

development is

encouraged. To do this,

building high-rise buildings

in designated heritage

zones will be restricted.

Heritage property owners

will in return be given TDR

which they can use or sell

to developers, that they

can in turn use for their

other projects.

Grants for restoration of

declared properties, both

public and private

Monetary grants can also

be given for the restoration

of declared heritage

properties.

Technical assistance for

declared properties, both

public and private

One of the issues

in restoration and

conservation is that

often, owners are not

guided by trained heritage

professionals. Government

cultural agencies should

create an accreditation

system and increase its

pool of highly-skilled

heritage professionals to

give technical assistance for

restoration, conservation,

and even new construction

in heritage properties and

zones.

Heritage conservation

awards

By recognizing those who

have undertaken proper

restoration and outstanding

examples of adaptive reuse,

we make it prestigious

to restore and conserve

heritage.

Through local heritage ordinances

and the enactment of a national

law on heritage incentives,

community heritage may have

a better chance of survival.

62 63


Anyone who chooses to work in heritage

conservation, in whatever expression,

must assume the responsibility, among

others, to pass on that legacy in the best

of conditions – in both the material and

knowledge aspects. This is because that

piece of heritage is considered by all as a

key element in shaping the identity of the

people that have made it.

Detail of the rich

façade of the

Escuelas Mayores

of the University of

Salamanca. There

is ongoing research

on the effects of the

treatment done thirty

years ago.

Joaquín García Álvarez

ETFFI Guest

64 65


ETFFI Guest

ETFFI Guest

Obtained his Bachelor’s degree in Architecture

from the Escuela Técnica Superior de

Arquitectura of the Universidad de Valladolid

in June of 1995. He studied in the Universidad

La Sapienza in Rome from 1992 to 1993

through a grant under the Erasmus Program.

He worked for 13 years in the Fundación

del Patrimonio Histórico of Castilla y León,

where he was in charge of evaluation,

documentation, hiring, development and postwork

maintenance of numerous restoration

projects of the Historical Heritage of the

Autonomous Community of Castilla y León.

From 2015, he has been working as an

architect at the Fundación Santa María la Real

del Patrimonio Histórico.

At present, he is involved in the restoration

of the Escuelas Mayores of the Universidad

de Salamanca and in other diverse cultural

projects.

He is also a professor

of the Masters

Program “Técnicas

de Diagnósticos

e Intervención en

Bienes del Patrimonio

Histórico” (Diagnostic

Techniques and

Intervention in

Historical Heritage

Resources) of the

Universidad de

Salamanca.

He has been invited

to symposia and

skill development

workshops on

interventions on wood

organized by Escuela

Taller de Filipinas

Foundation Inc., Manila,

Philippines.

JOAQUÍN

GARCÍA

ÁLVAREZ

For the material aspect, the abovementioned

best conditions lead

us to assume that substances

inevitably break down. From the

moment that a heritage resource

is created, its gradual process of

disintegration begins.

Paradoxically, with the passage of

time, as the deterioration increases,

the work’s content and value grows,

making it even more important to its

creators as well as their descendants.

In Spain until recently, conservation

processes 1 have been aiming for

lasting solutions to try to stop

this physical deterioration. These

processes addressed the cause

of the disintegration as well as its

effects, and the prevailing thought

was that the science of Chemistry

allowed these objectives to be met,

especially those concerning the

durability of the materials.

In most cases, the projects were

done performed with absolute

methodological rigor in studying

and documenting the resource as

well as generating documents that

reflect the actions taken as a result

of the diagnosis.

Numerous interventions were

made with the best of intentions.

There were well-prepared

technical teams, protocols of

agreed conduct, and a battery of

1

It is impossible to state all the

conservation theories in this short

article, especially those developed in

the second half of the 19th century.

For this reason, we only refer to

those that are put in practice during

the second half of the 20th century,

products of an intense reflection for

two centuries.

product testing that consolidated

the materials, made them waterresistant,

and improved them with

the inevitable passage of time.

These products were tested by

submitting them through processes

of accelerated ageing – a sort

of contemporary time machine

that placed the object of study

under a simulation of extreme

conditions enough number of times

in order to predict how it would

turn out in the future. In addition,

materials and techniques that were

theoretically reversible were used,

paying attention to one of the basic

principles of modern restoration

– that what was done can be

undone in case it is deemed to be

damaging to the heritage resource

in the long run.

Nevertheless, despite all these

efforts, those interventions are

proving to be inefficient in some

cases. Nowadays, we are obliged

to understand how they worked

and to try to undo their effects,

demonstrating that the reversibility

that was expected was mostly just

theoretical.

On the contrary, when it comes

to the second aspect – the

responsibility of knowing the

heritage resource and the transfer

of this knowledge – far from

diminishing through time, is

always bound to increase with

new content. In Spain, we are

now discovering that there are

important gaps of information

regarding the work finally executed

on our monuments in the last

decades of the 20th century.

66 67

As the works were being

restored, there were numerous

modifications to the originally

prescribed processes due to

variations in the criteria or

unforeseen circumstances

which had no diagnosis. These

kinds of interventions were not

documented.

Now, it is difficult to retrace those

steps and know what was finally

done for the correct action to be

taken. Costly studies have to be

made in order to determine what

was applied and discover their real

effects.

Had there been documentation of

what was done, as well as the state

of the resource before and after

the intervention was performed,

we would be able to deduce

the evolution of the processes.

These could then be improved if

deemed to be effective; or try to

be reversed, if the contrary proved

to be true. The necessary actions

could therefore be applied to stop

the deterioration.

This article aims to provide a

reflection that would allow us

to move forward and attempt to

correct possible mistakes of the

past, which could be useful for

communities that are starting to

preserve their historical legacy.

For this, some simple actions are

suggested that should impact our

stand on historical restoration in

the future.

Concerning the material aspect,

it should be approached in a

careful manner without necessarily

aspiring for absolute results.


ETFFI Guest

One must assume that

the deterioration of heritage

resources is constant and

that our responsibility is to

slow it down, fundamentally

through preventive

conservation and constant

vigilance.

Coffered ceiling of the Church of

San Facundo and San Primitivo in

Cisneros, Palencia. Spain.

© Luis Alfonso Basterra Otero

traditional techniques

have allowed our heritage

resources to remain for

an extraordinarily long

period.

Structural solutions

must be recovered

to solve problems

related to architecture,

especially those involving

imperfections caused by

the presence of water,

which in most cases,

if removed properly,

would resolve most of

the possible issues.

Chemistry must be an

ally, but not the only one,

when resolving issues

pertaining to heritage

resources.

The second aspect

which is knowledge of

the heritage resource,

refers to the absolute

need to ensure that

documentation of the

treatment applied is

taken, and that this

information is passed on.

One must assume that the

deterioration of heritage resources is

constant and that our responsibility is

to slow it down, fundamentally through

preventive conservation and constant

vigilance.

Moreover, we must look to our

ancestors, and recover the traditional

techniques of conservation, while not

rejecting innovation and progress.

In normal circumstances, barring

the occurrence of traumatic events,

68 69

Extrados of the coffered

ceiling. Inadequate

restoration work is observed

due to lack of knowledge of

traditional techniques. These

have no documentation

and the state prior to the

intervention is unknown.

© Luis Alfonso Basterra Otero

We must guarantee that

the knowledge that we

generate is passed on

to future generations,

so that they may be

able to determine the

effectiveness of the

actions taken with the

help of correct data,

always keeping in mind

the sole objective of

making the material that

is valuable in every sense,

last.

Finally, it is necessary to

plan the interventions

considering that the

material execution of

restoration is just another

phase in knowing the

heritage resource, and

which does not end

with this, but continues

while the communities

that sustain it see it as a

part of their identity and

relevance.


Section

Sa Kanto

Sa Kanto is Escuela Taller’s magazine

illustration section about built heritage

in the Philippines.

PACO PARK

959 San Marcelino Street, Paco, Manila City

1814. “Paco Cemetery (now Paco Park) was built

in the suburb of San Fernando de Dilao. The

construction of the cemetery began in 1814, but

the cholera epidemic that wreaked havoc on the

city prompted the use of the cemetery in 1820. The

Cementerio General de Dilao became the resting

place for Spaniards, indios, and mestizos who came

from the different parishes adjacent Manila, which

included Intramuros, Binondo, Quiapo, San Miguel,

Sta. Cruz, Sampaloc, Tondo, Ermita and Malate.

Paco Park, its niches empty and no longer used for

burials, is now a hushed, well cultivated park.

The remains of our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal

were interred in the cemetery immediately after

his execution in Bagumbayan (now Luneta). He was

buried in the ground between the inner and outer

walls and his former burial site marked with his

initials in reverse R.P.J (Rizal Protacio Jose). The

bodies of the Gomburza, the three martyred priests,

were also buried in the historic Paco Cemetery”.

70

71


Section

Drawing and architecture are an

essential relationship.

Walking, looking at your surroundings, taking

your pencils, appreciating the buildings as

story-tellers … are invitations to explore and

pay homage to our heritage.

Source: National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

View here

The National Parks Development Committee in 2015

requested Escuela Taller to supervise and provide technical

assistance in the clean-up and restoration of the cemetery’s

wall.

View ET projects

EILEEN BONDOC-ESCUETA

Filipino.

At present, an active art educator, and a full-time artist

and painter. Has been a professional artist for more than

twenty years. Past career has been in corporate training and

development, working for more than thirty years as a Human

Resource Management Consultant and Master Trainor.

Educational background: graduated with a Liberal Arts degree,

major in Psychology, from Assumption College; MBA studies at

the Ateneo Graduate School of Business.

Affiliations:

Urban Sketchers Philippines

International Watercolor Society

Agos Kulay ng Maynila (Manila Watercolor Society)

Museum Volunteers of the Philippines

72 73


BELLEVUE THEATRE

117 Pedro Gil Street,

Manila City

1931. The Bellevue Theater is one of

the oldest remaining pre-war standalone

movie theaters in Manila.

Adopted Philippine Islamic imagery as

its art deco theme (perhaps borrowing

inspiration from the tradition of

moro-moro theatrical scenography or

from the set design of LVN Studio’s

Arabesque swashbuckling movies).

Source: Lico, Gerard. Arkitekturang

Filipino: A History of Architecture and

Urbanism in the Philippines. University

of the Philippines Press, 2010.

Section

Section

MARY IRMA D. LARA

Irma worked in a bank for

some 30 odd years and

eventually broke free to

pursue her life’s passion

- painting. Her love of

nature – flowers, waterfalls,

beaches, koi gliding

in a pond – manifests

through her works done

in watercolor and acrylic.

Irma also does sketches

of cityscapes and other

urban subjects, mostly

of historical buildings

and heritage houses, on

walks with Urban Sketchers

Manila. Her sketch

made during the “Drawing

Manila” sketchwalk

– a project by AECID, the

Embassy of Spain in the

Philippines and Museo

ABC de Dibujo e Ilustración

with the collaboration

of Escuela Taller de

Filipinas- with renowned

Spanish illustrator Luis

Pérez Ortiz and the Philippines’

Mark Lawrence

Andres, is among those

featured on the maiden

issue of Escuela Taller

Magazine.

Check our videos!

74 75


Thank you!

Main Benefactors

Major Partners

Project Sponsors

Partners/Collaborators

St. Paul the First Hermit Parish (San Pablo Cathedral)

Don Norberto Ty Foundation

Museo Parian Sugbo/Jesuit House

Aboitiz Foundation, Inc.

Diocese of Tagbilaran

Diocese of Alaminos

Donors

Casas Architects

A Licerio Evangelista Concepcion/Siva

Solis Contractors, Inc.

A.C. Ong Consulting Agency

CTC Foundation, Inc.

Jeffrey Jacques Khoriaty and Friends

Monet Silvestre

Mr. & Mrs. David Anselbro

Monica Olandrez


Escuela Taller De Filipinas Foundation Inc.

Revellin De Recoletos

Victoria Street, Intramuros

Manila City 1002, Philippines

Phone: (02) 527-6623 |Telefax: (02) 525-1986

www.escuelataller.org.ph

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