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8th INTERNATIONAL WHEAT CONFERENCE

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Borlaug Global Rust Initiative


<strong>8th</strong><br />

<strong>INTERNATIONAL</strong><br />

<strong>WHEAT</strong><br />

<strong>CONFERENCE</strong><br />

ABSTRACTS<br />

of oral and poster<br />

presentations<br />

1–4 June 2010 St. Petersburg, Russia<br />

Organized by N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR)<br />

St. Petersburg, Russia


© 2010, N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR),<br />

St. Petersburg, Russia<br />

Responsible Editor: Dr. N.I. Dzyubenko, Director<br />

Printed in Russia by TopPrint printing house


CONTENTS<br />

Opening Session: Welcome and opening lectures<br />

N.I. Dzyubenko<br />

The Legacy of N.I. Vavilov ..................................................................................................28<br />

O.P. Mitrofanova<br />

Wheat genetic resources in Russia .....................................................................................30<br />

Plenary Session 1: Current status and perspectives of global wheat research and<br />

production<br />

Oral presentations<br />

Philip G Pardey<br />

A strategic look at global wheat productivity, production and R&D developments ..... 34<br />

Jan Dvorak and Ming-Cheng Luo<br />

N.I. Vavilov’s theory of centers of diversity in light of current understanding<br />

of wheat domestication and evolution....................................................................... 35<br />

Kenneth D. Sayre, Bram Govaerts<br />

Conservation Agriculture – providing the basis for the development of sustainable<br />

crop management technologies<br />

Poster presentations<br />

Ibrahim ben Amer, Jomaa Bader, Salah Ghareyani, Ahmed Zentani, Ali Shridi,<br />

Ali Boubaker, and Habib Ketata<br />

Contribution towards improving wheat productivity in Libya ......................................39<br />

A. Ghaffari and M. Roustaei<br />

Study of rain effects on rainfed winter wheat production trends in Iran .....................40<br />

Heinrich Grausgruber, Beatrix Preinerstorfer, Negash Geleta, Loredana Leopold, Firdissa<br />

Eticha, et al.<br />

Hulled wheats in organic agriculture–Agronomic and nutritional considerations ....41<br />

Reza Haghparast, Salvatore Ceccarelli, Maryam Rahmanian, Reza Mohammadi, Saeed<br />

Pourdad, et al.<br />

Poor farmers against poor wheat genetic diversity ..........................................................43<br />

Ping He<br />

Yield gaps, soil indigenous nutrient supply, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat<br />

in China .................................................................................................................................45<br />

Bogusława Jaśkiewicz<br />

The factors effecting the regional differentiation of wheat production in Poland .......46<br />

Jiyun Jin<br />

Contribution of fertilizer use to wheat production in China .........................................47<br />

M. Karabayev, P.Wall, K.Sayre, N.Yuschenko, V.Posdnyakov, Zh.Ospanbayev,<br />

D.Yuschenko, A.Baytassov, A.Morgounov & H.Braun<br />

Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Kazakhstan ...................................................48<br />

3


Koppel Reine, Ingver Anne<br />

Requirements for wheat in Estonia ....................................................................................49<br />

Wiesław Koziara, Hanna Sulewska, Katarzyna Panasiewicz<br />

No tillage vs conventional system of winter wheat cultivation with different N-rate<br />

and water conditions............................................................................................................51<br />

Kozub N.A., Sozinov I.A., Sozinov A.A.<br />

Out-crossing in common wheat .........................................................................................53<br />

Wieslaw Oleszek & Anna Stochmal<br />

Proficiency – The new EC program for developing research potential ........................55<br />

Otambekova M.G., Tursunzade Sh.P., Persson R., Hede A.<br />

Impact of seed industry development to wheat breeding & variety promotion<br />

in Tajikistan ...........................................................................................................................57<br />

S. Phillips, K. Majumdar, P. He, J. Jin, R. Norton, V. Nosov, T. Jensen<br />

The role of plant nutrition in narrowing yield gaps in global wheat production ........59<br />

M. H. Roozitalab, M. R. J. Kamali and E. De Pauw<br />

Conservation Agriculture for sustainable wheat production in the Highlands<br />

of CWANA Region: potential and constraints .................................................................60<br />

G. Şerban, N.N. Saulescu, G. Ittu, P. Mustatea<br />

Breeding wheat for reduced impact of predicted climate changes, at NARDI<br />

Fundulea ................................................................................................................................62<br />

Ram C. Sharma, Zakir Khalikulov, Mesut Keser, Alex Morgounov and Amor Yahyaoui<br />

Wheat improvement challenges and opportunities in Central Asia and the Caucasus .....64<br />

Plenary Session 2: Utilization of wheat genetic resources in breeding<br />

Oral presentations<br />

Börner, A., Neumann, K., Kobiljski B.<br />

Wheat genetic resources – how to exploit? .......................................................................68<br />

I. Belan, L. Rosseeva, L. Laikova, V. Rosseev, L. Pershina, A. Morgounov, Yu. Zelenskiy<br />

Utilization of new wheat genepool in breeding of spring bread wheat.........................69<br />

Kumarse Nazari, A. Yahyaoui, A. Amri, M. El Naimi, M. El Ahmed, I. Maaz<br />

Identification of sources of seedling and adult-plant resistance to wheat rusts<br />

in primitive and wild Triticum species ..............................................................................71<br />

Cary Fowler<br />

Conserving crop diversity in the 21 st century ..................................................................73<br />

I.N. Leonova, E.B. Budashkina, N.P. Kalinina, M.S. Röder, E.S. Skolotneva, A. Börner,<br />

E.A. Salina<br />

T. aestivum x T. timopheevii introgression lines as a source of pathogen resistance<br />

genes.......................................................................................................................................74<br />

Peidu Chen, Xiue Wang, Shengwei Chen, Chunfang You, Linsheng Wang, Qingping<br />

Zhang. Suling Wang, Yigao Feng, Shouzhong Zhang, Dajun Liu<br />

Transfer and utilization of alien disease resistance genes in wheat improvement<br />

through the development of alien chromosome translocation lines .............................76<br />

N.N. Saulescu, G. Ittu, M. Ciuca, M. Ittu, P. Mustatea<br />

Transfering useful rye genes to wheat, using Triticale as a bridge .................................78<br />

4


Z. Stehno, I. Paulíčková, J. Bradová, P. Konvalina, I. Capouchova, L. Dotlačil<br />

Evaluation of emmer wheat genetic resources aimed at dietary food production ......80<br />

Poster presentations<br />

Zeynal Akparov, Mehraj Abbasov<br />

Physiological characteristics of salinity tolerance in diploid wheat ancestors .............82<br />

Subirà J, Martín-Sánchez JA, Royo C, Aparicio N, Álvaro F<br />

Digital photography as a non-destructive tool to assess variability of green area<br />

development of a set of Spanish wheat landraces ............................................................83<br />

Nieves Aparicio, Fanny Alvaro, Josefina C. Sillero, Magdalena Ruiz, Prudencio López,<br />

Mª del Mar Cátedra and Primitiva Codesal<br />

Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L) Core Collection based in Spanish landraces .....85<br />

Ahmad Arzani, Masoumeh Rezaei and Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei<br />

Effects of meiotic restitution and temperature on meiotic behavior in wheat .............86<br />

Alvina Avagyan<br />

Evaluation and utilization of wheat genetic resources in breeding for resistance<br />

to abiotic stresses ..................................................................................................................87<br />

Badaeva Ekaterina D., Dedkova Olga S., Pukhalskiy Vitalyi A.<br />

Translocations in intraspecific karyotype divergence of wild emmer T. dicoccoides .. 89<br />

L. Dotlacil, J. Hermuth, Z. Stehno, V. Dvoracek, and L. Svobodova<br />

Wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars as valuable resources for breeding ................91<br />

Parviz Ehsanzadeh, Aghafakhr Mirlohi, Reza Mohammadi, Azadeh Shaibani-rad<br />

and Mohammad Shahedi<br />

Hulled wheats of Central Iran: Their poloidy and genomic status, grain yield<br />

and nutritional attributes ....................................................................................................92<br />

Friebe B., Liu W., Fellers J.P., Qi, L.L., Gill B.S.<br />

Transfer of wheat streak mosaic virus resistance from Thinopyrum intermedium<br />

to wheat .................................................................................................................................93<br />

Kseniya Golovnina, Irina Sormacheva, Alexander Blinov, Elena Kondratenko,<br />

Nikolay P. Goncharov<br />

Genetic and molecular characterization of three agronomical importance genes<br />

(Vrn1, Vrn2, Q) in wheat ....................................................................................................94<br />

I .K. Kalappanavar, S. A. Desai, G. Ramya, P. E. Pradeep, B. K. Das and Bhagwat<br />

Breeding free-threshable, dwarf emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.)<br />

Schulb.) genotypes through mutagenesis ..........................................................................95<br />

A.G. Khakimova<br />

Genetic structure of Aegilops tauschii Coss. from VIR collection based on seed<br />

marker proteins ....................................................................................................................97<br />

Zakir Khalikulov, Bayan Alimgazinova, Jamin Akimaliev, Zebinisso Muminshoeva,<br />

Ashir Saparmuradov, Agvan Saakyan, Zeynal Akparov, Guram Alexidze<br />

Plant Genetic Resources in Central Asia and the Caucasus ...........................................99<br />

L. Khotyleva, L.Koren, O.Orlovskaya<br />

Use of Triticeae tribe species for expanding and enriching genetic resources<br />

of Triticum aestivum .......................................................................................................101<br />

5


A.V. Konarev, T.I.Peneva, N.K.Gubareva and I.P.Gavriljuk<br />

Molecular markers for increasing efficiency of wheat genetic resources utilisation<br />

in breeding. Wheat genome origin according to protein markers ............................. 103<br />

Petr Konvalina, Zdeněk Stehno, Ivana Capouchová<br />

Characteristics of wheat genetic resources for breeding and growing in organic<br />

farming ............................................................................................................................... 105<br />

P. Yu. Kroupin, M. G. Divashuk, G. I. Karlov<br />

Molecular-Cytogenetic characterization of the partial wheat × intermediate<br />

wheatgrass hybrids (×Tritipyrum) .................................................................................. 107<br />

Linc G, Sepsi A, Molnár-Láng M.<br />

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the wheat Agropyron elongatum disomic<br />

and ditelosomic addition lines ........................................................................................ 109<br />

F. Makdis, FC Ogbonnaya and O Abdalla<br />

Grain yield performance of synthetic backcrossed derived wheat in rain-fed<br />

Mediterranean environments .......................................................................................... 111<br />

S.P. Martynov, T.V. Dobrotvorskaya<br />

Analysis of the passport information about wheat genetic resources with the aid of<br />

Information and Analytical System GRIS4.0 ................................................................ 113<br />

Ky L. Mathews, Richard Trethowan, Andrew Milgate, Thomas Payne, Maarten van<br />

Ginkel, Jose Crossa, Ian DeLacy, Mark Cooper, Scott C. Chapman<br />

Indirect selection using reference genotype performance in a global spring wheat<br />

multi-environment trial ................................................................................................... 115<br />

F.Yu. Nasyrova, D.A. Sergeev, Kh.Kh. Khurmatov, S. Naimov<br />

Genome analyses of the aborigine landraces wheat from Tajikistan ......................... 117<br />

Pasquini M., Bizzarri M., Nocente F., Sereni L., Matere A., Vittori D., De Pace C.<br />

Simultaneous resistance to powdery mildew, leaf rust and stem rust conferred<br />

by genes on 6V from D. villosum introgressed in wheat breeding lines .................... 119<br />

Primitiva Codesal, Juan A. Martín, Josefina C. Sillero, Magdalena Ruiz, Prudencio<br />

López, Mª del Mar Cátedra and Nieves Aparicio<br />

Phenotypic diversity in Spanish landraces of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) .. 121<br />

E.E. Radchenko<br />

Resistance of Triticum species to cereal aphids ............................................................. 122<br />

Rhrib, Keltoum; Taghouti, Mouna; and Rachid Nawfal<br />

Agro-morphological characterisation and technological evaluation of durum<br />

wheat landraces in Morocco ............................................................................................ 124<br />

C Royo, M. Ruiz, P Giraldo, MJ Aranzana, M Cátedra, JM Carrillo, D Villegas<br />

Spanish landraces of Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. ssp. dicoccon, turgidum and<br />

durum differ genetically and agronomically ................................................................. 125<br />

Annamária Schneider, István Molnár, Márta Molnár-Láng<br />

Production and identification of new wheat- Aegilops biuncialis addition lines<br />

using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and microsatellite markers ........................ 126<br />

Sin E, Del Moral J., Hernández P., Benavente E., Rubio M., Martín-Sánchez J.A.,<br />

Pérez Rojas F., López-Braña I., Delibes A.<br />

Effects of 4Nv chromosome from Aegilops ventricosa on agronomic and quality<br />

traits in bread wheat ......................................................................................................... 128<br />

6


V. V. Syukov, S. N. Shevchenko<br />

Utilization of Elytrigia intermedia translocation in spring wheat breeding .............. 129<br />

Tikhenko N., Tsvetkova N., Voylokov A., & Börner A.<br />

Wheat improvement using rye - disturbance by embryo lethality ............................. 131<br />

Q.-W. Dou, G. Monika, M. Kishii, M. Ito, H. Tanaka, H. Tsujimoto<br />

Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica chromosome addition lines ................................ 133<br />

Tyryshkin L.G., Kolesova M.A., Kovaleva M.A., Lebedeva T.V., Zuev E.V., Brykova A.N.,<br />

Gashimov M.E.<br />

Current status of bread wheat and its relatives from VIR collection study for<br />

effective resistance to fungal diseases ............................................................................. 134<br />

G. Volkova, L. Anpilogova, O. Kremneva, A. Andronova, O. Vaganova, L. Kovalenko,et al.<br />

Wheat genetic resources assessment and application in the selection for disease<br />

resistance and in crop production .................................................................................. 136<br />

Plenary Session 3: Wheat genetics and breeding for abiotic stresses<br />

Oral presentations<br />

P. Stephen Baenziger, Ismail Dweikat, Kulvinder Gill, Kent Eskridge, Terry Berke, Maroof<br />

Shah, et al.<br />

Understanding grain yield: It is a journey, not a destination ...................................... 140<br />

Marta S. Lopes and Matthew P. Reynolds<br />

Root mass contributions and trade-offs to drought tolerance in wheat .................... 141<br />

Rob Norton, Saman Seneweera, Sabine Posch, Greg Rebetzke, Glenn Fitzgerald<br />

Growth, yield and photosynthetic responses to elevated CO in wheat .................... 142<br />

2<br />

Abdalla, Osman, F. Ogbonnaya, A. Yaljarouka, Tahir, Izzat S. Ali, M. Kheir Adel Hagras,<br />

M. Mosaad, Abdalla Sailan<br />

Enhancement of heat tolerance in wheat to increase yield and stabilize wheat<br />

production in Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region .............. 144<br />

Andy Phillips, Peter Hedden, Steve Thomas, Ian Prosser, Stephen Pearce Margaret Boulton,<br />

John Snape, Simon Griffiths, Nadia Al-Kaff, Andrey Korolev, Robert Saville<br />

and Martin Parry<br />

Enhancing wheat field performance and response to abiotic stress with novel growthregulatory<br />

alleles ................................................................................................................ 145<br />

Yuri Shavrukov, Manahil Baho, Nawar Shamaya, James Edwards, Courtney Ramsey,<br />

Peter Langridge and Mark Tester<br />

Salinity tolerance and Na+ exclusion in wheat: Variability, genetics, mapping<br />

populations and QTL analysis ......................................................................................... 146<br />

Poster presentations<br />

A.S. Absattarova, M. S. Röder, S. Kollers, A.I. Morgounov, S. Kenjebaeva<br />

Identification and distribution of the alleles of photoperiod and vernalization<br />

responses wheat genes in Kazakhstan ............................................................................ 148<br />

Ahmadi, G. H., Tomasyan, G., Jalal Kamali, M. R., Khodarahami, M. and Aghaeei M.<br />

Selection of terminal drought tolerant bread wheat genotypes via field and laboratory<br />

indices ................................................................................................................................. 150<br />

7


Majed M.A Al-Bokari, Saad M. Alzahrani, and Abdullah S. Alsalman<br />

LD50 and LD100 of local wheat landraces in Saudi Arabia for abiotic stresses ....... 151<br />

Amini Ashkboos, M.Vahabzadeh, E.Majidi Heravan, D.Afiuni, M.T.Tabatabae,<br />

M.H.Saberi, and G.A.Lotfali-Aineh<br />

Yield stability and performance of new wheat genotypes in saline areas of Iran ..... 152<br />

S. Bencze, Z. Bamberger, K. Balla, T. Janda, Z. Bedő and O. Veisz<br />

Drought stress tolerance in cereals in terms of water retention capacity<br />

and antioxidant enzyme activities ................................................................................... 153<br />

Bonnett DG, Ellis MH, Rebetzke GJ<br />

Agronomic performance of GA-responsive semidwarf wheats .................................. 155<br />

Marina Castro, Daniel Vázquez, Jarislav von Zitzewitz and Bettina Lado<br />

Influence of terminal drought stress on wheat agronomic traits, industrial quality<br />

and dehydrin proteins ...................................................................................................... 157<br />

Fetah Elezi, Belul Gixhari, Alban Ibraliu,Valbona Hobdari<br />

Evaluation of quantitative characters correlations and distances in some Albanian<br />

wheat genotypes ................................................................................................................ 158<br />

A. Farag Alla, FC Ogbonnaya, M. Ahmed and O Abdalla<br />

Physiological characterization of heat adaptive traits in bread wheat (Triticum<br />

aestivum l) .......................................................................................................................... 159<br />

Agnieszka Fiuk, Piotr Tomasz Bednarek, Andrzej Anioł<br />

Role of wheat genome in aluminium tolerance of triticale ......................................... 160<br />

Masanori Inagaki, Miloudi M. Nachit<br />

Association of root water-uptake with drought adaptation in wheat ........................ 162<br />

Jai Prakash Jaiswal, P. K. Bhowmick and Anil Grover<br />

Selection of bread wheat genotypes for heat tolerance based on physiological traits<br />

and heat shock proteins .................................................................................................... 163<br />

Jlibene Mohammed<br />

Genetic gain estimate of field drought resistance in wheat in Morocco .................... 165<br />

Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini, Mohsen Edalat<br />

Effect of deficit irrigation in different growth stages on wheat growth and yield .... 166<br />

Hossein Khabaz-Saberi, Robin Wilson & Zed Rengel<br />

Tolerance to ion toxicities (Al, Mn and Fe): An opportunity to improve wheat<br />

performance in waterlogging-prone acid soils .............................................................. 167<br />

MEH Maatougui, A. Benbelkacem and M. Nachit<br />

Durum: Participatory breeding for a vital crop to Algeria .......................................... 169<br />

Mahfoozi S, Sasani S. Sarhadi E. and Hosseini, G.<br />

Breeding, physiological and molecular aspects of expression of freezing tolerance in<br />

wheat ................................................................................................................................... 171<br />

Bogdanova E.D., Makhmudova K.Kh.<br />

Collection of epi-lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) induced with<br />

bioactive substances .......................................................................................................... 172<br />

Richard E. Mason, Dirk B. Hays Suchismita Mondal, Francis Beecher, Amir Ibrahim<br />

QTL associated with heat susceptibility index and temperature depression<br />

in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under reproductive stage heat stress ....................... 173<br />

8


Reza Mohammadi, Ahmed Amri, Davood Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad Armion,<br />

Malak Massoud Ahmadi, Reza Haghparast, Salvatore Ceccarelli<br />

GGE-Biplot analysis of rain-fed Durum wheat multi-environments trials in Iran.. 175<br />

Goodarz Najafian and Farshad Bakhtiar<br />

A simple and efficient two step manner of drought tolerance indices use to wheat<br />

screening practices for drought tolerance ...................................................................... 176<br />

Ricardo Ferraz de Oliveira, Mariam Sulaiman and Saulo de Tarso Aidar<br />

Effects of progressive water stress on photosynthesis in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ......177<br />

Emel Ozer, Seyfi Taner, Aysun G. Akcaçık, İbrahim Kara, Yüksel Kaya<br />

Wheat studies in Anatolian region of Turkey ................................................................ 179<br />

Enver E. Andeden, Faheem S. Baloch, Benjamin Kilian, Miloudi Nachit, Hakan Özkan<br />

Allelic diversity for vernalization and photoperiod genes in bread wheat cultivars<br />

and landraces from Turkey .............................................................................................. 180<br />

Pakhomeev O<br />

New winter wheat varieties for rainfed conditions Kyrgyzstan .................................. 181<br />

Madhav Pandey, Amrit Paudel, Katrin Link, Wolfgang Friedt<br />

Possibility of using root growth angle as a trait for enhanced drought tolerance<br />

in wheat .............................................................................................................................. 182<br />

Vítámvás P., Kosová K., Škodáček Z., Pánková K., Milec Z., Planchon S., Renaut J.,<br />

Prášil I.T.<br />

Quantitative analysis of proteome in wheat substitution lines during long-term cold<br />

acclimation ......................................................................................................................... 183<br />

M. Roostaei, S.A. Mohammadi, A. Amri, E. Majidi and R. Haghparast<br />

Accumulation of photosynthesis assimilate in grain in the recombinant inbred lines<br />

population of wheat derived from cross between Azar2 and 87Zhong291 under<br />

drought condition ............................................................................................................. 184<br />

V. Ryabchun and N. Riabchun<br />

Methods of winter hardiness tests in breeding of winter wheat in Ukraine ............. 185<br />

Sanchez Garcia M, Álvaro F, Martin Sánchez JA, Royo C<br />

Changes in the pattern of adaptation of bread wheat varieties widely grown i<br />

n Spain during the 20th century ..................................................................................... 187<br />

Sarcevic, Hrvoje, Ikic, Ivica, Baric, Marijana, Tomasovic, Slobodan, Mlinar, Rade,<br />

and Gunjaca, Jerko<br />

Expression of seed dormancy in Croatian-grown winter wheats at different<br />

germination temperatures ................................................................................................ 188<br />

Sindhu Sareen, B. S. Tyagi, Gyanendra Singh, Jag Shoran and S.S. Singh<br />

Evaluation of wheat synthetic hexaploids for heat tolerance using stress indices .... 190<br />

S. Sasani, S. Mahfoozi, R. Tavakkol-Afshari & B. Trevaskis<br />

The relationships among the vernalization response, carbohydrate accumulation,<br />

developmental stages and frost tolerance in bread wheat ............................................ 191<br />

Emilija Simeonovska, Suzana Kratovalieva, Sonja Ivanovska, Zoran Jovovic<br />

Coleoptile length of some wheat varieties and lines and their derived mutant lines ... 192<br />

J.H.J. Spiertz and Xinyou Yin<br />

Effects of abiotic stress on grain yield and quality of wheat ........................................ 193<br />

9


Ratan Tiwari, Rajender Singh, Sindhu Sareen, Jag Shoran and S. S. Singh<br />

Molecular characterization of terminal heat tolerance in wheat ................................ 195<br />

Aziz ur Rehman, Nadeem Ahmad, M Arif Khan, Makhdoom Hussain, NI Khan,<br />

M. Zulkiffal, et al.<br />

Identification of sources for heat, salt, drought and frost tolerance in spring wheat<br />

(Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm .................................................................................. 196<br />

Lettice A. Canete Dias, Eliane C.G.Vendruscolo; Ivan Schuster, Marise Fonseca dos Santos<br />

Physiologic and biochemical responses of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum l.)<br />

submitted to water-deficit stress in different phenologic stages of development ..... 198<br />

Gholam Reza Zamani, Reihaneh Farshid, Mohammad Ali Behdani<br />

Effects of salinity and nitrogen use methods on yield and yield components<br />

of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)....................................................................................... 199<br />

Y. Zelenskiy, A. Morgounov, Y. Manes, D. Singh, M. Karabayev, A. Baytassov,<br />

K. Abdullayev, et al.<br />

Results of evaluation of spring wheat germplasm through Kazakhstan-Siberia Network .. 200<br />

Gyanendra Singh, BS Tyagi, Sindhu Sareen, Jag Shoran and SS Singh<br />

Breeding for improved tolerance in wheat against abiotic factors to enhance<br />

productivity under global climate changes .................................................................. 202<br />

Plenary Session 4: Wheat genetics and breeding for biotic stresses<br />

Oral presentations<br />

Robert Loughman, Manisha Shankar, Michael Francki, Robin Wilson and Richard Oliver<br />

Strategies for improving wheat resistance to necrotrophic diseases .......................... 204<br />

Stephen B. Goodwin and Ian Thompson<br />

Development of isogenic lines for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat ...... 206<br />

P.K. Singh, E. Duveiller, and R.P. Singh<br />

Breeding for resistance to tan spot of wheat at CIMMYT, Mexico ............................ 207<br />

L Tamburic-Ilincic, DE Falk, M Serajazari, and AW Schaafsma<br />

Breeding strategies for Fusarium Head Blight resistance (FHB) and lower<br />

deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in winter wheat in Ontario, Canada ............. 208<br />

Faccio P., Vázquez-Rovere C., Hopp E., González G., Décima C., Favret E., Díaz Paleo A.,<br />

Franzone P.<br />

Increased tolerance to wheat powdery mildew by heterologous constitutive<br />

expression of Solanum chacoense snakin-1 gene........................................................... 210<br />

Chunji Liu, Haobing Li, Jun Ma, Guijun Yan, Sukumar Chakraborty<br />

The homoeologous regions on long arms of group 3 chromosomes in wheat and<br />

barley harbour a major crown rot resistance locus....................................................... 212<br />

Nils-Ove Bertholdsson<br />

Ways to improve weed competitive ability in winter wheat ........................................ 214<br />

Poster presentations<br />

I.B. Ablova, L.A. Bespalova, A.P. Boiko<br />

FHB resistant model variety of North-Caucasians wheat ecotype and its<br />

implementation ................................................................................................................. 216<br />

10


M. Acevedo, J. M. Bonman, E. W. Jackson, A. M. Bateman, Y. Jin, P. Njau, R. Wanyera,<br />

H. Bockelman, B. Goates, G. Brown-Guedira<br />

Mining a collection of wheat landraces for resistance to new races of Puccinia<br />

graminis f. sp. tritici ........................................................................................................... 218<br />

Afshari, Farzad, K. Nazari and Sh. Abrahimnejad<br />

Identification of sources of resistance to stripe (yellow) rust in Iranian land races<br />

of wheat .............................................................................................................................. 220<br />

Emad M. Al-Maaroof, Kazal K. Abas, Faris A. Fiahd, Hassan I. Ismael<br />

and Azhar K. Hussein<br />

Developing of new wheat cultivar resistant to yellow and brown rust diseases ....... 221<br />

Alwan E, Ogbonnaya FC, Ayele B, Nazari K, Abdalla O, Yahyaoui A, and Hakim SH<br />

Characterization of Stem Rust resistant genes in wild tetraploids ............................. 222<br />

Karim Ammar, Sybil A. Herrera-Foessel, Julio Huerta-Espino, Jose Crossa and Ravi P. Singh<br />

Resistance to leaf rust in durum wheat via the accumulation of minor, adult-plant<br />

resistance genes ................................................................................................................. 223<br />

Joseph M. Anderson, Mahua Deb, Emily Overton, Gregor Siegmund, Charles Mansfield,<br />

Shawn Connelly, and Christina Cowger<br />

Wheat Viruses: A multi-plex PCR method that detects ten viruses and its use<br />

in epidemiological studies in the United States ............................................................ 225<br />

Abdybek Asanaliev, Olga Mayboroda, Dimitry Ten, Omorbek Mambetov,<br />

Abduhakim Islamov, Ernazar Baltabaev, Jayl Bolokbaev, Arne Hede<br />

Present status of Sunn Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) in Kyrgyzstan ............................ 227<br />

Aubekerova, N, D. Ten, A. Islamov, and A. Hede<br />

Phyto-pathological assessment of new wheat varieties in Kyrgyzstan ....................... 229<br />

Urmil Bansal, Rebecca Zwart, M Sivasamy, Davinder Singh, Vidya Gupta,<br />

Harbans Bariana<br />

Mapping of adult plant stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar VL404 ....................... 230<br />

Sridhar Bhavani, Ravi P. Singh, Julio Huerta-Espino, Davinder Singh, and Yue Jin<br />

Mapping of Ug99 effective stem rust resistance genes Sr45 and SrNing<br />

on chromosomes 1DS and 4BL in CIMMYT wheat germplasm ................................ 231<br />

Necmettin Bolat, Julie M. Nicol, Ali F. Yildirim, Aysel Yorgancilar, Abdullah T. Kilinç, et al.<br />

Identification of genetic resistance to cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera filipjevi)<br />

for international bread wheat improvement .................................................................. 232<br />

S. de Groot.and W.C. Botes<br />

Applying male sterility mediated marker assisted recurrent mass selection<br />

in a pre-breeding strategy for accumulating disease resistance genes ....................... 234<br />

A.A. Buloichik, V.S. Borzyak, E.A. Voluevich<br />

Chromosome localization of specific and non-specific components of common<br />

wheat polygenic resistance to brown rust ...................................................................... 235<br />

Castillo, N., Cordo, C., Juliano, F., Kripelz, N., Simón, M.R.<br />

Resistance to septoria tritici blotch in Argentinean wheat cultivars .......................... 237<br />

Ricciardi M, Tocho E, Tacaliti MS, Vasicek A, Giménez DO, Simmonds J, Snape JW<br />

and Castro AM<br />

Mapping quantitative trait loci in wheat involved in resistance against Russian<br />

Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) ...................................................................................... 239<br />

11


Kadir Akan, Zafer Mert, Lütfi Çetin, Fazıl Düşünceli, Necmettin Bolat,<br />

Mustafa Çakmak, Savaş Belen, Özcan Yorgancılar<br />

Research on inheritance of yellow rust resistance in Izgi 01 wheat cultivar ............. 240<br />

Jana Chrpova, Václav Sip, Lenka Stockova, Ondrej Veskrna, Karla Rehorova, Pavel Horcicka<br />

Resistance to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat varieties .................................... 241<br />

Mária Csősz, László Purnhauser, Beáta Tóth, József Bakonyi, László Cseuz<br />

Resistance breeding against leaf spot diseases in Szeged, Hungary ........................... 242<br />

Jerzy H. Czembor, Henryk J. Czembor, Aleksandra Pietrusińska, Marco Maccaferri,<br />

Maria Corinna Sanguineti, Mantovani Paola, Roberto Tuberosa<br />

Powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance in a collection of durum wheat elite<br />

accessions ........................................................................................................................... 244<br />

Emin Donmez, Ayten Salantur, Selami Yazar<br />

Sunn Pest tolerance of Central Anatolian wheat varieties ........................................... 245<br />

Drabešová, J., Zouhar, M., Mazáková J., Ryšánek, P., Věchet, L.<br />

Old Czech wheat cultivars as a new possible source of resistance to Mycosphaerella<br />

graminicola ............................................................................................................................246<br />

Etienne Duveiller, David Hodson and Andreas von Tiedemann<br />

Wheat blast caused by Maganaporthe grisea: a reality and new challenge for wheat<br />

research ............................................................................................................................... 247<br />

Zebuniso Eshonova, Mahbubjon Rahmatov, Ahadhon Ibrogimov,<br />

Munira Otambekova, et al.<br />

Monitoring and evaluation of Yellow Rust for breeding resistant varieties of wheat<br />

in Tajikistan ........................................................................................................................ 249<br />

Firdissa Eticha, Solomon Gelalcha, Bedada Girma, Habtemariam Zegeye,<br />

Getaneh Zewudu, Ravi Singhand Osman Abdalla<br />

Performance of Ug99 resistant CIMMYT bread wheat lines in Ethiopia .................. 251<br />

Somayyeh Fallahi-Motlagh, Ramin Roohparvar and Mohammdreza Zamanizadeh<br />

Genetic diversity of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola in Iran .. 252<br />

G. Fedak, W. Cao, D. Chi, A. Xue, J. Gilbert, A. Comeau, T. Ouellet, J. Zeng, Y. Yang,<br />

P. Hucl, M. Savard and F. P. Han<br />

Studies on improving the Fusarium head blight resistance of wheat and triticale ... 253<br />

Kimberly Garland-Campbell, Carl Walker, Allison Thompson, Richard Alldredge,<br />

Harold Bockelman, Alexander Loladze<br />

Rust resistance and the US Wheat Germplasm Collection ......................................... 255<br />

Goral T., Wisniewska H., Ochodzki P., Nielsen L.K., Justensen A.F., Walentyn-Goral D.,<br />

Belter J., Jorgensen L.N., Kwiatek M.<br />

Relationships between Fusarium head infection, kernel damage, and concentration<br />

of Fusarium DNA and Fusarium metabolites in grain of winter wheat breeding lines<br />

inoculated with Fusarium culmorum ........................................................................................256<br />

E.Gultyaeva, E. Kosman, A. Dmitriev, O. Baranova<br />

Population structure of Puccinia triticina in Russia during 2007, as assessed<br />

by virulence and molecular markers .............................................................................. 258<br />

Alena Hanzalová, Pavel Bartoš<br />

Leaf Rust resistance genes Lr10, Lr26 and Lr37 determined by molecular markers<br />

in wheat cultivars registered in the Czech Republic ..................................................... 260<br />

12


Sybil A. Herrera-Foessel, Evans S. Lagudah, Julio Huerta-Espino, Matthew Hayden,<br />

Harbans S. Bariana, Ravi P. Singh<br />

Yr46: a new adult plant stripe rust resistance gene associated with Lr67 in RL6077 ... 261<br />

L. Herselman, S.L. Sydenham, K.J. Senoko, R. Prins, and Z.A. Pretorius<br />

Combining wheat rust and Fusarium head blight resistance genes and QTL using<br />

marker-assisted selection ................................................................................................. 262<br />

Colin Hiebert, Wolfgang Spielmeyer Julian Thomas, Brent McCallum, Matthew Hayden,<br />

Gavin Humphreys, Ron DePauw, Rohit Mago, Wendelin Schnippenkoetter<br />

Leaf rust resistance gene Lr67, a third adult plant slow-rusting gene conferring<br />

resistance to multiple pathogens of wheat ..................................................................... 264<br />

Julio Huerta-Espino, S. A. Herrera-Foessel and R. P. Singh<br />

Genetic analysis of resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in near-immune<br />

CIMMYT wheat ‘Chapio’ ................................................................................................. 265<br />

Ittu M., Cana L., Ittu G.<br />

Status of wheat pathosystems from 1990 to 2009 and applications in breeding for<br />

resistance at NARDI-Fundulea ....................................................................................... 266<br />

Madhu Meeta Jindal, Sukhwinder Kaur, Daolin Fu, Jorge Dubcovsky and Lynn Epstein<br />

WKS1 (Wheat Kinase START) limits growth and consequently sporulation of<br />

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in wheat. ...................................................................... 268<br />

Johnson, J.W.; Buntin, G. D.: Harman-Bost, K. and Cambron, S.<br />

Breeding for Hessian fly resistance in the southeast ..................................................... 269<br />

U. Kumar, A. K. Joshi, S. Kumar, R. Chand and M. S. Röder<br />

Quantitative trait loci for resistance to spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana<br />

in wheat (T. aestivum L.) lines ‘Ning 8201’ and ‘Chirya 3’ .......................................... 270<br />

Yuki Kawanishi, Ichiro Tsutsui, Atsushi Torada, Haruka Ohta, Minako Ogasawara,<br />

Masaya Hayashi, Eriko Nishii<br />

Development of highly resistant wheat lines to Fusarium head blight derived<br />

from Chinese source ‘Fujian5114’................................................................................... 271<br />

M. Khodarahmi, Y. Reihani and F. Afshari<br />

Genetic analysis of stem rust resistance in bread wheat and detection of resistance<br />

gene with multi-pathotypes test ...................................................................................... 272<br />

M. M. Kohli, Y.R. Mehta, E. Guzman, L. de Viedma and L.E. Cubilla<br />

Pyricularia blast – a threat to wheat cultivation ........................................................... 273<br />

Alma Kokhmetova, Alex Morgounov, Shynbolat Rsaliev, Lubov Tyupina, Gulzat<br />

Essenbekova<br />

Genetic improvement of wheat resistance to dangerous races of Stem Rust using<br />

conventional and molecular techniques trough international cooperation .............. 274<br />

Alexander V. Konarev, Alison Lovegrove, Frédéric Beaudoin, Justin Marsh, Nina A.<br />

Vilkova, Ludmila I. Nefedova, Dilek Sivri Özay, Hamit Köksel, Peter. R. Shewry<br />

Characterization of a novel glutenin-specific proteinase of Sunn bug Eurygaster<br />

integriceps Put. responsible for wheat gluten degradation ........................................... 276<br />

E. D. Kovalenko, A. I. Zhemchuzhina, N. N. Kurkova<br />

Effect of wheat cultivars on variability of leaf rust populations .................................. 278<br />

A. Zhemchuzhina, N. Kurkova<br />

Structure of populations of Puccinia triticina in various regions of Russia in 2006-2008 ...279<br />

13


Lapochkina I. F., Gajnullin N. R., Dzhenin S. V., Makarova I. Ju, Yatchevskaya G. L.,<br />

Iordanskaya I. V., Kovalenko E. D., Zemchuzhina A. I.<br />

Diversity of genes of resistance to leaf rust in “Arsenal” wheat collection ................ 280<br />

Žilvinas Liatukas, Vytautas Ruzgas<br />

Take-all resistance of European winter wheat progenies ............................................. 282<br />

Iago Z. Lowe, Shiaoman Chao, Xianming Chen, Deven See, and Jorge Dubcovsky<br />

Discovery of two quantitative resistance genes to current California races of Stripe<br />

Rust in the mapping population UC1110 x PI610750 ...................................................... 284<br />

Silvia Germán, Pablo Campos, Marcia Chaves, Ricardo Madariaga, Sergio Ceretta,<br />

Julio Huerta-Espino, Sybil Herrera-Foessel, Ravi P. Singh<br />

Differential expression of partial resistance to wheat leaf rust in Mexico<br />

and the Southern Cone of America ................................................................................ 285<br />

Malinga J.N., Pathak R.S., Amulaka F., Alomba E, Awalla J., Kinyua M.., Njau P.<br />

and Cakir M.<br />

Developing Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance in bread wheat<br />

under stem rust (Ug99) threat in Kenya : Challenges, strategies and prospects ....... 287<br />

Evženie Prokinová, Jana Mazáková, Miloslav Zouhar, Pavel Ryšánek and Marie Váňová<br />

Quantitative PCR as a tool for Tilletia spp. detection and quantification<br />

in timbering wheat plants ................................................................................................ 288<br />

X. Wang, B.D. McCallum, T. Fetch, G. Bakkeren, G. F. Marais, and B. Saville<br />

Comparative analysis of Thatcher near-isogenic wheat lines with leaf rust resistance<br />

genes Lr2a, Lr3, and LrB interacting with Puccinia triticina virulence phenotypes<br />

BBBD, MBDS and FBDJ ........................................................................................................ 289<br />

Anne L. McKendry, Md. Sariful Islam<br />

Quantitative trait loci associated Fusarium Head Blight resistance in the Soft Red<br />

Winter Wheat, ‘Truman’ .................................................................................................. 290<br />

Kadir Akan, Zafer Mert, Lütfi Çetin, Fazıl Düsünceli, Ruth Wanyera, Davinder Singh<br />

Global initiatives for management of UG99 Stem Rust race and reactions of winter<br />

wheat genotypes to UG99 in 2009 year ............................................................................... 292<br />

P. Horevaj, D. Moon, and E. A. Milus<br />

Deoxynivalenol level in wheat grain highly associated with percentage of scabby<br />

grain caused by Fusarium graminearum ....................................................................... 294<br />

Z.V. Sikharulidze, K.T. Natsarishvili, L.A. Mgeladze<br />

Virulence structure of the wheat stem and leaf rusts population in Georgia ........... 296<br />

Njau P. N.; Wanyera R.; Singh D., and Gethi. M<br />

Release Stem Rust resistant varieties for commercial production in Kenya ............. 298<br />

Olivera PD, Jin Y, Badebo A, Bedada G, Amar K, Goates B, and Bockelman HE<br />

Resistance to TTKSK in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) ................. 299<br />

Pauline Bansept, Jon White, Kerry Maguire, James Cockram, Ian Mackay,<br />

Simon Griffiths, Rosemary Bayles, Donal O’Sullivan*<br />

An association genetics approach to the identification of potentially durable<br />

yellow rust resistance in UK elite wheat germplasm .................................................... 300<br />

Robert F. Park, Davinder Singh, Urmil Bansal<br />

A critical analysis of the additivity of minor gene adult plant resistance<br />

to stripe rust ................................................................................................................. 301<br />

14


I. Paul and M Booyse<br />

Estimation of the cost-effectiveness of fungicide application for control of fungal<br />

diseases of wheat in the Western Cape, South Africa .................................................. 303<br />

Aleksandra Pietrusińska<br />

The introduction into winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) of a major genes for<br />

resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) and leaf rust<br />

(Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici) from wild wheat .......................................................... 304<br />

Mahbubjon Rahmatov, Arnulf Merker, Garkava-Gustavsson L, Hafiz Muminjanov,<br />

Arne Hede, Eva Johansson<br />

Isolation of different wheat-rye translocation combinations from a disease resistant<br />

double translocation line with 1RS/1BL and 2RL/2BS................................................. 305<br />

A Ramdani, A Yahyaoui, K Nazari, S M Udupa<br />

Effective yellow rust resistance genes in wheat under Moroccan conditions ........... 306<br />

Somayyeh Fallahi-Motlagh, Ramin Roohparvar and Mohammdreza Zamanizadeh<br />

Genetic diversity of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola in Iran .....307<br />

Matthew N. Rouse, Brian Steffenson, and Yue Jin<br />

Genetics of resistance to race TTKSK of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Triticum<br />

monococcum ....................................................................................................................308<br />

M. S. Saharan, A. K. Sharma and S. S. Singh<br />

Slow rusting resistance in Indian wheat genotypes to leaf rust under artificially<br />

inoculated conditions ....................................................................................................... 309<br />

S.S. Sanin, Y.A. Strizhekozin, X.M. Chen, and S.B. Goodwin<br />

Epidemic resistance to disease complex in various regions of Russia in wheat cultivars ....311<br />

Flávio Santana, Eduardo Caierão, Pedro Luiz Scheeren, Márcio Só e Silva, Márcia<br />

Chaves, João Leodato Nunes Maciel<br />

The most important wheat diseases in Brazil ................................................................ 312<br />

V. Shamanin, A. Morgounov, Y. Zelenskiy, Y. Manes, A. Chursin, M. Levshunov<br />

Spring wheat breeding for leaf and stem rusts under West Siberia environment .... 314<br />

Indu Sharma, N. S. Bains and V. S. Sohu<br />

Status of rust resistance in wheat in Punjab, India ....................................................... 315<br />

A. Singh, M.R. Fernandez, D. Somers, C.J. Pozniak, J.M. Clarke, R.E. Knox,<br />

F.R. Clarke, R.M. DePauw, and A.K. Singh<br />

Common root rot reaction in a diverse durum wheat collection and association<br />

mapping of resistance genes ............................................................................................ 316<br />

D. Singh, P. Njau, B. Girma, S. Bhavani, R.P. Singh, R. Wanyera, A. Badebo, S. Gelacha,<br />

G. Woldeab, J. Huerta-Espino, M. Gethi, H-J. Braun and G. Cisar<br />

Screening and breeding for wheat Stem Rust resistance in East Africa ..................... 317<br />

Long-Xi Yu, Jessica Rutkoski, Ravi Singh, Alexey Morgounov and Mark Sorrells<br />

Haplotype and association analyses of Stem Rust resistance in current wheat<br />

breeding germplasm ......................................................................................................... 318<br />

SL Sydenham, L Herselman and WM Kriel<br />

Marker-assisted backcross breeding for Fusarium head blight resistance in South<br />

African wheat..................................................................................................................... 319<br />

S. M. Tabib Ghaffary, Justin D. Faris, Timothy L. Friesen, Gert H.J. Kema<br />

Identification of a new resistance gene to septoria tritici blotch in wheat................. 320<br />

15


Victoria A. Valdez, Scott D. Haley, Frank B. Peairs, Leon van Eck, Steven R. Scofield<br />

and Nora L.V. Lapitan<br />

Involvement of (1→3,1→4)-β-glucanase in compatible Russian wheat aphid-wheat<br />

interactions and the impact on durable resistance ....................................................... 321<br />

Vasilyev A.V., Bespalova L. A., Karlov G. I., Solovyev А. А, Filobok V. A., Sukhoveeva O.<br />

E., Davoyan E. R., Khudokormova J.M.<br />

Marker-assisted selection for leaf rust resistance in the winter wheat in Krasnodar<br />

Lukyanenko Research Institute of Agriculture.............................................................. 322<br />

Ondrej Veskrna, Jana Chrpova, Pavel Vejl, Tibor Sedlacek, Pavel Horcicka<br />

Reaction of tolerant wheat genotypes to BYDV-PAV artificial infection .................. 324<br />

Vida, G., Komáromi, J., Szunics L., Kosman, E., Láng, L., Bedő, Z., Veisz, O.<br />

Virulence of the wheat powdery mildew population and the efficiency of Pm<br />

resistance genes ................................................................................................................. 325<br />

C.R. Wellings<br />

The biology and epidemiology of Stripe (Yellow) Rust in Australia – The basis<br />

for a national integrated disease control strategy ......................................................... 327<br />

G. T Yu, S. S. Xu, M. O. Harris, X. Cai, C. E. Willams, Y.-Q. Gu, M.-C. Luo<br />

Development of PCR-based markers for Marker-Assisted Selection of H26<br />

and H32 for Hessian fly resistance .................................................................................. 328<br />

A. G. Xue, Y.H. Chen, H. D. Voldeng, G. Fedak, and M. E. Savard<br />

Biocontrol of Fusarium head blight in wheat using ACM941-CU, a formulated<br />

product of Clonostachys rosea strain ACM941 .............................................................. 330<br />

Omran Youssef<br />

Detection and distribution of rust diseases on wheat in Syria during period 2007–2009 ..331<br />

Z.M. Ziyaev, R.C. Sharma, K. Nazari, A.I. Morgounov, A.A. Amanov, Z.F. Ziyadullaev,<br />

Z.I. Khalikulov and S.M. Alikulov<br />

Improving wheat Stripe Rust resistance in Central Asia and the Caucasus: present<br />

status and future outlook ................................................................................................. 332<br />

Yuchun Zou, Ennian Yang, Wuyun Yang, Yonglu Tang, Zhonghu He, and Ravi P. Singh<br />

Breeding adult plant resistance to stripe rust in spring bread wheat germplasm<br />

adapted to Sichuan Province of China ........................................................................... 334<br />

R.S. Zwart, N. Shah, U.K Bansal, M. Sivasamy, D. Singh, H. Miah, H. Raman, P. Martin, et al.<br />

QTL mapping of stem rust resistance in wheat ............................................................. 335<br />

Plenary Session 5: Wheat breeding for yield potential<br />

Oral presentations<br />

Daniel F. Calderini<br />

Contributions of crop physiology to the sustained increase of wheat yield potential ......338<br />

Sun Qixin, Ni Zhongfu, Peng Huiru, Yao Yingyin, Du Jinkun, Liu Gang, Lu Lahu<br />

Towards the understanding of genetic and molecular basis of heterosis in wheat<br />

(Triticum aestivum L.) ...................................................................................................... 340<br />

Fernanda G. González, Gustavo A. Slafer, Daniel J. Miralles,<br />

Spike growth regulating rate of death and survival of floret primordia seem key<br />

processes determining grain number in wheat ............................................................. 342<br />

16


Alistair Pask, Roger Sylvester-Bradley Peter Jamieson And John Foulkes<br />

Quantifying how winter wheat crops accumulate and use nitrogen reserves during growth 344<br />

S.S. Singh<br />

Domestic wheat production and future prospects ....................................................... 346<br />

Poster presentations<br />

Khaled Aisawi, John Foulkes, Matthew Reynolds And Sean Mayes<br />

The physiological basis of the genetic progress in yield potential of CIMMYT<br />

wheat varieties from 1966 to 2009 .................................................................................. 349<br />

Christian Alfaro, Iván Matus and Ricardo Madariaga<br />

Identification of durum wheat genotypes for irrigated and dry land areas of central<br />

south of Chile..................................................................................................................... 350<br />

Ignacio Alzueta, Gabriela L Abeledo, and Daniel J. Miralles<br />

Nitrogen availability in pre and post anthesis and its effect on grain yield and quality<br />

in contrasting bread wheat cultivars ............................................................................... 351<br />

Asiwe J.A.N., Malan A.<br />

Germplasm development in wheat pre-breeding programme at ARC-Small Grain<br />

Institute, Bethlehem, South Africa ................................................................................. 353<br />

S. Ayadi, Y. Trifa, C. Karmous, Z. Hammami and S. Rezgui<br />

Genetic variability of Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) components in a selected<br />

Durum wheat cultivars ..................................................................................................... 354<br />

Azab Moustafa, M.A.; M.S.Shrshar; T.Shehab El-Din; M.Abo Shereef;<br />

S.Abdel- Majeed; et al.<br />

Grain yield and stability of the new Durum wheat (Triticum durum) cultivar Bani<br />

Sweef 6 under different environmental conditions in Egypt ....................................... 355<br />

L.A. Bespalova, I.N. Kudryashov, F.A. Kolesnikov, I.B. Ablova, G.D. Nabokov, N.P. Fomenko, et al.<br />

Efficiency and challenges of precise breeding of wheat ............................................... 356<br />

Bogacki Jerzy, Bogacka Maria, Banaszak Stanisław<br />

Achievements of wheat breeding at DANKO Ltd. on cereals market in Poland ...... 358<br />

Castellarín Julio M., Pedrol Hugo M., Ferraguti Facundo, Salvagiotti Fernando<br />

Nitrogen x Sulfur fertilization and its effects on biomass and grain yield in different<br />

wheat genotypes ................................................................................................................ 359<br />

De Vita P., Mastrangelo A.M., Matteu L., Mazzucotelli E., Virzì N., Palumbo M.,<br />

Lo Storto M., Rizza F., Cattivelli L<br />

Genetic improvement effects on yield stability and adaptability in durum wheat<br />

genotypes grown in Italy .................................................................................................. 361<br />

Denčić S and Kobiljski B<br />

Impact of CIMMYT programs on wheat breeding at IFVC, Novi Sad ...................... 362<br />

Georg Drezner, Kresimir Dvojkovic, Daniela Horvat, Dario Novoselovic, Vlado Guberac,<br />

Sonja Maric, Jasenka Cosic, Valentina Spanic, Josip Simenic, Jurica Primorac<br />

Grain yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars in different Croatian agroproductive<br />

environments ................................................................................................. 364<br />

M.K. Dzhunusova, A. I. Morgounov, R.Sharma, H.Islamov, D.Ten<br />

Breeding of wheat in Kyrgyzstan and international collaboration ............................. 366<br />

Ariel Ferrante, Roxana Savin, Gustavo A. Slafer<br />

Wheat floret development in response to nitrogen and water .................................... 378<br />

17


Ribas Vargas, G, Reynolds, M, De Silva, J, Gaju, O, Werner, P, Dodds, M, Aisawi, K,<br />

Sylvester-Bradley, R and Mayes, S and Foulkes, J<br />

Identifying novel traits and genetic markers for spike fertility in a wheat DH<br />

population of large-spike phenotype .............................................................................. 370<br />

Gaju, O, Allard, V, Martre, P, Snape, J, Heumez, E, Le Gouis, J, Moreau, D, Bogard, M,<br />

Griffiths, S, Orford, S, Hubbart, S, and Foulkes, J<br />

Identification of traits to improve the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) of wheat genotypes ..... 372<br />

Solomon Gelalcha, Birhanu Mamo, Desalegn Debello and Bedada Girma<br />

Genotype and testing site evaluation based on GGE bi-plot....................................... 374<br />

Hatice Geren, Riza Ünsal, İsmail Sevim, Lütfü Demir, İzzet Özseven, Nazım Dinçer,<br />

Şadiye Yaktubay, Alexi Morgounov, Beyhan Akın<br />

Improvement of yield and yield components of spring bread wheat varieties<br />

registered in Turkey .......................................................................................................... 375<br />

M. Addisu, R Uppal, JR Simmonds, T Wojciechowski, JW Snape and MJ Gooding<br />

Dwarfing (Rht) and photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd) alleles on establishment, yield,<br />

and nitrogen use efficiency of wheat .............................................................................. 376<br />

Mesut Keser, Alex Morgounov, Beyhan Akın, Yukesl Kaya<br />

Selecting winter wheat genotypes for low and high yield potential area by utilizing<br />

supplemental irrigation .................................................................................................... 378<br />

K.Kostov, E.Penchev, G.Rachovska, V. Dochev<br />

Study on the effects of the genotype x environment interaction of new Bulgarian<br />

wheat varieties ................................................................................................................... 379<br />

I.N. Kudryashov, L.A. Bespalova, A.V. Vasilyev, А.A. Romanenko<br />

Application of genotype x environment interaction effect in breeding and growing<br />

winter wheat varieties ....................................................................................................... 380<br />

Ma Qiang, Yu Guodong, Li Boqun, Li Zebi, Zhou Fengyun<br />

Research advance of the chongqing-thermo-photo-sensitive male sterile (CTGMS)<br />

hybrid wheat ...................................................................................................................... 382<br />

Iván Matus, Haroldo Salvo, Ricardo Madariaga, Claudio Jobet, Christian Alfaro, Nelson Espinosa<br />

Pantera – INIA Clearfield®, a high yield and high quality spring bread wheat<br />

variety for Chilean agriculture ........................................................................................ 383<br />

Daniel J. Miralles., Guillermo A. García, Fernanda G Gonzalez, Sara A. Maldonado<br />

and Martin D. Vazquez<br />

Internal morphological changes of floret primordia in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)<br />

in response to changes to photoperiod: When and why the floret die? ..................... 384<br />

Novica Mladenov, Nikola Hristov and Bojan Jockovic<br />

Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use eficiency ........................................ 386<br />

M. Mosaad, M. F.A. Saba, and O. Abdallah<br />

Genetic response of winter and facultative wheat to vernalization and photoperiod<br />

using biplot for diallel analysis ........................................................................................ 387<br />

Muminjanov H.А., Morgounov А.I.<br />

Wheat breeding in Tajikistan ........................................................................................... 388<br />

Irfan Öztürk, Turhan Kahraman, Yalçın Kaya, Remzi Avci<br />

Yield and some physiological characters of bread wheat (Triticun aestivum l.)<br />

varieties in Trakya region ................................................................................................. 390<br />

18


Anna Pedró, Roxana Savin, GustavoA. Slafer<br />

Crop yield in durum wheat and the performance of individual plants at jointing,<br />

anthesis and maturity ....................................................................................................... 392<br />

N.N. Petrova<br />

System approach to analysis of yield structure of winter wheat crop ........................ 394<br />

Slaven Prodanovic, Snezana Jankovic, Slobodan Drazic<br />

Changes of spike architecture during pedigree and bulk selection in wheat ............ 396<br />

László Purnhauser, Mária Csősz, László Láng<br />

Impact of the 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation and the Sr36/Pm6 resistance<br />

gene cluster in wheat cultivars registered in Hungary ................................................. 397<br />

M.Moznur Rahman<br />

Wheat breeding strategy in Bangladesh ......................................................................... 399<br />

G.Saeidi, B. Heidari, B. E. Sayed Tabatabaei<br />

Expected response to selection for grain yield and its components in wheat ........... 401<br />

Václav Šíp, Jana Chrpová, Zbyněk Milec, Kateřina Pánková and John W. Snape<br />

Effects of specific Rht and Ppd alleles on agronomic traits in the European winter<br />

wheat cultivars ................................................................................................................... 402<br />

Tegwe Soko and Ephrame Havazvidi<br />

GxE Interaction effects on grain yield of twenty-five bread wheat (Triticum<br />

aestivum L.) genotypes grown during the 2009 winter season in Zimbabwe ........... 403<br />

Vladimir Tishchenko, Mariia Batashova, Nikolay Chekalin<br />

Main directions of adaptive breeding of winter wheat for Forest-Steppe<br />

conditions in Ukraine ....................................................................................................... 404<br />

M.Vahabzadeh, E.Majidi Heravan, F.Bakhtiar, D.Afyoni, M.Sharifalhosseni,<br />

A.Ghandi, S.Bahraie and M.Torabi<br />

Bam - a new high quality and Stem Rust (UG99) resistance bread wheat<br />

cultivars for moderate climate zone with salinity of soil and water ........................... 405<br />

D. Villegas, K. Ammar, M.M. Cátedra, C. Harrati, S. Samah, J. Crossa, C. Royo<br />

Photoperiod sensitivity in durum wheat and its implications for adaptation .......... 406<br />

V.A. Vlasenko<br />

The adaptive potential in Ukraine of commercial winter wheat varieties with<br />

wheat-rye 1BL/1RS and 1AL/1RS translocations ......................................................... 407<br />

Hanmin Yuan, Dongsheng Chen, Xiaoliang Wang, Guizhen Zhao, Fuguo Zhang,<br />

Weijun Zhang, Ling Kang, Changkai Lai, Jinping Fan<br />

Winter wheat breeding and super wheat study in Yellow River Ningxia Basin ........ 409<br />

Y.H. Zhang, Z.M. Wang, S.L. Zhou<br />

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase activity of flag leaf and ear organs and the<br />

relations of PEPC to the accumulation of Carbon and Nitrogen of grain in wheat..... 411<br />

Plenary Session 6: Biotechnological and genomics tools in wheat improvement<br />

Oral presentations<br />

E Akhunov, C. Saintenac, J Dubcovsky, J Dvorak, MC Luo, PS Baenziger, V. Catana,<br />

R Matnyazov, et al.<br />

Genomic technologies and resources for wheat genetics and breeding .................... 414<br />

19


RM DePauw, RE Knox, JB Thomas, DG Humphreys, SL Fox, PD Brown, AK Singh,<br />

HS Randhawa, P. Hucl, C Pozniak, DB Fowler, RJ Graf, and A. Brule-Babel<br />

New breeding tools impact Canadian commercial farmer fields ............................... 416<br />

Peter M. Chandler and Carol A. Harding<br />

‘Overgrowth’ mutants of wheat: many new alleles at the ‘Green Revolution’<br />

dwarfing locus ................................................................................................................... 417<br />

S. Dreisigacker, R. Singh, Y. Manes, H-J. Braun<br />

Genotypic structures of the CIMMYT international yield trials targeted<br />

to irrigated and semi-arid environments ....................................................................... 418<br />

Eversole, Kellye<br />

The international wheat genome sequencing consortium (IWGSC): a genome<br />

sequence based platform to accelerate wheat improvement ....................................... 419<br />

Etienne Paux, Frédéric Choulet, Romain Philippe, Isabelle Bertin, Pierre Sourdille,<br />

Catherine Feuillet<br />

Insertion Site-Based Polymorphism (ISBP) markers open new perspectives for<br />

genome saturation and marker assisted selection in hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum)... 420<br />

R. M. Trethowan<br />

Integrating molecular technology in key Indian wheat breeding programs<br />

to improve yield and disease resistance .......................................................................... 421<br />

Poster presentations<br />

Abugalieva S.I., Volkova L.A., Turuspekov Y.K.<br />

The variation of SSR profiles in bread wheat germplasm of Kazakhstan................... 423<br />

Ahu Altinkut Uncuoğlu, Ezgi Cabuk, Aysen Yumurtaci, Yildiz Aydın<br />

Genomic abundance of various simple sequence motifs and conserved regions<br />

among the wheat genotypes for “yr” resistance genes .................................................. 424<br />

Vivi N. Arief, Ian H. DeLacy, Jose Crossa, Mark J. Dieters, Kaye E. Basford<br />

The use of pedigree, molecular marker and phenotypic data to investigate population<br />

structures in 25 years of the CIMMYT global wheat breeding program ...........................425<br />

Wardyńska A., Tyrka M., MikulskiW., Bednarek P.T.<br />

Structural rearrangements of wheat chromosomes in winter triticale mapping<br />

population .......................................................................................................................... 426<br />

Yves Landeau & Gilles Charmet<br />

General statistical power of nested association mapping ............................................ 428<br />

Chebotar S.V.<br />

Molecular-genetic analysis of Ukrainian bread wheat genetic pool ........................... 429<br />

Yu.V. Chesnokov, N.V. Pochepnya, L.V. Kozlenko, O.P. Mitrofanova, U. Lohwasser,<br />

A. Börner<br />

Localization of QTLs for agronomic important characters in spring wheat<br />

(Triticum aestivum L.) grown in different ecological places in Russia and Germany .. 430<br />

M. Ciucă<br />

Using Marker Assisted Selection in a low budget wheat breeding program ............. 432<br />

Dejan Dodig, Miroslav Zorić, Borislav Kobiljski, Vesna Kandić<br />

Population structure in a core collection of wheat and association study<br />

on a grain yield under different water regimes ............................................................. 434<br />

20


Kresimir Dvojkovic, Zlatko Satovic, Daryl J., Somers, Georg Drezner, Hrvoje Šarčević,<br />

Alojzije Lalic, et al.<br />

Genetic diversity of Croatian wheat cultivars ............................................................... 435<br />

Akkiraju, Pavan C. Gómez, Patricia; Roncallo, Pablo; Cervigni, Gerardo; Carrera, Alicia;<br />

Conti, Verónica; Miranda, Ruben, Wehrhahne, Liliana; Jensen, Carlos; Bariffi, Horacio;<br />

Echenique, Viviana<br />

Mapping genomic regions for grain yield and its components in Triticum<br />

turgidum L. var. durum across different environments ............................................... 437<br />

Nataliya Kovalchuk, Wei Wu, Natalia Bazanova, Margaret Pallotta, Rohan Singh,<br />

Neil Shirley, Ainur Ismagul, Serik Eliby, Alex Johnson, Maria Hrmova,<br />

Peter Langridge, and Sergiy Lopato<br />

Characterization of the grain specific wheat HDZipIV transcription factors .......... 439<br />

Fox, S.L., Marais, F., McCallum, B.D., Thomas, J.B.<br />

Developing a recurrent selection program for spring wheat utilizing the genetic<br />

male sterile gene Ms3: a proposal ................................................................................... 440<br />

Garcia-Oliveira AL, Silva-Navas J, Benito C, Guedes-Pinto H, Martins-Lopes P<br />

Cloning and mapping of candidate genes associated with aluminium tolerance<br />

in two Portuguese bread wheat landrace Barbela derived F2 families ....................... 441<br />

Emma Wallington, Sarah Bowden, Melanie Craze, Ruth Le Fevre, Huw Jones<br />

and Andy Greenland<br />

High efficiency transformation of hexaploid wheat: study of a phytic acid<br />

pathway gene...................................................................................................................... 442<br />

B. Heidari, B. E. Sayed Tabatabaei, G. Saeidi<br />

Quantitative Trait Loci controlling some morphological traits in wheat .................. 443<br />

Lucio Lombardo, Leonardo Vanzetti, Marcelo Helguera<br />

Detection of DNA polymorphisms associated with agronomic traits in common<br />

wheat by high resolution melt analysis........................................................................... 444<br />

Harris JC, Ismagul A, Eliby S, Oldach K, Singh R, Eini O, Nguyen O, Featherstone N,<br />

Bazanova N, Kovalchuk N, Langridge P and Lopato S.<br />

The role of HDZipI transcription factors in the drought responses of wheat<br />

(T. aestivum L) and barley (H. vulgare L) and their potential use in cisgenic crop<br />

improvement ...................................................................................................................... 445<br />

Qin Wei1, Zhao Guang-Yao, Qu Zhi-Cai, Zhang Li-Chao, Duan Jia-Lei, Li Ai-Li,<br />

Jia Ji-Zeng, and Kong Xiu-Ying<br />

Identification and analysis of TaWRKY34 gene induced by Wheat Powdery<br />

Mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) ....................................................................... 446<br />

Özge Karakaş, Ahu Altinkut Uncuoglu<br />

A comparative assessment of genetic diversity in wheat using EST-derived<br />

sequences ...................................................................................................................... 447<br />

Kershanskaya O.I.<br />

Genetic modification of photosynthesis and grain yield increasing in wheat<br />

genomics era ...................................................................................................................... 448<br />

Khlestkina E.K., Tereshchenko O.Y., Pshenichnikova T.A., Arbuzova V.S., Röder M.S.,<br />

Börner A., Salina E.A.<br />

Flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat: genome location and function .................... 449<br />

21


Paramjit Khurana and Harsh Chauhan<br />

Identification and characterization of high temperature stress responsive genes<br />

in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their regulation at various<br />

developmental stages ........................................................................................................ 451<br />

Kobiljski Borislav, Boerner Andreas, Kondic-Spika Ankica, Dencic Srbislav,<br />

Trkulja Dragana, Brbaklic Ljiljana<br />

How to validate potentially useful quantitative trait loci for efficient implementation<br />

of marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding ............................................................ 453<br />

Luxiang Liu, Huijun Guo, Linshu Zhao, Jayu Gu, Shirong Zhao<br />

Germplasm Enhancement and New Variety Development through Space<br />

Mutagenesis in Wheat ...................................................................................................... 454<br />

Yann Manès, Susanne Dreisigacker and David Bonnett<br />

Accumulation rates of favorable yield alleles in three spring wheat breeding schemes:<br />

marker-assisted recurrent selection, F2 gene enrichment and conventional selection ....455<br />

David Mester, Yefim Ronin, Dina Minkov and Abrham Korol<br />

An effective approach for consensus genetic mapping, with applications to cereal<br />

mapping .............................................................................................................................. 457<br />

Molnár-Láng, M, Szakács, É, Sepsi, A, Cseh, A, Kruppa K, Linc, G, Molnár, I.<br />

Molecular cytogenetic characterization and physical mapping of wheat/barley<br />

introgression lines ............................................................................................................. 458<br />

O.O. Molodchenkova, V.G. Adamovskaya, L.Y. Ciselskaya, T.V. Sagaydak, L.Ya.<br />

Vezkrovnaya, Yu.A. Levitsky<br />

Physiological and biochemical approaches to the assessment of mechanisms for<br />

establishing induced resistance to phyto-diseases and temperature stress of wheat.... 460<br />

Donaire, G., Nisi, J., Helguera, M., Bainotti, C., Fraschina, J., Masiero, B., Cuniberti, M.,<br />

López, J., Salines, J., Alberione, E. and Formica, B.<br />

Characterization of the genetic variability of the national bread wheat (Triticum<br />

aestivum l.) breeding program of INTA using molecular markers ............................ 462<br />

C. J. Pozniak, P. J. Hucl, J.M. Clarke, F.R. Clarke, R. E. Knox, and A.K. Singh<br />

Towards a physical map of SSt1, a major locus conferring solid stem expression in wheat .... 464<br />

Harpinder Randhawa, Aakash Goyal, Leslie Bihari, Eric Amundsen and François Eudes<br />

Improving the frequency of green plantlet generation using Isolated Microspore<br />

Culture (IMC) for doubled haploid production in wheat and triticale ..................... 465<br />

Jessica Rutkoski, Mark Sorrells<br />

Efficient incorporation of adult plant resistance to Stem Rust in adapted germplasm<br />

using genomic selection ................................................................................................... 466<br />

Carolina Saint Pierre, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Matthew Reynolds<br />

Evaluation of transformed wheat lines under water stress: results from an open-field trial ... 467<br />

E.A. Salina, I.N. Leonova, E.M. Egorova, E.B. Budashkina, M. Röder<br />

Development and application of Triticum timopheevii mapping data in wheat<br />

resistance management strategies ................................................................................... 468<br />

Sandra Maria Mansur Scagliusi, Gisele Abigail Montan Torres,<br />

Márcia Soares Chaves, Andreza Simioni<br />

Use of high molecular weight glutenin analyses as a tool to avoid self-pollinated<br />

seeds when developing double haploid populations .................................................... 470<br />

22


Sestili F., Botticella E., Janni M., Doherty A., Paoletti F., Jones H., D’Ovidio R.,<br />

Lafiandra D.<br />

Production of wheat high amylose starches through the knockout of SBEIIa genes ... 471<br />

M.N.Shapturenko and L.V.Khotyleva<br />

Formation of genetic variability at spring wheat Opal disomic lines ......................... 472<br />

P. Strelchenko, O. Mitrofanova, F. Balfourier<br />

Differentiation of wheat germplasm based on microsatellite loci analysis ................ 473<br />

O.E. Sukhoveeva, G.I. Karlov<br />

The application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection<br />

of the leaf rust resistance genes of wheat ....................................................................... 475<br />

Guozhong Sun, Guangxia You, Fei Yuan, Jingyan Sun, Haibo Wang, Shihe Xiao<br />

Validation of 86 molecular markers and identification of 56 genes, Alleles<br />

and QTLs in Chinese wheat cultivars ............................................................................. 476<br />

Jo Anne Crouch, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Christina Cuomo, Zack A. Pretorius<br />

and Les J. Szabo<br />

A panel of SNP-based real-time PCR probes for the rapid and accurate<br />

detection of Ug99 ............................................................................................................477<br />

Abugalieva S.I., Turuspekov Y.K.<br />

Genetic variation of Gli-2 in Kazakh wheat cultivars ................................................... 478<br />

Wang Haibo<br />

Problems should be paid attention in crop molecular breeding ................................. 479<br />

Tobias Wuerschum and Jochen C. Reif<br />

Association mapping in wheat ........................................................................................ 481<br />

Aysen Yumurtaci, Yildiz Aydin, Fahriye Ertugrul, Ahu Altinkut Uncuoglu<br />

Variability of salinity tolerance responses among bread and durum wheat<br />

at morphology, physiology and transcript level ............................................................ 482<br />

Kunpu Zhang, Daowen Wang, Guangfeng Chen, Jichun Tian<br />

Identification of chromosomal regions conferring leaf morphological traits<br />

in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ............................................................................ 483<br />

Plenary session 7: Wheat genetics and breeding for grain quality<br />

Oral presentations<br />

Peter R. Shewry and Gilles Charmet<br />

Improving the health benefits of wheat grain ................................................................ 486<br />

J.I. Ortiz-Monasterio, and W.H. Pfeiffer<br />

HarvestPlus: A global effort to increase micronutrient concentration of wheat ...... 488<br />

S. L. K. Hsam, F.L. Stoddard<br />

Development of wheat genotypes with novel starch characteristics .......................... 490<br />

N. A. Litvinenko, A. I. Rybalka<br />

Achievements and new genetic aspects of winter bread wheat grain quality<br />

improvement in breeding programs of Plant Breeding & Genetics Institute............ 491<br />

NI Jing, XU Zhi-bin, WANG Tao<br />

Dynamic change of grain sugar, starch, protein contents during grain filling<br />

stage in waxy wheat........................................................................................................... 492


Vázquez, D.; Berger, A.; Cuniberti, M.; Bainotti, C.; Miranda, M. Z. de, M.; Scheeren, P. L.;<br />

Jobet, C.; Peña, R. J.; Cabrera, G.; Verges, R.<br />

Genotype and environment effects on quality of 23 wheat genotypes cultivated<br />

in 20 Latin American environments ............................................................................... 493<br />

Poster presentations<br />

L. Gabriela Abeledo, Ignacio Alzueta, Daniel J. Miralles<br />

The grain C:N ratio as an early determinant of the grain nitrogen concentration<br />

in contrasting wheat cultivars under different environmental conditions ................ 495<br />

Abugalieva A.I.<br />

Wheat Grain Quality breeding: technological and nutritional aspects ..................... 497<br />

W. Obuchowski, B. Salmanowicz, Z. Banaszak, T. Adamski, M. Surma, Z. Kaczmarek, M.<br />

Majcher, B. Ługowska, A. Kuczyńska, and K. Krystkowiak<br />

Grain hardness of winter wheat and its relationship to starch damage during<br />

milling ........................................................................................................................... 499<br />

D. Afonso, D. Ríos, C. Royo<br />

Morphological characterization and preliminary quality analysis of local wheat<br />

varieties from the Canary Islands ................................................................................... 501<br />

Sadeq Nabovati and Mostafa Aghaee<br />

Genetic variability of durum wheat germplasm for morphological and quality<br />

traits in Iran: A novel variant for glu-a1 locus .............................................................. 502<br />

A.K. Joshi, J. Crossa, B. Arun, R. Chand, R. Trethowan, M. Vargas and I. Ortiz-<br />

Monasterio<br />

Genotype x environment interaction for zinc and iron concentration of wheat<br />

grain in eastern Gangetic Plains of India ....................................................................... 503<br />

Baboev S.K., Usmanov R.M., Chinnikulov B., Morgounov A.I<br />

Utilization of old wheat varieties in flour biofortification ........................................... 504<br />

Tabbita F., Barneix A J., Lewis S.<br />

The effects of Gpc-B1 on grain protein content, yield and senescence<br />

in Argentinean wheat germplasm ................................................................................... 506<br />

Gintaras Brazauskas, Rita Armonienė, Vytautas Ruzgas<br />

Isolation of differentially expressed genes in wheat caryopses with diverse<br />

starch A granule content .......................................................................................... 508<br />

Dongsheng Chen, Yan Zhang, Zhonghu He, R.J.Pena<br />

Evaluation method for quality characteristics of northern style Chinese steamed bread ...510<br />

Juliano Luiz de Almeida and Graziella dos Santos Portes Silva<br />

Predicting cookie wheat germplasm performance .................................................. 511<br />

Melina Demichelis, Leonardo Vanzetti, Laura Pflüger, Carlos Bainotti,<br />

Martha Cuniberti, Leticia Mir, Marcelo Helguera<br />

Significant effects in bread making quality associated with the gene cluster<br />

Glu-D3/Gli-D1 from the common hard wheat cultivar ProINTA Guazú................ 513<br />

M. Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam, M. R. Jalal Kamali, S. Kazemi, A. Amini,<br />

R. Bozorghipour, G. Najafian and N. Baghaei<br />

Assessment of high molecular weight glutenin sub-units in bread wheat land<br />

races of iran for baking qualities ............................................................................. 515


Allison Crawford, Michael Francki<br />

Psy-A1 alleles and other genes controlling flour b* colour in Australian wheat<br />

germplasm ............................................................................................................... 516<br />

Garg M, El-Haramein F J, Abdalla O and Ogbonnaya FC<br />

End use quality assessment of synthetic derivatives ............................................... 517<br />

Hongwei Geng, Zhonghu He, Liping Zhang, Yanying Qu, Xianchun Xia<br />

Mapping QTLs for lipoxygenase activities and validation of closely linked SSR<br />

markers in common wheat ...................................................................................... 518<br />

Nikola Hristov, Novica Mladenov, Veselinka Djuric, Ankica Kondic-Spika, Bojan Jockovic<br />

Genetic progress in wheat quality and nitrogen use efficiency ............................... 519<br />

Huseinov B., Makhkamov M., Muminjanov H., Garkava-Gustavsson L., Merker A.,<br />

Johansson E.<br />

Protein composition of Tajik wheat breeding materials based on SDS-PAGE results ..521<br />

T.M. Ikeda, G. Branlard, R.J. Peña, K. Takata, L. Liu, Z. He, A. Faye, O. Lukow, M.<br />

Appelbee, W. Hurkman, S.E. Lerner, A. Arrigoni And W.J. Rogers<br />

Current status and perspectives for unification of Glu-3 nomenclature systems<br />

in common wheat .................................................................................................... 522<br />

Li Xing-pu, Lan Su-que, Zhang Yelun, Song Guangyao, Ma Huijuan<br />

The new microelement rich purple-grain bread wheat variety and its effects on the<br />

postprandial blood glucose of different persons ..................................................... 523<br />

Malik, A.H, Prieto-Linde, M.L, Kuktaite, R, Andersson, A, Johansson, E<br />

Interaction effects of environmental conditions and genetical background on amount<br />

and size distribution of polymeric proteins in wheat cultivars ............................... 524<br />

Roberto J. Peña, Dolors Villegas, Ruyman Nazco, Karim Ammar, Jose Crossa, Conxita Royo<br />

Variability in grain quality characteristics and glutenin subunit composition of<br />

durum wheat landraces from the Mediterranean basin ........................................... 525<br />

A. Neacşu, G. Şerban<br />

Using the Reomixer for testing breadmaking quality in a wheat breeding program . 527<br />

Oelofse, R.M., Labuschagne, M.T., van Deventer, C.S.<br />

Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation - discrimination ability in a dryland wheat<br />

breeding programme in South Africa ...................................................................... 529<br />

Roberto J. Peña, Nayelli Hernandez-Espinosa, Ravi P. Singh, Julio Huerta-Espino,<br />

Amalio Santacruz-Varela<br />

Dough visco-elastic properties of recombinant inbred lines showing contrasting<br />

Glu-1/Glu-3 glutenin subunit composition ............................................................. 530<br />

Grazyna Podolska<br />

Grain quality of winter wheat cultivars depending on production technology ....... 532<br />

Marianna Rakszegi, Anna Maija Lampi, Ildikó Karsai, Vieno Piironen, Peter R. Shewry,<br />

László Láng, Zoltán Bedő<br />

Breeding wheat for high tocol content .................................................................... 534<br />

Roncallo, Pablo; Cervigni, Gerardo; Beaufort, Valeria; Conti, Veronica;<br />

Akkiraju, Pavan C. ; Gómez, Patricia; Carrera, Alicia; Miranda, Ruben,;<br />

Wehrhahne, Liliana; Jensen, Carlos ; Bariffi, José Horacio; Helguera, Marcelo ;<br />

Dubcovsky, Jorge and Echenique, Viviana<br />

QTL analysis of principal and epistatic effects for quality traits in pasta wheat .... 536


Sedláček Tibor<br />

Prediction of baking quality by solvent retention capacity profile ............................. 538<br />

Sozinov I.A., Kozub N.A., Sobko T.A., Sozinov A.A.<br />

Frequencies of storage protein alleles in winter common wheat varieties<br />

of Ukrainian breeding ...................................................................................................... 539<br />

Jerzy Zuchowski, Anna Stochmal, Wieslaw Oleszek<br />

Phenolic acid content in grains of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spelt<br />

(Triticum spelta)................................................................................................................. 541<br />

Alicja Sułek<br />

Grain quality of spring wheat cultivars depending on production technology ........ 543<br />

T. Adamski, M. Surma, Z. Kaczmarek, Z. Banaszak, B. Ługowska, A. Kuczyńska,<br />

K. Krystkowiak, W. Obuchowski, B. Salmanowicz, M. Majcher, E. Adamska,<br />

S. Mejza, I. Mejza<br />

Relationships between grain hardiness and protein content in winter wheat<br />

breeding lines evaluated in series of experiments ......................................................... 545<br />

Ji-Chun Tian and Liang Zhao<br />

A comparison of grain protein content QTL and flour protein content QTL<br />

across environments in cultivated wheat ....................................................................... 547<br />

Paola Tosi, Cristina Gritsch, Jackie Freeman, Caroline Sparks, Huw D. Jones,<br />

Wakako Funatsuki, Katsumasa Niwa, and Peter R. Shewry<br />

Patterns of synthesis, deposition and tissue location of gluten proteins and<br />

mechanism of gluten assembly ........................................................................................ 549<br />

Facundo Tabbita, Mariana Kade, Atilio Barneix, Gabriela Tranquilli<br />

Genetic mapping of a QTL controlling grain protein content on chromosome<br />

7B of hexaploid wheat....................................................................................................... 551<br />

Toi J. Tsilo, Jae-Bom Ohm, Gary A. Hareland, Shiaoman Chao, and James A. Anderson<br />

Quantitative trait loci influencing end-use quality traits of Hard Red Spring<br />

Wheat breeding lnes ......................................................................................................... 553<br />

G. Velu, R.P. Singh, J. Huerta-Espino, R.J. Peña, I. Ortiz-Monasterio, S. Bhavani,<br />

S.A. Herrera-Foessel and P.K. Singh<br />

Breeding for enhanced grain-zinc and iron concentrations in CIMMYT spring<br />

bread wheat germplasm ................................................................................................... 554<br />

Daowen Wang, Dawei Wang, Xiaoxia Zhang, Guidong Yue, Yiwen Li, Guangyong Qin<br />

Genomic and proteomic studies of gliadin proteins in bread wheat (Triticum<br />

aestivum L.) ........................................................................................................................ 556<br />

F. P. Yang, L. H. Wang, J. W. Wang, X. Y. He, W. X. Yang, X. C. Xia, and Z. H. He<br />

Characterization of high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes<br />

in Chinese winter wheat cultivars and ........................................................................... 557


The LegACy of N.I. VAVILoV<br />

N.I. Dzyubenko<br />

Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry, 42-44 Bolshaya Morskaya Street, St Petersburg,<br />

Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: n.dzyubenko@vir.nw.ru, n.i.dzyubenko@gmail.com<br />

Scientific legacy of Nikolai Vavilov represents the whole scientific program which remains<br />

crucially important for breeding theory and practice till our days. The development of his<br />

program can be divided into two steps. The first one (1917-1929) included collecting and<br />

study of cultivated plant germplasm all over the world according to Vavilov’s Theory of<br />

Centers of Origin and Diversity of Cultivated Plants. During the 1920-1940s, 140 collecting<br />

missions were undertaken within the USSR and 40 collecting missions abroad under<br />

N.I. Vavilov’s leadership and often with his direct participation. As a result, the worldfamous<br />

VIR collection of plant genetic resources consisting in 1940 of more than 200, 000<br />

accessions of different crops (36, 000 wheat accessions among them) was established. A<br />

large part of the wheat collection N.I. Vavilov collected himself. For example, 432 local<br />

samples of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) were collected by N.I. Vavilov during<br />

his 14 trips in 36 countries. He collected unique diversity of T. aestivum dwarf forms<br />

without ligulae in Pamir mountain area (1921) and described the probable ways of wheat<br />

evolution in highland environments. A great part of wheat diversity was collected in Central<br />

Asia and the Caucasus.<br />

The second step of N.I. Vavilov program (1929-1929) was synthesis of botanical and agricultural<br />

sciences, and development of a theoretical basis for plant breeding. Main milestones<br />

of N.I. Vavilov’s theory are well-known and are as follows:The Law of Homologous<br />

Series in Hereditary Variation (1920). N.I. Vavilov stated that parallel variability is common<br />

even for remotely related families. This law is of great practical value for breeding<br />

purposes and serves as a key for widening genetic base by means of artificial mutagenesis,<br />

recombination and deep inbreeding in cross-pollinated plants. Linnaean Species as a System<br />

(1930). Considering the species as a group of ecotypes with definite traits adopted to<br />

given environment conditions, N.I. Vavilov developed the scheme of origin and evolution<br />

of the species in space and time. Natural selection detects the groups of genotypes with<br />

traits suitable for specified environment and eliminates non-adapted. The species is a<br />

complex and dynamic system.<br />

The Theory of Origin and Evolution of Cultivated Plants. Using his differential botanical-geographical<br />

method, N.I. Vavilov managed to find the ancient centers of origin of<br />

cultivated plants in the world, followed the ways of historical distribution of agricultural<br />

crops across the continents and determined their areas at different periods of time. Using<br />

morphological, hybridological, cytogenetical and immunological methods he revised<br />

botanical composition in groups of cultivated plants, separated classical Linnaean species<br />

and genetic groups. N.I. Vavilov postulated eight large independent centers of origin and<br />

diversity for main crops of mankind. Very important aspect, in his opinion, was the fact<br />

28


that some crops, such as wheat, oat, potato, cotton and fruits, had originated in several<br />

different centers at the same time. Thus, plant material from different centers was characterized<br />

by physiological and genetic specificity and had different ploidy levels. For wheat,<br />

N.I. Vavilov suggested three centers of origin: South-Western Asia (including Central<br />

Asia and the Caucasus) for Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., Mediterranean<br />

for Triticum turgidum L. and Abyssinia for early wheat.<br />

N.I. Vavilov proclaimed the wide use of botanical-geographical method of differential<br />

systematics for studying plant genetic collections. For instance, in the 1920s he launched<br />

agro-ecological studies of the entire Triticum collection in three regions: in Moscow, near<br />

St Petersburg and in the Caucasus (VIR Experimental Station in Derbent). In 1935 N.I.<br />

Vavilov published his famous book “Scientific Base for Wheat Breeding”. N.I. Vavilov<br />

wrote: “All enormous amount of wheat diversity can be divided into comparatively limited<br />

number of species and subspecies which in their turn can be differentiated into a<br />

number of eco-geographical groups of botanical races on the basis of morphological and<br />

cytogenetic research”. He described wheat diversity using agro-ecological approach and<br />

proposed the principle of wheat classification based on the areas of distribution and three<br />

ploidy levels (2n=14, 28 and 42) with division into cultivated and wild species, thus setting<br />

up a foundation for further systematization of the genus Triticum. The methodology<br />

of differential systematics offered by N.I. Vavilov appeared to be a key for resolving difficult<br />

problems of wheat phylogeny and remained vital until now.<br />

N.I. Vavilov paid a lot of attention to the problem of host-pathogen relations in wheat. His<br />

opinion that hexaploid wheats possessed greater resistance was proven later.<br />

Vavilov’s ideas about remote hybridization were convincingly confirmed by the great<br />

progress of Triticale breeding. N.I. Vavilov was a genius whose scientific legacy determined<br />

the main vectors of development in evolutionary breeding theory and agricultural<br />

science for many decades.<br />

29


WheAT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS IN RuSSIA<br />

O.P. Mitrofanova<br />

N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry of RAAS (VIR), Bolshaya<br />

Morskaya Str. 44, 190000, Saint-Petersburg, Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: o.mitrofanova@vir.nw.ru<br />

Wheat genetic resources research in Russia has a long historical tradition that is closely connected<br />

with the development of the VIR wheat collection. The understanding of cultivated<br />

and wild wheats as species systems underlies this research and formation of the collection.<br />

In the 1930s N.I. Vavilov formulated the concept of cultivated plants as Linnean species and<br />

gave the following definition: a Linnean species is a “definite, discrete, dynamic system differentiated<br />

into geographical and ecological types and containing sometimes an enormous<br />

number of varieties” (Vavilov 1931). Collecting wheat resources on the basis of this concept<br />

resulted in the formation of a large-scale wheat collection, very diverse in botanical composition<br />

and geographic origin. Unique and valuable accessions of wild wheats, landraces and<br />

cultivars from around the world are represented into the collection. Introduction of new<br />

material into the wheat collection, conservation, characterization, evaluation and documentation<br />

of accessions continue to be the main objectives of the collection management.<br />

The VIR wheat collection contains more than 14000 landraces referred to as Triticum sp., in<br />

which a significant amount of the diversity is being conserved for future use. A titanic work<br />

on characterization and evaluation of this material with usage of morphological and agronomical<br />

traits has been done and different classifications have been developed (Flyaksberger<br />

1935, Palmova 1935, Vavilov 1935, 1964). But this work failed to give us a deep insight into<br />

genetic nature of landrace differentiation. New possibilities to resolve this problem occurred<br />

due to the introduction of DNA markers into agricultural researches. So the priority task in<br />

wheat research was studying the genetic structure of diversity in the landrace subcollection<br />

through the use of morphological, protein and DNA markers. These researches were carried<br />

out mainly in the framework of international projects.<br />

Genetic differentiation of hexaploid wheats (2n=6x=42, genomic formula AABBDD) using<br />

RAPDs, AFLPs and SSRs was investigated (Strelchenko et al. 2004, 2005; Mitrofanova<br />

et al. 2009). The analyzed set of landraces (each of landraces was represented by one<br />

selected genotype) was formed according to the agroecological classification developed<br />

by N.I. Vavilov (1957, 1964). This classification was based on subdividing the vast territory<br />

of important crops cultivation into different-sized agroecological areas and regions,<br />

each of which was characterized by substantial uniformity of soil and climatic conditions<br />

along with a certain agroecological type of varieties defined as an agroecological<br />

group. The analyzed landraces originated from 44 countries and were referred to 45 agroecological<br />

groups of six wheat species (T. macha Dek. et Men., T. spelta L., T. vavilovii<br />

(Thum.) Jakubz., T. compactum Host, T. sphaerococcum Perc., T. aestivum L.). In addition,<br />

accessions of T. petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch. (according to Dorofeev et al. 1979)<br />

were included into this study. The results of the investigations have demonstrated that<br />

hexaploid wheats differentiated into two large groups of genotypes originated in two dif-<br />

30


ferent continents, Asia and Europe. At the lower difference level, each of these groups<br />

split into smaller groups that, according to origin of genotypes, could be defined as South<br />

Asian, East Asian, Central Asian, Caucasian, West European and East European and associated<br />

with the ancient plant husbandry centers (Vavilov, 1987). Such genetic division<br />

of hexaploid wheats will be discussed by means of comparison with the agroecological<br />

classification developed by N.I. Vavilov (1957, 1964) and with known botanical classifications<br />

(Bowden 1959, Mac Key 1966, Dorofeev et al. 1979). The study of genetic diversity<br />

structure in the landrace subcollection is important not only for understanding evolution<br />

of wheat but also for optimization of the wheat collection composition and subsequent<br />

developing of conservation strategies. Along with DNA markers, prolamin (gliadin)<br />

polymorphism and morphological and agronomical traits were successfully used in the<br />

analysis of relationships among accessions in the spelt wheat collection (Romanova et<br />

al. 2001) and within and among the sets of landraces originated in different countries of<br />

Africa and Asia (Al-Yusef, 2009). Genetically closely related accessions were revealed and<br />

authenticity of regenerated accessions with original accessions was tested. The relationship<br />

between the place of origin and adaptive characteristics of wheat is less clear. So,<br />

we have paid much attention to detailing the passport data for landraces and obtaining<br />

environmental information (climate and edaphic) for collection sites. The results of this<br />

research are represented on the website http://www.figstraitmine.com. In future, it would<br />

be helpful to connect the sites of landrace collection and environmental diversity with<br />

Vavilov’s agroecological classification and distribution of landrace genetic diversity.<br />

31


PLeNARy SeSSIoN 1:<br />

CuRReNT STATuS<br />

ANd PeRSPeCTIVeS of gLoBAL<br />

WheAT ReSeARCh ANd<br />

PRoduCTIoN


A STRATegIC Look AT gLoBAL WheAT PRoduCTIVITy,<br />

PRoduCTIoN ANd R&d deVeLoPmeNTS<br />

Philip G Pardey<br />

University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics and Director, International Science<br />

and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP) center, 1994 Buford Ave, St Paul, Minnesota,<br />

55108, USA.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: ppardey@umn.edu<br />

The 20th Century began with a rapid ramping up of national investments in and institutions<br />

engaged with research for food and agriculture. As the 21st century unfolds,<br />

the global science and agricultural development landscapes are changing in substantive<br />

ways, with important implications for the funding, conduct and institutional arrangements<br />

affecting research for food and agriculture. While there is a general consensus<br />

that the present and prospective future of the agricultural science landscape bears little<br />

resemblance to the situations that prevailed in the formative years of today’s food and agricultural<br />

research policies and institutions, many of these changes are poorly understood<br />

or only beginning to play out. In this presentation I will report on new and emerging<br />

empirical evidence to calibrate the private and public choices being made that affect food<br />

and agricultural R&D worldwide.<br />

Seemingly seismic shifts in the global agricultural productivity landscapes−highlighting<br />

developments for crops in general and wheat in particular−will be quantitatively examined.<br />

Using newly developed (and still developing) data I will discuss the research lag,<br />

benefit appropriability, and international R&D spillover realities facing innovative effort<br />

in food and agriculture. I will also discuss the economies of size and scope of R&D, and<br />

broaden the research perspective beyond innovation to encompass technology development,<br />

uptake and regulation. To help recalibrate our perspective on the present and likely<br />

future innovation landscapes in food and agriculture I will also provide new information<br />

on the trends in public and private investment in R&D, placing research directed toward<br />

food and agriculture in a broader science spending landscape.<br />

34


N.I. VAVILoV'S TheoRy of CeNTeRS of dIVeRSITy<br />

IN LIghT of CuRReNT uNdeRSTANdINg of WheAT<br />

domeSTICATIoN ANd eVoLuTIoN<br />

Jan Dvorak and Ming-Cheng Luo<br />

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 USA<br />

Email address: jdvorak@ucdavis.edu<br />

The Institute of Plant Industry under the leadership of N.I. Vavilov proposed an ambitious<br />

crop breeding program and launched an equally ambitious plant exploration program<br />

aiming at collecting and cataloging germplasm of all major crops. Genetic resources<br />

and information accumulated by plant exploration for the first time generated a global<br />

view of the distribution of genetic diversity of individual crops and their wild progenitors.<br />

This large body of new information on geography of genetic diversity of crops led Vavilov<br />

to formulate his famous theory of geographic centers of crop diversity. He hypothesized<br />

that the geographic region with the greatest genetic diversity of a crop is the geographic<br />

region of its origin. The preservation of germplasm of crops collected by Vavilov, his coworkers,<br />

and other plant explorers going in his footsteps in the gene banks around the<br />

world made it possible to revisit Vavilov’s hypothesis with modern molecular population<br />

genetics tools. Regarding wheat, Vavilov’s conclusions about geographic centers of<br />

diversity and his inferred centers of wheat origin agree remarkably well with what has<br />

been learned with modern tools. Vavilov recognized that each of the three ploidy levels of<br />

wheat has its own geographic center of diversity and concluded that each had a separate<br />

geographic place of origin; diploid einkorn wheat in Asia Minor, tetraploid durum and<br />

other free-threshing tetraploid wheats in the Eastern Mediterranean and Northeastern<br />

Africa, and hexaploid bread wheat in southwestern Asia spanning a region from Northern<br />

Afghanistan to Transcaucasia and Turkey. Vavilov also concluded that genetic diversity<br />

of tetraploid emmer wheat is what is expected for an ancient crop that is going<br />

extinct, and avoided predicting its geographic place of origin. Finally, he placed the center<br />

of diversity of wild emmer, which is distributed in a discontinuous arc along the Fertile<br />

Crescent from Israel to western Iran, in the southwestern tip of the Fertile Crescent. Each<br />

of these conclusions is close to what has been learned with modern genetic tools. The<br />

origin of diploid einkorn wheat was placed in southeastern Turkey, the origin of tetraploid<br />

durum in eastern Mediterranean and Northeastern Africa, the origin of hexaploid<br />

wheat in Transcaucasia and Northwestern Iran, and the center of diversity of wild emmer<br />

is indeed in the southwestern tip of the Fertile Crescent, in modern Israel, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, and southwestern Syria. The advances that have been made are principally in<br />

the understanding of the details of the genetic processes of wheat domestication and in<br />

the greater precision with which the geography of domestication of individual wheat species<br />

could be deciphered. It is here where some of Vavilov’s ideas require revision. This<br />

can be illustrated by the details of the current understanding of the domestication of<br />

emmer. The southwestern tip of the Fertile Crescent is the center of wild emmer diversity,<br />

as recognized by Vavilov, and is also the center of diversity of domesticated emmer;<br />

35


it would be logical to conclude that emmer was domesticated in eastern Mediterranean.<br />

However, genetic distances between wild and domesticated emmer populations point to<br />

southeastern Turkey as the primary site of emmer domestication. The coincidence of the<br />

geographic centers of wild and domesticated emmer diversity was caused by gene flow<br />

that took place between wild and domesticated emmer after its domestication in Turkey<br />

and its diffusion from southeastern Turkey across the Fertile Crescent to its southwestern<br />

tip. The gene flow that took place from wild to domesticated emmer in the southwestern<br />

tip of Fertile Crescent resulted in the broadening of domesticated emmer diversity in<br />

that region and the coincidence of genetic diversity of the cultigen and its wild progenitor.<br />

Although this example illustrates the additional complexity of crop domestication, it<br />

does not detract from the general validity of Vavilov’s theory. It merely illustrates the fact<br />

that advances in science provide us with a greater accuracy with which we can describe<br />

natural processes and realign the existing theories with the natural reality.<br />

36


CoNSeRVATIoN AgRICuLTuRe – PRoVIdINg<br />

The BASIS foR The deVeLoPmeNT of SuSTAINABLe<br />

CRoP mANAgemeNT TeChNoLogIeS<br />

Kenneth D. Sayre, Bram Govaerts<br />

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apartado Postal<br />

6-641. Mexico, DF, CP: 06600.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: k.sayre@cgiar.org<br />

Farmers are struggling to cope with trade globalization, unstable commodity market<br />

prices, unreliable input supply combined with increasing input costs and concerns<br />

about the effects of climate change on future agricultural productivity. These concerns<br />

exist together with shrinking budgets for many national agricultural research and extension<br />

systems (NARES). Yet these same farmers are expected to continue to feed<br />

and now, in many cases, fuel, a continually growing world population—a population<br />

that presents an accelerating demand for agricultural products. This is a tall order,<br />

and for these remarkable outcomes to occur, new crop management technologies that<br />

can markedly increase productivity together with more efficient resource use will be<br />

required. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based technologies are being developed and<br />

extended to farmers using new, innovative approaches to bring farmers, NARES and private<br />

sector partners together if a full, participatory mode to develop verify and deliver<br />

CA-based technologies to farmers to better confront the issues outlined above.<br />

Conservation Agriculture: Toward Sustainable, Resource-conserving Crop Management<br />

Technologies<br />

In recent years, farmers interested in sustainable crop production systems have begun<br />

to adopt and adapt improved crop management practices that are based on<br />

the principles of CA, which focus on the complete agricultural system which can<br />

involve major changes in farm cropping operations as compared to the widely used,<br />

traditional tillage-based farming practices. However, knowing what we now know<br />

about the widespread issues of soil degradation related to extensive tillage, crop residue<br />

removal widespread mono-cropping, it is difficult to understand why most crop<br />

agronomists continue to base their efforts on fine-tuning crop management practices<br />

based on continued use of extensive tillage in lieu of following CA-based principles<br />

to guide their efforts to develop the sustainable new technologies needed by farmers.<br />

Appropriate CA-based technologies encompass innovative crop production systems<br />

that combine the following basic principles:<br />

• Marked reductions in tillage<br />

Ultimate Goal – Minimal, controlled/strip till and/or zero till seeding practices for all<br />

feasible crops within defined cropping systems where practicable and sustainable.<br />

37


• Rational retention of adequate levels of crop residues on the soil surface<br />

Ultimate Goal – Economically viable surface retention of adequate levels of crop residues<br />

to protect the soil from water run-off and erosion; improve water infiltration/<br />

reduce evaporation to improve water productivity; increase soil organic matter and<br />

biological activity; and enhance long-term sustainability.<br />

• Use of sensible crop rotations<br />

Ultimate Goal - Employ economically viable, diversified crop rotations to help moderate<br />

possible weed, disease, and pest problems; enhance soil biodiversity; take advantage<br />

of biological nitrogen fixation and soil enhancing properties of different crops;<br />

reduce labor peaks; and provide farmers with new risk management opportunities.<br />

• Farmer conviction of the potential for near-term improved economic benefits and<br />

livelihoods from sustainable CA-based systems<br />

Ultimate goal - Secure farm level economic viability and stability to enhance livelihoods<br />

by the development of innovative CA-based crop management technologies focused on<br />

the needs farmers based on their various biophysical and socioeconomic conditions.<br />

These basic principles are not location-specific but provide the foundation or basis<br />

to tailor the needed tactical crop management practices (cultivar, weed, disease<br />

and pest control, fertilizer, irrigation etc) that can be developed and applied for<br />

each crop production system. Therefore the principles of CA-based technologies<br />

can provide the fundamental and strategic knowledge foundation applicable to a wide<br />

range of crop production systems, from low-yielding, dry rainfed conditions to<br />

high-yielding irrigated condition.<br />

38


CoNTRIBuTIoN ToWARdS ImPRoVINg WheAT<br />

PRoduCTIVITy IN LIByA<br />

Ibrahim ben Amer 1 , Jomaa Bader 1 , Salah Ghareyani 1 ,<br />

Ahmed Zentani 1 , Ali Shridi 1 , Ali Boubaker 1 , and Habib<br />

Ketata 2<br />

1 Agricultural Research Center, Tripoli, Libya;<br />

2 ICARDA, NARP, Tunis, Tunisia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: h.ketata@cgiar.org;<br />

The global food crisis of 2007-2008 uncovered a potential threat to food security in many<br />

regions of the world. In Libya, wheat is a major field crop, where per capita consumption<br />

reaches 200 kg per year, including 130 kg of bread wheat and 70kg of durum wheat. However,<br />

about 90% of consumption is covered through imports. Grain yield of wheat remains<br />

low in the country, with average values of about 1.2 t/ha in rainfed areas and less than 5 t/<br />

ha in irrigated areas.<br />

In 2008, the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) in Libya launched a collaborative research<br />

project jointly with ICARDA to improve agricultural productivity in cereal-based<br />

systems of Libya, with a special emphasis on wheat and barley crops.<br />

Review studies conducted during 2008-2009 revealed several major challenges to improved<br />

wheat productivity in the country. These included: (i) insufficient trained research<br />

personnel, (ii) inadequate research facilities, (iii) discontinuity in research project implementation,<br />

(iv) inefficient seed production system, and (v) predominance of a very small<br />

number (1-2) of varieties across the wheat growing regions of the country,<br />

In addition to these reviews, the Collaborative Cereal Project conducted ground work at<br />

two main sites during 2009, i.e. Al Marj in northeastern Libya, under rainfed conditions,<br />

with a season’s rainfall of 264 mm, and at Tesewa in the southwestern region of Fezzan<br />

under pivot irrigation.<br />

First-year results of the Collaborative Cereal Project showed a realizable potential for<br />

high grain yield (> 8 t/ha) under Sahara desert irrigated conditions, a non-negligible<br />

achievement. The ARC gene bank has been enriched with valuable genetic resources collected<br />

for the first time in northeastern Libya. Initial steps have been taken for the establishment<br />

of a seed unit at ARC, and the National Seed Center and ARC are joining hands<br />

to develop a national variety catalogue and a reference seed collection for the Libyan crop<br />

varieties. Fruitful contacts were established with wheat producers through farm visits and<br />

field days where researchers interacted with farmers, policy-makers and other stakeholders.<br />

Forty eight researchers benefitted from short-term, specialized and practical training<br />

to enhance their capacity to conduct sound research work.<br />

Research funded through the ARC-ICARDA Collaborative Program.<br />

39


STudy of RAIN effeCTS oN RAINfed WINTeR WheAT<br />

PRoduCTIoN TReNdS IN IRAN<br />

A. Ghaffari and M. Roustaei<br />

Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), P.O.Box 119, Maragheh, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Ghaffari_aa@yahoo.com<br />

Wheat is one of the major crops grown in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The total area<br />

covered by wheat in rainfed condition is about 4.2 million hectares. Study on rain effects<br />

(total amount and distribution) at seven cold and moderate cold Rainfed Agricultural Research<br />

Stations showed that winter wheat potential yield was 2000-2250 kg ha -1 in 2006-<br />

2009. By one or two supplementary irrigation it was increased to more than 4000 kg ha -1 .<br />

By decreasing rain, crop potential yield decreased to less than half (900 kg ha -1 ). Official<br />

published crop yield statistic showed that the average winter wheat yield during 2007-<br />

2008 were 1180 and 420 kg ha -1 in the country, respectively. This result showed the crop<br />

yield was highly affected by rain amount and its distribution. Under rainfed and dryland<br />

production systems, impacts of rainfall on crop yield is the largest compared with those<br />

of other production factors. Rainfall, however, interacts with many other parameters in<br />

the plant growing environment and produces results that do not lend themselves to simple<br />

relationships and explanations. Any delay in early season rainfall and the subsequent<br />

low plant density may overshadow the impacts of the experimental treatments and make<br />

it difficult to interpret the data. Therefore, daily and accurate measurement of rain, its<br />

depth of penetration, runoff, and intensity are all of great significance for proper understanding<br />

of the role of this factor in the response of the plants to environmental variables<br />

including the experimental treatments.<br />

40


huLLed WheATS IN oRgANIC AgRICuLTuRe–<br />

AgRoNomIC ANd NuTRITIoNAL CoNSIdeRATIoNS<br />

Heinrich Grausgruber, Beatrix Preinerstorfer,<br />

Negash Geleta, Loredana Leopold, Firdissa Eticha,<br />

Wolfgang Kandler, Rainer Schuhmacher, Heinz Bointner,<br />

Susanne Siebenhandl-Ehn<br />

BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, and<br />

AMA-Agrarmarkt Austria Marketing GesmbH, Vienna, Austria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: heinrich.grausgruber@boku.ac.at<br />

Organic farming plays a major role in Austrian agriculture. About 11.5% of arable land<br />

is under organic cultivation and the market share of organic products is about 5% of the<br />

total market. Organic common wheat (Triticum aestivum) occupies the largest acreage of<br />

organic cereal production with about 23000 ha. However, spelt wheat (T. spelta) has with<br />

about 80% of its total acreage the highest organic share of the major cereal species. Einkorn<br />

(T. monococcum) and emmer (T. dicoccum) are almost exclusively grown organically.<br />

Consumers of organic food buy these products not only because of their eco-friendly way<br />

of production but also because they expect organic food to be healthier and have a higher<br />

nutritional value. Therefore, organic cereal growers come back to ancient cereals such as<br />

the hulled wheat species einkorn, emmer and spelt. Since these species were not subject<br />

of any intensive breeding programme they are believed to be more natural, nutritious<br />

and healthy. Due to successful marketing of organic hulled wheat products the acreage<br />

of spelt, einkorn and emmer increased significantly within the last decade. Spelt acreage<br />

increased from 2795 ha in 2000 to 6905 ha in 2008, and einkorn and emmer acreage increased<br />

from 153 ha in 2001 to 1318 ha in 2009.<br />

In order to enlighten historical beliefs on the quality of hulled wheats experiments were<br />

carried out from 2001 onwards. Various genetic resources were tested for their agronomic<br />

performance in organic agriculture. Moreover, various nutritional characteristics, e.g.<br />

protein content, amino acid composition, carotenoid content, mineral element composition,<br />

etc. were analysed. In the following the most significant results are presented.<br />

In field trials yield of einkorn varied between 24 and 38 dt/ha, whereas in practice it was<br />

between 12 and 32 dt/ha. The percentage of grain was 68-77%; however, average grain<br />

yield after mechanical dehulling in practice is about only 60% due to losses caused by<br />

broken or not dehulled grains. Grain mass for thousand kernels varied between 12 and<br />

27 g. Einkorn revealed high levels of protein content (12-23%) and yellow pigments (5-20<br />

ppm beta-carotene equivalents). HPLC analyses demonstrated that lutein and zeaxanthin<br />

are the major carotenoids in einkorn with levels up to 6.3 and 0.4 µg/g, respectively.<br />

To our knowledge einkorn is the richest source of carotenoids with about double the<br />

41


amount of durum and carotenoid rich common wheat. Yield and grain mass of emmer<br />

was extremely variable reaching from about 10 to more than 60 dt/ha, and from 14 to 61<br />

g, respectively. Generally the higher performance was observed for winter emmer. Protein<br />

content was between 10 and 25% with the highest values observed for spring emmer.<br />

Percentage of grain was between 60 and 80%. In practice yields of emmer are similar to<br />

that of einkorn. This is mainly due to the use of emmer varieties not best adapted to the<br />

predominant conditions, i.e. lacking winter hardiness and lodging tolerance.<br />

Studying the mineral element composition by ICP-SFMS revealed that einkorn, emmer<br />

and spelt samples contained significantly lower concentrations of Cd and higher concentrations<br />

of S compared to red and white grained common wheat samples. Moreover,<br />

higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, P and Zn were observed for einkorn and emmer, higher<br />

concentrations of Ni for emmer and spelt, higher concentrations of Fe and Mo for einkorn,<br />

and higher concentrations of Mg and Rb for emmer.<br />

In summary it can be noted that in Austria hulled wheat species play an important alternative<br />

for organic cereal growers. Despite the about 40% lower grain yields their acreage<br />

was continuously rising within the last decade. Although cultivation of hulled wheats is<br />

funded by agricultural politics the major reason for cultivation is the satisfying economic<br />

return resulting from the increasing food processors’ and consumers’ demand. Health<br />

benefits attributed to hulled wheats can be partly confirmed by chemical analyses. For<br />

example einkorn is a source of antioxidative acting carotenoids, high protein contents<br />

and high concentrations of some minerals, e.g. Fe, Zn and Cu. Moreover, hulled wheats<br />

are an alternative for patients suffering from hypersensitivity and/or allergy to common<br />

wheat products.<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

Parts of the research were financially supported by the BMLFUW (Lebensministerium),<br />

Project No. 1315.<br />

42


PooR fARmeRS AgAINST PooR WheAT geNeTIC dIVeRSITy<br />

Reza Haghparast 1 , Salvatore Ceccarelli 2 , Maryam<br />

Rahmanian 3 , Reza Mohammadi 1 , Saeed Pourdad 1 , Ahmad<br />

Taheri 4 , Stefania Grando 2 , Abdolali Ghaffari 5 ,<br />

Ramazan Roeentan 6 , Rahman Rajabi 1<br />

1Dryland Agricultural Sub-Institute, 67145-1164, Kermanshah, Iran<br />

2International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), P O Box 5466,<br />

Aleppo, Syria<br />

3Centre for Sustainable Development (CENESTA), 13169 Tehran, Iran<br />

4Garmsar Sustainable Development NGO, Garmsar, Iran<br />

5 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Maraghe, Iran<br />

6 Jahad-e- Agriculture Organization, Kermanshah, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: rezahaghparast@yahoo.com<br />

There are convincing scientific reasons for giving priority to the conservation of beneficial<br />

crop biodiversity, but it seems that these reasons are not such clear and obvious to do a<br />

real act about it. Conserving the crop species in gene bank and using them in as a source of<br />

genetic diversity in cross breeding program is effective way but not enough. In conventional<br />

plant breeding we are using this conserved germplasm for creating biodiversity and finally<br />

release genetically pure cultivars!!! Pure cultivars are performing well in homogenous environment<br />

and under sustainable climate conditions. The main objective of current plant<br />

breeding program is to improve cultivars for these environment and conditions, but we must<br />

consider that large proportion of arable area in developing countries is characterized by<br />

heterogeneity of environmental stress and conditions; genetically pure cultivars developed<br />

in high-yielding conditions of research stations may fail to satisfy farmers’ needs and due<br />

to poor genetical buffer can not perform well under climate changing and unpredictable<br />

conditions. Currently, there are great demands for agricultural products produced under<br />

organic farming systems. Organic or low-external-input systems in developed countries may<br />

resemble farming systems in marginal environments of developing countries because environmental<br />

stress in these systems are also heterogeneous, there are few varieties that meet<br />

the diverse needs of farmers in such systems. But in current conventional breeding programs<br />

we do not consider these essential farmers’ needs. Usually we do not have any programs<br />

and objectives as our mandates to help farming in these systems. If we believe in genotype X<br />

environment interaction as one of the main principle of plant breeding, we have to be much<br />

more serious in helping farming working in the environments with much more diversity<br />

than the cultivar diversity that we offer them through conventional plant breeding. Majority<br />

of farmers who have poor access to resources and working in harsh conditions of marginal<br />

area of developing countries are complaining against poor biodiversity in their fields. They<br />

still remember the valuable biodiversity that they had in their farms and they want it back.<br />

Annually in conventional breeding programs world wide, a great amount of biodiversity is<br />

creating. Through conventional plant breeding we let this valuable biodiversity evolve in high<br />

input conditions of research stations and after reaching to genetical homogeneity, we evaluate<br />

pure lines in the same condition and take a few pure genotypes out of that for more<br />

43


evaluation under farmers’ conditions. Who can say that among the eliminated genotypes,<br />

there were not ones suitable in farmers’ field? The ones that the poor farmers are looking<br />

for their unpredictable heterogeneous conditions. Evaluation of big number of genotypes on<br />

farmers’ field is a difficult task but the possible one and it would be easier one also if farmers<br />

participate in breeding program. One easy and effective breeding approach is evolutionary<br />

plant breeding (EPB) which leads farmers in low-input and organic systems to the genotypes<br />

adapted to their own specific conditions. In cereal breeding program in Dryland Agricultural<br />

Research Sub-Institute we conduct conventional plant breeding and cross breeding program.<br />

Annually a relatively large number of genotypes will be introduced to this program and hybridization<br />

will be done among numbers of genotypes. Each year a part of evaluating genotypes’<br />

seeds keep in seed store as back up and next year the store would be cleaned and these<br />

seeds will be sold as mixed grains to market. We use modified bulk to manage segregating<br />

population and after selecting some spikes from each population for next generation, the rest<br />

part of plots would be harvested all to gather and would be sold to market. We believe that<br />

this valuable mixed germplasms are the one can help reviving the lost crop biodiversity in<br />

farmers’ field in unpredictable rainfed condition in Iran. Since 2009-2010, we started utilizing<br />

these germplasms of bread and durum wheats and some mixed seeds of the germplasm<br />

distributed to farmers to plant in their field conditions. These farmers have been asked to<br />

grow these mixtures of seeds each year in the same conditions. Every year, or at longer intervals,<br />

and as the population evolves and new, better adapted recombinants appear, artificial<br />

selection can be applied to extract individual components or sub populations. These can be<br />

used by farmers in their commercial farms, and breeder can select individual plant out of<br />

that for next cross breeding program or multiplication as pure individual genotypes while<br />

the original population continues to evolve. These genotypes can be maintained in gene bank<br />

also and remixed in the case of losing the final evolved mixtures. Farmers have been asked<br />

to grow and harvest this material year after year in the same condition in which they will<br />

grow the future cultivars.<br />

44


yIeLd gAPS, SoIL INdIgeNouS NuTRIeNT SuPPLy, ANd<br />

NuTRIeNT uSe effICIeNCy of WheAT IN ChINA<br />

Ping HE<br />

China Program, International Plant Nutrition Institute(IPNI) and Institute of Agricultural<br />

resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 South<br />

Zhongguancun Street, Beijing, 100081, China.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: phe@ipni.net<br />

Before any improvements on crop management practices have been made, it is of great<br />

importance to know the the attainable yield (Ya) of the crop in the region, and the yield gap<br />

between Ya and the actual yield obtained by the growers. Analysis of the soil indigenous<br />

nutrient supply and nutrient use efficiency of wheat will help to bridge the yield gap due<br />

imbalance nutrient management. Based on the data of field experiments in different wheat<br />

growing-regions and a number of data published in the literatures from 1995 to 2008, the<br />

yield gaps, soil indigenous nutrient supplies, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat in China<br />

were analyzed. The attainable yield (Ya) in this study was proposed to the weather limited<br />

yields that can be achieved with current best manage practices. The actual yield in farmer’s<br />

fields always lower than (Ya) due to inefficient use of fertilizer nutrient. Average Ya of wheat<br />

grown in the whole China was 6695 kg ha –1 . There were significant differences of Ya among<br />

different regions in China. The Ya obtained followed the order of North-central China (7129<br />

kg ha –1 )> the Lower reaches of the Yangtze River (7023 kg ha –1 )> Northwest China (5089<br />

kg ha –1 )>Southwest China (5023 kg ha –1 ) >Northwest China (3480 kg ha –1 ). The yield gap<br />

between Ya and the actual yield obtained by the farmers (YFP) was averagely 870 kg ha –1<br />

across field types and localities, which was about 13% of Ya. The yield gap between Ya and the<br />

actual yield due to no fertilizer supply was wider, averaged by 2515 kg ha –1 , and ranged from<br />

171 kg ha –1 to 5552 kg ha –1 , which was about 33% of Ya. The average yield gap-N (due to no N<br />

supply) was 1928.3 kg ha –1 , ranged 974–3240 kg ha –1 accounting for 50% of all the cases. The<br />

average yield gap-N was about 29% of Ya. The average yield gap-P (due to no P supply) was<br />

989 kg ha –1 , ranged 475.4 –1 272.0 kg ha –1 accounting for 50% of all the cases. The average yield<br />

gap-P was about 14.8% of Ya. The average yield gap-K (due to no K supply) was 923.4 kg ha –1 ,<br />

ranged 440.6 –1 330.2 kg ha –1 account for 50% of all the cases. The average yield gap-K was about<br />

13.8% of Ya. Yield gap caused by no nutrient supply was following the order of N>P>K.<br />

The amount of N derived from indigenous resources varied from 37.8 to 275.2 kg N ha –1 ,<br />

and averaged by 120.9 kg N ha –1 . The amount of P derived from indigenous resources ranged<br />

6.4–59.8 kg P ha –1 , and averaged by 27.4 kg P ha –1 . The amount of K derived from indigenous<br />

resources wheat ranged from 36.9–357.0 kg K ha –1 , and averaged by 133.0 kg K ha –1 .<br />

Apparent recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P and K were 38 % (n=333), 17 % (n=99) and 30 %<br />

(n=120) respectively. RE of N, P and K decreased by 7, 5 and 17 percentage point than that<br />

in 1985-1995, respectively. The agronomy efficiency (AE) of N, P and K in optimal nutrient<br />

management practices were 10.6 (n=559), 22.3 (n=294) and 9.2 (n=593) kg kg<br />

45<br />

-1 , respectively.<br />

The most commonly distributed (from 25% to 75%) AE values ranged from 5.2–14.9 kg kg-1 for N, 10.7–29.4 kg kg-1 for P and 4.5–11.9 kg kg-1for K for wheat in China.


The fACToRS effeCTINg The RegIoNAL<br />

dIffeReNTIATIoN of WheAT PRoduCTIoN IN PoLANd<br />

Bogusława Jaśkiewicz<br />

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – National Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland<br />

Czartoryskich 8 st, 24-100 Puławy<br />

e-mail: kos@iung.pulawy.pl<br />

Abstract<br />

Wheat production occupies an important place in the grain production of Poland and<br />

it is grown on a surface area of 2.3 million ha, the winter form takes 1.9 million ha in it.<br />

The share of wheat in the crop structure was 19.6% with an average yield of 4.1 t / ha (2009).<br />

The aim of this work was to present a critical factor in the regional diversity of wheat<br />

production in Poland.<br />

Methods:<br />

Source materials were statistical data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS), over the years 2006-<br />

2009, and were arranged by voivodeship. The study was based on the cultivated area; share in the<br />

crop structure, yield, and index of agricultural production area according to IUNG-PIB. Individually<br />

selected variables were statistically analysed. By using cluster analysis with the Ward method,<br />

the variations in the regions according to the production of wheat in Poland were extracted.<br />

Results:<br />

Fig. 1. Regions with different of quality cereals production on the basis of cluster analysis<br />

Conclusions:<br />

Four regions of the country differed of economical power of farms were taken into consideration.<br />

It was confirmed that on cereals quality production possibilities influence<br />

largeness of farms and their economical power. More favorable conditions for wheat production<br />

appeared in west and north regions of Poland.<br />

46


CoNTRIBuTIoN of feRTILIzeR uSe To WheAT PRoduC-<br />

TIoN IN ChINA<br />

Jiyun Jin<br />

China Program, International Plant Nutrition Institute(IPNI) and Institute of Agricultural<br />

resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 South Zhongguancun<br />

Street, Beijing, 100081, China. E-mail Address of presenting author: jyjin@ipni.net<br />

Wheat is an important crop worldwide, and China is the largest wheat producer. In recent<br />

years in China, wheat is planted over 23.721 million ha, producing approximately 109.30<br />

million tons of wheat grain with an average yield of 4607 kg/ha. Wheat is widely cultivated<br />

in almost all parts of China. There are several types of wheat, which can be divided into<br />

two main categories; spring wheat, which is planted in spring, and winter wheat, which is<br />

planted in winter. Results of three nationwide fertilizer efficiency studies in 1960s, 1980s<br />

and after 2000 were reviewed and current fertilizer use efficiency obtained from field<br />

research conducted through the IPNI cooperative network in China was discussed. The<br />

results indicated that fertilizer use efficiency in China following the law of minimum,<br />

the law of diminishing returns, the law of nutrient return, and other principles of plant<br />

nutrition. The results from the three fertilizer use efficiency study on wheat indicated<br />

that, on average, one kg N application increased wheat yield by 10-15kg/kg N in 1960s,<br />

10.0 kg/kg N in 1980s, and 10.8 kg/kg N in 2000s. The total grain production increase due<br />

to N application at the three different stages was 450–900 kg/ha in 1960s, 1170 kg/ha in<br />

1980s, and 1968 kg /ha in 2000s. The contribution of P to wheat yield increase following<br />

the similar tread. One kg P 2 O 5 application increased wheat yield, on average, by 5-10 kg/<br />

kg P 2 O 5 in 1960s, 8.1 kg/kg P 2 O 5 in 1980s, and 8.6 kg/kg P 2 O 5 in 2000s. The total grain<br />

production increase due to P 2 O 5 application at the three different stages was 225–600 kg/<br />

ha in 1960s, 656 kg/ha in 1980s, and 945 kg /ha in 2000s. With time in recent history, the<br />

wheat yield response to K in general is increasing due to the depletion of soil K. There<br />

was no significant yield response to K application in 1960s due to relatively low yield and<br />

sufficient supply of K from soils at that time. The yield response of wheat to K started in<br />

1970s, from the south first and gradually expanded to the north. In 1980s, on average,<br />

one kg K 2 O application increased wheat yield by 2.1 kg/ kg K 2 O, while by 2000s, one kg<br />

application of K 2 O increased wheat yield by 7.3 kg/ kg K 2 O. The total grain production<br />

increase due to K 2 O application at in 1980s and 2000s was 180 kg/ha in 1980s, and 1035<br />

kg /ha in 2000s. Average crop recovery efficiency of N with wheat conducted in 2002-<br />

2006 was about 35%. Further research is needed to improve fertilizer use efficiency in<br />

China. Measures to improve fertilizer use efficiency in China were also discussed in the<br />

paper.<br />

47


AdoPTIoN of CoNSeRVATIoN AgRICuLTuRe IN<br />

kAzAkhSTAN<br />

M. Karabayev 1 , P.Wall 1 , K.Sayre, N.Yuschenko 2 ,<br />

V.Posdnyakov 2 , Zh.Ospanbayev, D.Yuschenko 2 ,<br />

A.Baytassov 1 , A.Morgounov1 & H.Braun 1<br />

1 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT);<br />

2 “KazAgroInnovatsya” JSC, Kazakhstan*<br />

E-mail address of presenting author: m.karabayev@cgiar.org<br />

Ploughing up of the virgin lands in the mid of 1950s in northern Kazakhstan has led to<br />

the dramatic losses of soil health and fertility combined with extensive soil erosion The<br />

first conservation tillage management practices using sweep soil tillage were developed<br />

in North Kazakhstan during the 1960s. The principal farming systems were based on<br />

grain production from cereal-fallow rotations. These initial conservation tillage practice<br />

reduced soil erosion but failed to control it effectively. In the beginning of 2000 CIM-<br />

MYT, in cooperation with National Agricultural Research System (NARS), the Ministry<br />

of Agriculture (MoA) and FAO, initiated large-scale activities based on Conservation<br />

Agriculture (CA) in Kazakhstan. Due to these efforts, the area under Conservation Agriculture-based<br />

practices has been increasing from virtually none to an estimated area<br />

of: 500, 000 – 600, 000 ha in 2007; and 1, 300, 000 ha in 2008, with continued rapid<br />

increases in area according to a recent assessment conducted by CIMMYT, NARS and<br />

MoA. The utilization of CA-based technologies has become an official state policy in<br />

agriculture in Kazakhstan. Since 2008, the government of Kazakhstan has been subsidizing<br />

farmers who are adopting CA-based technologies. With this Kazakhstan is now<br />

included among the top ten countries with the largest areas under No-tillage in the world<br />

(Source: R.Derpsch & T.Friedrich. Global Overview of Conservation Agriculture Adoption.<br />

2009, FAO)<br />

48


RequIRemeNTS foR WheAT IN eSToNIA<br />

Koppel Reine, Ingver Anne<br />

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, Aamisepa 1, Jõgeva county, Jõgeva commune 48309, Estonia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: reine.koppel@jpbi.ee; anne.ingver@jpbi.ee<br />

Estonia is a small country producing on average 300 000 tonnes of wheat per year; almost<br />

all for domestic market. Annually on average 120 000 hectares of wheat is sown. The climatic<br />

conditions in Estonia are suitable for cultivation of the both wheat types – spring and<br />

winter wheat (SW and WW). The share of winter wheat is 1/3 smaller than that of spring<br />

wheat but has tendency to increase. Traditionally winter wheat is known by its higher yield<br />

potential and spring wheat by better baking quality. Wheat produced in Estonia should satisfy<br />

the needs of local baking industry. Therefore yeast-bread with good baking quality has<br />

been one of the priorities in wheat breeding at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute.<br />

There occur ‘bottleneck’ years (high precipitation, drought, extreme low temperatures<br />

in winter etc.) by irregular 7…10 years intervals in Estonia. Therefore there is a need for<br />

development of new varieties with better stability in yield and quality under fluctuating<br />

climatic conditions. In Europe there is no uniform system of quality for wheat. The wheat<br />

classification in Europe (also in Estonia) does not differentiate between soft and hard<br />

wheat, but between common and durum wheat. Only common wheat is cultivated in<br />

Estonia. Distinction is made between wheat for food purposes and wheat for animal feed.<br />

Generally minimum requirements are specified for grain to be sold to flour mills. Tartu<br />

Grain Mill Ltd is a leading producer of wheat and rye flour in Estonia. The following requirements<br />

for wheat growers are based on the Tartu Grain Mill contract specifications:<br />

moisture content (11-14%), volume weight (minimal 750 g/l), Falling Number value (min<br />

220 sec), total protein content (min 12%), gluten content (min 23%).<br />

The results, based on data of 15 WW and 14 SW varieties during 2004-2009 indicated,<br />

that WW had higher yield potential and bigger kernels every year in Estonian conditions.<br />

Quality data were better for SW. SW had higher protein and gluten content. Significant<br />

differences between gluten index and falling number between two wheat types were not<br />

found. Average protein content of 6 years of SW was 13, 8% (variation - 10, 5-17, 3%)<br />

and WW 12, 0% (variation – 10, 8-14, 1%). Average gluten content of SW was 31, 0%<br />

(22, 0...40, 1%) and WW 26, 9% (14, 2…33%). SW varieties had higher than minimum<br />

requirements values in 5 years out of six and WW in 4 years out of six. Some of the varieties<br />

exceed the requirements every year. Average volume weight of SW was 761 g/l<br />

(702…812 g/l) and WW 751 g/l (685…778 g/l). The both wheat types exceeded the minimum<br />

requirements in 5 years out of six. In Estonian conditions the length of growing<br />

period is very important to harvest high quality crop before rainy period starts. Falling<br />

number of winter wheat was higher as it is usually harvested 2-3 weeks earlier. Average<br />

falling number value for SW was estimated 247 sec (177…411 sec) and for WW 280 sec<br />

(218…342 sec).<br />

49


Severe disease attacks are not the major problem in Estonia. The most common diseases<br />

are powdery mildew and septoria. Domestic flour millers have variety preferences. High<br />

baking quality and volume weight among SW have had the variety ‘Manu’ (Finland) and<br />

among WW ‘Ada’ (Lithuania). Although the baking quality is significantly influenced<br />

by weather and agro-technical conditions, genetic potential of the cultivated varieties is<br />

extremely important. In the last years there is tendency in Estonia to take to the recommended<br />

variety list and cultivate late ripening, high-yielding varieties which have low<br />

protein content. These varieties may also have lower volume weight and resistance to<br />

sprouting in ear as they are mainly bread for more southern countries where this trait<br />

is not so important. These varieties more seldom meet the highest requirements of the<br />

mills. Farmers in general select for the varieties of more yield, without having more attention<br />

at the quality aspect because the plus they can receive for the quality production it is<br />

usually smaller in relation to that they achieve with a bigger yield.<br />

Future trends. The domestic bread market is changing with increased sales of wholegrain,<br />

wholemeal type breads associated with an increased awareness of health and nutritional<br />

benefits. Phenolic compounds which have antioxidative capabilities have been analysed<br />

in wheat flour and bran. A new project was started for determination of selenium (an<br />

essential micronutrient for humans) content in different wheat samples. Health benefits<br />

of selenium are partly explained by its antioxidant effect but it also promotes immunity<br />

system.<br />

The demand for local organic wheat products is increasing. Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute<br />

has started an organic wheat trials and organic wheat milling and baking tests.<br />

50


No TILLAge VS CoNVeNTIoNAL SySTem of WINTeR<br />

WheAT CuLTIVATIoN WITh dIffeReNT N-RATe ANd WATeR<br />

CoNdITIoNS<br />

Wiesław Koziara, Hanna Sulewska,<br />

Katarzyna Panasiewicz<br />

Department of Agronomy, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: koziara@up.poznan.pl<br />

High prices of the basic means of production, increasing energy demands and greater care<br />

for the natural environment are sufficient reasons behind the search for new opportunities<br />

in ploughland tillage. To achieve a balanced development of agriculture it is recommended<br />

to decrease the intensity of land cultivation under crop rotation, and to introduce ploughless<br />

tillage or even direct sowing.<br />

The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of aborting pre-seeding tillage on<br />

the growth and yield of winter wheat, considering a diverse range of water and fertilizer<br />

conditions. The study involved the period between 2000 and 2010, at Złotniki (Poznań)<br />

Experimental Station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poland. The experimental<br />

field soil was classified as being bonitation group IVa and IVb, complex 5 (good<br />

rye). The field experiments were made using a split-plot system in 4 replications.<br />

The experimental factors were as follows:<br />

Water variant (without sprinkling irrigation, with sprinkling irrigation),<br />

Cropping method (conventional, direct sowing)<br />

Nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N·ha -1 ).<br />

Irrigation took place when the soil humidity dropped below 70% of the field water capacity,<br />

using a semi-solid sprinkling machine fitted with NAAN 233/91 sprinklers of 7 mm<br />

nozzle diameter and a 5 mm∙h -1 water rate.<br />

Conventional tillage included the extensive use of post-harvest tillage, pre-sowing ploughing<br />

and pre-seeding tillage. All mechanical tillage measures were abandoned for direct<br />

sowing, and limited to the single use of the Roundup 360 SL herbicide at 1.5 l∙ha -1 dose.<br />

Roma winter wheat was cropped after peas in a four-field crop rotation with a 50% share<br />

of the following crops: sugar beet ++, spring triticale, peas, and winter wheat, maintaining<br />

a static level system of tested factors for all species from 1997. Fertilization with phosphorus<br />

(34.9 kg P∙ha -1 ) and potassium (83 kg K∙ha -1 ) was performed prior to sowing. Nitrogen<br />

fertilization at 50 kg N∙ha -1 prior to sowing and on appropriate objects was performed<br />

at the tillering stage (BBCH 21) and at the stem elongation stage (BBCH 31). Other crop<br />

treatments were performed according to good agrotechnical principles suitable for each<br />

species.<br />

51


Coefficients of variation (CV) of the analysed features were calculated according to the<br />

formula:<br />

CV = S/X ∙ 100%<br />

where: S – standard deviation, X – arithmetic mean.<br />

The results were subject to statistical evaluation with a variation analysis method. A detailed<br />

test was carried out according to Tukey at a confidence level of P = 0.95.<br />

Winter wheat yield significantly depended on weather conditions, while the yield volume<br />

from fields without sprinkling irrigation ranged from 3.26 to 4.96 t·ha -1 . On average,<br />

sprinkling irrigation caused an increase in winter wheat yield by 15.9% during the tenyear<br />

research period. The average yield of winter wheat cropped with the direct sowing<br />

method was 4.27 t·ha -1 , whereas the yield for conventional cropping was 5.22 t·ha -1 . An<br />

increase in nitrogen fertilization within the dose range of between 0 and 150 kg N·ha -1<br />

caused a rectilinear yield increase.<br />

52


ouT-CRoSSINg IN CommoN WheAT<br />

Kozub N.A. 1, 2 , Sozinov I.A. 1 1, 2<br />

, Sozinov A.A.<br />

1Institute of Plant Protection UAAS, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03022, Vasilkovska Str., 33<br />

2 SI Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine, 04123,<br />

Osipovskogo Str., 2a<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: sia1953@mail.ru<br />

Development of transgenic varieties renewed the interest to the problem of cross-pollination<br />

in common wheat Triticum aestivum L. The investigation of this problem is of importance<br />

for assessing the risk of pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic varieties to<br />

non-transgenic ones as well as to wild realties, for securing genetic purity of commercial<br />

seed production as well as collection material. Common wheat is a self-pollinating species,<br />

but cross-pollination may occur with a low frequency. Out-crossing rate ranges from<br />

fractions of percent to 3%, but in some years in certain genotypes it may increase up to<br />

10% and more (Waines and Hegde 2003). Varieties showing increased out-crossing rate<br />

were revealed, for example, Mironovskaya 26, Mironovskaya 60 (Kolyuchii et al. 1987),<br />

Oslo (Martin 1990), Glinlea and Wildcat (Lawrie et al. 2006). The objective of the investigation<br />

was to study cross-pollination indices in common wheat F 2 populations grown<br />

in different climatic conditions. The material of the investigation included seeds from<br />

F 2 plants from the reciprocal cross of winter common wheat varieties B-16 × Odesskaya<br />

Krasnokolosaya (OKK) (B-16 × OKK and OKK × B-16). Three populations were studied:<br />

the population grown in Odessa in 2000 (1329 F 2 plants), in Odessa in 2004 (940 F 2<br />

plants) and in Kyiv in 2004 (756 F 2 plants) in the vicinity of other wheat material (varieties,<br />

lines). Storage protein loci (Gli-B1, Gli-D1, Gli-A3, Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1) were<br />

used as genetic markers for detecting out-crossing. B-16 carries the wheat-rye 1BL/1RS<br />

translocation marked by the allele Gli-B1l. Storage proteins from 5 to 30 single F 3 seeds<br />

from each plant were analyzed by electrophoresis. Gliadins were analyzed by APAGE<br />

(Kozub and Sozinov), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits were analyzed by SDSelectrophoresis<br />

(Laemmli 1970). The following out-crossing indices were analyzed: the<br />

out-crossing rate (OC), the frequency of plants with cross-pollination (OC plant ) and outcrossing<br />

intensity (OCI). OCI = (the number of seeds resulted from cross-pollination /<br />

the total number of seeds analyzed from plants with cross-pollination) *100%. The outcrossing<br />

indices greatly differed depending on growth conditions. The out-crossing rate<br />

in the total population was 0.33% in Odessa, 2000, 1.4% in Odessa, 2004, and 5.11% in<br />

Kyiv, 2004. The frequencies of plants with cross-pollinations were 2.18, 8.19, and 16.27%,<br />

respectively. The differences in OC and OC plant among the three populations were highly<br />

significant (P < 0, 001). OCI in the population of Kyiv, 2004 (26%) was also much higher<br />

than that in the populations grown in Odessa (9, 5%) (P < 0, 001). The weather conditions<br />

during the peak of flowering in Kyiv, 2004 greatly differed from those of the Odessa<br />

populations in the amount of rainfalls and relative humidity of air, whereas the average<br />

decade temperature was similar. The higher out-crossing frequency was observed in Kyiv<br />

at low air humidity (51%) and complete absence of rainfalls (0 mm). At much higher<br />

53


humidity (67 and 80%) and occurrence of rainfalls (21 and 69 mm) in the decade analyzed<br />

in conditions of Odessa, out-crossing rate was significantly lower. Thus, drought<br />

during flowering is the main factor contributing to increased out-crossing.<br />

Genotypic differences in out-crossing indices manifest themselves only in weather conditions<br />

favorable for open flowering (Kyiv 2004). The out-crossing indices significantly<br />

differed depending on the direction of crossing for F 2 plants grown in Kyiv (2004). OC<br />

and OC plant were higher (P < 0.01) in plants from the direction of crossing OKK × B16.<br />

On the contrary, plants from the reverse cross (OKK × B16) showed significantly higher<br />

OCI (P < 0.01). In the population of Kyiv, 2004, OC indices highly depended on the<br />

presence of the rye 1BL/1RS translocation. The highest OC (10.88%) was revealed in<br />

homozygotes for the presence of the rye 1BL/1RS translocation, the lowest OC was in<br />

homozygotes without it (2.19%) (P


PRofICIeNCy – The NeW eC PRogRAm foR deVeLoPINg<br />

ReSeARCh PoTeNTIAL<br />

Wieslaw Oleszek & Anna Stochmal<br />

Department of Biochemistry and Crop Quality, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation,<br />

State Research Institute, ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: wo@iung.pulawy.pl<br />

European Community implemented in 2009 the program “Unlocking and developing the<br />

research potential of research entities in the EU´s convergence regions and outermost regions<br />

- REGPOT-2009-1”. Under this program Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Pulawy<br />

received financing for the program: “Managing the Production of Food and Feedstuff,<br />

their Safety and Quality under Global Climatic Change”. The overall goal of the program is<br />

to increase material and human capacities as well as partnership strengthening and initiation<br />

of networking with European Research Area (visit: www.iung.pulawy.pl).<br />

The program has been divided into four horizontal topics that include:<br />

Soil Environment. There is a strong enhancement of the interest in the EC activities<br />

towards soil environment. After air and water, soil receives now much attention. This is<br />

confirmed by the recent EC documents (Towards Soil Thematic Strategy, 2002). Identifying<br />

and combating soil degradation (e.g. evaluation of soil contamination, ecological<br />

and ecotoxicological tests), eenlarging the research area to problems related to processes<br />

underlying soil functions as well as new technologies for soil protection and restoration<br />

are the core topics.<br />

Land use. Two parameters influence dramatically land use: urban and industrial extension<br />

at the expense of some high quality agricultural areas, and global climate changes.<br />

Assessing climate change scenarios, identifying new management systems for agriculture<br />

including tillage, cropping systems, water management and retention facilities, identifying<br />

possibilities of biomass production and reduction of CO 2 emission, identifying of<br />

new instruments and policies allowing adaptation and mitigation of foreseen impacts are<br />

the main topics.<br />

Production systems and techniques. Better understanding of biological bases of plant<br />

productivity that include the selection criteria for plant species and varieties of cultivated<br />

plants, the modification of agrotechnique as a result of changing precipitation, agrophag<br />

occurrence and weeds, the economic consequences of climatic changes: irrigation necessity,<br />

changes in animal performance and systems of animal feeding are of major focus.<br />

Plant Product Quality and Safety. The Commission’s guiding principle, primarily set<br />

out in its White Paper on Food Safety, is to apply an integrated approach from farm to<br />

table covering all sectors of the food chain, including feed production, primary production,<br />

food processing, storage, transport and retail sale. New plant species and varieties<br />

55


need to be qualitatively evaluated in their reaction to environment (lower precipitation,<br />

higher temperatures), and growing systems (fertilization, plant protection system used).<br />

Agrophage occurrence creates a hazard of mycotoxin biosynthesis both in grain (food and<br />

feed) as well as forage (legumes, grasses) crops, but also some cash crops. Phytochemical<br />

composition of agroproducts, especially the occurrence of health promoting components<br />

(antioxidants, immunostimulators) may change dramatically under the environment.<br />

Acknowledgement. This work was supported by PROFICIENCY, FP7 Contract<br />

N° 245751.<br />

56


ImPACT of Seed INduSTRy deVeLoPmeNT To WheAT<br />

BReedINg & VARIeTy PRomoTIoN IN TAJIkISTAN<br />

Otambekova M.G. 1 , Tursunzade Sh.P. 2 , Persson R. 2 ,<br />

Hede A. 2<br />

1 Seed Association of Tajikistan, 44, Rudaki av., Dushanbe, Tajikistan<br />

2 Sida Project “Support to Seed Industry Development in the Republic of Tajikistan”, 44,<br />

Rudaki av., Dushanbe, Tajikistan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: omunira01@gmail.com<br />

Tajikistan is in state of transition from a centrally organized economy towards a marketoriented<br />

economy. During the former Soviet Union, agriculture in Tajikistan was focused<br />

on cotton production. After independence, the country has aimed at achieving national<br />

self sufficiency and food security. This has led to changes in agriculture and diversified the<br />

range of crops grown in the country. There is a great potential for development of seed industry<br />

therefore in Tajikistan; many areas are suitable for quality seed production, especially<br />

development of seed production of wheat. This advantage is exploited by the private sector<br />

that requires improvement of seed policy and institutional development. During recent<br />

years Tajikistan made substantial progress in moving towards a market economy through<br />

provision of a sound policy and regulatory framework for seed industry development. The<br />

Sida funded Project “Support to Seed Industry in the Republic of Tajikistan” laid a firm<br />

foundation for the development of the national seed industry. The objective of the project is<br />

to create a competitive seed market and encourage private sector participation and establish<br />

trust in the seed industry. The Seed Association of Tajikistan (SAT) is at fore front of efforts,<br />

leading its members in developing and promoting the Tajik seed industry.<br />

Wheat breeding is carried out by both public and recently established private breeding<br />

stations. Variety maintenance and early generation seed production was not well organized<br />

by breeders in research and scientific institutes, leading to a shortage of seeds for further<br />

multiplication by public and private seed farms. Wheat seed was mostly imported,<br />

and Krasnodar varieties from Russia are widely used in the country. To overcome shortages<br />

of wheat seed farmers use informal sources. Most often they use farmsaved seeds<br />

or buy from the local seed farms. The informal seed supply by NGOs and emergency<br />

projects has been very high, especially for staple food crops such as wheat, as a result of<br />

the civil war.<br />

Therefore Sida Project and SAT is providing technical assistance to public and private<br />

breeding stations in developing wheat breeding, variety maintenance and producing high<br />

quality seed of early generation. Priority is given to development of maintenance breeding<br />

of high yielding diseases resistant wheat varieties. Development of the concept of<br />

licensed seed industry and promotion of certified seed production plays significant role<br />

in strengthening wheat breeding programs and seed production. SAT is assisting in connecting<br />

seed buyers with seed producers.<br />

57


Strengthening the capacity of wheat breeding programs in variety maintenance and early<br />

generation seed production ensures availability and access to both public and private<br />

seed producers. Work towards membership in international organizations such as UPOV,<br />

IPPC and ISTA has been initiated and it is expected that Tajikistan will become a full<br />

member of these organizations in the near future.<br />

Further development of wheat breeding, seed production and marketing of preferred<br />

varieties are closely related to cooperation of the National Breeding Programs with the<br />

International Research Centers and improvement of coordination between breeding programs<br />

within the region.<br />

The seed industry still requires substantial investments in infrastructure and considerable<br />

improvement in institutional and organizational capacity, particularly within the governmental<br />

structures. Long-term and sustained efforts are required to build confidence in<br />

the seed sector and promote the role of Tajikistan in international seed trade.<br />

58


The RoLe of PLANT NuTRITIoN IN NARRoWINg yIeLd<br />

gAPS IN gLoBAL WheAT PRoduCTIoN<br />

S. Phillips, K. Majumdar, P. He, J. Jin, R. Norton, V. Nosov,<br />

T. Jensen<br />

International Plant Nutrition Institute, 3118 Rocky Meadows Road, Owens Cross Roads,<br />

AL 35763 USA<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: sphillips@ipni.net<br />

Meeting the food demand of our growing population will require significant reductions<br />

in global yield gaps that currently exist. Wheat is a staple in almost all human diets; however,<br />

average grain yields around the world typically range between 20 and 80% of yield<br />

potential. Poor plant nutrition is a major factor contributing to yield losses in farmer<br />

fields. Identifying the role of plant nutrition in current yield gaps will clarify the decision<br />

support tools and educational programs that need to be delivered to producers. Providing<br />

growers the information needed to make the right choices regarding sources, rates, timing,<br />

and placement of plant nutrients will contribute significantly to narrowing yield gaps<br />

in global wheat production. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish attainable<br />

grain yields in major wheat producing countries; (2) establish actual grain yields being<br />

obtained in farmer fields and under optimal (non-limiting) fertility conditions; (3) determine<br />

the contribution of plant nutrition to current yield gaps. Attainable yield (YP) was<br />

defined for this project as the highest possible yield that can be obtained if limited only<br />

by genetic potential, solar radiation, and rainfall. The CERES-wheat growth model was<br />

used to estimate YP for major wheat producing regions in Argentina, Australia, Canada,<br />

China, India, Russia, and the United States. Actual grain yields (AY) were defined as<br />

reported, verifiable yield levels obtained at a given location. Non-fertility limited yields<br />

(NLY) were determined using research plot data, e.g. the yield of the optimum treatment<br />

in a fertilizer response study. Data from 2004-2008 were used for this analysis. Results to<br />

be presented include yield gap (YP-AY), non-fertility yield gap [NFYG = (YP-NLY)], and<br />

fertility yield gap [FYG = (YG-NFYG)] calculations.<br />

59


CoNSeRVATIoN AgRICuLTuRe foR SuSTAINABLe WheAT<br />

PRoduCTIoN IN The hIghLANdS of CWANA RegIoN:<br />

PoTeNTIAL ANd CoNSTRAINTS<br />

M. H. Roozitalab 1 , M. R. J. Kamali 2 and E. De Pauw 3<br />

1 ICARDA-Iran,<br />

2 CIMMYT-Iran<br />

3 ICARDA -Aleppo<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: m.roozitalab@cgiar.org<br />

Highlands constitute about 27% of the total area of the CWANA region and more than<br />

70% of the land in several countries of the region. These areas are characterized by elevation<br />

of more than 800 mbsl, rugged terrain and cold winter. Extreme to very cold<br />

highlands, with the mean annual temperature (MAT) of less than 5°C, make-up about<br />

30% while the cold highlands, with the MAT in the range of 5 to 10° C, cover about 25%<br />

of the highlands. Agriculture is mainly based on dryland crop production system with<br />

winter and facultative wheat or barley as the main crops. The highlands are generally facing<br />

high rate of rural poverty, low agricultural productivity and diversification, increasing<br />

drought frequency and water shortages which are being exacerbated by degradation<br />

of natural resources, i.e. soil, rangelands, and biodiversity. Continuous mono- cropping<br />

based on wheat-wheat or wheat-fallow is still the predominant cropping systems either<br />

under rainfed or irrigated conditions. Limited areas are under winter/facultative wheat in<br />

rotation with spring chickpea. The yield gaps between the research sites and the farmers’<br />

fields are relatively high and adoption rate of improved wheat cultivars and new agronomic<br />

practices are still low, particularly under the dryland conditions.<br />

Although, conservation agriculture (CA) or conservation tillage (CT) have been developed<br />

and practiced on relatively large areas in the tropic and temperate zones around the<br />

world on about 100 million hectares, however, it is not well developed and practiced in<br />

drylands or irrigated areas of the highlands in the CWANA region. There is lack of integrated<br />

research approach in many countries to define technical as well as socio-economic<br />

constraints of the CA or CT under the farmers’ field conditions. However, limited research<br />

has been carried out on zero or conservation tillage in Iran, Turkey and Morocco.<br />

To increase wheat production and farmers income, it seems essential to incorporate supplemental<br />

irrigation and crop rotation with legume crops in CA or CT technologies under<br />

the dryland conditions.<br />

The main constraints to CA/CT technology and adoption are lack of awareness and experience<br />

with these technologies as well as lack of affordable and efficient locally-made CA/<br />

CT machinery and equipments for small farmers. Increased labor demands for weeds<br />

management, mainly due to unavailability of effective herbicides and slow decomposition<br />

rate of plant residues as well as lack of enabling policy environment and governments’<br />

support are among other major constraints. Another constraint to adoption of<br />

60


the technology appears to be other competing demands for utilization of crop residues.<br />

Therefore, critical assessment is needed to review the technical and socio-economic challenges<br />

facing the adoption of CA by small resource poor farmers living under harsh cold<br />

environment in various agro-ecological zones in the highlands of the CWANA region.<br />

Keywords: Conservation agriculture, Conservation tillage, Highland Agriculture<br />

61


BReedINg WheAT foR ReduCed ImPACT of PRedICTed<br />

CLImATe ChANgeS, AT NARdI fuNduLeA<br />

G. Şerban, N.N. Saulescu, G. Ittu, P. Mustatea<br />

National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea, 915200 ROMANIA<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: gabyatbsg@yahoo.com<br />

Climate changes became obvious in Romania during the last decades and the<br />

forecast is that they will become more important in the future. It is expected<br />

that these changes will strongly affect wheat production and yield stability.<br />

Based on simulation of differential response of cultivars with various genetic characteristics,<br />

to several scenarios of climate change, using mathematical models of plant growth<br />

and development, a breeding strategy was established at NARDI Fundulea in an attempt<br />

to reduce the expected impact of climate changes on future wheat production. This strategy<br />

includes:<br />

Fine tuning of earliness, by manipulation of vernalization requirements, day length response<br />

and earliness per se, for better adaptation to expected rainfall and temperature<br />

patterns. Simulation results using forecasted weather data for future climate show that<br />

reducing vernalization requirements and day length response will increase yield as a result<br />

of shortening vegetation period. Optimum combination of vernalization and day<br />

length parameters, providing the best use of climatic resources allowing higher yields and<br />

smaller year to year variation is expected to be given by medium or low vernalization requirements<br />

and reduced day length response. However, as reduced vernalization and low<br />

day length requirements also reduce winter-hardiness, risks of winter damage have to be<br />

taken into account and possibilities of shortening the vegetation period by manipulating<br />

instead differences in earliness per se are being explored<br />

Improving drought resistance, mainly using genetic differences in osmotic adjustment,<br />

coleoptile length and early vigor. Besides exploiting the adapted cultivars that proved<br />

good performance in recent very dry years, larger genetic variation from drier areas of<br />

the world is explored<br />

Improving tolerance of yield and bread-making quality to high temperatures, mainly by<br />

exploiting observed differences in membrane stability and glutenin composition<br />

Modifying the albedo of wheat canopies, by breeding for waxy leaves. Although an increased<br />

reflectivity of the canopy might negatively influence yield potential it is expected<br />

that on average it would be advantageous under the predicted temperature and water<br />

stress<br />

Breeding for better resistance to bydv (“barley yellow dwarf virus”), as warmer autumns<br />

will extend the activity of insect vectors, leading to larger yield losses caused by bydv.<br />

62


Climate change scenarios also predict larger weather fluctuations and extreme meteorological<br />

phenomena. To reduce their impact, future wheat cultivars should have good levels<br />

of lodging and shattering resistance, high tolerance to sprouting and sufficient winter<br />

hardiness.<br />

Combining all the traits necessary for counteracting the expected effects of climate<br />

changes is an important challenge facing our breeding program.<br />

Results obtained so far in meeting these objectives will be presented.<br />

63


WheAT ImPRoVemeNT ChALLeNgeS ANd<br />

oPPoRTuNITIeS IN CeNTRAL ASIA ANd The CAuCASuS<br />

Ram C. Sharma 1 , Zakir Khalikulov 1 , Mesut Keser 2 ,<br />

Alex Morgounov 3 and Amor Yahyaoui 4<br />

1 ICARDA, CAC Regional Program, Tashkent 100000, Uzbekistan<br />

2 ICARDA, International Winter Improvement Program, Ankara, Turkey<br />

3 CIMMYT, International Winter Improvement Program, Ankara, Turkey<br />

4 ICARDA, Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Program, Aleppo, Syria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: r.c.sharma@cgiar.org<br />

Wheat is the most important cereal, directly linked to food security in the eight countries<br />

of Central Asia and the Caucasus (CAC). These include Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,<br />

Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in Central Asia and Armenia, Azerbaijan and<br />

Georgia in the Caucasus. All countries, except Kazakhstan, primarily grow winter and<br />

facultative wheat. The objective of this study is to analyze constraints to winter wheat<br />

improvement, and discuss opportunities for increasing wheat productivity in the CAC<br />

region. Average wheat yield of 1.75 t ha -1 in the CAC countries is lower than neighboring<br />

West Asia (2.12 t ha -1 ) and Eastern Europe (2.35 t ha -1 ) regions with the exception<br />

of Uzbekistan (4.77 t ha -1 ). There are wide yield gaps (approx. 30 to 55%) for wheat in<br />

the CAC countries. There are many abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic constraints to<br />

wheat improvement in the region. The major abiotic stresses are drought, heat, salinity<br />

and frost. Among biotic stresses, wheat yellow rust is most important followed by leaf<br />

rust. Tan spot, Sunn pest, cereal leaf beetle, and Hessian fly are important constraints in<br />

some parts of the region. The socio-economic constraints are in terms of inadequacy of<br />

funding, research facilities, number and training manpower, and policy guiding varietal<br />

development, adoption and replacement, and seed multiplication. There are fewer numbers<br />

of experienced wheat breeders than needed in most countries. There are inadequate<br />

research facilities and use of modern wheat improvement methods and tools. Majority of<br />

the wheat varieties occupying substantial area in the region lacks resistance to important<br />

diseases and pests. Wheat improvement programs are not well developed and facilitated<br />

in majority of the CAC countries to effectively address the deficiency in the commercial<br />

varieties. Varietal release and seed multiplication systems are not streamlined to allow<br />

swift replacement of deficient varieties with improved ones. There is inadequate funding<br />

of wheat improvement related activities. There is a lack of financial incentives and career<br />

advancement opportunities for young wheat researchers. A large mass of wheat researchers<br />

are ageing with little opportunity to replace them with competent young manpower.<br />

There is weak networking for germplasm and scientific exchanges among the countries<br />

within the region. Despite the above mentioned constraints to wheat improvement in the<br />

CAC, there are opportunities to develop improved wheat varieties to meet the demands<br />

of wheat growers. The major researchable areas for wheat improvement in the region<br />

include high yield potential, resistance to rusts, tan spot, powdery mildew, Sunn pest,<br />

cereal leaf beetle and tolerance to heat, frost and salinity, and superior end-use quality.<br />

64


The countries in the region have huge wealth of genetic resources which could be used<br />

to address both biotic and abiotic stresses limiting productivity. There is strong presence<br />

of two international agricultural research centers (IARC), International Center for<br />

Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and International Center for Maize<br />

and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) that provide improved germplasm and advanced<br />

breeding lines of wheat in the region. The International Winter Wheat Improvement Program<br />

(IWWIP), a cooperative breeding project involving Ministry of Agriculture and<br />

Rural Affairs of Turkey, CIMMYT and ICARDA is primary source of germplasm provided<br />

as international nurseries of winter wheat to the region annually. A number of<br />

wheat varieties have been released in the CAC from the international nurseries. There is<br />

also germplasm exchange with Russia, other eastern European countries and the U.S.A.<br />

The results from the IWWIP yield trials from the past five years have identified a number<br />

of high yielding, stable genotypes. Comparative study between advanced breeding lines<br />

selected from international nurseries and local commercial cultivars showed that several<br />

breeding lines produced significantly higher grain yield than the local cultivars. Besides<br />

producing 7 to 8 t ha -1 grain yield, the advanced breeding lines also possess resistance<br />

to yellow rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew and acceptable agronomic traits. The two<br />

IARCs (ICARDA and CIMMYT) along with other international and national partners<br />

in the region are actively pursuing capacity development for wheat improvement in the<br />

CAC. A great deal of awareness is being created among national partners in the region<br />

through planning and capacity building efforts. Food security in the region is strongly<br />

linked to wheat productivity. Therefore, wheat improvement remains at the core of agricultural<br />

policy in the region. There is renewed consciousness among the national policy<br />

makers in the CAC towards wheat improvement due to emerging threats of Ug99 strain<br />

of stem rust and climate change.<br />

65


PLeNARy SeSSIoN 2:<br />

uTILIzATIoN of WheAT geNeTIC<br />

ReSouRCeS IN BReedINg


WheAT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS – hoW To exPLoIT?<br />

Börner, A. 1 , Neumann, K. 1 , Kobiljski B. 2<br />

1 Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstrasse 3, 06466<br />

Gatersleben, Germany<br />

2 Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: boerner@ipk-gatersleben.de<br />

As estimated by FAO world-wide existing germplasm collections contain more than<br />

6 million accessions of plant genetic resources. Wheat (Triticum and Aegilops) represents<br />

the biggest group with about 800, 000 accessions. One of the four largest ex situ<br />

genebanks of the world is located at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop<br />

Plant Research in Gatersleben. As on the global scale wheat is the largest group having<br />

almost 30, 000 accessions. Beside the long term storage and frequent regeneration of the<br />

material phenotypic characterisation and evaluation data are collected as a prerequisite<br />

for gene identification and mapping. Here we demonstrate the successful utilisation of<br />

a germplasm collection for the identification and molecular mapping genes (Quantitative<br />

Trait Loci, QTL) determining agronomic important traits, exploiting an associationbased<br />

technique. Applying this approach a population of individual genotypes is analysed<br />

in order to detect associations between marker patterns and trait expressions.<br />

A genome wide association analysis was performed using a genetically diverse core collection<br />

of 96 wheat accessions. Twenty agronomic traits were measured in field trials conducted<br />

over up to eight growing seasons. Correlations between traits across seasons were<br />

high in almost all cases. The traits include heading date, plant height as well as several<br />

yield determining parameters as for example thousand grain weight but also diseases. In<br />

order to investigate trait-marker associations the wheat lines were genotyped using 874<br />

diversity array technology (DArT) markers. For investigation of the population structure<br />

a subset of 219 markers was analysed with the programme STRUCTURE. It revealed a<br />

structure of two possible subpopulations, what can be explained by the origin and pedigrees<br />

of the material. The analyses of associations between markers and traits were performed<br />

with the software programme TASSEL using the General Linear Model with the<br />

Q-Matrix received from STRUCTURE as correction for the population structure. Significant<br />

marker-trait associations for all investigated traits were obtained and are presented.<br />

The intrachromosomal location of many of these coincided with those of known major<br />

genes or quantitative trait loci, but others were detected in regions where no known genes<br />

have been located to date. These latter presumptive loci provide opportunities for further<br />

wheat improvement, based on a marker approach.<br />

68


uTILIzATIoN of NeW WheAT geNePooL IN BReedINg<br />

of SPRINg BReAd WheAT<br />

I. Belan1, L. Rosseeva 1 , L. Laikova 2 , V. Rosseev 1 ,<br />

L. Pershina 2 , A. Morgounov 3 , Yu. Zelenskiy 4<br />

1 Siberian Agricultural Research Institute, Koroliev Ave., 26, Omsk 644012, Russia,<br />

2 Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences,<br />

Lavrentiev Ave., 10, Novosibirsk 633090, Russia,<br />

3 CIMMYT, PO Box 39, Emek 06511, Ankara, Turkey,<br />

4 CIMMYT, PO 1443, Astana, Kazakhstan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: wheat@mail.ru<br />

A promising area in wheat breeding is use of genepool containing new valuable genes,<br />

introgressed into wheat from its wild relatives and cultivated species of other taxonomic<br />

groups, as the initial material. Due to this approach a commercial variety of spring bread<br />

wheat and new advanced lines were developed by breeding programs in 2000-2009. The<br />

initial material involved in breeding of the above comprised immune lines of bread wheat<br />

variety Saratovskaya 29 and alloplasmic recombinant lines of bread wheat, which were<br />

produced by Institute of Cytology and Genetics using chromosome engineering methods.<br />

Saratovskaya 29 immune lines contain genes responsible for powdery mildew and<br />

leaf rust resistance and high grain quality being incorporated from synthetic amphiploid<br />

T. timopheevii x Ae. tauschii (AtAtGGDD). These lines by now have proved to be efficiently<br />

used as donors of these genes in breeding programs. For example, a cross between<br />

bread wheat genotype Rang (Sweden) and one of Saratovskaya 29 immune lines (Rang/<br />

Saratovskaya 29 ВС5) resulted in moderately late variety Pamyaty Maystrenko following<br />

a relevant advanded yiled trial (2007-2009).<br />

Irrespective of growing conditions this variety is characterized by high field resistance<br />

to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Initial symptoms of of leaf rust and powdery mildew<br />

were found to manifest significantly later on variety Pamyaty Maytrenko if compared<br />

with susceptible moderately late check Omskaya 18. Protein content of variety Pamyaty<br />

Maystrenko is higher by 2, 53% than that of the check whereas gluten content – by 5, 2%,<br />

flour strength – by 197 a.u., loaf volume – by 50 cm3. The grain yield of this variety is the<br />

same with that of the check Omskaya 18. In 2009 spring wheat Pamyaty Maystrenko was<br />

submitted to the Russian State Yield Trial. Alloplasmic recombinant lines of bread wheat<br />

were identified from BC3-BC4 progenies of barley-wheat hybrids 1) H.vulgare (Nepolegayuschiy)<br />

x T.aestivum (Saratovskaya 29) and 2) H.vulgare (line 319) x T.aestivum<br />

(Saratovskaya 29). The first hybrid combination was backcrossed by bread wheat Mironovskaya<br />

808 (twice) and Saratovskaya 29 (once), while the second combination was<br />

backcrossed by bread wheats Saratovskaya 29 (thrice) and Ulyanovka (once). Alloplasmic<br />

recombinant lines characterized by early maturity and high tillering were included in the<br />

breeding program. A promising moderately early variety Lutescens 311/00-22 was produced<br />

from the crossing of the alloplasmic recombinant line L-17D with a CIMMYT line<br />

of spring bread wheat Kom 37.<br />

69


According to GISH-analysis results Lutescens 311/00-22 is characterized with wheat-rye<br />

translocation apparently achieved from line Kom 37. Advanced Trial showed that grain<br />

yield of this variety was higher than that of moderately early standard (bread wheat variety<br />

Pamyaty Azieva by 0, 6 ton/ha and had high field resistance to powdery mildew and<br />

leaf rust. Grain quality properties of advanced genotype Lutescens 311/00-22 is of the<br />

same with those of high quality variety Pamyaty Azieva.<br />

Advanced lines Lutescens 310/00-2 and Lutescens 310/00-13 were obtained from the<br />

crossing between alloplasmic recombinant line L-80 and a breeding line of spring durum<br />

wheat G90-156-6. Advanced lines were resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust<br />

throughout the growth period. In 2009 varieties Pamyaty Maystrenko and advanced lines<br />

were tested under stem rust artificial inoculation in Kenya (Kenyan Agricultural Research<br />

Institute (KARI). Variety Pamyaty Maystrenko was found to have moderate resistance to<br />

Ug 99, the most harmful race of stem rust in the world. Advanced line Lutescens 310/00-2<br />

showed a complex resistance to yellow rust and stem rust. The breeding material was in<br />

vitro tested to unfavorable abiotic factors where resistance traits to unfavorable abiogenic<br />

(environmental) factors were determined by the ability produce shoots on calligenic medium.<br />

Based on the research results, advanced moderately early variety Lutescens 311/00-<br />

22 moderately late variety Pamyaty Maystrenko planted to the State Yield Trial are characterized<br />

with higher resistance to unfavorable abiotic factors, particularly, resistance to<br />

drought.<br />

The results showed that employment of the new wheat genepool produced from wide<br />

crossing allows to increase effectiveness of commercial variety breeding combining higher<br />

grain yield, adaptation and high bread making qualities.<br />

70


IdeNTIfICATIoN of SouRCeS of SeedLINg ANd AduLT-<br />

PLANT ReSISTANCe To WheAT RuSTS IN PRImITIVe ANd<br />

WILd TRITICum SPeCIeS<br />

Kumarse Nazari, A. Yahyaoui, A. Amri, M. El Naimi,<br />

M. El Ahmed, I. Maaz<br />

International Agricultural Research Center in the Dry Areas, P.O Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: K.Nazari@cgiar.org<br />

The persistence of problem of wheat yellow rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis West.<br />

f.sp. tritici) in many parts of the world including CWANA is closely associated with the<br />

continuous shift in pathogenic variability resulting in appearance of new virulent races.<br />

One of the major causes of this phenomenon could be due to the fact that in many breeding<br />

programs, improvement for resistance to yellow rust has been founded on narrowed<br />

genetic base of resistance using few race specific resistance genes such as. Yr9, Yr17, and<br />

Yr27. It is not easy to find new sources of resistance to yellow rust in advanced wheat genotypes<br />

because of saturated utilization of available common wheats in breeding programs.<br />

Identification of new sources of resistance to yellow rust in primitive and wild relatives<br />

of wheat and utilization of such resistances, particularly when adult-plant resistance, are<br />

expected to broaden the genetic basis of resistance and hence its durability. ICARDA’s genetic<br />

resource section (GRS) retains a large collection of wild relatives of wheat collected<br />

from a wide range of geographical areas. In the present study 500 accessions of primitive<br />

and wild relatives of wheat belonging to 18 species were screened for resistance to wheat<br />

yellow rust and stem rust at Tal Hadya. Yellow rust adult-plant screening was conducted<br />

against the most prevailing mixed races of yellow rust carrying virulence for the major<br />

Yr-genes and stem rust adult-plant screening was carried out under plastic house condition.<br />

Artificial inoculation was applied at tillering, heading and flag-leaf stages using<br />

fresh spores mixed with talcum powder. Adult-plant responses were recorded for the<br />

major infection types (Roelfs et al., 1992) and diseases severity was scored using Modified<br />

Cobb’s scale (Peterson, 1945). In case of yellow rust field scoring was repeated three<br />

times at 10 days intervals. Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) was calculated<br />

for the three scorings and then adjusted to relative AUDPC (rAUDPC%) in accordance to<br />

the reaction of susceptible cultivar Morocco. According to rAUDPC% of yellow rust and<br />

coefficient of infection (CI) of stem rust reaction and final disease reactions to Yr and Sr<br />

on flag leaf, it was found that Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta, T. aestivum subsp. sphaerococcum,<br />

T. karamyschevii, T. timopheevii subsp. timopheevii, T. monococcum subsp. monococcum,<br />

T. turgidum subsp. polonicum, T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum, T. turgidum subsp.<br />

turanicum, T. turgidum subsp. dicoccon, T. turgidum subsp. turgidum, T. aestivum subsp.<br />

macha, T. aestivum subsp. compactum, T. fungicidum, T. kiharae showed varied level of<br />

resistance to yellow rust. Among the species T. timopheevii, T. spelta, T. monoccocum, T.<br />

turgidum subsp. polinicum, T. turgudum subsp. carthlicum, T. turgidum spp. dicoccon, and<br />

T. turgidum subsp. trugidum showed more than 80% resistance. Stem rust reaction of<br />

the same accessions indicated that among the species resistant to yellow rust, except for<br />

71


T. aestivum subsp. sphaerococcum, T. karamyschevii, and T. turgidum subsp. turanicum,<br />

the other species showed varied level of resistance to stem rust. Triticum monococcum,<br />

T. timopheevii, T. turgidum subsp. dicoccon, and T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum showed<br />

high level of resistance to stem and yellow rusts. Triticum ispahanicum, T. jakubzineri, T.<br />

vavilovii, and T. zhukovskyi were susceptible to both rusts. Seedling assessment to Yr, Sr,<br />

and Lr and adult-plant screening of these accessions to Lr are underway. Further to this<br />

study and using molecular makers, it will be possible to find new sources of resistance in<br />

this collection.<br />

72


CoNSeRVINg CRoP dIVeRSITy IN The 21 ST CeNTuRy<br />

Cary Fowler<br />

Global Diversity Trust, Italy<br />

E-mail: cary.fowler@croptrust.org<br />

While policy makers speak of the necessity for increasing agricultural production, the<br />

practical obstacles to doing so are quickly increasing. Any credible effort to achieve global<br />

food security will require the conservation and use of crop diversity. This, in turn, will<br />

require cooperation and vision amongst countries and institutions – and perhaps even<br />

a very different model for genetic resources conservation and use from the one promulgated<br />

in the 1970s.<br />

Any sustainable system for conserving crop diversity will have to be rational, efficient and<br />

effective. It will not only have to work for wheat, but for all the other crops collectively.<br />

What would such a system look like? How would it work? Who would benefit? Who<br />

might be disadvantaged? These are the questions the “wheat community” and the broader<br />

“genetic resources community” will need to explore in order to help agriculture and its<br />

crops get ready for the challenges of climate change, as well as land, water, energy and<br />

nutrient constraints.<br />

73


T. AeSTIVum x T. TImoPheeVII INTRogReSSIoN LINeS<br />

AS A SouRCe of PAThogeN ReSISTANCe geNeS<br />

I.N. Leonova 1 , E.B. Budashkina 1 , N.P. Kalinina 1 ,<br />

M.S. Röder 2 , E.S. Skolotneva 3 , A. Börner 2 , E.A. Salina 1<br />

1 Institute of cytology and genetics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia<br />

2 Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, 06466, Gatersleben, Germany<br />

3 Moscow State University, Department of Mycology&Algology, Biology Faculty, Moscow,<br />

Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author:leonova@bionet.nsc.ru<br />

Broadening of genetic diversity of modern wheat cultivar by identification and introgression<br />

of useful genes from wild wheat relatives is the important goal of plant breeding.<br />

Introgression of valuable genes using direct crosses of bred wheat with wild relatives is<br />

often accompanied by linkage drug which influence negatively on yield and quality. For<br />

this purpose it is important to develop intermediate forms containing a low percent of<br />

exotic alleles from wild species or unadapted germplasm. A collection of 80 introgression<br />

lines was obtained from crosses of tetraploid wheat T. timopheevii ssp. viticulosum with<br />

six common wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars: Saratovskaya 29, Skala, Novosibirskaya 67,<br />

Pirotrix 28, Irtishanka, and Tcelinnaya 20.<br />

Pathogen resistance of introgression line collection to leaf and stem rusts, powdery mildew,<br />

spot blotch and loose smut was evaluated in the field tests in Central and West Siberian<br />

Regions of Russian Federation from 1995. Analysis of the wheat leaf rust population<br />

(Puccinia triticina Erikss) in West Siberia in 2008 showed high frequencies (from 72% to<br />

100%) of clones virulent to Lr1, 2c, 3a, 3bg, 10, 11, 14a, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 32, 33, 36, 39,<br />

40, B (data of Russian Institute of Phytopathology). All the lines proved to have a higher<br />

resistance to leaf rust than the recipient wheat cultivar, however, the resistance varied in<br />

different lines from immunity (score 0 on the immunity scale) to moderate resistance<br />

(score 2). Among the introgression lines there was found also three lines with high immunity<br />

to stem rust, 20 lines resistant to powdery mildew, 6 lines resistant to spot blotch<br />

and 15 lines with loose smut resistance. It was revealed 6 lines possessing complex resistance<br />

to various fungal diseases, including 3 lines obtained on the basis of Saratovskaya<br />

29 cultivar, three lines on the basis of Pyrotrix 28 and one line on the basis of cultivar<br />

Skala. Population of stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) in Central Russia consists<br />

mainly of race TKNTF (to 96%) with virulence for resistance genes Sr5, 6, 7b, 8a, 9a, 9е,<br />

9g, 9d, 10, 21, 30, 36, 38, Tmp, Wld-1 (data of Moscow State University, Department of<br />

Mycology&Algology, Biology Faculty). Reaction of introgression lines 832, 842-2 and<br />

their parents (cultivar Saratovskaya 29 and T. timopheevii) to race TKNTF was estimated<br />

on seedling stage. It was shown that Т. timopheevii and line 842-2 are highly resistant to<br />

stem rust (score 0 и 0; 1, respectively), while line 832 and wheat cultivar Saratovskaya 29<br />

are susceptible.<br />

74


Genetic analysis of leaf rust resistance demonstrated that 37 out of 80 lines have monogenic<br />

dominant or monogenic recessive inheritance. Remainder lines showed digenic<br />

control of leaf rust resistance with different interactions between genes. Chromosomal<br />

localization of the T. timopheevii genome fragments was analyzed by the means of microsatellite<br />

(SSR) markers. Higher frequency of substitutions and translocations in chromosomes<br />

1А, 2A, 2B, 5B and 6B was found in introgression lines possessing effective<br />

resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew. Comparison of introgression lines obtained<br />

by different cross combinations demonstrated that the genotype of parental wheat cultivar<br />

determined the level of introgression of the T. timopheevii genetic material. Molecular<br />

mapping of leaf rust resistance genes in line 842-2 revealed two genes on chromosomes<br />

5B and 2A which accounted for 72 and 7% of the trait expression. The fine mapping of the<br />

major resistance gene on 5BS.5BL-5GL translocated chromosome indicated that microsatellite<br />

markers Xgwm880 and Xgwm1257 were closely linked to the resistance gene with<br />

genetic distances of 7.7 cM and 10.4 cM, respectively. The other, minor gene located on<br />

chromosome 2A was found to be linked with markers Xgwm312 at a distance of 10 cM.<br />

The resistance genes were designated LrTt1 and LrTt2. To clarify the relationship between<br />

LrTt2 and the known resistance gene Lr18 located on wheat chromosome 5BL, line 842-<br />

2 with the ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic line containing gene Lr18 were tested with different<br />

isolates of P. triticina. Infection type tests resulted in different patterns of infection types<br />

of line 842-2 and ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic line with the Lr18 gene. The data corroborated<br />

the hypothesis of the diversity of the resistance coming from T. timopheevii.<br />

75


TRANSfeR ANd uTILIzATIoN of ALIeN dISeASe<br />

ReSISTANCe geNeS IN WheAT ImPRoVemeNT<br />

ThRough The deVeLoPmeNT of ALIeN ChRomoSome<br />

TRANSLoCATIoN LINeS<br />

Peidu Chen, Xiue Wang, Shengwei Chen, Chunfang You,<br />

Linsheng Wang, Qingping Zhang. Suling Wang,<br />

Yigao Feng, Shouzhong Zhang, Dajun Liu<br />

The National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing<br />

Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: pdchen@njau.edu.cn<br />

Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. The introduction of whole<br />

alien genome or complete individual chromosomes into common wheat through amphiploid,<br />

alien addition or substitution line is generally not applicable because too many<br />

“wild” alien genes are simultaneously introduced. Therefore, the development of wheatalien<br />

translocations, especially small alien segment translocations with the target traits<br />

is critical for wheat breeding. Alien translocations involved different species have been<br />

induced by irradiation, gametocyte gene effect and chromosome pairing control system<br />

(ph1b, PhI), and identified by chromosome C-banding, in situ hybridization, molecular<br />

marker analysis, telosomic test analysis and phenotype analysis in Nanjing Agricultural<br />

University, China.<br />

Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy) possesses many useful<br />

traits such as resistance to powdery mildew, leaf and stem rusts, cereal eyespot, wheat<br />

streak mosaic virus, as well as drought tolerance. Triticum aestivum-H.villosa translocation<br />

lines T6VS/6AL with powdery mildew resistance, T4VS/4DL with wheat yellow mosaic<br />

virus resistance, T6AS/6VL with stem rust resistance have been developed. Roegneria<br />

kamoji, R. ciliaris and Leymus racemosus were proved to be notable genetic resources for<br />

scab resistance. Three T.aestivum-L.racemosus disomic addition lines 5Lr.#1, 7Lr.#1 and<br />

Lr.7, one T.aestivum-R.kamoji addition line 1Rk#1 and one T.aestivum-R.ciliaris addition<br />

line 2Sc with good scab resistance has been identified. Four T.aestivum-L.racemosus<br />

translocation lines involving chromosome 5Lr.#1 or 7Lr.#1 and one T.aestivum-R.kamoji<br />

translocation line involving chromosome 1Rk#1 induced by irradiation and gametocyte<br />

gene effect were identified to have improved scab resistance both in the greenhouse and<br />

in the field at multiple locations and in multiple years. Translocation lines with both scab<br />

resistance and powdery mildew resistance were obtained by intercross of different alien<br />

translocation lines. These resistant lines were further improved for their agronomic characters<br />

by backcrosses with elite varieties or lines.<br />

To develop small fragment interstitial translocations, the mature female gametes of the<br />

whole-arm translocation lines were further irradiated with higher dosage of γ-ray. Two<br />

76


T.aestivum-H.villosa interstitial translocation lines with small segment of the short arm<br />

of 6V have been developed and showed highly resistant to powdery mildew. The chromosome<br />

pairing control system (ph1b, PhI.) was also used to induce compensative translocation<br />

with smaller alien chromosome segments, and several lines with shortened segments<br />

of chromosome 4V and 6V have been identified.<br />

The genetic resources developed in Nanjing Agricultural University have been successfully<br />

and are being used as parents in wheat breeding program. Especially the 6VS/6AL<br />

translocation line, it has been used as parents in breeding program and more than 10<br />

new varieties, such as Nannong 9918, Neimai 8~ Neimai 10, Shimai14 and Shimai15,<br />

with both high yield and good disease resistances have been developed and released in<br />

China.<br />

Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the grants from the Hi-Tech Research<br />

and Development (863) Program of China, the National Natural Science Foundation<br />

of China and McKnight Foundation, USA.<br />

77


TRANSfeRRINg uSefuL Rye geNeS To WheAT,<br />

uSINg TRITICALe AS A BRIdge<br />

N.N. Saulescu, G. Ittu, M. Ciuca, M. Ittu, P. Mustatea<br />

National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea, 915200 ROMANIA<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: saulescu@incda-fundulea.ro<br />

Increased genetic diversity in wheat breeding is desirable for dealing with present and future<br />

challenges caused by the need for increased yields, by climate changes and by higher<br />

consumer concerns for food safety.<br />

Rye has already proved to be a good donor of genes for improving important traits and<br />

diversity in wheat breeding. Over 300 wheat cultivars carrying wheat-rye translocations,<br />

particularly involving the short arm of rye chromosome 1R (1RS), have been released<br />

worldwide. Wheat-rye translocations determine a number of useful characteristics such<br />

as disease resistance (powdery mildew, stem rust, leaf rust and stripe rust) or tolerance to<br />

barley yellow dwarf virus and insect resistance (Hessian fly, Russian wheat aphid, green<br />

bug) and have been reported to improve yield potential, stress tolerance, and adaptation<br />

in bread wheat. Wheat–rye translocations that proved potential in breeding for resistance<br />

or tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses are first of all 1BL.1RS and 1AL.1RS, but also<br />

2BS.2 RL, 5AS.5RL, and 6BS.6RL.<br />

The agronomic advantages of these translocations, as well as their pleiotropic detrimental<br />

effects, mainly on quality, proved to be dependent on the wheat genetic background,<br />

wheat class and environmental condition, but also on the source of the transferred rye<br />

chromatin. This justifies continued effort for introgression of rye genes from various<br />

sources into various wheat backgrounds. Besides, there are still many other genes of interest<br />

for wheat improvement, not yet transferred, that are available in the rye genome.<br />

To take advantage of the existence at National Agricultural Research & Development Institute<br />

Fundulea, Romania of intensive breeding programs in both winter wheat and triticale,<br />

a strategy for introgression of useful rye genes to wheat, using triticale as a bridge,<br />

has been applied in our program the since 1999.<br />

Using Triticale as a bridge has several advantages such as: taking advantage of the large<br />

genetic progress made in triticale breeding, relatively easy crossing of triticale with wheat<br />

and selection of potentially useful rye genes based on their expression in the presence of<br />

two wheat genomes.<br />

Our strategy includes:<br />

Large scale crossing of best hexaploid triticales with best wheat cultivars<br />

Backcross with wheat. Grains obtained by open pollination of F1 plants surrounded<br />

by wheat are also harvested and used for planting segregating populations.<br />

78


Growing F2-F4 generations as bulks. Occasionally outstanding wheat like plants are<br />

selected beginning from F2.<br />

Selection of wheat-like plants and progenies with traits potentially controlled by rye<br />

genes.<br />

Detecting potential rye genes introgressions using rye specific SSR markers<br />

Identification of rye introgressions using chromosome specific markers and FISH<br />

Use of identified lines of interest as parents in further crosses and selection of progenies<br />

carrying the desired trait using phenotypic selection and specific markers.<br />

First results of this approach will be presented, including:<br />

A line, carrying a 1AL.1RS translocation, carrying a potentially new gene for resistance<br />

to common bunt,<br />

Lines with good tolerance to BYDV<br />

Lines with good Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita resistance<br />

Lines with improved albedo<br />

Lines with improved allelopathy<br />

79


eVALuATIoN of emmeR WheAT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS<br />

AImed AT dIeTARy food PRoduCTIoN<br />

Z. Stehno 1 , I. Paulíčková 2 , J. Bradová 1 , P. Konvalina 3 ,<br />

I. Capouchova 4 , L. Dotlačil 1<br />

1 Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, 161 06 Praha 6-Ruzyně, Czech Republic;<br />

2 Food Research Institute Praha, Radiová 7, Praha 107, Czech Republic;<br />

3 University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic;<br />

4 Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: stehno@vurv.cz<br />

Wheat collection in the Czech gene bank at the Crop Research Institute comprises 30<br />

wheat species (passport data accessible at http://genbank.vurv.cz/genetic/resources/).<br />

Among 10 691 accessions the bread wheat species is prevailing (86.4%). Emmer wheat<br />

sub collection Triticum dicoccum Shübl. contains 117 landraces and obsolete cultivated<br />

varieties. Furthermore, there is subcollection of wild emmer T. dicoccoides (Körn. Ex<br />

Aschers. Graebn.) Schwienf. containing 26 accessions.<br />

Pre-selected set of 10 emmer wheat accessions has been characterized by high molecular<br />

weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs). The emmer wheat accessions differed considerably<br />

in the polymorphisms of HMW-GSs. Out of the total of 10 studied emmer wheat<br />

landraces, 5 accessions appeared to be homogeneous in the electrophoretic patterns of<br />

HMW-GSs; they were formed by a single glutenin line.<br />

With the aim to evaluate grain quality parameters, set of 8 emmer landraces including<br />

legally protected variety Rudico has been tested in field plot experiment for two years.<br />

Average grain samples from 3 replications were analysed to assess standard bread making<br />

quality characteristics plus content of dietary valuable compounds.<br />

Higher crude protein content (14.74 %) measured by Kjeldahl method was detected in<br />

legally protected cultivar Rudico. In landraces this parameter ranged from 14.39 to 11.99<br />

%. Wet gluten content and its quality (Gluten index) evaluated by Glutomatic 2200 were<br />

very low. Gluten of 3 landraces - T. dicoccon (Dagestan ASSR); T. dicoccon (Palestine)<br />

and T. dicoccon (Brno) – was totally flowable. Also Zeleny sedimentation, an important<br />

parameter of bread making quality, was very low and ranged from 6 ml (T. dicoccon..<br />

(Dagestan ASSR)) to 19 ml (Rudico). Based on such results, the emmer wheat landraces<br />

can be considered potentially more suitable for other purposes than for the preparation<br />

of bread (e.g. for different grain mixtures, purée, etc.).<br />

On the other hand emmer wheat becomes more and more popular crop in organic farming.<br />

With the aim to describe other compounds of emmer grain, we analysed it in more<br />

detail. Content of crude fibre ranged from 8.68 to 13.89 in Rudico. Proportion between<br />

soluble and insoluble fractions of crude fibre in average was 1 : 1, however there were dif-<br />

80


ferences among accessions. Differences in content of total polyphenols among emmer accessions<br />

were relatively deep, they ranged from 2, 54 g GAE/kg d.m. (Weisser Sommer) to<br />

3, 55 g GAE/kg d.m. (Rudico). Catechin was prevailing among polyphenolyc substances.<br />

Very low catechin content (57.5 mg/100 g d.m.) was detected in Weisser Sommer, on the<br />

other hand Rudico contained 149.5 mg/100 g d.m. of catechin. Feluric acid was another<br />

measurable polyphenol; its content ranged from 1.1 mg/100 g d.m in T. dicoccon (Tabor)<br />

to 2.5 mg/100 g d.m in Weisser Sommer. Contents of chlorgenic acid and epicatechin<br />

were immeasurable.<br />

Higher content of vitamins B1 and B2 was ascertained in Rudico (0.44 mg/100 g d.m.,<br />

0.135 mg/100 g d.m. respectively) in comparison to May Emmer (0.33 mg/100 g d.m.,<br />

0.108 mg/100 g d.m. respectively). The highest contents of E vitamin and carotenoids<br />

were measured in T. dicoccon..(Tapioszele) (1.30 mg/100 g d.m., 0.28 mg/100 g d.m. respectively).<br />

The preliminary results described above indicate possibilities to select emmer wheat<br />

genotypes differing in grain composition, containing compounds with positive effect on<br />

human health.<br />

Acknowledgement: Supported by the research projects of the Ministry of Agriculture<br />

QH82272 and QI91B095<br />

81


PhySIoLogICAL ChARACTeRISTICS of SALINITy ToLeR-<br />

ANCe IN dIPLoId WheAT ANCeSToRS<br />

Zeynal Akparov 1 , Mehraj Abbasov 1<br />

1 Genetic Resources Institute Of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: akparov@yahoo.com, mehraj_genetic@yahoo.com<br />

In wheat, one of the major mechanisms conferring salt tolerance is sodium exclusion from<br />

the leaves. Na + exclusion in bread wheat is associated with the d genome, not with the a or<br />

b genome, as shown by measurements of na + exclusion in chromosome substitution lines.<br />

Na + exclusion was found in the a genome ancestors, in all three diploid a genome species,<br />

triticum monococcum, t. Boeoticum and t. Urartu (gorham et al., 1991). In this study, considerable<br />

variability in sodium exclusion within 196 wheat accessions represented all diploid<br />

wheat species was noted. The experiment used a supported hydroponic system based on<br />

the method of munns (2003). Both of the genes for sodium exclusion, nax1 and nax2, were<br />

present in 25 t. Monococcum lines. The concentration of sodium in these lines ranged from<br />

16 to 129 mm with average of 55 mm, indicating that these genes are important for controlling<br />

sodium exclusion. The only line of t. Monococcum subsp. monococcum of Serbian origin<br />

that didn’t have any Nax genes had the higest ratio of sodium concentration. However, three<br />

lines lacking Nax1 accumulated less sodium. The average and range of sodium concentrations<br />

in 18 T. boeoticum lines were 34 mM and 7-75 mM respectively. The lower leaf Na+<br />

accumulation in these lines is probably due to the presence of the Nax1 and Nax2 genes. A<br />

total of 47 lines had only Nax2, these plants were characterized with enhanced tolerance<br />

to salinity and/or reduced sodium accumulation. A total of 7 lines that didn’t either of the<br />

sodium exclusion genes had an average sodium concentration of 53 mM. The lack of Nax<br />

genes in 37 lines corresponded with high leaf sodium concentrations which ranged from 61<br />

to 250 mM, with average of 92 mM. However, 43 T. urartu lines had low leaf Na+, despite<br />

the absence of the Nax genes. This indicates that sodium exclusion is controlled by other<br />

genes in T. urartu.<br />

82


dIgITAL PhoTogRAPhy AS A NoN-deSTRuCTIVe TooL<br />

To ASSeSS VARIABILITy of gReeN AReA deVeLoPmeNT<br />

of A SeT of SPANISh WheAT LANdRACeS<br />

Subirà J 1 , Martín-Sánchez JA 1 , Royo C 1 , Aparicio N 2 , Álvaro F 1<br />

1 Cereal Breeding, UdL-IRTA, Av. Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain; 2 ITACyL, Ctra.<br />

de Burgos km 119, 47047 Valladolid, Spain<br />

Corresponding author e-mail: fanny.alvaro@irta.cat<br />

With the aim of studying the phenotypic variability in green area development of a set of 193<br />

Spanish bread wheat landraces, digital pictures of canopies were periodically taken. Images were<br />

captured from a zenith view angle from jointing to physiological maturity on field plots arranged<br />

according to an augmented-design. Data on the percentage of green area determined from each<br />

picture were fitted to an asymmetric logistic-peak curve to depict changes in green area development,<br />

and the curve parameters with biological sense were calculated. The model converged in<br />

most cases, being pseudo-R 2 values > 0.96. Cycle length from sowing to anthesis allowed distinguishing<br />

between early and late-flowering subpopulations. Late lines reached the greatest values<br />

for maximum green area, needed more time to attain it, and had a larger area under the curve.<br />

However, early lines outyielded late ones due to their longest leaf area duration. Our results suggest<br />

that genetic variability exists for the studied traits. Digital photography may be a proper, rapid and<br />

non-destructive tool to assess growth traits, such as green area, relevant for breeding purposes.<br />

Introduction<br />

Materials and Methods<br />

Picture adquisition of the plot canopy<br />

Logisitc asymetric model adjusted to the green area index calculated from the<br />

pictures and calculated variables.<br />

Results and Discussion<br />

Mean, s.d., s.e., max. and min of the studied variables.<br />

Variable Media Desviación<br />

estándar<br />

Time to anthesis (GDD)<br />

Yield (g m -2 )<br />

Curve charcatersitics<br />

Time to max green area<br />

(GDD)<br />

Maximum green area<br />

Time to max growth rate<br />

Maximum growth rate<br />

Area under the curve<br />

Green area duration<br />

Alt<br />

1264<br />

450<br />

845<br />

0.984<br />

538<br />

0.0057<br />

772<br />

99.2<br />

104.5<br />

91.9784408<br />

66.4976871<br />

27.3711932<br />

0.0266114<br />

24.2734212<br />

0.000167503<br />

59.3956305<br />

27.5697066<br />

8.2519562<br />

Error<br />

estándar<br />

6.5366232<br />

4.7257848<br />

1.9451860<br />

0.0018912<br />

1.7250369<br />

0.000011904<br />

4.2210637<br />

1.9592937<br />

0.5864410<br />

Mínimo Máximo N Coeficiente<br />

de<br />

variación<br />

1033.62<br />

313.4225723<br />

783.9473362<br />

0.8759288<br />

469.9018331<br />

0.0052583<br />

580.1778312<br />

47.6091259<br />

79.5475305<br />

1430.41<br />

707.7325723<br />

931.3878362<br />

1.0298088<br />

635.8335331<br />

0.0067127<br />

912.5578312<br />

169.7658259<br />

122.4155305<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

198<br />

7.2726556<br />

14.7635234<br />

3.2368244<br />

2.7036703<br />

4.5038766<br />

2.9357006<br />

7.6878683<br />

27.8046411<br />

7.8985585<br />

83


Figure 2. Histogram of the studied variables (N=198)<br />

Figure 3. Principal component analysis<br />

PC1->39%<br />

PC2->23%<br />

Conclusions<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

Codi projecte<br />

Jaume Casadesús<br />

References<br />

84


BReAd WheAT (TRITICum AeSTIVum, L) CoRe<br />

CoLLeCTIoN BASed IN SPANISh LANdRACeS<br />

Nieves Aparicio 1 , Fanny Alvaro 2 , Josefina C. Sillero 3 ,<br />

Magdalena Ruiz 4 , Prudencio López 5 ,<br />

MЄ del Mar Cátedra 6 and Primitiva Codesal 1<br />

1 ITACyL. Ctra. Burgos, Km.119, 47071 Valladolid, Spain.<br />

2 Centro UdL-IRTA. Alcalde Rovira Roure, Km 117.25198. Lérida. Spain<br />

3 CIFA de “Alameda del Obispo”. Avda. Menéndez Vidal. Apdo. 3092. 14080. Córdoba.Spain<br />

4 INIA-Centro Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, 28800- Alcalá de Henares, Spain<br />

5 ITAP. Ctra. Madrid s/n. 02006 Albacete. Spain.<br />

6 EUITA. Bellavista. Dpto. Ciencias Agroforestales. Ctra. Utrera, Km 1. 41013. Sevilla. Spain.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: apagutni@itacyl.es<br />

The accessibility and utilization of a germplasm collection is inversely related to its size.<br />

Development of a core collection is one way to enhance the use of genetic resources in<br />

crop improvement. Core collection would represent with a minimum of repetitiveness<br />

the genetic diversity of a whole collection. In 2007, five institutions that participate in<br />

the Spanish national bread wheat breeding programme in collaboration with CRF-INIA,<br />

decided to cooperate in the establishment of the Spanish Bread Wheat Core Collection.<br />

The Spanish whole Triticum aestivum L. collection comprising 1810 accessions, including<br />

commercial cultivars, breeding material, landraces and others. In this case, have been decided<br />

that core have been established to represent only a part of the collection, the Spanish<br />

landraces. Only 569 landraces, of 927 accessions, with completed passport data, were<br />

used to establishment the core. After identify the material represented and determined<br />

the size, no more than 200 entries, the next step was divide the set of material into distinct<br />

group and choose the entries from each group that will be included in the core. With this<br />

aim, observations on 8 qualitative and 5 quantitative characters were recorded following<br />

the IPGRI descriptors. Available passport data were used to derive the latitude, longitude<br />

and altitude of collecting sites. Geographical, quantitative and qualitative dates were subjected<br />

to multivariente clustering analysis using Ward´s procedure to identify the final<br />

sets of groups for core formation. For geographical dates twelve groups will be formed,<br />

and eleven and eight groups for quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively. To establishment<br />

subgroups, each entry were defined by their clustering number for each kind of<br />

trait and all entries were arrange according to these numbers, considering first criteria for<br />

ordering the geographical data, second the qualitative traits and third the quantitative.<br />

The subgroups formed varied greatly in size and the strategy for choosing the entries in<br />

each differ between them. Was decided that all subgroups must be represented and for<br />

subgroups with many entries a random criteria be used. For determined the final size of<br />

core, more entries were selected into the large subgroups and at least a collection of 196<br />

entries were establishment.<br />

85


effeCTS of meIoTIC ReSTITuTIoN ANd TemPeRATuRe<br />

oN meIoTIC BehAVIoR IN WheAT<br />

Ahmad Arzani 1 , Masoumeh Rezaei 1 and Badraldin<br />

Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei 2<br />

1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding<br />

2Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan-84156<br />

83111, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: a_arzani@cc.iut.ac.ir<br />

It is important to determine the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and their subsequent<br />

formation into germ cells as the parallel to genetic results. Meiotic behavior of plant<br />

chromosomes is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic<br />

behavior of cereal crops was investigated, among which were included tetraploid wheat<br />

genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait), and their derivates (synthetic<br />

hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field.<br />

In addition, 2 local landraces of emmer wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum), 1 wheat cultivar<br />

(‘Chinese Spring’), 1 DH triticale cultivar (‘Eleanor’) and 1 rye accession were included.<br />

Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and<br />

May, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother<br />

cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analyzed for their<br />

chromosomal behavior and irregularities. Results of analysis of variance indicated that the<br />

meiotic irregularities of the studied cereal genotypes were highly influenced by genotype,<br />

environment (planting date) and genotype × environment interaction. Meiotic aberrations<br />

such as laggards, chromosome stickiness, micronucleus, abnormal cytokines, chromatin<br />

pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly<br />

ranked from the view point of greatest irregularities as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid<br />

wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking<br />

meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in<br />

the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited<br />

a normal meiotic behavior with the exception of a few irregularities. However, the<br />

winter planting samples displayed higher meiotic irregularities due to the heat stress at the<br />

flowering period. Two hypotheses could be put forward as to why triticale and synthetic<br />

hexaploid wheat genotypes exhibited the greatest meiotic irregularities among the studied<br />

cereal genotypes. First, synthetic hexaploid wheats used in this study inherited their meiotic<br />

restitution trait from their female tetraploid parents (E1, E3 and DO1); a similar situation<br />

could be assumed for triticale. Second, both triticale and synthetic hexaploid wheat include<br />

man-made compound genomes. The adverse effects of high temperature on plant reproduction<br />

have severe implications for worldwide crop production. Global warming is now<br />

considered as a threat to both natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of<br />

the major environmental factors that affect plant productivity. Therefore, not only a good<br />

understanding of changes in the ecosystems will be required, but also an appropriate germplasm<br />

needs to be developed to cope with the changes.<br />

86


eVALuATIoN ANd uTILIzATIoN of WheAT geNeTIC<br />

ReSouRCeS IN BReedINg foR ReSISTANCe To ABIoTIC<br />

STReSSeS<br />

Alvina Avagyan<br />

Armenian State Agrarian University, Teryan Str. 74, Yerevan, Armenia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: alvinaav@mail.ru<br />

Agriculture in Armenia one of the most important and at the same time one of the most<br />

vulnerable sectors in the national economy and societal welfare that will be most sensitive<br />

to the effects of climate change. Many crops that are crucial for food production are<br />

sensitive to temperature and rain pattern changes that can affect both their quality and<br />

their yields. The climate change challenges and undertaking mitigations actions are becoming<br />

priorities for the country’s policy and are being considered in the light of the food<br />

security and self-sufficiency in major food products. Cereal crops (wheat, barley) are of<br />

strategic importance as a primary source for food security in the Republic of Armenia<br />

and represent a dominant crop group in agricultural production of the country. Among<br />

cereal crops wheat is the most widespread, as it ensures higher and more sustainable<br />

yield compared to other cereals. According to the vulnerability assessment undertaken<br />

in the country the productivity of cereals can be reduced on the average for 9-13% due<br />

to the impact of global warming. Therefore improving genetic potential of crops such as<br />

introduction of new high-yielding drought tolerant varieties of cereals is considered as an<br />

adaptation measure targeted on reducing the adverse effects of climate. Due to the continuous<br />

breeding based on utilization of only cultivated species in breeding programmes<br />

nowadays cultivated wheat varieties have lost many genes which in their wild relatives<br />

ensure stability to extreme environment conditions. Both research and farmer communities<br />

need to use a great genetic reservoir to develop new crop varieties that will thrive in a<br />

warmer environment and meet the food requirements of a continuously growing population.<br />

Armenian plant genetic resources, in particular, crop wild relatives, are an essential<br />

source of variation in plant breeding and act as buffer for adaptation and resilience in face<br />

of climate change. Therefore the purpose of research work carried out at the Laboratory<br />

of Plant Gene Pool and Breeding of the Armenian State Agrarian University was to mitigate<br />

genetic erosion and to develop new crop varieties through utilization of wild wheat<br />

species in wheat pre-breeding and breeding programmes.<br />

Wheat genetic recourses, in particular, wild wheat species (Triticum urartu, T. boeoticum, T.<br />

dicoccoides) and a number of interspecific hybrids synthesized at the Laboratory as a result<br />

of pre-breeding research were screened for their adaptation to impact of abiotic stress. The<br />

evaluation of adaptability of investigated species and hybrids to be used in further crossings<br />

was done based on plants linear growth study. The linear growth of the plants was determined<br />

with auxanographies, which allow monitoring the growth of the top leaf during 24<br />

hours. The daily dynamics of growth was assessed depending on impact of a number of<br />

abiotic factors (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiance duration).<br />

87


A series of valuable for breeding characteristics were revealed in wild tetraploid wheat<br />

species: high adaptation towards the changing factors of environment including low temperature<br />

of air, intensive influence of light flow and solar radiation, low indexes of relative<br />

humidity of air. The essential role of thermoperiodicity in the forming of the daily rhythm<br />

of wild species and interspecific hybrids has been registered. The data obtained were used<br />

in selection of parental forms for crossings wild two-grained wheat and cultivated durum<br />

wheat species. As a result of interspecific hybridization the new variety of emmer<br />

wheat (Triticum durum conv. echinoramosum X T.dicoccoides) was synthesized. Selected<br />

variety of emmer wheat combines the adaptive features of wild wheat and productivity<br />

characteristics of cultivated emmer variety and characterized by stability to abiotic factors<br />

fluctuations.<br />

New variety is suitable for cultivation in pre-mountainous zone both in irrigated and<br />

non-irrigated conditions. The emmer wheat variety is characterized by better thrashability,<br />

plant height of 95-100 cm, spikes length from 10 to 12 cm, with yellowish glumes and<br />

red grains. Under the favorable conditions the branched spikes are formed, that provides<br />

more yield. The principles of inheritance of adaptation capacity observed in numerous<br />

interspecific hybrids were used in selection of parental forms and further hybridization<br />

between different cultivated varieties of soft (T. militinae Zhuk. & Migush) and emmer<br />

wheat (T. dicoccon Schrank). As a result two new varieties of emmer wheat – “Arevik”<br />

and “Garni” were developed. The “Arevik” variety of emmer wheat was released in the<br />

country in 2002.<br />

88


TRANSLoCATIoNS IN INTRASPeCIfIC kARyoTyPe<br />

dIVeRgeNCe of WILd emmeR T. dICoCCoIdeS<br />

Badaeva Ekaterina D., Dedkova Olga S.,<br />

Pukhalskiy Vitalyi A.<br />

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Vavilov St. 32,<br />

GSP-1, Moscow 119991, Russia<br />

N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences. Gubkin St. 3, Moscow<br />

119991, Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: katerinabadaeva@gmail.com<br />

Chromosomal rearrangements along with polyploidy play an important role in plant<br />

evolution (Stebbins 1971; Levin 2002). It has been shown that translocations may help<br />

to overcome nuclear-cytoplasm incompatibility and restore fertility of newly-formed<br />

polyploids (Gill and Chen 1987). By creating genetic barriers between populations, they<br />

lead to the formation of new species. It is not surprising therefore, that the emergence of<br />

many cereal species was accompanied by species-specific translocations. For instance, the<br />

emergence of emmer wheat was accompanied by translocation 4A-5A-7B (Naranjo et al<br />

1987; Liu et al., 1998), while the translocations 6A t -1G-4G and 3A t -4A t took place during<br />

the formation of T. timopheevii (Jiang and Gill 1994; Maestra et al., 1999; Rodriguez et al.,<br />

2000). Chromosomal rearrangements also occur during intraspecific divergence of many<br />

plant species, including diploid and polyploid Aegilops (Kawahara 1998; Badaeva et al.<br />

2002, 2004), Triticum araraticum (Kawahara and Tanaka 1977; Badaeva et al 1990; 1994;<br />

1995), wild and cultivated emmer (Kawahara and Tanaka 1977; Kawahara and Taketa<br />

2000; Dedkova et al 2007). In our study we focused on the distribution of translocations<br />

in wild tetraploid wheat Triticum dicoccoides (Koern. ex Aschers. et Graebn.) Schweinf.<br />

Using C-banding technique 219 accessions were examined; of them 135 accessions were<br />

from Israel, 69 from Turkey, five from Lebanon, three from Syria, and the origin of 7 accessions<br />

was not known. Cytogenetic analysis revealed significant karyotype diversity in<br />

T. dicoccoides due to variation of C-banding patterns and translocation polymorphism.<br />

Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 86 accessions of diverse origins (39%) and<br />

133 accessions (61%) had normal karyotypes. Chromosomal rearrangements were represented<br />

by translocations, paracentric and pericentric inversions, and translocations being<br />

predominant type. Rearranged karyotype derived from normal as a result of one (26<br />

variants), two (six variants) or three (four variants) translocations. Translocations may<br />

involve two A-genome chromosomes, A- and B-genome chromosomes or two B-genome<br />

chromosomes. The B-genome chromosomes were included in rearrangements more frequently<br />

than the A-genome chromosomes (56 and 39 correspondingly); frequencies of<br />

translocations for individual chromosomes ranged from 10 for 3B and 6B to two for 7A<br />

and four for 1A. Translocation breakpoints were located in pericentromeric regions in 56<br />

types of rearranged chromosomes, and in interstitial regions in 30 types of rearranged<br />

chromosomes.<br />

89


Most translocations occurred with very low frequencies and were detected in single accessions<br />

(24 variant), and only few showed broad distribution. The most frequent variant<br />

was minor translocation between 3A and 5A chromosomes which was identified in 22<br />

accessions. This translocation was the original in a series of two complex translocations<br />

(T3A:5A+T5B:7B and T3A:5A+T5B:7B T1B:4B) found in 4 lines. T3A:5A was especially<br />

common in the region of Galilee Sea and southward, however, it was also detected<br />

in one accession from Turkey (Diyarbakir). Accessions carrying this translocation had<br />

similar banding patterns of their karyotypes. Based on these observations it was reasonably<br />

to assume that they could have derived from common ancestor. Owing to possible<br />

adaptive value of this rearrangement, the translocated genotypes become widely<br />

distributed. The role of “originator effect” was clearly seen in many other frequent translocations.<br />

Thus, two related variants of complex translocations, perInv2B+T6A:1B and<br />

perInv2B+T6A:1B+T1A:4A were identified in five and three lines of T. dicoccoides from<br />

Bet Oren (Israel); noteworthy, no plants with normal chromosomal complements were<br />

found in this small population. Four accessions with T6A:6B had similar banding patterns<br />

and were all from Urfa (Turkey). In contrast to previous case, however, this population<br />

also included three accessions with different translocation – T4A:7A, one with paracentric<br />

inversion of 5A and 22 accessions with normal karyotypes. Translocation T1A:2A (4<br />

accessions) was characteristic for Bat Shelomo, T1B:3B – for Gamla, T2B:6B – for Arbel<br />

(all in Israel). Taken together, these facts indicate that translocations are rather frequent<br />

events in wild emmer. They occur by random in each population and only those of them<br />

providing selective or adaptive advantages may acquire wider distribution. Most translocations<br />

found in wild emmer had no analogs in other species of tetraploid wheat with the<br />

exception of T5B:7A. Being relatively rare in T. diciccoides (it was found in four accessions<br />

from Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Armenia), it was extremely abundant in cultivated emmer<br />

(31 of 156 studied accessions). Similarity of the accessions of both species carrying<br />

this translocation in the C-banding patterns may indicate that genotypes of wild emmer<br />

with this translocation variant played the significant role in the origin and dispersion of<br />

cultivated emmer in Europe.<br />

90


WheAT LANdRACeS ANd oBSoLeTe CuLTIVARS<br />

AS VALuABLe ReSouRCeS foR BReedINg<br />

L. Dotlacil, J. Hermuth, Z. Stehno, V. Dvoracek, and L.<br />

Svobodova<br />

Crop Research Institute, 161 06 Prague-Ruzyně, Drnovska 507, Czech Republic,<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: dotlacil@vurv.cz<br />

Two sets of winter wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars were studied in three-year field<br />

experiments, and compared with 3 modern control cultivars. The higher spike productivity<br />

in modern cultivars could mainly be attributed to an increased number of grains<br />

in a spikelet and harvest index (HI), whereas thousand grain weight (TGW) has only a<br />

slight effect. Landraces and old cultivars proved to have a higher content of crude protein.<br />

Spike productivity characteristics, except for TGW, showed a negative correlation with<br />

the crude protein content in the grain. The number of kernels in a spikelet strongly affected<br />

the spike’s productivity, whereas the TGW has only half the effect. The mean yield<br />

of four modern cultivars was 51% higher than the mean yield of 31 landraces and obsolete<br />

cultivars. Regression analysis proved the much stronger response of modern cultivars<br />

to environment (b = 1.63), then was the response of old cultivars (b = 0.87). Different<br />

responses to environments were found within the set of 31 landraces, as well. We could<br />

also identify potentially valuable donors of earliness and winter hardiness among the old<br />

cultivars. High crude protein content (up to 18%), and other valuable quality characteristics,<br />

were rather frequent.<br />

In both sets, HMW Glu -subunits were described, and we have additionally studied 67<br />

selected lines. Among them, 10 lines showed the crude protein content of 17.5% to 18.3%<br />

(where the gluten index and Zeleny test varied from 28.5 to 54.0 and 36.8 to 61.7, respectively).<br />

High values of all quality characteristics showed lines gained from the cultivars<br />

Mindeszentpusztai (HUN), Szekacz 19 (HUN), Bartweizen linie a (AUT), Viglašská<br />

červenoklasá (CZE), as well as some others. These materials were further characterized<br />

using DNA markers (40 SSR). On the base of gained data genetic distances among cultivars<br />

were calculated using cluster analyses. As created dendrograms proved, there exists<br />

wide genetic diversity among landraces and old cultivars and they also differ from modern<br />

cultivars. Genetically rather distant lines could be found even in lines derived from<br />

the single landrace. Knowledge of genetic diversity in donors of important characters can<br />

be used for an effective choice of convenient initial materials for breeding.<br />

91


huLLed WheATS of CeNTRAL IRAN: TheIR PoLoIdy<br />

ANd geNomIC STATuS, gRAIN yIeLd ANd NuTRITIoNAL<br />

ATTRIBuTeS<br />

Parviz Ehsanzadeh, Aghafakhr Mirlohi,<br />

Reza Mohammadi, Azadeh Shaibani-rad<br />

and Mohammad Shahedi<br />

College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan-84156 83111, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: ehsanp@cc.iut.ac.ir<br />

The genus Triticum consists of species from the three ploidy levels, i.e. di-, tetra- and<br />

hexaploid. Hulled wheats are probably amongst the earliest domesticated plants and have<br />

been used as staple crop for several centuries; in fact the first hexaploid wheat has been<br />

a hulled wheat. Among the hexaploid hulled wheats is spelt which its center of origin is,<br />

however, somewhat disputed. Some reports provide evidence for southwestern Asia and<br />

Iran as center of origin of spelt (Kuckuck’s claim at 1959 that villagers of Bakhtiari province<br />

at central Iran grow spelt landraces). Nowadays, some farmers at Isfahan and Bakhtiari<br />

provinces of central Iran grow hulled wheats in thier marginal lands. Taxonomic<br />

and experimental work on present-day hulled wheats of central Iran is scarce; therefore,<br />

a serries of experiments were conducted to identify thier polidy level as well as genomic<br />

status, in addition to comparing grain yield and quality attributes (i.e. protein and and<br />

gluten content and kernel hardness) to the durum wheat genotypes. Root-tips from the<br />

germinated seeds were used for aceto-Iron-Hematoxylin staining and chromosome studies.<br />

Pollen mother cells were used for microscopic studies of meiotic metaphase and genomic<br />

status of the hulled wheats. A RCBD field experiment was used to study the grain<br />

yield and quality attributes of the hulled wheats compared to the durum wheat. A split<br />

plot RCBD field experiment was carried out to evaluate the response of these neglected<br />

wheats to the N fertilization deficit (20 kg ha-1 N).<br />

Cytogenetic studies revealed that these hulled wheats are tetraploid. Microscopic examination<br />

of pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase was indicative of an AABB type of<br />

genome for the hulled wheats. Grain yield and gluten quality of the hulled wheats was<br />

lower; however their protein content and kernel hardness was to some extent higher,<br />

compared to the durum wheat. Nitrogen fertilization deficit condition (i.e. 20 kg ha-1 N<br />

level) left a somewhat positive impact on agronomic performance of the hulled wheats,<br />

leading to a 30% increase in their grain yield, compared to the 200 kg ha-1 N level.<br />

Our studies cast doubt on the previous reports on the presence of spelt in centeral Iran,<br />

while proving an AABB genome for the hulled wheats of Bakhtiari and Isfahan provinces.<br />

These hulled wheats seem far inferior in terms of agronomics and grain yield, though<br />

they posses some valuable nutritional characteristics and the capability to be grown under<br />

N-deficit conditions and the production of chemical-free health-food products.<br />

92


TRANSfeR of WheAT STReAk moSAIC VIRuS ReSISTANCe<br />

fRom ThINoPyRum INTeRmedIum To WheAT<br />

Friebe B., Liu W., Fellers J.P., Qi, L.L., Gill B.S.<br />

Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center and Department of Plant Pathology,<br />

Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5502.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: friebe@ksu.edu<br />

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is a devastating virus disease in most spring and<br />

winter wheat-producing areas. To date, only one gene conferring resistance to WSMV has<br />

been transferred from Th. intermedium to wheat in the form of a Robertsonian T4DL . 4J s S<br />

whole arm translocation and was designated as Wsm1. We recently used induced homoeologous<br />

recombination to produce T4DL . 4DS-4J s S recombinants with shorter<br />

Th. intermedium segments that conferred resistance to WSMV and also Triticum mosaic<br />

virus (TMV). A second source of WSMV resistance was mapped to the long arm of a Th.<br />

intermedium group-7 chromosome that is available in the form of a ditelosomic 7Ai#2L<br />

chromosome addition line. This germ plasm requires further chromosome engineering<br />

before it can be used in cultivar improvement. We have developed three PCR-based STS<br />

markers that detect the 7Ai#2L-specific fragment in a wheat background, from screening<br />

120 primer pairs designed from mapped wheat EST sequences. Five plants with<br />

a chromosome number of 2n = 40 +7D +7Ai#2L and homozygous for ph1b have been<br />

obtained and 1.500 progenies were screened to identify recombinants. Two translocation<br />

chromosomes were obtained, one involving nonhomoeologous chromosomes<br />

(3B and 7Ai#2L) and one compensating Robertsonian translocation where the long arm<br />

of 7Ai#2 was translocated to the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B (T7BS·7Ai#2L).<br />

The T7BS·7Ai#2L translocation is being transferred to Kansas-adapted winter wheats and<br />

is presently being evaluated for resistance to WSMV and TMV.<br />

93


geNeTIC ANd moLeCuLAR ChARACTeRIzATIoN<br />

of ThRee AgRoNomICAL ImPoRTANCe geNeS<br />

(VRN1, VRN2, q) IN WheAT<br />

Kseniya Golovnina, Irina Sormacheva, Alexander<br />

Blinov, Elena Kondratenko, Nikolay P. Goncharov<br />

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Russian Federation, Novosibirsk<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: gonch@bionet.nsc.ru<br />

It is known that different transcription factors can control an expression of tens and more<br />

genes, so a single mutation in the sequence of the gene, encoding transcription factor,<br />

can lead to significant changes of plant phenotype. Despite the relatively short periods<br />

as the time for evolutionary changes, the domesticated crops have acquired a vast morphological<br />

diversification from its progenitors. The marked morphological differences<br />

are considered to be arisen by qualitative or quantitative differences in the loci regulating<br />

developmental programs. Recent molecular and genetic analyses have demonstrated that<br />

transcriptional regulators act as switches between discrete developmental programs, encouraging<br />

the view that novel morphological differences may arise from changes in this<br />

class of genes. Three wheat genes (Q, Vrn1, Vrn2) responsible for the differences between<br />

domesticated forms and their wild progenitors have been cloned for the time being. The<br />

Q gene is largely responsible for the widespread cultivation of wheat because it confers<br />

the free-threshing character. It also pleiotropically influences many other domesticationrelated<br />

traits such as glume shape and tenacity, rachis fragility, spike length, plant height,<br />

and spike emergence time. The Vrn1 and Vrn2 are the main genes involved in the vernalization<br />

response in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum. Comparative analysis of the<br />

sequences of these genes in wild and cultured wheat species showed the presence of mutations<br />

that occurred in the ancestors and led to the development of characters which<br />

became important for agriculture. In Q and Vrn2 genes functionally important mutations<br />

occurred in protein coding regions while in Vrn1 gene the regulatory regions were<br />

observed inside the promoter and the first intron. In the present study variability of the<br />

regulatory regions of three described genes of the unique collection of spring polyploid<br />

and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes<br />

of polyploid wheats) were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum,<br />

T. urartu) and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii) species were studied for the first<br />

time. Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide<br />

positions of the VRN1 promoter region and proved functional importance of 329<br />

amino acid position in Q protein. Amplification with a specific primer sets of Vrn1 intron<br />

region and restriction analysis of Vrn2 gene indicated less variability inside these regions<br />

among investigated species. The possibility of using different alleles of the Vrn1, Vrn2, Q<br />

genes in genus Triticum L. species for breeding practice is discussed.<br />

94


BReedINg fRee-ThReShABLe, dWARf emmeR WheAT<br />

(TRITICum dICoCCum (SChRANk.) SChuLB.) geNoTyPeS<br />

ThRough muTAgeNeSIS<br />

I.K. Kalappanavar 1 , S. A. Desai 1 , G. Ramya 1 , P. E. Pradeep<br />

1 , B. K. Das 2 and Bhagwat 2<br />

Dr. Sanjay Rajaram Wheat Laboratory, UAS. Dharwad, India 2. ....BARC, Mumbai, India<br />

E-mail: ikkyashu@gmail.com<br />

Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.)Schulb.) is a very important form of wheat<br />

species endowed with high protein, heat tolerance and appreciable resistance to rust disease.<br />

High satiety value and low glycimic index made this wheat suitable for diabetic<br />

subjects. However, it is hard to thresh due to fragile rachis and tough glumes and resistance<br />

to leaf blight disease in not available. Hence, mutagenesis and shuttle breeding<br />

approaches are thought of as viable breeding strategies to transgress gene/s for free threshability<br />

and leaf blight resistance from Triticum durum. Two durum lines with resistance<br />

to Heliminthosporium leaf blight (HLB) viz., HD-4502 and DWR-1006 and two<br />

semi dwarf dicoccum lines DDK-1001 and DDK-1025 which are susceptible to HLB but<br />

good in quality traits were crossed in all combinations during rabi 2006-07 at Wheat<br />

Improvement Project, MARS, UAS, Dharwad and F1 seeds were generated. Mutagenic<br />

treatments of F1s of all four crosses and four parental (2 durum and 2 dicoccum) lines<br />

were given (gamma irradiation and EMS treatments). Gamma irradiation was done at<br />

BARC at 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy and EMS treatment was done at UAS, Dharwad at 0.2%,<br />

0.3% and 0.4%. Using off season nursery facility at IARI, Regional Research Station, Wellington<br />

(Nilgiris), Tamil Nadu during summer (2007), M1 generations were advanced<br />

to M2 generation at Wheat Improvement Project, MARS, UAS, Dharwad during Rabi<br />

2007-08. q Locus is around 4kb. Primers have been synthesized for isolation of 4 kb fragments.<br />

Nested primers have also been synthesized to isolate aprox.1 kb fragments. M 2<br />

generation was advanced to M3 generation at Wellington during 2008. M 3 generation was<br />

advanced to M 4 during rabi 2008-09. Among 2750 mutant lines, which are in M3 generation,<br />

140 lines were free threshable. In general, 52.86% of 140 lines were free threshable<br />

when physically irradiated with gamma rays where as only 47.14% with EMS. Free threshabity<br />

was observed more in 150 Gy and 200 Gy compared to 250 Gy. Parents had more<br />

free threshable lines with 55 % where as crosses had 45% free-threshable lines. Among<br />

parents out of 77, DDK 1001 had 63 free threshable lines compared to DDK 1025 which<br />

had 14.With in 140 free threshable lines 54 lines are resistance to leaf blight. 75.9% of 54<br />

lines are from gamma irradiated lines. When compared between parents and crosses,<br />

crosses were given more leaf blight resistance lines with 61.1%. DDK 1025 X HD 4502 has<br />

given more number of free threshable lines with disease resistance. No negative effect on<br />

quality parameters like protein, starch, wet gluten and sedimentation value due to mutagenesis<br />

was observed among lines selected. From these lines, most promising shall be recommended<br />

for the North Karnataka districts, as present cultivars are non free threshable<br />

and susceptible to leaf blight which are major constraints in Triticum dicoccum. Beside<br />

95


free-threshability, in the analysis of variance, significant differences among the mutants<br />

were observed for yield, 1000-grain weight, and starch. This indicates large genetic variability<br />

for these characters hence are amenable to selection. Analyzing all results obtained<br />

from the M4 mutants, by the criteria of mean + SD for yield, 402 plants were selected<br />

which are also having more than mean value for 1000-garin weight were planted at UAS,<br />

Dharwad for further study. Presence of variability among free-threshable mutants assures<br />

of getting good combination of characters for both yield and quality.<br />

96


geNeTIC STRuCTuRe of AegILoPS TAuSChII CoSS fRom<br />

VIR CoLLeCTIoN BASed oN Seed mARkeR PRoTeINS<br />

A.G. Khakimova<br />

N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry of RAAS (VIR), Bolshaya<br />

Morskaya Str. 44, 190000, Saint-Petersburg, Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: a.khakimova @vir.nw.ru<br />

Wild annual cereal Aegilops tauschii Coss. (Genome DD) is the diploid progenitor of<br />

common wheat possessing many valuable alleles of genes for its improvement. Taxonomically<br />

Ae. tauschii is subdivided into tauschii and strangulata (Eig) Tsvel. The first of them<br />

includes three botanical varieties, typica, anathera, meyeri and the second one contains<br />

only var. strangulata. For effective conservation and use of Ae. tauschii in prebreeding<br />

work the structure of its intraspecific diversity must be studied. In this research gliadins<br />

and seed protein-antigen Ant-D str were used as biochemical markers to estimate genetic<br />

relationships among 390 accessions of Ae. tauschii from VIR collection. The accessions<br />

have been collected in 1961-1985 by VIR expeditions in different regions of Caucasus<br />

(Azerbaijan - 200 accessions; Armenia - 52; Georgia - 6; Russia, Dagestan - 7) and Asia<br />

(Uzbekistan - 25, Kazakhstan - 3, Tadjikistan - 8, Kirghizia - 2, Turkmenistan - 17, Iran<br />

- 17, Afghanistan – 41 and the other countries - 12). The used methods and material investigated<br />

were previously described by Khakimova et al. (1991, 2000).<br />

Gliadins are a heterogeneous mixture of monomeric proteins which are separated on the<br />

basis of their electrophoretic mobility at low pH into groups (ω-, γ-, β and α-gliadins).<br />

The Gli-Dt1 locus (chromosome 1D) is responsible for ω- and γ-gliadins, while the locus<br />

Gli-Dt2 (chromosome 6D) - β- and α-gliadins. (Lagudah et al.1988). Each of the Gli-Dt<br />

loci encodes a group of gliadin polypeptides that are inherited as a block. At least 33%<br />

of the accessions studied were heterogeneous and each of them had from two to seven<br />

various protein patterns (gliadin biotypes). In total 246 gliadin biotypes were revealed for<br />

390 accessions. They were formed with participation of 113 Gli-Dt1 and 75 Gli-Dt2 allelic<br />

blocks, among which, 70 and 41 were unique, respectively. The frequencies of unique<br />

gliadin alleles significantly difference in the material originated from different countries.<br />

The greatest diversity for unique alleles encoding gliadin blocks were revealed in Azerbaijan<br />

and Iran. In material from Russia (Dagestan) and Georgia the unique alleles have not<br />

been found. Only two unique alleles have been present in the accessions from Armenia.<br />

For the accessions collected in Asia in comparison with the accessions originated from<br />

Caucasus a small number of unique alleles have been identified.<br />

Amongst grain proteins soluble in ethanol, not only gliadins, but the low molecular<br />

weight glutenins, albumins, globulins and hydrophobic proteins of low molecular weight<br />

were detected (Garcia-Olmedo et al. 1984, Konaгev, Chmelev, 1986). These proteins possess<br />

high antigenic activity and are controlled by many chromosomes of the genome. For<br />

example the gene responsible for the antigen Ant-D st is located in the 3D chromosome<br />

97


(Khakimova, 1988). Absence of this antigen among seed proteins was typical for ssp.<br />

tauschii. At the overwhelming majority of accessions referred to as ssp. strangulata this<br />

antigen was present. The similar intraspecific differentiation for species of Sytopsis section<br />

of the genus Aegilops and wheat was revealed for the antigens controlled by the 3B<br />

chromosome (Khakimova, 1988, 2000).<br />

In the paper the structure of Ae. tauschii genetic diversity from VIR’s collection is discussed.<br />

Dendrogram obtained by cluster analysis and based on the results of studying<br />

gliadins and antigen Ant-D str included two distinct groups (clusters). Cluster 1 contained<br />

the accessions mainly of ssp. tauschii from Central Asia and a few accessions of this subspecies<br />

from Transcaucasia and Iran. Cluster 2 had more complex hierarchical structure<br />

and consisted of four subclusters. In the cluster 2 all the accessions referred to as ssp.<br />

strangulata and some accessions of ssp. tauschii from Russia (Dagestan). Transcaucasia<br />

and Iran were present. The accessions of ssp. tauschii have been grouped with each other<br />

and formed the individual subcluster. Thus, the significant differentiation has been<br />

shown for each of Ae. tauschii subspecies. The accessions referred to as ssp. strangulata<br />

were more related to the accessions of ssp. tauschii from Transcaucasia and Iran, than to<br />

accessions of this subspecies from Asia. The comparative analysis of gliadin patterns and<br />

distribution of the antigen Ant-D str in the accessions, collected in three administrative<br />

areas of Azerbaijan in different time, has shown, that Ae. tauschii populations collected<br />

14 years apart had identical composition of protein biotypes. During repeated regenerations<br />

of seed material in VIR collection some of the biotypes have been lost. Thus, protein<br />

markers used are highly effective in detecting intraspecific diversity of Ae. tauschii. Our<br />

understanding of this genetic diversity constantly progresses, that is very important for<br />

developing conservation strategies. This should permit better targeting introduction of<br />

different Ae. tauschii germplasm into the VIR collection.<br />

98


PLANT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS IN CeNTRAL ASIA ANd The<br />

CAuCASuS<br />

Zakir Khalikulov 1 , Bayan Alimgazinova 2 ,<br />

Jamin Akimaliev 3 , Zebinisso Muminshoeva 4 ,<br />

Ashir Saparmuradov 5 , Agvan Saakyan 6 ,<br />

Zeynal Akparov 7 , Guram Alexidze 8<br />

1 ICARDA, CAC Regional Program, Tashkent 100000, Uzbekistan<br />

2 ”KAZAGROINNOVATSIYA”, Kazakhstan<br />

3 Kyrgyz Research Institute of Agriculture, Kyrgyzstan<br />

4 PGR Center of Tajikistan<br />

5 Academy of Sciences, Turkmenistan<br />

6 Research Center of Agrobiotechnology, Armenia<br />

7 Institute of Genetic Resources, Azerbaijan<br />

8 Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Georgia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Z.Khalikulov@cgiar.org<br />

Central Asia and the Caucasus Region (CAC) covers Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,<br />

Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in Central Asia, and Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in<br />

the Caucasus. The region is rich in agrobiodiversity of many important crop and horticultural<br />

species known to man. However, the region’s rich agro-biodiversity is under threat.<br />

Genetic erosion is occurring at an alarming pace due to introduction of uniform new<br />

varieties that replace endemic forms, a trend towards mono-cropping and a reduction in<br />

the traditional diversified farming systems, degradation of arable land due to intensification<br />

of cropping without adequate use of rotations, improper management of soil and<br />

other inputs, salinization of soils caused by inappropriate irrigation practices, pollution<br />

of the environment (water, soil, air) due to the inappropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides,<br />

over-harvesting from natural habitats, especially with respect to medicinal and<br />

aromatic plants, recurrent periods of drought which are likely to become more frequent<br />

or prolonged as a result of global warming and climate change, and retreat of the Aral sea<br />

which is a major environmental disaster for the whole region. Until the collapse of the<br />

former Soviet Union in 1991, all plant genetic resources (PGR) activities were centrally<br />

planned and managed by the N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR).<br />

Since then, dramatic changes took place in PGR conservation activities in the CAC countries.<br />

Contacts with VIR broke down, and thus VIR’s activities ceased in the region. Furthermore,<br />

weak communications among the countries and the absence of a coordinated<br />

and regional approach to the sustainable use of natural resources are having a negative<br />

impact on the environment and remain a barrier to the development of effective PGR<br />

conservation measures. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry<br />

Areas (ICARDA) and the Bioversity International have been active in the region since<br />

1999. In 1999, the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Network on PGR (CATCN-PGR)<br />

was established. Despite an excellent framework concept, this initiative has had limited<br />

99


impact at practical level. This has been mainly due to a lack of funding to support activities<br />

and a general lack of awareness in the region of the importance of PGR conservation<br />

work. However, various practical initiatives supported by short term funding have had<br />

a real and positive impact in terms of germplasm collection missions, capacity development,<br />

storage facility improvements and an increase in the awareness of the importance<br />

of PGR conservation. One of the outcomes of these activities is an increased awareness by<br />

decision makers in the region of the importance of PGR conservation and an increased<br />

willingness to invest in it. For example, Tajikistan established PGR center and Azerbaijan<br />

established National Genetic Institute. The PGR centers would run and maintain a national<br />

gene bank facility in a national ex-situ base collection for seed propagated crops. It<br />

is very important to promote regional cooperation in PGR conservation and utilization.<br />

A regional PGR information and germplasm exchange network would help nurture synergistic<br />

cooperation among national programs. It is envisaged that once strong national<br />

programs have been developed and a regional PGR center established, the regional PGR<br />

network would be strengthened naturally and of its own accord. However, it is proposed<br />

that the regional PGR center be provided with the recourses to facilitate this process. Regional<br />

crop working groups to promote regional conservation and utilization initiatives<br />

would be a key component of the network. These working groups would be facilitated<br />

by the regional PGR center. A regional strategy on PGR was developed and adopted by<br />

all national partners. However, national strategy has to be developed and adopted by all<br />

eight CAC countries. Further, the international treaty on PGR for food and agriculture<br />

(PGRFA) has to be legally ratified by each country; a few countries already accomplished<br />

this. It is often challenging to maintain collections in some of the national gene banks for<br />

long time, a duplicate collection of the accessions need to be preserved in the advanced<br />

gene banks. If the concept of duplicate preservation of PGR accessions is agreed upon<br />

by the CAC national partners, international support could be available for this activity.<br />

International support would be of paramount importance to PGR conservation in the<br />

CAC. As put forth by the great N.I. Vavilov, conservation of PGR is responsibility of not<br />

only one country, but also of the entire international community.<br />

100


uSe of TRITICeAe TRIBe SPeCIeS foR exPANdINg ANd<br />

eNRIChINg geNeTIC ReSouRCeS of TRITICum AeSTIVum<br />

L. Khotyleva, L. Koren, O. Orlovskaya<br />

Belarus 220072 Minsk Akademicheskaya st. 27 Institute of Genetics and Cytology of NASB<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: L.Khotyleva@igc.bas-net.by<br />

Preservation and expansion of plant genetic resources are one of the global problems at present.<br />

This problem becomes particularly urgent in view of the observed tendency to depletion of<br />

genetic variability in a major gene pool of cultivated plants. At the same time natural wild<br />

plant populations contain many important genes, in genetic and economic aspects, which can<br />

be transferred to cultivars of agricultural crops for developing new sources of variability. The<br />

modern strategy of wheat breeding is aimed at improving resistance of cultivars to abiotic and<br />

biotic stresses with maintaining a high productivity level and product quality. For solving this<br />

problem, a gene pool of Triticeae tribe wild relatives determining agronomic traits (resistance<br />

to fungus diseases, pests, salinization, high grain quality) is frequently involved.<br />

The goal of the present research was to develop qualitatively new wheat forms by remote<br />

hybridization in Triticeae tribe.<br />

T. aestivum common cultivars and Triticeae tribe species of different ploidy level (2n=14 - T.<br />

monococcum; 2n=28 - T. dicoccoides k 5199, T. dicoccum, T. persicum k 11899, T. polonicum,<br />

T. durum, T. turgidum; 2n=42 - T. kiharae, T. spelta k 1731, Haynaltricum) were taken as a<br />

research material. According to literature data, fertilization proceeds more successfully in<br />

crossing hexaploid and tetraploid wheats when a multichromosomal species is a pollinator.<br />

Therefore we have used wild species of Triticeae tribe as a maternal form and common<br />

wheat cultivars as a paternal one. Pollination was performed by putting pollinator spikes.<br />

Spelt wheat (T. monococcum), which exhibits high immunity to fungus diseases and the<br />

protein content in its grain reaches 35-37%, is of particular interest among Triticum diploid<br />

species. Tetraploid wheats, thought being of no production interest due to their low<br />

productivity, are valuable source of grain protein content and resistance to various diseases.<br />

The 28-chromosome species Triticum, included by us in investigations, are carriers of<br />

some genes of resistance to rust, mildew, smut, Septoria tritici or exhibit a combined resistance<br />

to pathogens. An advantage, for example, of T. persicum in N.I. Vavilov’s opinion,<br />

is resistance to low temperature, pre-harvest sprouting, combined immunity to diseases<br />

and high protein content in grain. Hexaploid wheat T. spelta with genome composition<br />

homologous to that of common wheat is characterized by an increased protein content in<br />

grain - up 21%. Haynaltricum (spring amphidiploid Haynaldia (Dasipyrum) villosa × T.<br />

dicoccum (ABH)) is a donor of combined resistance to diseases.<br />

Thirty two combinations of remote crosses were carried out and 2116 flowers were pollinated.<br />

Seed settling varied from 1, 39 to 74, 00%. The highest percent of setting was<br />

101


observed as a result of using hexaploid species T. spelta k 1731 in hybridization (up to<br />

74%). When tetraploid species were used, persistently high values for the analyzed parameter<br />

were in combinations with involvement of T. persicum k 11899 (21, 11-37, 20%).<br />

In remote hybridization, defective development hybrid embryo and its abnormal interrelation<br />

with covering tissues and endosperm are known to be an important problem. The<br />

produced hybrid seeds were wrinkled with poorly plump endosperm but with embryo.<br />

In some combinations, practically there was no endosperm in a part of seeds, however,<br />

application of biotechnological methods in vitro made it possible to preserve the obtained<br />

hybrid material.<br />

Cytological analysis of remote wheat hybrids has revealed pronounced disturbances in<br />

passing meiosis stages that assumes the presence of alien genetic material in their genome.<br />

The morphological analysis data have corroborated this assumption. Traits of wild<br />

wheat relatives (brown colour and stiffness of spike scale, spike fragility, absence of wax<br />

bloom on spike) were detected in the produced hybrid material.<br />

Thus, we have obtained hybrids from crosses between cultivated common wheat cultivars<br />

and wild Triticeae tribe species by method of remote hybridization and biotechnology for<br />

enriching and improving common wheat gene pool. At present qualitatively new promising<br />

forms, characterized by high resistance to rust and mildew, early ripeness, increased<br />

protein content in grain, were selected from the developed hybrid material of advanced<br />

generations.<br />

The research was supported by Belarus Foundation for Basic Research, grant<br />

B09SB-004.<br />

102


moLeCuLAR mARkeRS foR INCReASINg effICIeNCy of<br />

WheAT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS uTILISATIoN IN BReedINg.<br />

WheAT geNome oRIgIN ACCoRdINg To PRoTeIN mARkeRS<br />

A.V. Konarev, T.I.Peneva, N.K.Gubareva<br />

and I.P.Gavriljuk<br />

N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR), 190000 St. Petersburg,<br />

Russia.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: a.konarev@vir.nw.ru<br />

Molecular markers (MM) successfully used in Vavilov Institute from 1969 on the following<br />

steps of working with wheat (plant) collections: a) search of new allelic diversity for<br />

gene banks; b) originality testing of new accessions before the entry in collections; c) the<br />

degree of similarity or difference among individual genotypes in an accession or among<br />

accessions in collection; d) structure of genetic variation of collections (intraspecies relations<br />

and interspecies relationships, genome analysis); e) identification and registration<br />

of genetic diversity (accessions, genotypes) and preparation catalogues and data bases<br />

on MM; f) identification of duplicates, very similar accessions and various mistakes in<br />

collections; h) genetic integrity control; i) authorship rights control (for gene bank). The<br />

main directions of MM using in connection with solving of plant breeding problems are<br />

the following: a) marking of genetic systems of different level, search and selection of<br />

valuable or desirable genotypes (populations, accessions), b) studying of selection (genetic)<br />

material on all steps of plant breeding, studying of population composition (for<br />

cross-pollinated species) and biotype composition (for self-pollinated ones); c) study of<br />

the dynamics of population composition, determination of hybridity of seeds, e) analysis<br />

of artificial amphydiploids and hybrids prepared by distant hybridization; f) prediction of<br />

species crossibility; g) prediction of the level of heterosis. Using MM in seed production<br />

and seed testing: a) estimation of originality in initial seed production by identification of<br />

typical for this variety biotypes; b) elucidation of origin of non-typical plants; c) testing<br />

for presence of random cross-pollination or mechanical contamination; d) control for<br />

population composition in course of seed production; e) control for authenticity of varieties<br />

(of seed stock); f) authorship rights control.<br />

Polypliod wheats are traditionally divided into two evolutionary groups: turgidum group<br />

with genome formula AABB and timopheevii group (AAGG). Up to the present, there has<br />

been no single opinion on the origin of these genomes, especially of genome A. Originally,<br />

T.monococcum L. was considered as the donor of the first genome of polyploid wheat.<br />

Later it was assumed that wild einkorn T.boeoticum Boiss. Is the source of genome A,<br />

whereas Aegilops speltoides Tauch or another species of the Sitopsis section is the source<br />

of genome B? The problem of wheat genomes has been discussed by many workers, but<br />

remains unsolved. In genome analysis of wheat and closely related cereals we used as<br />

serological markers a fraction of wheat albumins accompanying prolamins in alcohol<br />

extract. This albumin fraction of seed proteins was a peculiar concentrate of genome<br />

103


specific proteins (GSP). Methods of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, affinity immune<br />

chromatography, enzyme-dependent immunosorbent test, thin-layer chromatography<br />

and others have been used for fractionation, purification and study of the component<br />

composition and nature of Triticum L., Aegilops L., Elytrigia Desf. GSP. A correspondence<br />

was established between the number and quantity of specific antigens of GSP and<br />

genetic interrelationships of cereal species or genomes. It was shown that the most active<br />

GSP antigens of cereal seeds are lipoproteins of cell membranes. Analysis of polyploid<br />

and diploid Triticum and Aegilops GSP showed that wild einkorn T.urartu Thum was the<br />

phylogenetic donor of genome A in turgidum-aestivum group of wheat species, while<br />

T.boeoticum was the donor for the first genome of timopheevii group. A.V.Konarev et<br />

al. (1974) were the first to publish information on the relationship of T.aestivum and<br />

T.durum genome A to wild einkorn T.urartu. Later this was confirmed by immunological<br />

(Krivchenko et al., 1976), morphological (Dorofeev et al., 1979) and molecular (Dvorak<br />

et al., 1988) methods. The proteins of wheat species from the turgidum-aestivum group<br />

revealed antigens typical for the genome of Ae.longissima, while the proteins of wheat<br />

with genome G (timopheevii group) revealed antigens typical for Ae.speltoides (Peneva<br />

and Migushova, 1973; Konarev V. et al., 1979). Serological markers (GSP) have been successful<br />

in analysing the interrelation of genomes belonging to genera Triticum, Aegilops,<br />

Elytrigia, Elymus (Konarev A., 1981). In this case the genome level of GSP antigenic specificity<br />

was in agreement with the results of cytogenetic studies of genome relationship.<br />

104


ChARACTeRISTICS of WheAT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS foR<br />

BReedINg ANd gRoWINg IN oRgANIC fARmINg<br />

Petr Konvalina 1 , Zdeněk Stehno 2 , Ivana Capouchová 3<br />

1 University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Studentská 13, České Budějovice, CZ<br />

370 05<br />

2 Crop research institute, Drnovská 507, Praha 6 - Ruzyně, CZ 161 06<br />

3 Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Praha 6 - Suchdol, CZ 165 21<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: konvalina@zf.jcu.cz<br />

Modern soft wheat varieties are not able to meet all the requirements of the organic farming,<br />

as they have been bred for the high-input farming systems. Organic farmers need<br />

the varieties having a strong and efficient root system, being able of a positive interaction<br />

with the soil edaphone, being highly competitive to weeds and providing a sufficient yield<br />

level and quality. Special breeding programs for the orgranic farming or wide diversity<br />

of species and land races of Triticum L. (e.g. einkorn - Triticum monococum L., emmer<br />

wheat - Triticum diccocum SCHUEBL, spelta wheat - Triticum spelta L., which make<br />

parts of the world collections of gene banks) may be used to satisfy the above-mentioned<br />

tasks.24 samples of einkorn, 103 samples of emmer wheat, 15 samples of spring spelta<br />

wheat varieties and 2 control soft wheat varieties (Granny, SW Kadrilj) were chosen from<br />

the collection of the spring wheat genetic resources of the Gene Bank in Prague-Ruzyně<br />

in 2008. The selection of the samples respected the areas of origin, so as the original<br />

growing conditions were as close to the conditions of Central Europe as possible. Particular<br />

characteristics were evaluated in the growing season and after the harvest according<br />

to the published Methodology of selection and evaluation of spring forms of neglected<br />

species of wheat genotypes, suitable for the sustainable farming systems.<br />

Our study aimed to evaluate the the predispositions of the wheat varieties to the weed<br />

competitiveness, tolerance to diseases, formation of the yield rate and elementary parametres<br />

of the baking quality. Einkorn was characterised by a short very narrow flag leaf,<br />

semi-erect or erect tuft shape and slow growth in the growing season. These factors may<br />

lead to a reduction of the weed competitiveness. Resistance to mildew and rust was an<br />

advantage of this wheat variety. Eincorn plants were about 101 cm long (at average) and<br />

the most of them are quite resistant to lodging. Spikes are very short (4, 75 cm) and dense<br />

(43, 98 spikelets.10 cm -1 ). Spike productivity was low. Thousand grains weight (TGW)<br />

achieved only 26 g. Harvest index was very low too (0, 34), whereas proportion of hulls<br />

was higher (29, 75 %) than in the case of emmer wheat. The mean amount of nitrogenous<br />

elements in dry matter was 15, 40 % (13, 95 - 17, 21 %). The wet gluten content<br />

varied between 34, 12 - 48, 36 % (40, 45 % at average). The quality of gluten was very<br />

low - the gluten was weak and spilt (gluten index = 17, 17; SDS-test = 15, 17 ml). The<br />

second studied and evaluated species - emmer wheat - was characterised by an erect tuft<br />

shape, semi-long (16–21 cm) narrow (1, 1–1, 5 cm) flag leaf, awned spikes and it was in<br />

a good healthy condition. These factors assured an efficient assimilation surface. Mildew<br />

105


or rust occurence was occasional. Emmer wheat inclined to lodging, the initial varieties<br />

lodged from the skimming. It was caused by the length of plants (107, 86 cm at average).<br />

Spikes were semi-long (6, 13 cm) and very dense (32, 81 spikelets.10 cm -1 ). TGW (0, 79<br />

g) achieved the half level of the control varieties (1, 62 g). TGW and harvest index were<br />

reduced (0, 40 at average). The variability of this characteristic was quite low (coefficient<br />

of variance = 13, 61 %), therefore, a selection of material able to distribute assimilates in<br />

plants would be very difficult. The mean amount of nitrogenous elements in dry matter<br />

achieved 14, 73 % (actually it varied from 12, 03 % to 21, 68 %). The wet gluten content<br />

varied from 25, 12 % to 58, 51 %. The gluten quality (evaluated via Gluten Index and<br />

SDS-test) was low (the mean value of SDS-test was 25 ml, the mean value of Gluten<br />

Index was close to the previous one). Spelta wheat was the third studied and evaluated<br />

wheat species. It was characterised by a semi-erect tuft shape (a good condition for the<br />

weed competitiveness). Spelta wheat plants were strongly infested by mildew and rust.<br />

Therefore, the studied and evaluated group of varieties contained the varieties resistant<br />

to diseases and the varieties which inclined to lodging too. Spikes were semi-long and<br />

semi-dense. TGW was close to 1 g, it was slightly higher than TGW of the control wheat<br />

varieties (42, 59 g). Harvest index (0, 38) was close to the emmer wheat and it was lower<br />

than the harvest index of the control wheat varieties. The proportion of hulls achieved 30,<br />

67 %. The amount of nitrogenous elements achieved 16, 54 % and the wet gluten content<br />

45, 19 %. Spelta wheat varieties were able to tolerate the conditions of organic farming<br />

system very well. The baking quality (SDS-test, Gluten Index) of spelta wheat varieties<br />

was higher than this one of the most of the studied and evaluated eincorn and emmer<br />

wheat varieties. Our study has brought a lot of valuable experience and knowledge on<br />

the reaction of land races and marginal wheat species to the low-input farming system.<br />

The perspective material is about to be studied more, so as we elaborate the complex<br />

methodology of the evaluation of suitability of varieties for the organic farming system,<br />

methodology of growing and selection of suitable varieties for the organic farming. The<br />

actual study has been supported by QH 82272 and QI 91C123 projects (the projects of the<br />

National Agency for the Agricultural Research, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech<br />

Republic).<br />

106


moLeCuLAR-CyTogeNeTIC ChARACTeRIzATIoN of The<br />

PARTIAL WheAT × INTeRmedIATe WheATgRASS hyBRIdS<br />

(×TRITIPyRum)<br />

P. Yu. Kroupin, M. G. Divashuk, G. I. Karlov<br />

Centre for Molecular Biotechnology, Russian State Agrarian University-MTAA, Timiryazevskaya<br />

st, 49 127550 Moscow, Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: pavelkroupin1985@gmail.com<br />

Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey)<br />

have been widely used for biotic and abiotic resistance breeding of wheat (Fedak, 1999).<br />

The crosses between wheat and partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrids (Tritipyrum) was<br />

proved to be one the most effective techniques to transfer useful genes of wheatgrass to<br />

bread wheat. Thereby a numerous of useful genes have been successfully transferred to<br />

wheat genome including genes for resistance to barley yellow dwarf and wheat streak<br />

mosaic viruses, yellow, leaf and stem rust (Tang et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2001; Chen et<br />

al., 2003; Artamonov et al., 2003). However, only three homeologic groups (2, 4 and 7)<br />

of the wheatgrass genome (2n=42) have been involved in the alien introgressions (Chen,<br />

2005). To extend the genetic stocks of intermediate wheatgrass used in breeding it is of<br />

great importance to involve new partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrids with various sets of<br />

additional wheatgrass chromosomes. The most important step for successful chromosomal<br />

engineering of wheat is known to be the molecular-cytogenetic characterization of<br />

the developed hybrids (Fedak, 1999).<br />

The aim of our research was to establish the genomic constitution of four octaploid wheatwheatgrass<br />

hybrids: Istra 1, Otrastayuschaya 38, Ostankinskaya, Zernokormovaya 169<br />

(provided by Scientific-Experimental Farm ‘Snegiri’, N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden,<br />

Russian Academy of Science). The given lines are distinguished by the frost- and winterhardiness,<br />

outstanding resistance to fungal and viral diseases of leaves, stem and head,<br />

tolerance to Tilletia and Ustilago tritici, high protein content (Belov & Ivanova, 2001;<br />

Dolgova et al., 2001). The genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was applied with total<br />

Triticum aestivum DNA as a block and total Thinopyrum intermedium DNA as a label.<br />

Each line of wheat-wheatgrass hybrid has been found to contain twenty-one pair of wheat<br />

and seven pairs of wheatgrass chromosomes. Moreover, the nonuniform hybridization<br />

of the labeled wheatgrass DNA has been observed along the length of some additional<br />

wheatgrass chromosomes (chromosome banding). On certain wheatgrass chromosomes<br />

the labeled wheatgrass DNA was hybridized at telomeric and near-telomeric sites,<br />

whereas the rest part was blocked by the wheat DNA. Istra 1, Otrastayuschaya 38, and<br />

Ostankinskaya have been found to carry one pair of chromosomes of such type differing<br />

in centromere index, while for Zernokormovaya 169 they have not been revealed.<br />

Besides, some chromosomes with near-centromeric hybridization of the labeled wheatgrass<br />

DNA have been discovered. Thus, Istra 1, Ostankinskaya, and Zernokormovaya<br />

107


169 have turned out to carry two, two and three pairs of such chromosomes, respectively,<br />

whereas no such chromosome have been revealed for Otrastayuschaya 38. Such type of<br />

hybridization remained stable for the range of the label: block ratio from 1:50 to 1:300<br />

and for different lines of Th. intermedium as a source for the labeled DNA. The same type<br />

of hybridization was observed when GISH was conducted directly at the inbred line of<br />

Th. Intermedium 1119 (kindly provided by Dr. L.I. Glukhova, SEF ‘Snegiri’). This is sure<br />

to be the evidence for that the occurrence of such chromosomes in the Tritipyrum lines<br />

is not due to wheat-wheatgrass translocation. According to the literature the similar type<br />

of banding occurs for wheatgrass chromosomes when GISH is performed with labeled<br />

DNA of Pseudoroegneria sp. that allows to distinguish three subgenomes of Th. intermedium<br />

(Chen, 2005).<br />

The rest of the additional wheatgrass chromosomes in the studied hybrids are characterized<br />

with uniform distribution of the labeled wheatgrass DNA along the length of the<br />

chromosome. However, the chromosome pairs have appeared to differ in absolute size<br />

and centromeric index between each other and between different investigated Tritipyrum<br />

lines. Thus, each studied line of partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrid possesses its own unique<br />

set of additional chromosomes.<br />

Among the analyzed octaploid lines of Tritipyrum the individual plants with telosomics,<br />

wheat-wheatgrass and wheatgrass-wheat translocations have been found which is the<br />

evidence for the continuing segregation of the forms. Since the given wheat-wheatgrass<br />

hybrids are known to be resistant to adverse environmental factors and have been shown<br />

to carry various additional chromosomes of Th. intermedium such kind of chromosomal<br />

rearrangements could play an important role in producing introgressions of useful hereditary<br />

traits into wheat genome.<br />

108


moLeCuLAR CyTogeNeTIC ChARACTeRIzATIoN<br />

of The WheAT AgRoPyRoN eLoNgATum dISomIC<br />

ANd dITeLoSomIC AddITIoN LINeS<br />

Linc G, Sepsi A, Molnár-Láng M.<br />

Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, 2462<br />

Hungary<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: linc@mail.mgki.hu<br />

Wild relatives of the cultivated wheat in the tribe Triticeae represent rich potential source<br />

of genetic variation for many agriculturally significant characteristics.<br />

Species belonging to the present Thinopyrum genus is known to possess genes conferring<br />

resistance to different diseases, such as wheat streak mosaic virus, barley yellow dwarf<br />

virus, rusts etc; making these species suitable for improving the distance resistance of<br />

wheat.The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are major classes of wheat storage<br />

proteins, which play a crucial role in determining the quality of bread wheat. The E genome<br />

in<br />

Elytrigia elongata (Host) Nevski (=Agropyron elongatum, Thinopyrum elongatum,<br />

2n=2x=14, EE) is an important genetic resource for improving the yield and bread-making<br />

quality of wheat.<br />

Understanding the organization of the different genomes and their phylogenetic relationships<br />

with other related genomes will greatly facilitate the utilization of these species for<br />

transferring agronomically useful genes into bread wheat.<br />

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) by using various repetitive DNA probes is a<br />

powerful tool for chromosome identification. Using this approach, genes controling agronomically<br />

important traits can be assigned to a precise chromosomal region thus facilitating<br />

the effective gene transfer. Despite the importance of the E genome in wheat improvement,<br />

the banding pattern of E-genome chromosomes using repetitive DNA probes<br />

is still unknown.<br />

Thus, a complete Elytrigia elongata disomic chromosome addition series and 5 ditelosomic<br />

addition lines in a Chinese Spring background (Dvorák, J, and Knott, D R. 1974.)<br />

were used for the present study. The E genom chromosomes were detected using genomic<br />

in situ hybridization (GISH) and were analyzed by flurescence in situ hybridization<br />

(FISH) using repetitive DNA probes: pSc119.2, Afa family, pTa71.<br />

All the seven E genom chromosomes carry specific pSc119.2 and Afa family signals,<br />

which makes them distinguisable from each other and also from the pattern of the well<br />

known wheat (CS) chromosomes. The 5E and 6E chromosomes show a definite pTa71<br />

109


site on their ahort arms. The 1E chromosome has strong telomeric pSc119.2 signal on<br />

both arms and also an Afa family site on the long arm subterminally. The 2E chromosome<br />

show strong pSc119.2 signs terminally on the short arm and a terminal and a subterminal<br />

band on the long arm.<br />

The 3E chromosome has a subterminal Afa family site and strong pSc119.2 bands on both<br />

arms in terminal position. A double pSc119.2 signal and an Afa family site was detected<br />

on the long arm terminally of the 4E chromosome, while the short arm has a telomeric<br />

pSc119.2 hybridization site.<br />

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the individual E genome chromosomes will help<br />

us to analyze the genome composition of the progenies of wheat × Agropyron hybrids.<br />

Referece: Dvorák, J, and Knott, D R. 1974. Disomic and ditelosomic additions of diploid<br />

Agropyron elongatum chromosomes to T. aestivum. Can J Genet Cytol, 16, 399-417.<br />

110


gRAIN yIeLd PeRfoRmANCe of SyNTheTIC<br />

BACkCRoSSed deRIVed WheAT IN RAIN-fed<br />

medITeRRANeAN eNVIRoNmeNTS<br />

F. Makdis 1, 2 , FC Ogbonnaya 1 and O Abdalla 1<br />

1 International Centre for Agricultural Research in the<br />

Dry Areas, PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria;<br />

2 Aleppo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department, Aleppo, Syria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: F.Ogbonnaya@cgiar.org<br />

Yield is one of the most important selection criteria in most breeding programs worldwide.<br />

Substantial progress has been made in the genetic improvement of grain yield<br />

through empirical selection criteria of yield per se. Of recent, yield improvement of wheat<br />

in rain-fed environment seems to have plateaued accentuated by the repeated occurrences<br />

of drought and heat. With the increasing frequency of both drought and heat associated<br />

with climate change, it has therefore become imperative to investigate adaptation options<br />

for improving yield and yield stability under these conditions in rain-fed wheat production<br />

systems. Wheat from its kindling, suffered an evolutionary bottle neck additional<br />

to the effect of domestication both with debatable impact on genetic diversity for yield<br />

improvement. To mitigate the impact of these factors, synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHWs)<br />

has been recreated from its two progenitor species, the tetraploid, Triticum turgidum and<br />

its diploid wild relative Aegilops tauschii as a useful source of new genes for bread wheat<br />

improvement including for resistances/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. The objective<br />

of the present study was to determine the grain yield of a synthetic backcross population<br />

in contrasting Mediterranean environments.<br />

One hundred and thirty two BC 1 F 8 synthetic backcross-derived lines (SBLs) from the<br />

cross, SW2/2*Cham-6 was grown in three contrasting rainfed environments, Breda-<br />

Aleppo, Syria (35°56’N, 37°10’E, 200-250 mm annual rainfall), Tel Hadya-Aleppo, Syria,<br />

(36°1’ N, 36°56’E; 300-350 mm annual rainfall) and Terbol, Lebanon (33°8′N, 35°98′E;<br />

500-550 mm annual rainfall). Cham-6 is a dryland cultivar widely adapted to dry areas in<br />

Syria, whereas SW2 is synthetic hexaploid wheat. Grain yield across the three sites ranged<br />

from 1.77 to 3.3 tons/ha with a site mean of 2.60 ton/ha compared to the recurrent parent,<br />

Cham-6 with 2.5 ton/ha. More than 34% of the SBL showed a yield advantage from 110<br />

to 130% better than Cham-6 across the three sites. The magnitude of yield improvement<br />

varied across sites. There was consistent transgressive segregation for yield in all the locations<br />

with the magnitude of yield improvement over Cham-6 in the order of Terbol ><br />

Tel-Hadya >Breda at 70, 40 and 32% respectively. The performance of the best SBL to the<br />

recurrent parent, Cham-6 was 158% in Terbol, 140% in Tel-Hadya and 126% in Breda.<br />

Days to heading (DH) and day to maturity (DM) were negatively correlated (P


with grain yield (GY) at the lower and moderate moisture sites (Breda, Tel-Hadya) with<br />

positive correlation (P


ANALySIS of The PASSPoRT INfoRmATIoN ABouT WheAT<br />

geNeTIC ReSouRCeS WITh The AId of INfoRmATIoN<br />

ANd ANALyTICAL SySTem gRIS4.0<br />

S.P. Martynov, T.V. Dobrotvorskaya<br />

N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry of RAAS, Bolshaya Morskaya<br />

Str. 42, 190000 Sankt-Petersburg Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: sergej_martynov@mail.ru<br />

The efficiency of utilization of genetic diversity depends on accessibility of the information<br />

on genetic resources and is determined by the potentialities of an information system,<br />

which ensures information storage and data processing. The Information and Analytical<br />

System GRIS4.0 is intended for a storage and analysis of passport data about wheat<br />

genetic resources.The database contains the major passport descriptors of accessions<br />

– name and its synonyms, registration numbers, botanical species and variety, growth<br />

habit, pedigree, identified gene alleles, geographical origin, year of registration, originator,<br />

recommended region for cultivation, maturing, market class, reaction to biotic and<br />

abiotic stressors etc.<br />

The access to the record is possible by accession name, by one of the synonym names, or<br />

by the accession numbers in national collections. The database contains 137000 records.<br />

The pedigrees are known for 112000 accessions and some gene alleles – for 38000 accessions.<br />

The data, assembled from 3650 sources, are unified to generally accepted standards<br />

(language of formal description of pedigrees, methods of creation of initial material, gene<br />

symbols, names of properties, stressors etc.), permitting computer data processing. All<br />

data are accompanied by the references. Accumulation of the information in a database is<br />

permanent process. The system GRIS4.0 provides access to the information on pedigrees,<br />

alleles of genes, resistance to stressors and other data for direct use in the breeding programs<br />

and choice of a material for genetic experiments. It promotes to perform studies<br />

based on the solid genetic principles.<br />

The program of data processing contains the following methods for genealogical and<br />

statistical analysis:<br />

A pedigree tracing back to ancestral landraces and its representation as a tree. In a situation<br />

of discrepancy of the information or presence of homonyms in a pedigree the program<br />

operates in an interactive regime, allowing choosing the most probable pedigree.<br />

The developed pedigrees can be put in to library of pedigrees. It allows using ready blocks<br />

– pedigrees of ancestors which are kept in a library during tracing pedigrees. Use of library<br />

accelerates a process of pedigree analysis and reduces probability of mistake during<br />

analysis of ambiguous pedigrees to minimum.<br />

113


Studying of genetic basis of a variety with the help of construction of a genealogical profile<br />

– set of original ancestors making a top of pedigree tree. The contributions of original<br />

ancestors are estimated by summation of Wright’s path coefficients for every possible<br />

ways connecting a considered variety with an ancestor.<br />

Calculation of matrix of parentage coefficients for the given accession set. It enables<br />

quantitatively to estimate genetic similarity of varieties and to measure genetic diversity<br />

within and between groups of varieties. The cluster analysis of a matrix of coefficients of<br />

parentage or indexes of similarity of genealogical profiles allows to form the specialized<br />

core collections for major economic traits which combine quite sufficiently wide genetic<br />

diversity with a limited size of collection.<br />

Calculation of matrix of genealogical profiles for the given accession set. For each accession<br />

and all given set the Shannon diversity indexes are calculated. With the help of<br />

genealogical profiles it is possible to carry out the retrospective analysis of the breeding<br />

programs, to investigate temporal and spatial dynamics of diversity for a cultivar set.<br />

Search for the offspring of a given cultivar or several given cultivars in any lineages of the<br />

pedigree.<br />

Tracing of transmission of gene alleles or traits of resistance/susceptibility to various<br />

stressors from the ancestors to descendants permits to find the sources of resistance in a<br />

particular variety and in some cases to postulate resistance genes.<br />

Construction and analysis of contingency tables – statistical estimation of independence<br />

of qualitative attributes by the χ 2 –test and calculation of coefficients of association between<br />

genes and/or qualitative attributes. It allows to investigate the connected genetic<br />

diversity, for example, with the purpose of study of regularities of geographical distribution<br />

of genes and to select most valuable alleles and their combinations for the particular<br />

agroclimatic zone.<br />

Thus, the passport database in the aggregate with the program of data processing in the<br />

Information and Analytical System GRIS4.0 expands the accessible information about<br />

initial material for breeding and genetic studying on wheat.<br />

114


INdIReCT SeLeCTIoN uSINg RefeReNCe geNoTyPe<br />

PeRfoRmANCe IN A gLoBAL SPRINg WheAT muLTIeNVIRoNmeNT<br />

TRIAL<br />

Ky L. MathewsP1, 2, 4, Richard TrethowanP 3, 4 ,<br />

Andrew Milgate 5 , Thomas Payne 3 , Maarten van Ginkel 3, 6 ,<br />

Jose CrossaP 3 , Ian DeLacy 2 , Mark CooperP 2, 7 ,<br />

Scott C. ChapmanP 1<br />

1 CSIRO Plant Industry, Queensland Biosciences Precinct, 306 Carmody Rd, St. Lucia, QLD<br />

4067 Australia, Email HTUscott.chapman@csiro.auUT<br />

2 The School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD<br />

4072 Australia<br />

3 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Apdo. Postal 6-641,<br />

06600 México, D.F. México<br />

4 Present address: Plant Breeding Institute, The University of Sydney, PMB 11 Camden,<br />

NSW 2570 Australia<br />

5 New South Wales Department of Primary Industries<br />

6 Present address: ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466 Aleppo, Syria<br />

7 Present address: Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., PO Box 552, Johnston IA 50131 USA<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Ky.Mathews@sydney.edu.au<br />

There is a substantial challenge in identifying appropriate lines from databases, such<br />

as the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre’s (CIMMYT) International<br />

Wheat Information System (IWIS), for testing/potential introduction into a breeding<br />

program. An indirect strategic procedure is outlined here, using the performance of<br />

reference genotypes in a multi-environment trial (MET) to characterise environments.<br />

The International Adaptation Trial (IAT) was designed to improve the understanding of<br />

relationships among locations where spring wheat (Triticum spp.) is grown. Grain yield<br />

(t ha -1 ) data were collated from 183 IAT trials grown in 67 countries (including Australia)<br />

between 2001 and 2004.<br />

Indirect selection can be undertaken based on genetic correlations among locations. These<br />

were calculated from a one-stage multiplicative mixed model that accounted for trial<br />

variance heterogeneity and inter-trial correlations characteristic of multi-environment<br />

trials. A factor analytic model explained 48% of the genetic variances for the 41 reference<br />

Australian and CIMMYT genotypes. The procedure of genotype selection was illustrated<br />

for two environment types: a single, key breeding location and a multiple high rainfall/<br />

irrigated environment for south eastern-Australia.<br />

When the target location was Roseworthy, a key south-eastern Australian breeding environment,<br />

the number of targetted genotypes, based only on locations that were correlated<br />

with Roseworthy was reduced to 35% of the 1252 initially available in the database.<br />

115


Preliminary results from the Irrigated Cropping Forum’s Irrigated Winter Cereals Trial<br />

grown in 2009 and 2010 validate the effectiveness of the reference genotype selection<br />

strategy in selecting 24 CIMMYT genotypes with high yield potential in south-eastern<br />

Australian irrigated environments. In 3 irrigated and 3 rainfed treatments one third (or<br />

more) of these CIMMYT genotypes yielded in the top 20%. The indirect selection procedure<br />

illustrates how strategic multi-environment trials, linked to historical performance<br />

databases, can identify germplasm that meets plant breeding program objectives.<br />

116


geNome ANALySeS of The ABoRIgINe LANdRACeS<br />

WheAT fRom TAJIkISTAN<br />

F. Yu. Nasyrova 1 , D. A. Sergeev 1 , Kh. Kh. Khurmatov 2 ,<br />

S. Naimov 1<br />

1 Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Tajik Academy of sciences, Dushanbe, Tajikistan.<br />

2 Tajik Medical University names after Abuali ibn Sino, Dushanbe, Tajikistan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author:firuza_nasyrova@mail.ru<br />

The main goal of the research was comparison between old relative genotypes of the local<br />

and cultivar varieties of the soft wheat (Triticum aestivum genome ААВВDD – hexapodid)<br />

by the molecular markers application. It has been shown that molecular genetics<br />

analyses revealed specific RAPD markers of the wheat genome, which can be used for<br />

variety identification and establishing of the phylogenetic links between varieties and<br />

subspecies.<br />

The world genetic resources are the main source for improvement of agricultural crops<br />

in nearest future. The creation of the new sources and donors of the selective important<br />

traits, i.e. the organization of the before breeding have been based mainly on the world<br />

genetic resources of the collections of the cultivars and their wild relatives. The discovery<br />

of the genetic resources potential according the main biological and selection traits have<br />

been provided the genetic basis for realization of the breeding program in different directions.<br />

Generally, before breeding work should included all stages of the gene pool analyses<br />

– from collection, maintaining, and analyses till IPR aspects of donors and valuable<br />

traits sources. Strictly speaking, each sample of the collection must be subject to identification<br />

and certification. The methods of investigation will play crucial role in effective<br />

studying of gene pool. Comparative- genetic analysis would helps if effective comparison<br />

of the different wheat genomes and additional reserves of the genetic resources mobilization<br />

of the wheat varieties in the creation of the new basic material, which can be used for<br />

increasing of the genetic researches effectiveness, and for breeding as well. The analyses<br />

of the local crops are crucial for genogeographycal investigations. They keep the main<br />

characteristics of the aboriginal material of each variety, and helps in rebuilding of the<br />

phylogenetic links. It’s considered that old relatives and local varieties as the long natural<br />

and artificial selection results better than others have been adapted to the local I environmental<br />

conditions, and they are not only optimal for this condition, but the complex of<br />

the useful agronomic characters. In recent years, for the analyses of genetic links in plants<br />

for inter-and intra-specie identification purposes have been widely using the molecular<br />

markers selection technique based on PCR reaction.<br />

Recently, we have been analyzed the genetic relationship between wheat varieties (Triticum<br />

aestivum L.and Triticum durum Desf.) and some race representative of Aegilops by<br />

the molecular markers application based on RAPD and SNP-PCR. It has been shown that<br />

some morphologically difficult-differentiated Aegilops species according RAРD-profiles<br />

117


were clear differentiated. For RAPD-PCR analyses have been used 17 effective primers<br />

and assessed the intra-specie and inter-specie genetic diversity of the Triticum aestivum.<br />

According phenotypical traits as grain color, ear color, and awn, ear and steam, fragility,<br />

the intra-species diversity have been observed. The main fragment separation zone where<br />

within 2000-200 b.p. In whole, the 273 amplified fragments from 12 to 23 (16, in average)<br />

to one RAPD primer. Among 273 PCR fragments 54% were polymorphic between<br />

investigated genotypes, 46% have the similar length among all investigated samples. All<br />

primers in the different correlations established the monomorphic and polymorphic fragments<br />

between investigated samples. The monomorphic fragments can be considered<br />

as RAPD-markers for specie representatives. The genetic distances between investigated<br />

samples the more the less common amplified products. Revealed monomorphic bands of<br />

different varieties speculate similarity of the structural-functional organization of their<br />

genome. Each variety have own specific spectrum of the RAPD products, differed from<br />

each other by fragment quantity, their size and manifestation rate. Some primers revealed<br />

specific to their variety amplicons, however, it would be specific varietal characteristics.<br />

Significant differences on RAPD fragments quantities have been marked. The investigated<br />

samples have been differed in the numbers of the unique amplicons characterized<br />

for each variety. Based on the cluster analyses the dendrogram of the genetic similarity<br />

between investigated wheat samples has been constructed. The dendrogram have been<br />

revealed the high level of the intra-specific polymorphism.<br />

Therefore, molecular-genetic analyses give the possibility to reveal the specific genome<br />

markers, which can be used for varietal genome identifications. It shown, that the method<br />

of molecular marking based on RAPD-PCR allowed to identify the representatives of the<br />

Triticum aestivum species and to create phylogenetic links between different varieties.<br />

Unequivocal use of the varietal specific primers allowed to reducing expenditure and<br />

inputs which are necessary for collection analyses.<br />

118


SImuLTANeouS ReSISTANCe To PoWdeRy mILdeW, LeAf<br />

RuST ANd STem RuST CoNfeRRed By geNeS oN 6V fRom<br />

d. VILLoSum INTRogReSSed IN WheAT BReedINg LINeS<br />

Pasquini M. 1 , Bizzarri M. 2 , Nocente F. 1 , Sereni L. 1 ,<br />

Matere A. 1 , Vittori D. 2 , De Pace C. 2<br />

1 C.R.A.- QCE, Via Cassia, 176 00191 Rome (Italy)<br />

2 Dep. Agrobiol. and Agrochem., Univ. of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo (Italy)<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: marina.pasquini@entecra.it<br />

Leaf rust and powdery mildew are important fungal diseases affecting wheat cultivation in<br />

Italy; stem rust is becoming once again a potential threat to wheat production worldwide,<br />

after the identification and diffusion of the new virulent pathotype Ug99 (TTKS and<br />

TTTT races). National pathogenicity surveys and virulence determinations are annually<br />

performed in the most important Italian wheat growing areas to obtain data on disease<br />

severity and virulence composition of the pathogen populations. The incorporation<br />

of effective and durable resistance to these diseases is a valuable breeding strategy for<br />

wheat improvement and the wild species proved to be a useful source of genes for this<br />

character.<br />

Dasypyrum villosum Candargy (syn. Haynaldia villosa) (Dv) is an annual, diploid (2n=14),<br />

allogamous grass species, belonging to the tribe Triticeae. This species is widespread in<br />

central-southern Italy and along the Adriatic east-coast, has V chromosomes (1V to 7V)<br />

homoeologous to wheat chromosomes, and expresses genes for trait-enhancement when<br />

single arms of certain V chromosomes are introgressed in wheat. These genes include<br />

alleles for resistance to wheat fungal pathogens such as Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt)<br />

(the Pm21 gene for resistance to Bgt was located on the short arm of chromosome 6V#2),<br />

Puccinia triticina (Pt), and Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt).<br />

It is reported here that the 6V#4 chromosome from a Dv ecotype collected near Viterbo<br />

(Latium-Italy), when introgressed in T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (CS), provides<br />

simultaneous and simple inherited resistance to currently virulent pathotypes of Bgt, Pgt<br />

and Pt in Italy.<br />

Phytopathological Analysis<br />

Two wheat introgression lines (IL), the 6V#4-disomic addition (DA) line CSxV63 and<br />

the monosomic 6V#4(6B) substitution line (MS) CSxV32 were studied. The CSxV63 line<br />

was completely resistant to Bgt at seedling and adult plant stage, to Pt at adult plant stage<br />

(APR), and to Pgt pathotypes at seedling stage. The CSxV32 line showed the same pattern<br />

of resistance as CSxV63, although its selfed progenies segregated due to the monosomic<br />

condition of 6V#4. Other wheat introgression lines involving different Dv chromosomes<br />

showed seedling susceptibility to the same diseases.<br />

119


Genetical and Molecular Analysis<br />

The resistant CSxV63 6V#4-DA IL was crossed to the susceptible CS+6V#1-DA IL<br />

(obtained by Prof. E.R.Sears, by utilizing a different Dv Italian ecotype). A suitable F 2:3<br />

mapping progeny, segregating for response to a selected Bgt pathotype, was obtained. The<br />

segregation for resistance to Bgt fitted a 3:1 monogenic inheritance. These data suggest the<br />

presence of one dominant gene for resistance to powdery mildew (provisionally indicated<br />

“PmVt” and probably allelic to Pm21). Molecular analyses using the marker OPH17 1900<br />

(reported as linked to Pm21) were carried out to confirm the location of “PmVt”on 6VS. The<br />

genetic basis of APR to Pt was studied in the field on the mentioned F 2:3 progeny, naturally<br />

infected by this pathogen: the surveyed response implied that resistance to Pt was not due<br />

to genes already present in CS (Lr12, Lr34), which resulted susceptible, but it was encoded<br />

at a locus on 6V#4. Analyses are in progress on the F 2:3 progeny also to study the inheritance<br />

of the seedling resistance to Pgt observed in the parental 6V#4-DA IL, using pathotypes<br />

identified in Italy in 2007-08, and to verify the association of the genes for resistance to<br />

Bgt, Pt and Pgt on 6V#4. Therefore 6V#4 seems to be a very interesting source of genes for<br />

simultaneous resistance to wheat powdery mildew, leaf rust and stem rust.<br />

120


PheNoTyPIC dIVeRSITy IN SPANISh LANdRACeS of<br />

BReAd WheAT (TRITICum AeSTIVum L.)<br />

Primitiva Codesal 1 , Juan A. Martín 2 , Josefina C.<br />

Sillero 3 , Magdalena Ruiz 4 , Prudencio López 5 ,<br />

Mª del Mar Cátedra 6 and Nieves Aparicio 1<br />

1 ITACyL. Ctra. Burgos, Km.119, 47071 Valladolid, Spain.<br />

2 Centro UdL-IRTA. Alcalde Rovira Roure, Km 117.25198 Lérida. Spain<br />

3 CIFA de “Alameda del Obispo”. Avda. Menéndez Vidal. Apdo. 3092. 14080. Córdoba.Spain<br />

4 INIA-Centro Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, 28800- Alcalá de Henares, Spain<br />

5 ITAP. Ctra. Madrid s/n. 02006 Albacete. Spain.<br />

6 EUITA. Bellavista. Dpto. Ciencias Agroforestales. Ctra. Utrera, Km 1. 41013. Sevilla. Spain.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: codvarpr@itacyl.es<br />

The Spanish National Wheat Collection, maintained at Centre of Plant Genetic Resources<br />

(CRF) of the National Institute of Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (INIA),<br />

consists of 2948 accessions. The entries of Triticum aestivum L. represented 61%, and<br />

were mainly based on Spanish landraces. In 2007, five researcher institutions began to<br />

collaborate for establishment the Spanish Bread Wheat Core Collection to facilitate their<br />

use to plant breeder’s, researchers and other users. Considering only Spanish landraces<br />

and rejecting entries with incomplete passport data, 569 accessions were selected and<br />

characterized for 13 characters following IPGRI descriptors. The assessment included 8<br />

qualitative and 5 quantitative traits. The results of frequency for the qualitative data and<br />

means for the quantitative characters are studied. The results showed a considerable variability<br />

in four traits: colour and length of awn, and colour for glumes and grain. Otherwise,<br />

most of entries are characterised by have lax spike, and with hairiness glumes; only<br />

84 entries not present awn barbs, and all the rest present rough awn barbs. For quantitative<br />

characters, higher variation was found for days to flowering and plant height than for<br />

days to maturity, spike length or number of spikelets per spike.<br />

121


ReSISTANCe of TRITICum SPeCIeS To CeReAL APhIdS<br />

E.E. Radchenko<br />

State Scientific Centre N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg,<br />

Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Eugene_Radchenko@rambler.ru<br />

In Russia the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and English grain aphid<br />

(Sitobion avenae F.) are most abundant on wheat. Resistance of Triticum ssp. to the aphids<br />

has been studied in different regions of Russia and former SU. Infestations of aphids were<br />

observed on a range of wheat cultivars and breeders’ lines over a number of years. The<br />

number of aphids on a plot was estimated by examination of a shoot sample in the field.<br />

Infestation was rated by using a scale ranging from 0 (no aphids) to 5. Some tests measured<br />

the categories of plant resistance. Antibiosis was evaluated by using an individual<br />

plant infested with a single apterous aphid. Nymphs were counted on the 5th or 7th day<br />

from the beginning of adult reproduction. Antixenosis was measured by a random planting<br />

of one plant per each accession in a circle of a pot. Apterate aphids at the rate of 5 per<br />

plant were released near the center on the soil surface and 24 h later the number of adults<br />

on each plant was counted.<br />

The gene pool of soft and durum wheat is poor in resistant forms. Of more than 4500<br />

accessions under study only 48 ones were slightly populated by aphids under field conditions.<br />

Some of the accessions selected possess the antibiosis to bird cherry-oat aphid. The<br />

cultivars Delfi 400 (k-54046, Kazakhstan) and ELS (k-43578, Norway) proved to be most<br />

resistant. Moreover, Delfi 400 showed antixenosis against the north-western population<br />

of R. padi. The results of genetic study show that aphid resistance in this cultivar is conditioned<br />

by two genes. Simultaneous expression of antixenosis and antibiosis to the bird<br />

cherry-oat aphid in the F 3 wheat hybrid families support the hypothesis that antixenosis<br />

and antibiosis are pleiotropic manifestations of the same genes. This cultivar is highly<br />

resistant to number populations of R. padi, but the analysis of the Daghestan population<br />

indicated the occurrence of biotypes that have overcome the resistance of Delfi 400.<br />

A method of minimizing damage to wheat is to identify and use cereal aphids resistant<br />

wild Triticum germplasm in interspecific crosses with cultivated varieties. In total, 1043<br />

accessions representing 30 wild Triticum species where screened for aphid resistance. A<br />

considerable variability among wild polyploid species for resistance to S. avenae and R.<br />

padi was revealed. Ten species within Dicoccoides section could be classified as intermediately<br />

resistant and susceptible to the feeding of English grain aphid. Within T. dicoccoides<br />

and T. dicoccum, however, considerable variation existed for the aphid infestation.<br />

Infestation scores ranged from 1 to 5. T. turgidum, T. jakubzineri, T. turanicum and T.<br />

polonicum were heavily infested. The overall level of aphid resistance in Triticum section<br />

was similar to that of Diccocoides. T. spelta was the most susceptible among the 6 species<br />

evaluated. Some accessions of T. vavilovii, T. compactum, and T. sphaerococcum were<br />

122


highly resistant to English grain aphid. It was shown that in breeding for the aphid resistance<br />

the species with the A u (T. urartu), A b (T. boeoticum, T. monococcum) and A b GD<br />

genomes (T. kiharae, T. miguschovae) are the most rational to be used. These species appeared<br />

to show high degrees of antibiosis and antixenosis. The resistance of species from<br />

the Timopheevii section might be overcome. For instance, based on field and laboratory<br />

experiments a differential interaction of S. avenae with T. zhukovskyi was found. Under<br />

conditions of the northern Caucasus the species T. zhukovskyi almost completely lost<br />

resistance to the pest. At the same time this species is highly resistant to the Usbek and<br />

north-western populations of English grain aphid. Some level of field resistance to the<br />

aphids was shown by T. timopheevii, but at very high aphid density this species failed to<br />

retain the resistance. Natural aphid populations appear to be highly polymorphic and<br />

host-virulent biotypes accumulate during one vegetation period. In our experiments, the<br />

heavy infestation of some accessions by S. avenae does not match with its high resistance<br />

to R. padi, – in other words, plant resistance to these aphids is conditioned by different<br />

genes. At the same time, T. kiharae, T. miguschovae and some T. monococcum accessions<br />

were found to be highly resistant to both aphid species tested. Multiple evaluations of collections<br />

of wild wheat are very important because it gives breeders a better chance to select<br />

appropriate germplasm with multiple resistance to harmful organisms. For instance,<br />

some accessions of T. monococcum combine aphid resistance with resistance to rusts and<br />

powdery mildew.<br />

Differential interaction with the host genotypes is specific to the grain aphids. The existence<br />

of aphid biotypes made in necessary to identify new resistance genes for breeding<br />

programs. The genetic diversity for resistance to aphids is expected to provide protection<br />

against changes in insect biotypes. Low level resistance of soft and hard wheat makes the<br />

work on introgression of genes for resistance especially useful.<br />

123


AgRo-moRPhoLogICAL ChARACTeRISATIoN ANd<br />

TeChNoLogICAL eVALuATIoN of duRum WheAT<br />

LANdRACeS IN moRoCCo<br />

Rhrib, Keltoum 1 ; Taghouti, Mouna 1 ;<br />

and Rachid Nawfal 2<br />

1 National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA Morocco), PO Box 415, Rabat, Morocco<br />

2 Mohammed V University, Faculty of Science, Rabat, Morocco<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: rhrib.keltoum@gmail.com<br />

Durum wheat landraces are still cultivated and appreciated by farmers in mountainous<br />

regions of Morocco, because of their adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses and to their<br />

good quality.<br />

This study aims to analyse genetic diversity of 108 durum wheat landraces, including Moroccan<br />

populations. Theses populations were characterized agro morphologically in Allal<br />

Tazi experiment station for the main characters. The statistical analysis showed a very<br />

high significant difference between studied populations for all traits evaluated. The same<br />

populations were screened for diseases especially leaf rust and the result revealed that the<br />

durum wheat collection possesses many sources of resistance to this disease which affect<br />

significantly the grain yield at national level. Furthermore, evaluation of technological<br />

quality showed that the germoplasm studied offers an important genetic diversity especially<br />

for SDS (Sodium Dedocyl Sulfate) which gives an idea of gluten strength and for<br />

yellow pigment.<br />

The analysis of protein composition showed that most of the accessions analysed have<br />

Gamma 45/LMW2 combinations, which is an indicator of a good quality. Thus, Cluster<br />

analysis on the basis of all the traits studied allowed distinguishing four distinct units of<br />

populations characterized by an important agro morphological traits and quality criteria<br />

124


SPANISh LANdRACeS of TRITICum TuRgIdum (L.)<br />

TheLL. SSP. dICoCCoN, TuRgIdum ANd duRum dIffeR<br />

geNeTICALLy ANd AgRoNomICALLy<br />

C Royo 1, * , M. Ruiz 2 , P Giraldo 3 , MJ Aranzana 4 ,<br />

M Cátedra 5 , JM Carrillo 3 , D Villegas 1<br />

1 Cereal Breeding, IRTA, Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain<br />

2 CRF-INIA, Characterization and Evaluation Depart. Autovía de Aragón, Km. 36; 28800<br />

Alcalá de Henares, Spain<br />

3 Genetics Unit. Depart. of Biotechnology. Polytechnic Univ. of Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n,<br />

28040 Madrid, Spain<br />

4 Genomics, IRTA, Cabrils, Spain<br />

5 IFAPA, Centro Rancho de la Merced, Ctra. de Trebujena km 3.2, 11471 Jerez de la Frontera,<br />

Spain<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: conxita.royo@irta.es<br />

This study was conducted to assess the genetic structure and the agronomic performance<br />

of a representative core set of 192 Spanish landraces belonging to three T. turgidum<br />

subspecies. Agronomic traits were assessed in experiments conducted in three latitudes<br />

within Spain. Data from 39 random SSRs were appropriate to describe the genetic structure<br />

of the population that resulted in five genetic subpopulations. Accessions of ssp.<br />

dicoccon and ssp. turgidum constituted two clearly separated genetic subpopulations that<br />

differed from ssp. durum in cycle length. A large number of spikelets per spike were<br />

detected in ssp. dicoccon, which may be useful in breeding programmes to increase sink<br />

capacity. Entries of ssp. durum showed a complex genetic structure consisting in three<br />

different subpopulations showing differences in precocity, number of spikelets per spike,<br />

flag-leaf chlorophyll content, main stem length and carbon isotope discrimination of mature<br />

grains. The variability revealed by this study in agronomic traits relevant for breeding<br />

purposes will allow the use of the best accessions in pre-breeding programmes.<br />

125


PRoduCTIoN ANd IdeNTIfICATIoN of NeW WheAT-<br />

AegILoPS BIuNCIALIS AddITIoN LINeS uSINg<br />

fLuoReSCeNCe IN SITu hyBRIdISATIoN ANd<br />

mICRoSATeLLITe mARkeRS<br />

Annamária Schneider, István Molnár,<br />

Márta Molnár-Láng<br />

Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 19, H-2462,<br />

Martonvásár, Hungary<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: schneidera@mail.mgki.hu<br />

Wild Aegilops (goatgrass) species are closely related to cultivated wheat. Aegilops species<br />

played an important role in the evolution of cultivated wheat. The ancestor of the D genome<br />

of cultivated wheat is the diploid Aegilops tauschii (2n=2x=14, DD), whereas the S<br />

genome of Ae. speltoides (2n=2X=14, SS) bears the greatest resemblance to the B genome<br />

of wheat. Aegilops biuncialis Vis., a wild allotetraploid wild species carrying U b and M b<br />

genomes (2n=4x=28, U b U b M b M b ). Some accessions of Ae. biuncialis have exceptionally<br />

good salt and drought tolerance, while others exhibit tolerance to various pathogens (leaf<br />

rust, stem rust, powder mildew), all of which could be useful to wheat breeders. One way<br />

of incorporating these useful traits of Ae. biuncialis into wheat is to develop first addition<br />

then translocation lines. It is important to monitor the presence of the alien chromosomes<br />

or chromosome segments in these genetic materials, for which purpose in situ<br />

hybridisation (ISH) is generally employed. However, the great genetic variability of the<br />

Aegilops species causes substantial polymorphism in the fluorescence in situ hybridisation<br />

(FISH) patterns of the individual chromosomes. Due to the high level of FISH polymorphism,<br />

it is advisable to confirm the identification of the Ae. biuncialis chromosomes<br />

with the help of microsatellite (SSR) markers. Up till now very few chromosome-specific<br />

molecular markers have been described on Aegilops species, most of which are RFLP<br />

markers. The aim of the study was to select Ae. biuncialis chromosomes from the progeny<br />

of the BC 2 and BC 3 generations of the wheat × Ae. biuncialis hybrids, which differ from<br />

the chromosomes 2M b , 3M b , 7M b , 3U and 5U b found in the wheat−Ae. biuncails addition<br />

lines produced earlier in Martonvásár and to select wheat microsatellite markers specific<br />

to U and M genomes of Aegilops species in order to help the exact identification of<br />

Ae. biuncialis chromosomes in wheat background. The 2M b , 3M b , 3U b and 5U b chromosome<br />

pairs were identified with FISH in the disomic addition lines developed using the<br />

pSc119.2 and pAs1 repetitive DNA probes. New Ae. biucialis chromosomes have been<br />

selected in the backcross progenies of the wheat × Ae. biuncialis hybrids, which differ<br />

from the chromosomes 2M b , 3M b , 7M b , 3U b and 5U b found in the wheat−Ae. biuncalis addition<br />

lines produced earlier in Martonvásár. Line No. 49/00 carries a submetacentric Ae.<br />

biuncialis chromosome pair. After FISH using pSc119.2 and pAs1 repetitive DNA probes<br />

no hybridisation site was observed on the Ae. biuncialis chromosome pair. Genomic in<br />

situ hybridisation (GISH) showed that this chromosome pair belonged to the M b genome.<br />

126


No chromosome rearrangements were detected between wheat and Ae. biuncialis chromosomes<br />

in this addition line using GISH. Line No. 1575/08 had 42 wheat chromosomes<br />

and a 2U b chromosome pair. Progeny of the line No. 33/01 was identified as a 6U b monosomic<br />

addition. Line No. 1564/08 carried an extra satellited Ae. biuncialis chromosome<br />

pair, which was small-sized (possibly it is a deletion chromosome). Line No. 1583/09<br />

carried 5M b , 6M b and 7M b chromosomes, while line No. 1589/09 had 7U b , 1U b and 3U b<br />

chromosomes in wheat background. It is planned to analyse these lines using GISH to detect<br />

chromosome rearrangements. The morphological traits and resistance of these lines<br />

will be investigated in the nursery. The aim of the experiments was thus to select U and<br />

M genome-specific SSR markers. The first task was to select markers that gave a polymorphic<br />

band on Ae. biuncialis compared with wheat, after which these markers were selected<br />

for U and M genome specificity on wheat–Ae. biuncialis and wheat–Ae. geniculata<br />

(2n=4x=28, U g U g M g M g ) addition lines. In this study 108 wheat SSR markers were tested<br />

on the wheat and on Ae. biuncialis. It was found that 78.70% of the wheat microsatellite<br />

markers tested gave polymorphic or non-polymorphic PCR products on Ae. biuncialis.<br />

Fifty of the 108 markers (46.29%) did not exhibit polymorphism between wheat and Ae.<br />

biuncialis. For 23 of the markers (21.29%) bands were obtained on wheat, while no PCR<br />

product was observed on Ae. biuncialis. A further 35 SSR markers (32.40%) proved to be<br />

polymorphic, i.e. PCR products were obtained on both wheat and Ae. biuncialis, but the<br />

fragment lengths differed. Of the 35 polymorphic primer pairs that gave products on Ae.<br />

biuncialis, three (8.57%) gave specific PCR products on the wheat-Ae. biuncialis or the<br />

wheat–Ae. geniculata addition lines. It can be assumed that the remaining 32 polymorphic<br />

markers were not located on Ae. biuncialis chromosomes 2M b , 3M b , 7M b , 3U b or 5U b ,<br />

but on those for which no addition lines are as yet available. The markers Xgwm44 and<br />

Xgdm61 gave specific PCR products on the 2M b and 3M b wheat–Ae. biuncialis addition<br />

lines, but not on the 2M g addition line of Ae. geniculata. A specific band was observed on<br />

the 7U g wheat–Ae. geniculata addition line for the Xbarc184 primer.<br />

This work was financially supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Research Fund,<br />

No. PD75450, the Generation Challenge Programme (CGIAR GCP SP3 G4007.23), the<br />

AGRISAFE Project (No. 203288 EU-FP7-REGPOT 2007-1) and the János Bolyai Research<br />

Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.<br />

127


effeCTS of 4NV ChRomoSome fRom AegILoPS<br />

VeNTRICoSA oN AgRoNomIC ANd quALITy TRAITS<br />

IN BReAd WheAT<br />

Sin E 1 , Del Moral J. 2 , Hernández P. 3 , Benavente E. 3 ,<br />

Rubio M. 3 , Martín-Sánchez J.A. 1 , Pérez Rojas F. 2 ,<br />

López-Braña I. 3 , Delibes A. 3<br />

1 Centre UdL-IRTA, Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lérida, Spain<br />

2 S.E.C.T.I. Junta de Extremadura, Apdo. 22, E-06080 Badajoz, Spain<br />

3 Departamento de Biotecnología, ETSI Agrónomos, UPM, E-28040 Madrid, Spain<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: ester.sin@pvcf.udl.es<br />

Advanced wheat lines carrying Hessian fly resistance gene H27 were obtained by backcrossing<br />

the Wheat/Aegilops ventricosa introgression line, H-93-33, and different commercial<br />

wheat cultivars as recurrent parents. The Acph-Nv1 marker linked to gene H27<br />

on 4Nv chromosome of this line was used for marker assisted selection. Advanced lines<br />

were evaluated for Hessian fly resistance, in field and growth chamber tests, and for other<br />

agronomic traits during several crop seasons at different localities of Spain. Hessian fly<br />

resistance level of lines carrying the 4Nv introgression was high but, in all cases, it was<br />

lower than that of their progenitor Ae. ventricosa. These introgression lines had higher<br />

grain-yields in infested field trials than those without the introgression and their susceptible<br />

parents, but showed a lower yield under high yield potential conditions. The<br />

4Nv introgression was also associated to lower values of precocity to heading, tillering<br />

and grain number per m2. In addition, it was associated to longer and more lax spikes,<br />

and higher values of grain weight and grain protein content. However, the glutenin and<br />

gliadin composition, as well as the bread-making performance, were similar to those of<br />

their recurrent parents. Genomic in situ hybridization was carried out on mitotic cells<br />

of H-93-33 and eighteen derived breeding lines. This technique confirmed the 4Nv (4D)<br />

chromosome substitution in H-93-33, and showed the transference of the alien chromosome<br />

to most of the selected lines, but three of them exhibited a 4D-4Nv translocation.<br />

128


uTILIzATIoN of eLyTRIgIA INTeRmedIA TRANSLoCATIoN<br />

IN SPRINg WheAT BReedINg<br />

V.V.Syukov, S.N.Shevchenko<br />

Samara Research Scientific Institute of Agriculture, Bezenchuk, 446254, Russia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: vsyukov@mail.ru<br />

Interspecific hybridization in a history of world breeding of plants is an irreplaceable<br />

tool to improve important traits. First of all it concerns questions of immunity of cultural<br />

plants to diseases and pests. One of the most valuable sources of some highly effective<br />

genes in breeding bread wheat is the wheat grass Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski (syn.<br />

Agropyron intermedium (Host) P.Beauv. = Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth<br />

et D.R.Dewey=Аgropyrum glaucum (Desf.ex DC) Roem et Schult.).<br />

As a result of interspecific hybridization at Samara Research Scientific Institute of Agriculture<br />

Triticum aestivum lines with translocation T-5 have been received. Researches<br />

have shown that this translocation carries the block of closely linked genes which determine<br />

a complex of valuable attributes.<br />

1. Gene of resistance to Puccinia recondita Lr-Ag, not identical and not allelic to Lr-9,<br />

Lr-19, Lr-23, Lr-24, Lr-25, Lr-28, Lr-29, Lr-36 and Lr-38. The gene provides full immunity<br />

to leaf rust in the territory of East European plain, Southern Ural and Northern<br />

Kazakhstan during 20 years.<br />

2. A gene of resistance to Blumeria graminis Pm-Ag, not identical and not allelic to<br />

Pm-4b, Pm-6, Pm-12, Mld. However, in the last years in the pathotypes of powdery<br />

mildew virulent to Pm-Ag in the Volga region were recorded.<br />

3. The block of the genes regulating synthesis and accumulation of proteins in a grain.<br />

Higher content of protein and gluten in a grain of lines with translocation T-5 in<br />

comparison with traditional varieties is connected to increase in a share glutenin in<br />

grain. These lines are characterized by high gluten rheological properties, better test<br />

and high baking qualities.<br />

In long-term experiments translocation T-5 is not revealed to have negative attributes.<br />

There is no linkage with genes which determine the basic morphological attributes which<br />

allows to use this translocation for development of a wide spectrum of varieties varying<br />

in vegetative period, height of a plant and morphological types.<br />

The first commercial result of the use of translocation T-5 was a variety of spring bread<br />

wheat Tulaykovskaya 5 which has short height (Rht-1), immunity to leaf rust, high grain<br />

quality and drought-resistance. This variety is recommended for Middle-Volga and Ural<br />

Regions of Russia. Variety Tulaykovskaya 5 became the ancestor of the whole series of<br />

leaf brown rust immune high-quality varieties. Three of them have the official status of<br />

commercial varieties. Tulaykovskaya 10 belongs to a class of hard red-grain variety and<br />

has a wide adoption in Russia. Due to a combination of high yield potential (up to 6 t/<br />

129


ha) with very high quality Tulaykovskaya 10 is successfully cultivated in regions with<br />

sufficient moisture (Tatarstan, Mordovia, Penza, Tambov, Belgorod). Hard white-grain<br />

variety Tulaykovskaya zolotistaya is recommended for drought regions (Samara, Volgograd,<br />

Ufa). Semi-dwarf variety Tulaykovskaya 100 is intended for intensive agrophones.<br />

It is characterized by high response to mineral fertilizer.<br />

130


WheAT ImPRoVemeNT uSINg Rye - dISTuRBANCe<br />

By emBRyo LeThALITy<br />

Tikhenko N., 1, 3 Tsvetkova N., 1 Voylokov A. 1, 3 & Börner A. 2<br />

1Department of Genetics and Breeding, St.-Petersburg State University, 199034 St.-Petersburg,<br />

Russia;<br />

2Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstr. 3, D-06466,<br />

Gatersleben, Germany; 3SPb Branch Vavilov Institute of General Genetics (RAS), 199034,<br />

St. Petersburg, Russia, E-mail Address of presenting author: tikhenko@mail.ru<br />

Cultivated rye (S. cereale L.) is an important source of genes for insect and disease resistance,<br />

reduced plant height and several quantitative traits effecting yield in wheat. The<br />

first step for transfer these rye genes to the wheat genome is to cross common wheat with<br />

rye. However there are postzygotic reproductive barriers between wheat cultivars and<br />

certain rye genotypes. In crosses of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring (CS) and a set<br />

of 101 inbred lines of rye, four self-fertile inbred lines (three closely related lines L2, L3,<br />

L564 as well as an unrelated line L535) were found to produce non-germinating seeds<br />

with undifferentiated non-viable embryos in contrast to all the other rye lines involved.<br />

Morphological study of ungerminated F 1 hybrid seeds obtained from crosses of 8 different<br />

common wheat accessions with L2 and L535 revealed the lack of normal differentiated<br />

embryos in the presence of regular endosperms. Hybrid embryos varied in size<br />

from complete absence of visible ones to embryos of normal size but without any signs<br />

of tissue differentiation. Significant differences between normal embryos obtained in the<br />

control crosses and CS x L2 hybrid embryos became obvious at 16th day after pollination<br />

(DAP). Histological studies of median longitudinal sections of normal and abnormal<br />

hybrid embryos revealed an area with degenerating cells in the place where apical shoot<br />

meristem should normally be present. Only root meristem looked similar to that of normal<br />

embryos. By 20th DAP the abnormal embryos did not change significantly in size<br />

when compared to the 16th DAP. The gradual death of the cells continued further, so that<br />

mature embryos consisted of dead cells.<br />

The analysis of three-way crosses revealed that the two mutant genes responsible for<br />

wheat-rye embryo lethality in unrelated lines are alleles of one and the same gene designated<br />

as Eml. Analysis of frequency distributions of RFLP- and SSR-marker classes in F 2<br />

of interline rye hybrids, giving rise to different Eml-phenotypes in crosses of wheat with<br />

their descendants in F 5 (RILs) allowed us to ascertain the approximate map position of<br />

Eml. It was localized on chromosome arm 6RL in the vicinity of the two cosegregating<br />

microsatellite markers Xgwm1103 and Xgwm732.<br />

Taking into account that wheat and rye genome evolutionary diverged very far from now<br />

we can postulate that in wheat-rye hybrid embryos all genes are hemizygous. To ascertain,<br />

whether mutant Eml allele is dominant or recessive with respect to wild type allele,<br />

we crossed rye inbred line L2 carrying Eml with CS wheat-rye addition (WRA) lines car-<br />

131


ying chromosome/-arms 6R, 6RL or 6RS. All tested hybrid grains from crosses of these<br />

WRA lines with rye L2 had abnormal undifferentiated embryos whereas in crosses with<br />

L6 and L7, which carry the wild type allele, 77.8 -93.1 % hybrid seeds showed normal<br />

differentiated embryos. This result allows to make the conclusion that mutant Eml allele<br />

from L2 is dominant whereas the wild type allele is recessive.<br />

The appearance of the novel character, such as wheat-rye hybrid embryo lethality, in<br />

wheat-rye F 1 hybrids might be considered in terms of complementary interaction between<br />

genes of both species and described as “Dobzhansky-Müller” model. According to<br />

this model, the Eml allele of rye complements the corresponding gene(s) of wheat. Negative<br />

interaction between these complementary genes (alleles) causes embryo lethality. In<br />

the simplest case it may be only two ortologous genes – one in rye and another in wheat.<br />

In accordance to this suggestion allele Eml in line L2 complements the corresponding<br />

incompatible homeoallele in wheat, but the wild type allele (lines L6, L7 and others) does<br />

not. Whereas the general part of common wheat have low crossability with rye, we took<br />

the attempt to identify the complementary wheat gene(s) by crossing the set of nullisomic-tetrasomic<br />

CS lines with rye L2. Only two nulli-tetrasomic lines N6AT6B and<br />

N6AT6D produced 66.7 and 71.4 % hybrid seeds with normal differentiated embryos,<br />

respectively. In the other crosses all hybrid seeds contained abnormal embryos. These<br />

results confirmed that chromosome 6A of wheat carries a gene which is complement to<br />

Eml of rye. Following the rules for gene symbolisation the wheat and rye genes involved<br />

in the process of shoot apical meristem elimination in the early stage of the development<br />

of hybrid wheat-rye embryos were designated Eml-A1 and Eml-R1, respectively.<br />

This work was supported by DFG (project no.436 RUS 17/76/05) and RFBR (project<br />

no.06-04-48758a).<br />

132


WheAT-PSAThyRoSTAChyS huAShANICA ChRomoSome<br />

AddITIoN LINeS<br />

Q.-W. Dou 1 , G. Monika 2 , M. Kishii 3 , M. Ito 4 , H. Tanaka 4 ,<br />

H. Tsujimoto 4<br />

1 Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China;<br />

2 ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria;<br />

3 Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, Japan<br />

4 Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8557, Japan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: tsujim@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp<br />

Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n=14, NN) is a perennial wheat-related species which<br />

distributes in Huashan region in central China. It has many agronomically important<br />

characters for wheat improvement including resistance to disease, drought, and winter<br />

hardiness. We produced a hybrid by a cross between common wheat as female and P.<br />

huashanica by embryo rescue. From the offspring we selected chromosome addition<br />

wheat lines covering all seven chromosomes of P. huashanica. Four chromosomes<br />

(B, D, E, F) were recovered as disomic additions and three (A, C, G) as monosomic.<br />

These chromosomes were distinguished each other by following features: Chromosome<br />

A was characterized with a 45sDNA site at the subtelomeric region of the short arm;<br />

Chromosome B carried co-localized 5s and 45sDNA sites at an interstitial region of the<br />

short arm. Expression of the alien high-molecular-weight glutenin is observed in the<br />

endosperm of the line; Chromosome D demonstrated a 45sDNA at the interstitial region<br />

of the long arm. Chromosome C, E, and F were distinctly distinguished by EST-SSR<br />

markers Ltc0464, Ltc0096, and Xcfe175 respectively. Homoeologous groups of each alien<br />

chromosome and utilization of these addition lines for wheat breeding will be discussed.<br />

133


CuRReNT STATuS of BReAd WheAT ANd ITS ReLATIVeS<br />

fRom VIR CoLLeCTIoN STudy foR effeCTIVe<br />

ReSISTANCe To fuNgAL dISeASeS<br />

Tyryshkin L.G., Kolesova M.A., Kovaleva M.A., Lebedeva<br />

T.V., Zuev E.V., Brykova A.N., Gashimov M.E.<br />

N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Industry, S.-Petersburg, Russia, 190000, Bolshaya<br />

Morskaia 42<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: tyryshkinlev@rambler.ru<br />

Fungal diseases significantly reduce yield and grain quality of bread wheat in all regions<br />

of its cultivation. Growing of resistant varieties is well-known to be the cheapest and ecologically<br />

safe method of the crop protection. Creation of such varieties requires constant<br />

search of the trait donors i.e. genetically characterized samples with high level of resistance<br />

expression. Here we report results on evaluation of resistance to 6 fungal diseases in<br />

soft wheat and its relatives from World collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of<br />

Plant Industry.<br />

Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm. f.sp. tritici). High level of juvenile resistance<br />

to the disease was found in 92 bread wheat samples out of 3845 under study;<br />

phytopathological test, hybridological analysis and use of STS markers revealed only 4<br />

genes for the effective resistance Lr 9, 19, 24 and 41; 3 of them are reported to lose their<br />

effectiveness in some regions of Russian Federation due to their wide use in breeding<br />

programs. Effective adult resistance was found in 24 local samples from Kazakhstan each<br />

possessing 2 complementary recessive genes for the resistance one of them being<br />

Lr13. All samples of Triticum timopheevii, T. militinае, T. zhukovskyi, T. timococcum and<br />

4 of T. boeoticum were highly resistant to leaf rust as well as 57 forms of Aegilops species.<br />

All Ae. tauschii and Ae. cylindrica samples resistant to the rust at seedling stage were<br />

found to be protected with only gene Lr 41. For the first time partial suppression of the<br />

T. timopheevii resistance by D genome of Ae. tauschii in T. kiharae and T. miguschovae<br />

genotypes was shown. Additionally high level of adult rust resistance was confirmed in<br />

some samples of Т. urartu T. boeoticum, T. monococcum and T. araraticum.<br />

Dark-brown leaf spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoem.). No one highly resistant<br />

form to the disease was found in samples of Triticum genus including T. aestivum. Among<br />

samples of 17 Aegilops species (diploid ones and that of D-genome group) only 2 of Ae.<br />

tauschii have effective resistance to spot blotch. Hybridological analysis allowed to identify<br />

3 recessive genes for the resistance.<br />

Common root rot (B. sorokiniana). High level of the juvenile resistance was not identified<br />

in bread wheat and other species of Triticum genus. Among Aegilops species genotypes<br />

highly resistant in seedling stage were found only in Ae. caudata and Ae. bicornis.<br />

134


Stagonospora nodorum blotch (Stagonospora nodorum Berk.). All samples of bread<br />

wheat and that of other Triticum species under study were susceptible to the disease in<br />

seedling stage as well as most of Aegilops species. Only seven forms of Ae. tauschii were<br />

resistant to artificial population of the pathogen but all of them were susceptible to at least<br />

one monoconidial isolate of S. nodorum. Hybridological analysis showed presence of one<br />

recessive gene for the resistance in each sample; the genes are non identical. Ears of these<br />

samples were resistant to the disease too.<br />

Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis DC f.sp. tritici Marchal). About 5% of 2500 bread<br />

wheat entries from VIR collection are highly resistant to the disease. Genetic control of<br />

the resistance was studied in 4 samples; 3 of them possess gene Pm 12 and 1 possibly has<br />

gene non identical to known ones. Resistant forms were found in 6 Triticum species out<br />

of 10 studied. New genes for the resistance were identified in entries of T. monococcum<br />

according to results of hybridological analysis. Susceptibility of T. timopheevii and T. araraticum<br />

samples to unusual “ear” form of powdery mildew was described for the first time<br />

as well as partial suppression of the T. timopheevii resistance by D genome in T. kiharae<br />

and T. miguschovae genotypes.<br />

Fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum. Schwabe). Among more 1000 bread<br />

wheat samples studied no one possesses high level of the resistance. According to many<br />

years investigations effective resistance was found in entries of T. monococcum, T.<br />

timopheevii, T. dicoccum and T. militinае.<br />

Our results indicate to very low genetic diversity for effective resistance to dangerous fungal<br />

diseases in bread wheat, so task to broaden it is very urgent. One of the possible ways<br />

to perform it is introgressive hybridization of wheat with its relatives. The possible causes<br />

of susceptibility to the diseases of many samples earlier described as highly resistant in<br />

scientific literature will be discussed.<br />

135


WheAT geNeTIC ReSouRCeS ASSeSSmeNT<br />

ANd APPLICATIoN IN The SeLeCTIoN foR dISeASe<br />

ReSISTANCe ANd IN CRoP PRoduCTIoN<br />

G. Volkova, L. Anpilogova, O. Kremneva, A. Andronova,<br />

O. Vaganova, L. Kovalenko,Yu. Shumilov, E. Sinyak,<br />

D. Kolbin, O. Mitrofanova<br />

1 All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection of Russian Academy of Agricultural<br />

Sciences, Krasnodar-39, Russia<br />

2 State Scientific Centre of RF, N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: volkova1@mail.kubtelecom.ru<br />

The assessment of 393 collection wheat samples, its rare types and Aegilops tauschii was<br />

conducted under condition of artificial infectious background to widen genetic diversity<br />

of a host plant for wheat selection reinforcement of group resistance to epiphytoty-dangerous<br />

diseases in the South of Russia in 2004-2007. 37 resistance sources to Pyrenophora<br />

tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechsler (pyrenophorosis) pathogen, 127 – to septoriose, 117 – to<br />

yellow rust and 158 – to brown rust were distinguished among them. The most valuable<br />

of them are 120 samples with group resistance. Their list is presented by G. Volkova, O.<br />

Mitrofanova, L. Anpilogova and others in World Collection Catalogue of VIR, Issue 786<br />

(S.-Petersburg, 2008, p. 26.). In 2007-2009, 535 samples from VIR collection were evaluated<br />

(T.aestivum L., T.spelta L., T.urartu Thum., T.dicoccum Sch., T.araraticum Jakub.,<br />

T.timopheevii Zhuk. and Ae.tauschii Coss.) regarding there resistance not only to the<br />

pathogens mentioned before, but also to stem rust pathogen. As a result of 3-year research,<br />

the sources with group resistance among T.aestivum samples were selected (VIR<br />

Catalogue Numbers are indicated): resistant to stem, yellow, brown rust and to septoriose<br />

- 62414, 63003; to stem, yellow rust and to septoriose - 61469, 64177; to stem, brown rust<br />

and to septoriose - 62412, 63556; to yellow, brown rust and to septoriose -61487, 64435;<br />

to stem and brown rust – 64448, 64449; to stem rust, septoriose - 62387, 63527, 64162,<br />

64444, 64462, 64474; to stem and yellow rust - 64450; to yellow and brown rust - 64436,<br />

64433; to yellow rust, septoriose - 64195, 64278, 64492; to brown rust, septoriose - 62412,<br />

64439, 64469, 64473. T.timopheevii Zhuk Family showed the resistance to 5 pathogens<br />

(29538, 29543, 29548, 29549, 29550, 29551, 29553, 29554, 29555, 29557, 29558, 29559,<br />

29560, 29561, 29562, 29563,29564, 29566, 29567, 29568, 30920, 30922, 35914, 38555,<br />

47792, 47793).<br />

The resistance types of 36-44 winter wheat cultivars to pathogen complex were studied<br />

subject to a pathogen. It was stated that 25 cultivars (65,8 % from 38) are resistant to<br />

brown rust according to race and age - specific character; 12 cultivars (31,6 %) are of high<br />

and temperate nonspecific resistance; 18 cultivars (40,9 % from 44) have combined race<br />

and age - specific resistance to yellow rust, 26 cultivars (59,1 %) are of high and temperate<br />

nonspecific resistance; 24 cultivars (66,6 % from 36) are of high and temperate nonspe-<br />

136


cific resistance to pyrenophorosis, 5 cultivars (13,9 %) are tolerant; 25 cultivars (58,1 %<br />

from 43) are of high and temperate nonspecific resistance to septoriose, 2 cultivars (4,7<br />

%) are tolerant. (Volkova, Anpilogova, Alekseeva and others “Resistance types of wheat<br />

cultivars to pathogen complex and effective genes of a host plant in North Caucuses”.<br />

Practical Guidelines, S.-Petersburg, 2009, p.32). In the named Guidelines the cultivars<br />

with group resistance to diseases are indicated.<br />

The revealed resistance sources including those with group resistance and the cultivars<br />

with different resistance types are suggested for use in selection and crop production in<br />

the South of Russia.<br />

137


PLeNARy SeSSIoN 3:<br />

WheAT geNeTICS ANd BReedINg<br />

foR ABIoTIC STReSSeS


uNdeRSTANdINg gRAIN yIeLd: IT IS A JouRNey,<br />

NoT A deSTINATIoN<br />

P. Stephen Baenziger, Ismail Dweikat, Kulvinder Gill,<br />

Kent Eskridge, Terry Berke, Maroof Shah,<br />

B. Todd Campbell, M.D. Ali, Neway Mengistu,<br />

A. Mahmood, A. Auvuchanon, Y. Yen, S. Rustgi,<br />

B. Moreno-Sevilla, A. Mujeeb-Kazi<br />

and M. Rosalind Morris<br />

362D Plant Science Building, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE USA 68583-0915.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Pbaenziger1@unl.edu<br />

Approximately 20 years ago, we began our efforts to understand grain yield in winter<br />

wheat using chromosome substitution lines between Cheyenne (CNN) and Wichita (WI).<br />

We found that two chromosome substitutions, 3A and 6A, greatly affected grain yield.<br />

CNN(WI3A) and CNN(WI6A) had 15 to 20% higher grain yield than CNN, whereas<br />

WI(CNN3A) and WI(CNN6A) had 15 to 20% lower grain yield than WI. The differences<br />

in grain yield are mainly expressed in higher yielding environments (e.g. eastern Nebraska)<br />

indicating genotype by environment interactions (GxE). In studies using hybrid<br />

wheat, the gene action for grain yield on these chromosomes was found to be mainly<br />

additive. In subsequent studies, we developed recombinant inbred chromosome lines<br />

(RICLs) using monosomics or doubled haploids. In extensive studies we found that two<br />

regions on 3A affect grain yield in the CNN(RICLs-3A) with the positive QTLs coming<br />

from WI. In WI(RICLs-3A), we found one main region on 3A that affected grain yield<br />

with the negative QTL coming from CNN. The 3A region identified using WI(RICLs-3A)<br />

coincided with one of the regions previously identified in CNN(RICLs-3A). As expected<br />

the QTLs have their greatest effect in higher-yielding environments and also exhibit<br />

QTLxE. Using molecular markers on chromosomes 3A and 6A, the favorable QTLs on<br />

3A and 6A in Wichita may be from Turkey Red, the original hard red winter wheat in<br />

the Great Plains and presumably the original source of the QTLs. Cheyenne, a selection<br />

from Crimea, did not have the favorable QTL. In studying modern cultivars, many high<br />

yielding cultivars adapted to eastern Nebraska have the WI-QTL indicating that it was selected<br />

for in breeding higher yielding cultivars. However, some modern cultivars adapted<br />

to western Nebraska where the QTL has less effect retain the CNN-QTL, presumably<br />

because the QTL has less effect (is less important in improving grain yield). In addition<br />

many modern cultivars have neither the WI-QTL nor the CNN-QTL, indicating we have<br />

diversified our germplasm and new alleles have been brought into the breeding program<br />

in this region.<br />

140


RooT mASS CoNTRIBuTIoNS ANd TRAde-offS<br />

To dRoughT ToLeRANCe IN WheAT<br />

Marta S. Lopes and Matthew P. Reynolds<br />

CIMMYT, Km. 45, Carretera México-Veracruz, El Batan, Texcoco, 56130 México<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: m.dasilva@cgiar.org<br />

Root mass at depth has been considered one major drought avoidance mechanism. If water<br />

is available at depth genotypes with increased root mass at depth will be able to capture<br />

more water. In a group of uniform material (with similar time to anthesis) we show that<br />

increased root mass at depth associated to higher transpiration rates evidenced by grain<br />

carbon isotope discrimination, higher grain filling duration and decreased canopy temperature<br />

during grain filling (CTgf) are desirable traits to improve yield under drought.<br />

Moreover, accumulation of stem carbohydrates and deep rooting seem to be alternative<br />

strategies for adapting to drought stress, the latter being beneficial where water is available<br />

at depth. Drought escape through earliness is also known to be an effective strategy<br />

for drought tolerance. We have evidence that root mass at depth is an adaptive trait in a<br />

group of synthetic hexaploid wheat and recurrent parents. Root at depth and earliness are<br />

independent traits that may work synergistically to improve yields under drought. We<br />

also show that CTgf is an easy to use trait that can predict during grain filling the amount<br />

of roots present at depth.<br />

141


gRoWTh, yIeLd ANd PhoToSyNTheTIC ReSPoNSeS To<br />

eLeVATed Co 2 IN WheAT<br />

Rob Norton 1, 2 , Saman Seneweera 2 , Sabine Posch 3 ,<br />

Greg Rebetzke 3 , Glenn Fitzgerald 4 .<br />

1 International Plant Nutrition Institute, 54 Florence<br />

St, Horsham, Victoria, Australia.<br />

2 Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, Melbourne School of Land and Environment,<br />

The Melbourne University, Private Box 260, Horsham, Victoria 3401, Australia.<br />

3 Physiological and Molecular Wheat Breeding Program, Black Mountain Laboratories,<br />

Clunies Ross Street, Black Mountain ACT 2601, Australia<br />

4 Victorian Department of Primary Industries, Private Bag 260, Horsham, Victoria, 3401,<br />

Australia.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: rnorton@ipni.net<br />

The Australian Grains Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (AGFACE) project in Horsham,<br />

Victoria was designed to simulate predicted atmospheric carbon dioxide levels in<br />

the year 2050. The experiment measures the interacting effects of carbon dioxide (ambient<br />

aCO 2 ~380 ppm, elevated eCO 2 ~550 ppm), irrigation (rainfed, irrigated), higher<br />

temperatures during grain fill (time of sowing), nitrogen (0, +), and variety (Yitpi, Janz)<br />

on wheat growth and production. Carbon dioxide was injected over the crop in open-air<br />

12 m rings from emergence (July) until maturity (December) in 2007 and 2008. The effect<br />

of eCO 2 was to increase crop biomass at maturity by 20% (P


while growth was unchanged for cv. Janz. There were differences in tiller response to<br />

eCO 2 among the cultivars, with Yitpi, Janz and Halberd all showing more that 35% increase<br />

in shoot numbers.<br />

Light saturated photosynthetic rates were increased by about 60% for all cultivars. However,<br />

photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO 2 was not evident for any of the cultivars<br />

except Sunvale. Mechanistic analysis of gas exchange data showed large variation in<br />

maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (V cmax ) and photosynthetic electron transport<br />

rate (J max ). In most cases, V cmax was increased while J max decreased in plants grown at<br />

elevated CO 2 . This suggests that a reallocation of biochemical resources occurs in favour<br />

of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylation over RuBP regeneration under eCO 2 .<br />

In 2009, eight genotypes (Janz, Yitpi, Kauz Dwarf (Zebu), H45, Hartog, Drysdale, Silverstar<br />

and AGT Gladius are being evaluated in the AGFACE facility to assess their morphological<br />

and physiological responses to eCO 2 . These genotypes were selected for differences<br />

in tillering habit, stem carbohydrate storage and early vigour.<br />

143


eNhANCemeNT of heAT ToLeRANCe IN WheAT<br />

To INCReASe yIeLd ANd STABILIze WheAT PRoduCTIoN<br />

IN CeNTRAL ANd WeST ASIA ANd NoRTh AfRICA (CWANA)<br />

RegIoN<br />

Abdalla, Osman, F. Ogbonnaya, A. Yaljarouka, Tahir,<br />

Izzat S. Ali, M. Kheir Adel Hagras, M. Mosaad,<br />

Abdalla Sailan<br />

ICARDAP.O. Box 5466Aleppo 963-21Syria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: o.abdalla@CGIAR.ORG<br />

Bread Wheat is the major staple in West and Central Asia and North Africa (CWANA)<br />

region where per capita consumption (>200 kg) is the highest in the world. Many biotic<br />

and abiotic stresses limit wheat production in CWANA and production is generally<br />

low and does not cope with the increasing demand. Heat stress is a major abiotic stress<br />

that reduces wheat productivity. In CWANA wheat is typically sown in the fall where its<br />

early growth and development generally occur during the coolest months under adequate<br />

moisture and in contrast heading and grain-filling occur during the warmest months<br />

combined with terminal drought stress. Heat stress during heading and grain-filling period<br />

is common in WANA, particularly in North Africa, while heat stress during the whole<br />

crop cycle is predominant in the Nile Valley and Red Sea (NVRSR) Region, particularly<br />

in Upper Egypt, Sudan and the low lands in Yemen, where average temperature exceeds<br />

20 o C throughout most of the growing season. Other areas that are affected by high temperature<br />

stress include the Arabian Peninsula, and southern areas of Iraq and Iran.<br />

Reduction in wheat yield in hot climates is mainly due to the great reductions in the duration<br />

of developmental stages and in plant size. In addition, heat stress results in early<br />

leaf senescence and adverse physiological and biochemical changes. Nonetheless, considerable<br />

variability in thermo-tolerance has been observed in wheat. Identification of<br />

genotypes adapted to the hot environments and documentation of morphophysiological<br />

traits associated with heat tolerance will lead to the identification of promising selection<br />

traits to exploit the genetic diversity for heat tolerance and improve wheat adaptation to<br />

hot environments. In this presentation ICARDA methodology and progress in breeding<br />

cultivars with improved tolerance to temperature stress are highlighted.<br />

144


eNhANCINg WheAT fIeLd PeRfoRmANCe ANd ReSPoNSe<br />

To ABIoTIC STReSS WITh NoVeL gRoWTh-ReguLAToRy<br />

ALLeLeS<br />

Andy Phillips 1 , Peter Hedden 1 , Steve Thomas 1 ,<br />

Ian Prosser 1 , Stephen Pearce 1 Margaret Boulton 2 , John<br />

Snape 2 , Simon Griffiths 2 , Nadia Al-Kaff, 2<br />

Andrey Korolev 2 , Robert Saville 2 and Martin Parry 1<br />

Crop Genetic Improvement, Rothamsted research, Harpenden, Herts, AL52JQ, John Innes<br />

Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: martin.parry@bbsrc.ac.uk<br />

The ‘Green Revolution’ that improved worldwide cereal yields from the 1960s was due<br />

to a combination of new varieties of wheat and rice and the increased use of nitrogen<br />

fertilisers and pesticides. An important feature of the new varieties was reduced height:<br />

although originally introduced to allow the plants to tolerate high levels of fertiliser without<br />

lodging, it was discovered that these new semi-dwarf varieties increased yield, as<br />

harvest index was increased. These dwarf varieties of wheat carried an allele of the Rht-1<br />

series of genes (“Reduced Height”) that made them insensitive to exogenously applied<br />

gibberellin (GA). There are relatively few alleles of Rht-1 that have been widely used in<br />

wheat, and predominantly just one in UK varieties, Rht-D1b. Changes in climate, agricultural<br />

practise and possible restrictions in the use of growth-regulating chemicals may<br />

mean that wheat varieties containing this gene are no longer capable of producing the<br />

highest yield. Part of this programme is aimed at exploiting existing sources of variation<br />

in wheat that alter GA signalling and therefore have different effects on height. We have<br />

approached this by investigating existing Rht-1 dwarfing alleles and also novel dwarfing<br />

loci identified through quantitative genetics. We have also discovered that dwarfing genes<br />

that confer reduced height through changes in GA signalling also protect plants against<br />

stresses such as drought, heat, or salt. This may become even more important as climate<br />

change reduces the amount of rainfall in wheat-producing areas. From the literature it<br />

was not clear whether the particular Rht allele (Rht-D1b) that predominates in UK varieties<br />

is ideal for protecting wheat plants from stress. A second aim of this project has<br />

been to test a range of genes affected in GA signalling for their effectiveness in protecting<br />

plants from drought and other abiotic stresses.<br />

145


SALINITy ToLeRANCe ANd NA + exCLuSIoN IN WheAT:<br />

VARIABILITy, geNeTICS, mAPPINg PoPuLATIoNS ANd qTL<br />

ANALySIS<br />

Yuri Shavrukov, Manahil Baho, Nawar Shamaya, James<br />

Edwards, Courtney Ramsey, Peter Langridge and Mark<br />

Tester<br />

Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, University of Adelaide, Urrbrae, SA 5064,<br />

Australia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: yuri.shavrukov@acpfg.com.au<br />

Salinity is a major abiotic stress and is likely to increase in severity with global warming.<br />

Investigating the variability in Na + exclusion in wheat as a key component of salinity<br />

tolerance is a first step in our research. Results of screening different species in the genus<br />

Triticum (T. monococcum, T. urartu, Aegilops (T.) tauschii, T. dicoccoides, T. turgidum ssp.<br />

durum and T. aestivum) suggested that there is much greater variation in Na + exclusion<br />

and salinity tolerance within wild species of Triticum compared to cultivated wheat. The<br />

best accessions have been selected for further study and for crossing.<br />

In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), two landraces originating from Afghanistan,<br />

lines 740 and 752, were identified as the best sodium excluders from a screen<br />

of 179 durum landraces. While most of the durum lines studied accumulated 200-240<br />

mM Na + in their 3 rd leaf after 10 days growth in 150 mM NaCl, lines 740 and 752 accumulated<br />

160 and 120 mM Na + , respectively. Tetraploid status of both accessions was<br />

confirmed using both molecular markers to show the absence of the wheat D genome,<br />

and cytologically (confirming 2n =28). We have now crossed both lines with elite Australian<br />

durum cultivars and breeding lines, to introgress their salinity tolerance traits into<br />

cultivated durum wheat. F 2 and F 1 B 1 progenies of four cross combinations between the<br />

low Na + excluding lines and the Australian durum cultivars Kalka and Jandaroi as well<br />

as two breeding lines, 53380 and Zbl, have been analysed. Clear segregation has been<br />

found in all of the four F 2 progenies, with the Na + exclusion traits from lines 740 and<br />

752 showing a dominance effect. Detailed analysis of segregation types in F 2 progenies<br />

is currently underway. The analysis of backcross populations F 1 B 1 with Australian elite<br />

durum wheat as recurrent parents, is also showing promising results. Based on the type<br />

of segregations observed, we hypothesize that there exists either one novel gene for Na +<br />

exclusion with two different alleles, or two distinct genes for Na + exclusion in the durum<br />

landrace lines 740 and 752. The absence of known T. monococcum Na + exclusion genes,<br />

Nax1 and Nax2, in all lines has been confirmed, with the exception of the breeding line<br />

Zbl which had been generated from a line that was crossed with T. monococcum. Crossing<br />

Zbl with line 752 produces offspring with superior Na + exclusion compared to either<br />

parent. Conversely, there are also offspring with significantly higher Na + shoot accumulation.<br />

We hypothesize that the superior plants contain both Nax1 and novel Na + exclusion<br />

146


genes while plants with extremely high Na + contain neither of the genes. Further genetic<br />

analysis and backcrossings are currently underway, to better introgress genes for salinity<br />

tolerance from the Afghanistan lines into Australian elite durum wheat.<br />

In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), two F 1 -derived doubled haploid mapping populations<br />

made from crosses between Cranbrook x Halberd (160 lines), and Kukri x Excalibur (233<br />

lines), were used in this study to define the location of QTLs associated with Na + exclusion.<br />

Shoot sodium accumulation was measured in both supported hydroponics and in field<br />

trials at Roseworthy, South Australia. The hydroponics experiments were conducted<br />

twice and the field trial once for each population. A QTL located on chromosome 7AS<br />

was present in both environments (hydroponics and field trials) and both populations.<br />

This QTL was suggestive (LOD = 2.9 and 3.0) and accounted for approximately 7% of the<br />

total phenotypic variation in both populations (ranging from 3% to 41% depending on<br />

the sampling environment, population and population size), with the favourable (sodium<br />

exclusion) allele coming from Cranbrook and Excalibur. The QTL is of potential interest<br />

as it has been detected here in two unrelated populations and in both the controlled<br />

environment of a supported hydroponics system and under field conditions. The QTL<br />

links to a related interval on rice chromosome 8 and candidate genes are currently under<br />

investigation. HKT, SOS and NHX genes have been proven to contribute to salinity<br />

tolerance in plants. Members of these gene families have been mapped directly in wheat<br />

but none of them were located to the short arms of group 7 chromosomes. Further field<br />

evaluation is required to validate whether the effect of this QTL on Na + exclusion has a<br />

significant positive effect on grain yield in high salinity environments and that it does not<br />

have a deleterious effect on yield in the broader, mega-environment targeted by wheat<br />

breeding program.<br />

147


IdeNTIfICATIoN ANd dISTRIBuTIoN of The ALLeLeS<br />

of PhoToPeRIod ANd VeRNALIzATIoN ReSPoNSeS<br />

WheAT geNeS IN kAzAkhSTAN<br />

A.S. Absattarova 1,2 , M. S. Röder 1 , S. Kollers 1 ,<br />

A.I. Morgounov 3 , S. Kenjebaeva 4<br />

1 Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstrasse 3,<br />

06466 Gatersleben, Germany<br />

2 Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Plant Growing, 1-Erlepesov str., Almalybak,<br />

Almaty region, 040909, Kazakhstan<br />

3 CIMMYT, Turkey<br />

4 Kazakh National University named al-Farabi, 71 al-Farabi Ave., Almaty, 050038, Ka-<br />

zakhstan.<br />

E-mail: aabsattarova@mail.ru<br />

Kazakhstan is one of the major grain producers and exporters in Central Asia. Wheat area<br />

is about 12-13 million ha and wheat is grown in twelve regions of the Republic. Nine major<br />

wheat agroecological zones have been recognized in Kazakhstan on the basis of different<br />

wheat types, growing season, hydrothermic conditions and soil. CIMMYT performs selections<br />

in four different mega-environments (ME) in Kazakhstan: ME6 (for spring wheat),<br />

ME8 (for facultative wheat) and two MEs for winter wheat - ME10, ME12.<br />

The biggest area sown by spring wheat in Kazakhstan applies to high latitude environment<br />

and comprises the central and northern part of country (10 million ha). This environment<br />

and the western Siberian wheat belt include 8 million ha.<br />

To achieve geographical and environmental adaptability, it is important that wheat cultivars<br />

flower at times that are appropriate to a particular environment. It is known that the<br />

determination of flowering time in wheat is controlled by a complex group of genes for<br />

photoperiod (Ppd), vernalization (Vrn) responses and earlieness per se genes (Eps).<br />

Today there are many on-going applications of DNA markers in crop improvement and<br />

research. The vernalization and photoperiod responses wheat genes markers are functional<br />

markers. These markers were used in identification and distribution of Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1,<br />

Vrn-D1, Vrn-B3 and Ppd-D1 genes in common wheat cultivars sown in Kazakhstan. A total<br />

of 40 spring and 48 winter wheat cultivars released in Kazakhstan in different years, some<br />

advanced breeding lines, 70 spring wheat accessions from 10-th KAZSIB (Kazakhstan and<br />

Siberia Network) and 34 spring samples from CWANA-1st Stem Rust Resistance Spring<br />

Bread Wheat Yield Trial with high yield selected in Kyrgyz Republic were characterized.<br />

The accessions from 10-th KAZSIB Network include the best spring wheat samples<br />

developed in 12 research institute of Kazakhstan and Siberia and tested in different agroecological<br />

zones.<br />

148


All spring wheat varieties grown in the North of Kazakhstan and accessions from 10-th<br />

KAZSIB Network have the photoperiod sensitive allele (Ppd-D1b). Stronger photoperiod<br />

response is a key adaptive feature of wheat grown at high latitudes.<br />

Wheat cultivated in the South of Kazakhstan has both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-D1b alleles<br />

with different frequency. Photoperiod insensitive allele (Ppd-D1a) is met in one spring<br />

wheat variety “Intensivnaya” and CWANA spring wheat accessions. Among studied<br />

winter wheat varieties 54,2% have Ppd-D1a allele, 45,8% - Ppd-D1b. The presence of<br />

the Ppd-D1a allele in cultivars grown mostly in southern Kazakhstan illustrates the relationship<br />

between photoperiod response and environment and origin of Kazakhstan wheat<br />

from one of the sources like Bezostaya-1.<br />

Vernalization genes differed on character frequency in wheat. High frequency of recessive<br />

alleles Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 genes in the improvement cultivars in northern<br />

Kazakhstan is given place to high frequency of their dominant alleles in southern Kazakhstan.<br />

Using of molecular markers for identification of Vrn-B1 genes in Kazakhstan winter<br />

common wheat enabled us to determine cultivars with facultative habits. From winter<br />

wheat four accessions with dominant Vrn-B1allele are selected. One of them is variety<br />

“Egemen” developed with CIMMYT and high grain genotype SWW2-121 created by<br />

crossing of superwheat from 5-th TIFCOS Nursery with local winter wheat variety.<br />

149


SeLeCTIoN of TeRmINAL dRoughT ToLeRANT BReAd<br />

WheAT geNoTyPeS VIA fIeLd ANd LABoRAToRy INdICeS<br />

Ahmadi, G. H. 1 , Tomasyan, G. 2 , Jalal Kamali, M. R. 3 ,<br />

Khodarahami, M. 1 and Aghaeei M. 1<br />

1 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj Iran,<br />

2 Agrarian State University of Armenia, and<br />

3 CIMMYT office, Karaj, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: gh1345@yahoo.com<br />

In order to finding terminal drought tolerate bread wheat genotypes, fifty entries of<br />

15 th Semi Arid Wheat Yield Trial, 15SAWYT, test of CIMMYT rain fed wheat program<br />

subjected to laboratory and field studies in three location of Iran (Kermanshah, Ahwaz<br />

and Sistan provinces) during 2007-08 and 2008-09 cycles. In first year (07-08) coincide<br />

with field tests achievements, seeds of entries subjected to 0, -4 and -8 bars of osmotic<br />

stress by using of PEG6000 in laboratory. According to shoot and root length and dry<br />

weights, root shoot ratio and regarding grain yield and yield stability of entries in field<br />

trials, 15 genotypes selected for more studies under normal and terminal drought stress<br />

(at booting stage) during 2008-09 period by using of a complete randomized block and<br />

three replications. The SSI, STI, TOL, MP, GMP and HM drought tolerance indices calculated<br />

for each genotype and used to determination of superior lines. According to biplot<br />

analysis of grain yield, and regarding to 100 liter weight (HLW) and flour yield,<br />

entry 336 (OASIS/SKAUZ//4*BCN/3/WBILL) defined as superior line followed by entries<br />

341 (ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUAROZA(TAUS)//OPATA/3/ATTILA ) and 330<br />

(WORRAKATTA/2*PASTOR) respectively. STI, MP, GMP and HM indices confirmed<br />

above results also and so, mentioned entries selected for more studies in improved trials<br />

and seed multiplication.<br />

150


Ld50 ANd Ld100 of LoCAL WheAT LANdRACeS IN SAudI<br />

ARABIA foR ABIoTIC STReSSeS<br />

Majed M.A Al-Bokari, Saad M. Alzahrani<br />

and Abdullah S. Alsalman<br />

Institute of Atomic Energy Research (IAER), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology<br />

(KACST), P. O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: mbokari@kacst.edu.sa.<br />

Wheat is a prime cereal crop that is now considered one of the most important food<br />

sources for humans. Therefore, it is not surprising that almost every wheat-growing<br />

country has established its own wheat breeding program aiming to increase yield, productivity,<br />

and quality of wheat. It is noteworthy to mention, however, that like many other<br />

crops, wheat exposure to abiotic stresses (e.g. drought and salinity) and biotic factors<br />

(pest and disease) can profoundly impact growth and productivity. Consequently, considerable<br />

effort has been devoted in recent years towards the development of alternative<br />

strategies to improve the productivity, sustainability, and stability of wheat production.<br />

The use of induced mutation by gamma rays is now a well-established approach and has<br />

been widely used for producing new germplasms and cultivars with desired traits. Most<br />

of Saudi Arabia has a harsh desert climate conditions and limited water supplies for irrigation<br />

that significantly affect ecosystems and agriculture. The majority of wheat production<br />

in Saudi Arabia is mainly depending on irreplaceable fossil groundwater resources.<br />

Therefore, there is a pressing need to improve Saudi domestic wheat lines and varieties in<br />

order to tolerate the scarce water resources, drought, and salinity.<br />

This work is set out to determine the Lethal Dose 50 and 100 (LD50 and LD100) in order<br />

to establish the irradiation baseline for the local wheat landraces (six varieties) as a part<br />

of an ongoing mutation induction project. LD50 and LD100 doses for the varieties are<br />

discussed in details.<br />

151


yIeLd STABILITy ANd PeRfoRmANCe of NeW WheAT<br />

geNoTyPeS IN SALINe AReAS of IRAN<br />

Amini Ashkboos, M.Vahabzadeh, E.Majidi Heravan,<br />

D.Afiuni, M.T.Tabatabae, M.H.Saberi<br />

and G.A.Lotfali-Aineh<br />

Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Postal<br />

Code: 31585-4119, Karaj, India<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: amini_ashk@yahoo.com<br />

Plant breeding has always been concerned with genotype-environment (GE) interaction.<br />

Normally high and stable performance is desirable attributes of cultivars. Development<br />

of new cultivars with high grain yield (GY), stability and good adaptability is one of the<br />

major goals of wheat breeding program for saline areas of Iran. The objectives of this<br />

study was to study GE interaction and the selection of high-yielding new wheat lines with<br />

a stable performance in targeted environments in temperate saline areas of Iran. Field<br />

experiments were conducted with17 new advanced bread wheat lines including three<br />

salt tolerant check cultivars(Roshan, Kavir and Bam) using Randomized Complete Block<br />

Design (RCBD) with 3 replications at 3 different locations for 2 years under salinity stress<br />

conditions (Ec =8-14 ds/m, Ec =8-12 ds/m) in salt affected regions of Iran. Stabil-<br />

Soil Water<br />

ity parameters like linear coefficient of regression (b), deviations from regression (S d<br />

Shukla , s stability of variance (σ 2 ), Wricke , s ecovalance (Wi), Kang’s yield-stability statistic<br />

(Ysi) which is common in use, and non-parametric rank method were employed. Combined<br />

analysis of variance for GY showed that there were significant differences between<br />

genotypes and their GE interactions. Results of different stability parameters showed that<br />

new promising wheat genotypes No. 14, 4, 3 and No.5 were stable lines with high GY and<br />

good adaptability under salinity stress conditions. Totally, line No.14, which was a derivative<br />

line of a cross between a local salt tolerant line (1-66-22) and cv. Inia from CIMMYT,<br />

was found as the highest in yielding, stability and good quality and therefore was selected<br />

as a desirable genotype and was released with the name of Arg cv. in 2009 for temperate<br />

saline areas of Iran.<br />

152<br />

2 ),


dRoughT STReSS ToLeRANCe IN CeReALS IN TeRmS of<br />

WATeR ReTeNTIoN CAPACITy ANd ANTIoxIdANT eNzyme<br />

ACTIVITIeS<br />

S. Bencze, Z. Bamberger, K. Balla, T. Janda, Z. Bedő<br />

and O. Veisz<br />

Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvasar,<br />

Brunszvik u. 2. H-2462 Hungary<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: benczesz@mail.mgki.hu<br />

The drought stress tolerance of cereals was investigated in PGV-36 growth chambers in<br />

the phytotron. Winter wheat (Mv Mambo, Mv Regiment), spring wheat (Lona), winter<br />

durum (Mv Makaroni) and winter barley (Petra) varieties were selected for the tests.<br />

Seedlings in the one-leaf stage were planted four to each 3-litre pot directly or after vernalization.<br />

Water was withheld for seven days starting from the 10 th day after the heading<br />

of each genotype. During water stress the control soil moisture content of 22-30% (volumetric<br />

water content) decreased to around 6 VWC%. Leaf samples were collected and<br />

analyzed for water content and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-Stransferase<br />

(GST), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase<br />

(APX) at various soil water levels. The aim of the experiment was to characterize the relationship<br />

between drought stress tolerance and changes in the antioxidant enzyme system,<br />

and to determine whether it has a predictive value. Under the very intense drought shock<br />

conditions created, clearly visible differences in tolerance were detected between the varieties.<br />

Genotypes with lower water retention capacity started to wither after 3-4 days. Petra<br />

exhibited a severe drop in leaf moisture content under water stress. Mv Pehely and Mv<br />

Makaroni also lost more than 6% leaf water at the 8-12 % soil moisture level, while Lona<br />

only lost turgor pressure under more severe water stress. Winter wheat varieties tolerated<br />

water withdrawal the best. Mv Regiment lost very little water, though the decline was in<br />

linear relation to the soil water content, and the plants did not start to wilt until the 5-6 th<br />

day. Mv Mambo proved to have excellent drought resistance as it was able to maintain<br />

normal functioning for a long time without losing any moisture. Water loss was minimal<br />

even when water stress was most intense. The antioxidant enzyme system was clearly<br />

related to the water withholding capacity of the varieties. Genotypes with lower tolerance<br />

had increasing activity levels for all antioxidant enzymes, parallel to the severity of water<br />

stress, indicating strong general oxidative stress. These varieties, however, exhibited the<br />

lowest antioxidant enzyme activity levels, which, even under stress conditions, did not<br />

reach the lowest values recorded for genotypes with better tolerance. Lona, which was<br />

slightly more tolerant to drought, had much higher peroxidase activity (GPX) than the<br />

average even under control conditions, though it had low values for the other four enzymes.<br />

In this variety, however, the GPX activity did not change due to water stress, while<br />

APX became markedly more active even under mild stress. The activities of GST, CAT<br />

and GR also increased slightly as the water stress became more severe.<br />

153


Like Lona at normal soil water level, Mv Regiment also had an outstandingly high value<br />

for GPX activity, which decreased slightly at the beginning of drought stress but then returned<br />

to the normal level. The GR and GST activities increased by 50% even under mild<br />

stress and stayed at this level till the end of the treatment. APX activity also exhibited a<br />

fast increase but dropped again at low soil water levels. The CAT activity changed in a<br />

similar way, though to a lesser extent. Mv Mambo, which has excellent drought tolerance,<br />

had outstandingly high antioxidant enzyme activity levels even under normal soil<br />

water conditions. It had the highest GR and GST activities, while APX and CAT were<br />

at least twice as active as in the other varieties. Although the GPX activity was lower<br />

than in Lona or Mv Regiment it was still much higher than the average. Water deprival,<br />

however, did not further increase the antioxidant enzyme activities but rather caused a<br />

slight decrease. In the case of water stress, these results supported the hypothesis that<br />

higher general activities of antioxidant enzymes might indicate that a genotype had better<br />

stress tolerance. More sensitive varieties had relatively higher increases in activity due to<br />

water withdrawal but even at their highest levels the antioxidant enzyme activities were<br />

lower than those under normal conditions in genotypes with good resistance. As the<br />

level of stress increases the protective mechanisms weaken in the plant, so the stability of<br />

the antioxidant system could be a key determinant of stress resistance. The physiological<br />

and/or morphological traits that improve the water retention of the plant also have<br />

basic importance, preventing damage to the homeostasis of the organism. Both a stable<br />

antioxidant enzyme system and an increase in the water retention capacity are of key importance<br />

in the breeding of drought-resistant varieties. However, different cereal species<br />

or even varieties might experience different stress levels under the same environmental<br />

conditions due to special features such as earliness as an avoidance mechanism or a deep<br />

rooting system as an adaptation mechanism. This research was funded by grants from the<br />

National Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K-63369) and the European Union (EU-FP7-<br />

REGPOT-2007-1, AGRISAFE No. 203288).<br />

154


AgRoNomIC PeRfoRmANCe of gA-ReSPoNSIVe<br />

SemIdWARf WheATS<br />

Bonnett DG 1, 2 . Ellis MH 1 , Rebetzke GJ 1<br />

1 CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia<br />

2 currently CIMMYT Int. Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 México<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: d.bonnett@cgiar.org<br />

GA-responsive dwarfing genes allow selection of lines with longer coleoptiles and greater<br />

early vigour compared to GA-insensitive dwarfing genes like Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b<br />

that are present in most semidwarf wheats worldwide. While longer coleoptiles translate<br />

to improved crop establishment under adverse seeding conditions (Rebetzke et al 2007),<br />

it should not come at the cost of productivity and profitability when seeding conditions<br />

are favourable. The key attribute of a dwarfing gene is to reduce plant height to prevent<br />

lodging and increase harvest index and grain yield. In the case of the ‘Green Revolution’<br />

dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and it’s homoeoallele Rht-D1b, reduced height is associated<br />

with less competition between the stem and developing ear leading to an increase in<br />

grain number which translates to a higher harvest index and yield (Youseffian et al. 1991;<br />

Richards 1992) in most environments. However, under less favourable, lower-yielding<br />

conditions, taller wheats may perform as well or better than semidwarfs (Richards 1992;<br />

Mathews et al. 2006). Our work has shown that the GA-responsive dwarfing genes Rht4,<br />

5, 8, 12 and 13 differ in the timing and intensity of their effects leading to differences in<br />

final plant height but also in relative sizes of different internode segments. Considering<br />

the differences in developmental profiles, it is important to establish that, beyond effects<br />

on coleoptile length and seedling vigour, that these GA-responsive dwarfing genes do<br />

not negatively affect grain yield or grain size across a range of environments and genetic<br />

backgrounds relevant to contemporary farming systems in conditions that would not<br />

favour lines with enhanced seedling growth. While yield is of primary importance, grain<br />

size is also often important with smaller grain often having a lower market value. Field<br />

experiments were conducted over two years at sites distributed across much of the major<br />

wheat production zones in Australia using a set of GA-responsive (Rht 4, 5, 8, 12 and<br />

13) and GA-insensitive (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) first backcross sister lines in a diverse<br />

set of Australian wheat backgrounds. As well as yield assessment, screenings levels (%<br />

of grain by weight falling through a 2mm slotted sieve) were assessed from most trials.<br />

Trials were planted in well prepared seed beds where differences in establishment<br />

between GA-responsive and GA-insensitive genotypes were not observed. Site mean<br />

yields ranged from 0.7 to 3.7t/ha, mean heights from 42cm to 89cm mean screenings<br />

from 4.0 to 12.4%. There was no relationship between site mean yield and screenings<br />

levels. Across sites, grain yields of Rht4, Rht5, Rht8 and Rht13 lines were equivalent to<br />

those of sister lines carrying Rht-B1b or Rht-D1b. Adult plant heights of Rh4, Rht5 and<br />

Rht13 were equivalent to sister lines carrying Rht-B1b or Rht-D1b while those with Rht8<br />

were around 10% taller but still reduced compared to tall sister lines. Height (-20%)<br />

and yield levels (-18%) were, on average, significantly reduced in lines carrying Rht12<br />

155


versus sister lines carrying Rht-B1b or Rht-D1b. Interestingly the screenings levels of<br />

Rht4 and Rht13 lines were significantly lower than Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b sister lines<br />

while Rht5 and Rht8 were equivalent and the strongest dwarfing gene, Rht12, associated<br />

with a significant increase in screenings %. Results of our studies on effects of GAresponsive<br />

dwarfing genes on early growth, yield and grain size strongly support the<br />

adoption of Rht4, Rht5 and Rht13 as replacements for Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b in wheat<br />

breeding programs. These genes have been mapped (Ellis et al 2005) which should support<br />

development of closely-linked markers for use in routine selection. The availability<br />

of perfect markers for Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (Ellis et al. 2002) is equally or even more<br />

important to allow selection against these almost ubiquitous genes. The Rht4, Rht5 and<br />

Rht13 dwarfing genes are now being introduced into CIMMYT’s wheat breeding efforts.<br />

References<br />

Ellis MH, Spielmeyer W, Gale K, Rebetzke GJ, Richards RA. 2002. Perfect markers for<br />

the Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b dwarfing mutations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor.<br />

Appl. Genet. 105, 1038-1042.<br />

Ellis MH, Rebetzke GJ, Azanza F, Richards RA, Spielmeyer W, Richards RA. 2005.<br />

Molecular mapping of giberellin responsive dwarfing genes in bread wheat. Theor. Appl.<br />

Genet. 111, 423-430.<br />

Mathews KL, Chapman SC, Trethowan R, Singh RP, et al.. 2006. Global adaptation of<br />

spring bread and durum wheat lines near-isogenic for major reduced height genes. Crop<br />

Sci. 46, 603-613.<br />

Rebetzke GJ, Richards RA, Fettell NA, Long M, et al. 2007. Genotypic increases in coleoptile<br />

length improves wheat establishment, early vigour and grain yield with deep sowing.<br />

Fld Crops Res. 100, 10-23.<br />

Richards, R.A. 1992. The effect of dwarfing genes in spring wheat in dry environments I.<br />

Agronomic characteristics. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 43, 517-527.<br />

156


INfLueNCe of TeRmINAL dRoughT STReSS oN WheAT<br />

AgRoNomIC TRAITS, INduSTRIAL quALITy<br />

ANd dehydRIN PRoTeINS<br />

1, Marina Castro, 1 Daniel Vázquez,<br />

1 Jarislav von Zitzewitz and 1 Bettina Lado<br />

1 National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA), Ruta 50 km 11, Colonia 70000, Uruguay.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: mcastro@inia.org.uy<br />

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to water deficit during grain filling show altered<br />

agronomic and grain quality characteristics. Drought causes yield losses and seasonal variation<br />

in quality creating difficulties in the marketing and processing of grain. Therefore,<br />

improving the genetic adaptation of wheat cultivars to drought stress is an important objective<br />

in breeding programs. There are genotypes that have been reported to have tolerant<br />

response and could be used as genetic sources for drought tolerance. There is interest in<br />

identifying molecular markers associated with drought tolerance to apply future genomic<br />

selection strategies, and thus make the breeding process more efficient. Five spring wheat<br />

cultivars (BIOINTA 1001, BRS 208, INIA CHURRINCHE, ITAPUA 50, PANDORA INIA)<br />

from Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Chile respectively, and two checks (TOL-<br />

LACAN and a Synthetic wheat, from CIMMYT) were evaluated in Uruguay in controlled<br />

environments. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design with two cycles of<br />

progressive drought stress during grain filling. At maturity, grain yield (Y), kernel number<br />

(KN), thousand kernel weight (TKW), aerial biomass (BIOM), root width (RWidth), root<br />

length (RLength), root weight (RWgth), and harvest index (HI) were determined. Additionally,<br />

grain protein content (Pt) was determined by NIRs, and rheological dough properties<br />

were evaluated by 10 g mixograph. To asses dehydrin expression, flag leaves tissue samples<br />

were collected during the drought cycles, and stored at -80ºC. Agronomic traits as KN<br />

and BIOM decreased with drought stress. Significant genotype x treatment interaction was<br />

detected for Y, TKW, and RWidth. No significant effect of drought stress was detected for<br />

RLength or RWght. Rheological properties were affected by drought stress increasing mixogram<br />

maximum height at peak (MHP) and mixogram time to maximum height (TMH).<br />

Significant genotype x treatment interaction was found for grain protein concentration,<br />

MHP and TMH. BIOINTA 1001 was the genotype that showed more instability, and BRS<br />

208 was the genotype with fewer changes due to drought stress in the variables under consideration.<br />

In this study, cultivars with relatively stable agronomic and quality characteristics<br />

under drought stress were found, which could be used as genetic sources for resistance.<br />

The correlation of dehydrin transcription and protein accumulation with drought tolerance<br />

is being studied as an indicator for association mapping studies and selection strategies.<br />

Acknowledgments<br />

The project was funded by PROCISUR and INIA (Uruguay). Authors are thankful to<br />

wheat breeders from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay and Uruguay for selecting<br />

and providing genotypes for this study.<br />

157


eVALuATIoN of quANTITATIVe ChARACTeRS<br />

CoRReLATIoNS ANd dISTANCeS IN Some ALBANIAN<br />

WheAT geNoTyPeS<br />

Fetah Elezi 1 , Belul Gixhari 1 , Alban Ibraliu 2 ,<br />

Valbona Hobdari 1<br />

1 Agricultural University of Tirana, Gene Bank; Siri Kodra, Tirana, Albania<br />

2 Agricultural University of Tirana, Department for Plant Production, Koder Kamez, Tirana,<br />

Albania<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: elezi_fetah@yahoo.com<br />

Twenty wheat genotypes from Albania Gene Bank were evaluated for some quantitative<br />

characters at experimental field of Agricultural University of Tirana (Albania). The study<br />

was carried out to analyze the variability of wheat genotypes conserved in gene-bank,<br />

and it is realized in a Randomized Block Design with four replications, during three years<br />

(2004-2006). Evaluated characters were: number of spikelet’s per spike, number of seeds<br />

per spikelet, number of seeds per spike, spike length, spike density, weight of the spike<br />

kernel, 1000 kernel weights, plant height, days to flower, and days to maturity. Correlation<br />

between ten characters and metric distances were also evaluated for all wheat genotypes.<br />

Days to flowering time and days to maturity ranged from 131 to 144 and from 173 to 200<br />

days respectively. The differences between minimal and maximal values were small for the<br />

days to flower (13 days with standard deviation 2.764) and around three times more for<br />

the days to maturity (40 days with standard deviation 9.006). Differences between wheat<br />

analyzed genotypes and standard for yield characters were significant: in eight genotypes<br />

for number of spikelet’s per spike (differences ranged from 111% to 120%), and in four<br />

genotypes for number of seeds per spikelet (differences ranged from 119% to 140%); and<br />

in five genotypes for number of seeds per spike (differences ranged from 122% to 150%).<br />

There were also significant differences, in six genotypes, for weight of spike kernel where<br />

these differences were ranged from 120% to 163%. Correlation of characters were positive<br />

correlations between number of seeds per spikelet with number of seeds per spike<br />

(0.937), and weight of the spike kernel (0.922), and days to maturity (0.479). There were<br />

positive correlations between weight of the spike kernel with number of seeds per spike<br />

(0.908), and days to maturity (0.523).<br />

Study results, using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) method for dissimilarity<br />

between genotypes (Euclidean distances), grouped wheat genotypes into three<br />

classes: first class include 6; second class 9; and third class 5 genotypes. In conclusions<br />

Nikla-792; IKB-6 and LVS-93 were the prommising genotypes usefuul to be used in the<br />

further developments of wheat breeding programs.<br />

158


PhySIoLogICAL ChARACTeRIzATIoN of heAT AdAPTIVe<br />

TRAITS IN BReAd WheAT (TRITICum AeSTIVum L)<br />

A. Farag Alla 1, 2 , FC Ogbonnaya 2 , M. Ahmed 3<br />

and O Abdalla 2<br />

1 Department of Agricultural Sciences, College of Natural Resources and Environmental<br />

Studies, University of Juba, Khartoum Center, Sudan;<br />

2 International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, PO Box 5466, Aleppo,<br />

Syria; 3 University of Khartoum, Sudan.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: awatif9@gmail.com<br />

In Sudan, wheat is one of the major food crops, whose importance has increased during<br />

the last few decades due to increased demand. Consequently, there have been concerted<br />

efforts to intensify its production and to improve its productivity. Wheat is mostly grown<br />

in temperate high latitude areas, but in Sudan its production is in the low latitudes using<br />

irrigation where drought and heat stresses are the major constraints. Of the two, heat<br />

stress is the main constraint that affects the crop at all stages of its development. Global<br />

warming effects are expected to increase the probability and intensity of heat waves, thus<br />

exacerbating the existing conditions. Thus, genotypes that maximize productivity under<br />

heat stress and also express high yield under normal conditions, need to be identified to<br />

improve wheat production. Previous studies have suggested that physiological traits have<br />

the potential to improve genetic gains in yield of wheat under drought and heat stresses.<br />

The objective of the present study was to characterize physiological traits that are associated<br />

with improved yield performance under heat stress. One hundred and seventy one<br />

F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between ‘‘Cham-6’’ (drought<br />

tolerant) and “Cham-8’’ (heat tolerant), including 7 check cultivars were grown under<br />

summer field conditions in 2009 at ICARDA experimental farm (36°1’ N, 36°56’E), Aleppo,<br />

Syria with sprinkler irrigation.<br />

The ground cover (GC), early vigor (EV), days to heading (DTH), days to physiological<br />

maturity (DTPM), duration of green leaf (DGL) and flag leaf characteristics (FLC), yield<br />

and yield components were investigated. The ground cover recorded after heading was<br />

highly significant (p


RoLe of WheAT geNome IN ALumINIum ToLeRANCe<br />

of TRITICALe<br />

Agnieszka Fiuk, Piotr Tomasz Bednarek, Andrzej Anioł<br />

Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, Department<br />

of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry,<br />

Radzików, 05-870 Błonie, Poland<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: afiuk@ihar.edu.pl<br />

Crop cultivation, due to increasing acreages of acidic soils (over 40% of agricultural area) faces<br />

the problem of aluminium toxicity leading to the reduction of seed yield. Thus, evaluation of<br />

aluminium (Al) tolerant forms is an urgent aspect of modern breeding. Although putative<br />

chromosomal location of Al tolerant genes was identified in case of barley, rye and wheat,<br />

their function is mostly unknown while some of them belong to ALMT (aluminium-activated<br />

malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxin efflux) families and are known to be responsible<br />

for malate and citrate secretion, respectively. Molecular markers linked to the genes<br />

and described in the literature are hardly useful for marker assisted selection (MAS) since they<br />

are either apart from the genes or were developed on a specific genetic background.<br />

Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is a synthetic wheat/rye hybrid that exhibits adaptation to<br />

adverse environmental conditions and may more efficiently utilize nutrients as compared to<br />

wheat or barley. However its yield is affected by acidic soils. In triticale chromosomal location<br />

of Al tolerant genes is not known. Nevertheless it seems that in octoploids the wheat genome<br />

plays the clue role (Stass et al., 2008), while in hexaploid forms it may originate from rye (Ma<br />

et al. 2000). The molecular markers linked to the genes of interest are still not known. Thus, the<br />

aim of the study was the identification of markers linked to Al-tolerant genes based on mapping<br />

F2 populations of hexaploid triticale, assignment of the linkage groups to the chromosomes and<br />

verification whether wheat or rye genome is the donor one for the tolerant gene.<br />

Two F2 mapping populations (P1 and P15) derived from the crosses of tolerant double<br />

haploid plants cv. Bogo with opposite Al-tolerance were used in molecular experiments.<br />

Plant materials (seed of F2 populations) were planted under different environmental conditions<br />

(field and greenhouse) following fingerprinting of individuals. Twenty AFLP selective<br />

primer combinations, 215 rye and 45 wheat microsatellite primers and DArT markers were<br />

used. In case of P1 and P15 populations eight and nine groups were identified, two linkages<br />

were located on rye chromosomes 5R and 7R, and one on wheat chromosome 2B. Interval<br />

mapping assigned Al-tolerance to the chromosome 7R and suggested that two markers<br />

were about 2 cM apart from the maximum of LOD function. The same markers were also<br />

indicated by association mapping as the markers associated with the trait.<br />

160


Literature<br />

Ma J.F., Taketa S., Yang Z.M. 2000. Aluminium Tolerance Genes On The Short Arm Of<br />

Chromosome 3R Are Linked To Organic Acid Release In Triticale. Plant Physiol 122:687-694.<br />

Stass A., Smit I., Eticha D., Oettler G., Horst J.H. 2008. The Significance Of Organic-<br />

Anion Exudation For The Aluminium Resistance Of Primary Triticale Derived From<br />

Wheat And Rye Parents Differing In Aluminium Resistance. Journal Of Plant Nutrition<br />

And Soil Science 171/4: 634-642.<br />

The study was financed from grand nr PBZ-MNiSW-2/3/2006<br />

161


ASSoCIATIoN of RooT WATeR-uPTAke WITh dRoughT<br />

AdAPTATIoN IN WheAT<br />

Masanori Inagaki 1, 2 , Miloudi M. Nachit 1<br />

1 International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P. O. Box<br />

5466, Aleppo, Syria.<br />

2 Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki,<br />

305-8686 Japan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: m.inagaki@cgiar.org<br />

Global climate fluctuations may increasingly affect limited water supplies and the use of<br />

scarce water in the rain-fed regions of West Asia and North Africa. Limited rainfall and<br />

frequent unpredictable drought result in low and fluctuating wheat production. Drought<br />

tolerance is therefore a major objective of wheat improvement for enhancing adaptation<br />

to climate change. Intensive extraction of water from soil during vegetative growth might<br />

increase biomass production, but leave inadequate available soil moisture for reproductive<br />

growth and grain production. Balanced water use is a key factor for grain formation under<br />

water limited conditions. Breeding research on drought tolerance in wheat focuses on use<br />

of alien genetic resources and development of screening methodology. Synthetic-derived<br />

bread wheat is one of the promising germplasm for enhancing drought tolerance.<br />

Root water-uptake was compared for three synthetic-derived wheat genotypes SYN-8,<br />

SYN-10 and SYN-15 and their parental variety Cham 6 under controlled environmental<br />

conditions. Yield performance was also compared under ten rain-fed environments at<br />

two locations over five cropping seasons. In addition, effects of soil dehydration and<br />

transpiration depressant on soil water-uptake of two wheat genotypes SYN-8 and SYN-<br />

10 were studied under controlled conditions.<br />

Large differences were found in root water-uptake among the four wheat genotypes. SYN-<br />

8 had the highest and SYN-10 the lowest. These differences were reflected in changes of<br />

both soil moisture and leaf temperature. Significant differences of the mean grain yield<br />

were also found among wheat genotypes grown in ten rain-fed conditions, showing SYN-<br />

10 as the highest and SYN-15 as the lowest. There were however no significant differences<br />

in grain yield under supplemental irrigation for Cham 6, SYN-8 and SYN-10, while<br />

SYN-15 had the lowest grain yield due to the lowest harvest index. Lower root wateruptake<br />

was associated with higher grain yield. Root water-uptake ability might be a major<br />

contributor to final grain yield under limited water supply.<br />

Soil dehydration had significant effect to decrease biomass production in both genotypes<br />

of SYN-8 and SYN-10. Reduction in grain yield by dehydration treatment was also found<br />

in SYN-8, but not in SYN-10. Higher grain yield of SYN-10 was attributed to more grain<br />

number. The treatment of transpiration suppressant decreased grain yield of SYN-10 under soil<br />

dehydration. Dehydration tolerance of SYN-10 might associate with transpiration efficiency.<br />

162


SeLeCTIoN of BReAd WheAT geNoTyPeS foR heAT ToLeRANCe<br />

BASed oN PhySIoLogICAL TRAITS ANd heAT<br />

ShoCk PRoTeINS<br />

Jai Prakash Jaiswal 1 , P. K. Bhowmick 1 and Anil Grover 2<br />

1 Deptt. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,<br />

Pantnagar, Uttarakhand- 263145, India,<br />

2 South Campus, Delhi University, Delhi, India<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: jpj.gbpu@gmail.com<br />

Global warming and erratic or very limited winter rains and hot winds in wheat growing<br />

season have become a matter of great concern affecting wheat production not in India but<br />

at global level. Wheat crop faces early as well terminal heat stress however; terminal heat<br />

stress is more common in rice-wheat cropping system in India due to late sowings. The<br />

rising temperature and moisture stress during grain filling period has been observed detrimental<br />

to crop yield. The prime objective of the present investigation was to estimate<br />

genetic variability for heat tolerance in wheat genotypes and to identify the most heat<br />

tolerant genotypes based on physiological and biochemical parameters. The experiment<br />

was conducted at G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India.<br />

Twelve bread wheat cultivars were grown under timely (18 November- D 1 ) and late (18<br />

December- D 2 ) sown conditions in 2006-07 in Randomized Complete Block Design with<br />

3 replications. In addition to yield and yield components, two important physiological<br />

traits viz., MTS (membrane thermo stability) and CTD (canopy temperature depression)<br />

were recorded, and HSI (heat susceptibility index) was also estimated. The expression of<br />

heat shock protein (HSP 90) too was recorded in both the dates of sowing.<br />

The Analysis of Variance showed significant difference among the genotypes for heat<br />

tolerance. The substantial differences observed between genotypic and phenotypic coefficient<br />

of variation showed the effect of environment in determining the total phenotypic<br />

variation for these characters. The reduction in grain filling duration from D 1 to D 2 was<br />

observed from zero in case of Halna to 43 per cent in case of Raj 4014. The cultivar HD<br />

2808 was observed to be the highest yielding genotype in timely as well as late sown conditions<br />

despite having a reduction of 15.5 per cent in grain yield in D 2 over the D 1 . No<br />

yield loss was shown by Halna in D 2 over the D 1 while minimum yield loss was shown by<br />

ACC 8528 (1.9 %) followed by PBN 51 (4.18%). The maximum yield loss occurred in Raj<br />

4014 (24.10%). The expression HSP 90 in timely (D 1 ) as well as late sowing (D 2 ) added<br />

value to the findings. OD value of ELISA in D 1 exhibited higher value for NP 846, DBW<br />

14, HI 385, PBN 51, UP 2425 and ACC 8528 where as low values observed for Raj 3765,<br />

HD 2808, Raj 4014 and Halna. Majority of genotypes exhibited higher OD value during<br />

late sown condition as compared with timely sown condition. However, NP 846 and WH<br />

147 showed relatively higher value. It was observed that those genotypes showed heat<br />

tolerance exhibited higher OD value and the vice-versa. These findings suggest that there<br />

may be heat shock protein (HSP 90) synthesized with response to heat stress during grain<br />

163


filling period. Halna showed very low value of OD although it exhibited heat tolerance on<br />

the basis of MTS, CTD and HSI. The reason would be that Halna got matured very early<br />

and escaped terminal heat stress. It was also observed that there was neither reduction in<br />

grain filling period nor in the yield of Halna due to late sowing. The expression of HSP<br />

90 clearly revealed that the Halna cultivar is true example of heat escaper being a very<br />

short duration genotype.<br />

The present study clearly revealed the importance of heat shock proteins as an important<br />

screening marker over morphological and physiological markers as their expression is<br />

totally dependent on one variable, that is, temperature; however, other markers get influenced<br />

by the environmental variations. On the basis of Heat Susceptibility Index and OD<br />

values observed through ELISA regarding the expression of HSP 90, the four genotypes<br />

namely, HI 385, ACC 8528, PBN 51 and WH 147 were observed as tolerant to terminal<br />

heat stress and Raj 4014 to be the most susceptible. Hence the findings may be helpful in<br />

exploiting these tolerant genotypes in the future breeding programmes for developing the<br />

heat tolerant varieties.<br />

164


geNeTIC gAIN eSTImATe of fIeLd dRoughT<br />

ReSISTANCe IN WheAT IN moRoCCo<br />

Jlibene Mohammed<br />

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre régional de Meknès, B.P. 578. Meknès<br />

50000. Morocco.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Jlibene.mohammed@gmail.com<br />

Wheat is predominately grown under rainfed conditions in Morocco, where the amount<br />

of rainfall during the season has dropped by 25% since early 80s, with frequent and extended<br />

events of drought. Wheat yields have been genetically improved under drought for<br />

the last three decencies. However, to our knowledge, there is no readily available method<br />

to evaluate genetic gain in drought resistance in the field over years of selection. The objective<br />

of this paper is to present a method to estimate genetic progress in field drought<br />

resistance for the period of 1973-2006. Yield of the best newly improved cultivar in a set<br />

of contrasting environments as testing sites where rainfall ranged from 170 to 700mm<br />

was regressed on yield of the best previous cultivar, used as predictor. The regression<br />

coefficient «a» reflects the genetic gain under extreme environment where the predictor<br />

cultivar is expected to produce zero yields, and «b» indicates the response to environment<br />

of the new cultivar as compared to previous one. Extreme environments where check<br />

cultivar is expected to fail are assumed to be due to extreme drought. Similar analysis was<br />

used for new cultivars. At each comparison, the regression coefficients «a» and «b» of the<br />

check cultivars, was set to zero and unity, respectively. The «a» values were cumulated<br />

and regressed over time to estimate genetic gain in drought resistance. The first check<br />

cultivar was «Nasma» released in 1973 and the last one was «Arrehane» released in 1997.<br />

The genetic gain in drought resistance from 1973 to 2006 was estimated at 78kg.ha -1 .yr -1 ,<br />

while average yield progress across all environments was 58kg.ha -1 .yr -1 . Divided by an<br />

estimated maximum water use efficiency of 22kg.mm -1 , this rate corresponds to a saving<br />

of water of at least 3.55mm.yr -1 . The proposed method of estimation of genetic gain in<br />

field drought resistance can be used in droughty environments where water is the most<br />

limiting factor.<br />

165


effeCT of defICIT IRRIgATIoN IN dIffeReNT gRoWTh<br />

STAgeS oN WheAT gRoWTh ANd yIeLd<br />

Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini, Mohsen Edalat<br />

Crop Production and Plant Breeding Dept., College of agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz,<br />

Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: kazemin@shirazu.ac.ir<br />

In order to evaluate of the effect of deficit irrigation in growth stage on wheat growth<br />

and yield, a field experiment was conducted in the 2008-2009 growing season based on<br />

the completely randomized block with four replications at the experimental farm of the<br />

College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, located at Badjgah. Treatments<br />

involved 13 irrigation regimes which applied in stem elongation, heading and grain filling<br />

growth stages. The highest seed yield (4333 kg ha -1 ) and the lowest ones (1377 kg ha -1 )<br />

were obtained from T1 (100%FC in all growth stages) and T13 (50%FC in all growth<br />

stages) respectively. With limitation in water amount seed yield was diminished, but this<br />

trend was not significant in T4 (100%, 100% and 50%FC) and T11 (100%, 100% and<br />

75%FC). Stepwise regression results revealed that, seed number per spike had the largest<br />

role (partial R 2 =0.72) in seed yield variation. Also in T1, T4 and T11 treatments (well<br />

water treatments) and in T13 (sever stress) ear number m -2 was the most role in seed<br />

yield determination (partial R 2 =0.96). It can be concluded that decreased water applied<br />

amount in the grain filling period and its allocation to the other consecutive crop, can<br />

increase crop production in southern regions of Iran.<br />

166


ToLeRANCe To IoN ToxICITIeS (AL, mN ANd fe):<br />

AN oPPoRTuNITy To ImPRoVe WheAT PeRfoRmANCe<br />

IN WATeRLoggINg-PRoNe ACId SoILS<br />

Hossein Khabaz-Saberi 1 , Robin Wilson 2 & Zed Rengel 1<br />

1 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling<br />

Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.<br />

2 Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (DAFWA), 3 Baron-Hay Court,<br />

South Perth 6151. Australia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: hsaberi@cyllene.uwa.edu.au<br />

High concentrations of manganese (Mn) and ferrous iron (Fe 2+ ) induced in water-saturated<br />

acid soils are a potential constraint for growing sensitive wheat cultivars in high<br />

rainfall areas of Western Australian wheat-belt. The tolerance to ion toxicities within current<br />

hexaploid Australian wheat germplasm was investigated to find out the extent of<br />

variation.<br />

Significant variation in Mn and Fe tolerance in terms of relative root dry weight and<br />

toxicity symptoms was observed. The evidence suggested that Mn tolerance has been<br />

introduced into Australian wheat through CIMMYT germplasm having “LERMA-ROJO”<br />

within their parentage, preserved through either co-tolerance to Mn deficiency or passive<br />

selection for Mn tolerance. Cultivars Westonia and Krichauff expressed a high level of<br />

tolerance to both Mn toxicity and deficiency, whereas Trident and Janz (reputed to be<br />

tolerant to Mn deficiency) were intolerant to Mn toxicity, suggesting that tolerances to<br />

Mn excess and Mn deficiency are different, but not mutually exclusive traits.<br />

Genotypes Amery, WAWHT2856, EGA2248, Bowie, Sunco and QAL2000 were as Fe-tolerant<br />

as Siete Cerros (Fe-tolerant control), whereas Annuello, WAWHT2036, GBA-Ruby<br />

and Kalannie expressed a level of intolerance similar to BH1146 (Fe-sensitive control).<br />

Siete Cerros has been traditionally used for improvement of agronomic traits in breeding<br />

programs around the world; hence, it as a progenitor of many Australian varieties.<br />

However, we suggest that the observed variation among Australian wheat genotypes for<br />

Fe tolerance might be due to indirect selection rather than selection pressure for either<br />

quality parameters or agronomic traits.<br />

The existing variation for tolerance to ion toxicities provided a required tool to investigate a<br />

link between tolerances to ion toxicities and improved waterlogging tolerance in wheat. In<br />

terms of relative shoot dry weight, Al-, Mn- and Fe-tolerant genotypes were more tolerant<br />

to waterlogging, outperforming intolerant genotypes by 35, 53 and 32 %, respectively,<br />

across the three acidic soils. Al-tolerant genotype had up to 1.8-fold better root growth<br />

than intolerant genotype under waterlogging. Waterlogging increased DTPA-extractable<br />

soil Mn (71%) and Fe (89%) concentrations, and increased shoot Fe (up to 7.6-fold)<br />

and Al (up to 5.9-fold) accumulation for different genotypes and soils. Manganese- and<br />

167


Al-tolerant genotypes maintained lower tissue concentrations of Mn and Al as compared<br />

to intolerant genotypes during waterlogging. Waterlogging delayed crop development,<br />

but distinctly less so in the tolerant than intolerant genotypes, thus jeopardizing the capacity<br />

of intolerant genotypes to produce yield in Mediterranean climates with dry finish<br />

of the season. The current results justify pyramiding multiple ion toxicity tolerances into<br />

current wheat varieties with desirable agronomic and quality characteristics to increase<br />

tolerance to waterlogging.<br />

168


duRum: PARTICIPAToRy BReedINg foR A VITAL CRoP<br />

To ALgeRIA<br />

MEH Maatougui¹, A. Benbelkacem² and M. Nachit¹<br />

¹ International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) Tel Hadya,<br />

Aleppo. Syria<br />

² Institut National de Recherche Agronomique d’Algérie (INRAA) UR de l’Est, El Khroub. Algeria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: M.Maatougui@cgiar.org<br />

Durum (triticum turgidum L. var durum) is a strategic crop in CWANA (Countries of<br />

West Asia and North Africa). ICARDA (International Center for Agriculture Research<br />

in the Dry Areas) has been providing national programs of CWANA base germplasm<br />

to conduct trials and selection for tolerance/resistance to abiotic biotic stresses, quality<br />

requirements and higher productivity. Participatory durum breeding (PDB) has recently<br />

been implemented by several CWANA countries to directly involve farmers in the selection<br />

and promotion of new cultivars. Durum is a vital crop to Algeria; policy makers<br />

have been deploying various incentive measures to increase productivity and boost<br />

production because consumption per capita is one of the world largest and the country<br />

remains one of the world highest importer. It is established that substantial productivity<br />

increases can come from better cultivars than those actually available to farmers. It is also<br />

a fact that only cultivars accepted by farmer would be widely cultivated. The evidence is<br />

that from the 22 durum registered cultivars, only 2 are widely cultivated over more than<br />

80% of the national annual average area (1.2 million hectares). Waha (a selection form<br />

ICARDA’s germplasm, also known as Cham1 ) is used extensively in moderate to high<br />

rainfall areas and Mohamed Ben Bachir, a local landrace is still the most widely used in<br />

semi arid regions and the high plateaus. Four other cultivars are used here and there to<br />

cover the rest of the national durum area. Adoption of the PDB approach responds to imperatives<br />

of getting research closely working with farmers to insure faster release of better<br />

potential cultivars, selected and adopted by farmers. PDB is implemented in a continuous<br />

4-year- recurrent trial cycles conducted in farmer’s fields, thus adapting germplasm<br />

to specific production niches (specific adaptation) and providing farmers, as community<br />

groups or individually, the chance to decide themselves which cultivar to grow. In the past<br />

four years, researchers and farmers in 3 provinces of eastern Algeria have been largely<br />

involved in PDB and farmers have unanimously selected and are promoting a genotype<br />

that meets their requirements. This genotype (a simple cross of Lahn/Ch1- 2003) has been<br />

outstanding in two out of three trial areas and acceptable in the third one. Its average productivity<br />

exceeded the improved check (Waha) by 11.5 to 16.6% depending on the trial<br />

locations. It has been named Beni Mestina (the village where PDB was first started), submitted<br />

for official release and is being multiplied by several farmers of the PDB network.<br />

To further insure sustainability and profitability to their efforts, farmers are planning to<br />

officially set a village based seed enterprise to promote and establish farmer to farmer<br />

commercial certified seed production and delivery. In the area of breeding and selection,<br />

farmers have joined breeders to engage in evolutionary durum breeding to respond<br />

169


to imperatives of climate change, evolution of management technologies and the need<br />

for conservation of biodiversity. A 1.7 kg population made of mixing F2 seed originating<br />

from 712 durum crosses is being multiplied and subsequent F3 seed will be handed to<br />

as many farmers as seed stock permits. Farmers will be growing and sharing with others<br />

seeds of subsequent population generations benefiting from the effect of natural selection<br />

pressure for as many more cycles they desire before starting to perform selection targeting<br />

specific stresses such as terminal drought, frost and cold, diseases, insects and salinity.<br />

The can subsequently use this gene pool to start extracting individual plants or spikes and<br />

promoting either population or pure lines of interest to their specific conditions.<br />

170


BReedINg, PhySIoLogICAL ANd moLeCuLAR ASPeCTS<br />

of exPReSSIoN of fReezINg ToLeRANCe IN WheAT<br />

Mahfoozi S 1 , Sasani S. 1 Sarhadi E 2 . and Hosseini, G. 2<br />

1 Department of Cereals Research, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, P.O. Box 31585-<br />

4119, Karaj, Iran<br />

2 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: siroosmahfoozi@yahoo.com,<br />

Research has shown that freezing resistance (FR) in wheat is dependent upon integrated<br />

adaptive mechanisms that include regulatory, structural and developmental genes. An<br />

understanding of how adaptive mechanisms such as developmental, structural and regulatory<br />

genes operate in cold hardy wheat cultivars will be useful in the design of plant<br />

breeding and production systems for cold regions of the word. This paper reports on<br />

the developmental regulation of FR, low-temperature –induced genes at the molecular<br />

and plant levels, mode of gene action and the interrelationship between plant development<br />

and accumulation pattern of carbohydrates and selection criteria for FR in wheat<br />

(Triticum aestivum L ) cultivars grown in both field and controlled conditions. Commercially<br />

grown most hardy, semi-hardy and non-hardy wheat cultivars along with near<br />

isogenic lines (NILs) of wheat with different vernalization requirement and vegetative/<br />

reproductive transition stages were planted. FR tolerance, as measured by LT50, and stage<br />

of phenological development, as estimated from final leaf number and shoot apex developmental<br />

morphology, were determined in controlled and in the field conditions during<br />

the autumn and winter seasons in 2002-09. Also, a proteomic approach was applied to<br />

study the molecular responses of hardy and semi hardy cultivars to freezing stress. Using<br />

MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry, the expression pattern of cold responsive proteins<br />

was studied. In this paper changes in abundance and the appearance of novel cold-induced<br />

proteins and the expression pattern of cold responsive proteins are discussed during<br />

the vegetative/reproductive transition in very hardy and semi-hardy cultivars. Morphological,<br />

biochemical, and physiological characters useful in the selection for FR and<br />

the influence of developmental traits on expression of FR and accumulation of sugars and<br />

water content are reported. The results present the evidence of close links between the<br />

up-regulation of FR genes and developmental traits in wheat. Based on the observations,<br />

breeding strategies are suggested for improvement of FR in wheat developed for regions<br />

with both long mild winters, like the cold areas of Iran, and a high level of freezing stress,<br />

like many parts of the northern hemisphere.<br />

171


CoLLeCTIoN of ePI-LINeS of CommoN WheAT<br />

(TRITICum AeSTIVum L.) INduCed WITh BIoACTIVe<br />

SuBSTANCeS<br />

Bogdanova E.D., Makhmudova K.Kh.<br />

Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, 45, Timiryazev Str., 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: carinamakh@mail.ru<br />

Successes in breeding of any culture are defined by its level of the genetic scrutiny and<br />

use of new approaches, allowing to expand variability of the given culture and to reveal<br />

perspective selection forms. For use in practical breeding the collection of epi-lines<br />

of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), created at the Institute of Plant Biology and<br />

Biotechnology is offered. The first series of the epi-lines is received after the treatment<br />

of the initial cultivars of common wheat (Kazakhstanskaya-126, Bezostaya-1 etc.) with<br />

natural niacin acid. During the 64 generations no reversion to the initial form has been<br />

noted. Our epi-lines are productive and have a high combinational ability. On the basis<br />

of these epi-lines we have created cultivars of common spring and winter wheat (Alem,<br />

Dastarkhan, Severyanka, Severyanka-2, Stepnaya-15, Uzynagashskya, Smolina, etc.) and<br />

the genetic collection of lines carrying certain adaptive morphological traits such as: -<br />

dense coarse pubescence of leaves promoting increase of drought resistance and protection<br />

from leaf wreckers; - wax on the various parts, influencing the light-reflecting<br />

ability, temperature, water mode, photosynthesis, heat - and drought resistance of plants;<br />

- high anthocyans’ level in tissues raising resistance to covered smut (Tilletia caries) and<br />

to injurious temperature influences; - change of the leaves’ form and their orientation in<br />

space for protection of plants from intensive solar radiation and overheat for prevention<br />

of the great water losses and maintenance of long leaves’ functioning; - high productive<br />

tilling capacity and lodging resistance which are necessary for creation of the cultivars<br />

cultivated at ridge technology. The second series of the epi-lines is a result of treatment of<br />

the initial cultivar of common wheat Alem with surface-active substance Triton Х-100.<br />

The collection lines from the second series are more late-ripening in comparison with<br />

the initial cultivar Alem and possess following morphological traits: - the square-head<br />

ear; - the long friable ear with doubled spikelets; - the long friable ear without doubled<br />

spikelets. During the 5 generations after the first and only treatment with surface-active<br />

substance Triton Х-100 no reversions to the initial form have been noted. The epi-lines<br />

from the offered collection have been involved into the breeding process.<br />

172


qTL ASSoCIATed WITh heAT SuSCePTIBILITy INdex<br />

ANd TemPeRATuRe dePReSSIoN IN WheAT (TRITICum<br />

AeSTIVum L.) uNdeR RePRoduCTIVe STAge heAT STReSS<br />

Richard E. Mason 1 , Dirk B. Hays 2 Suchismita Mondal 2 ,<br />

Francis Beecher 2 , Amir Ibrahim 2<br />

1 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,<br />

Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico, D.F., Mexico<br />

2Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2474 TAMU, College Station,<br />

TX, 78743<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: r.mason@cgiar.org, dbhays@tamu.edu<br />

Heat stress adversely affects wheat production in many regions of the world and is particularly<br />

detrimental during reproductive development. The objective of this study was to<br />

identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with improved heat tolerance in hexaploid<br />

bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To accomplish this objective, an analysis of both the<br />

phenotypic and genetic responses of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations was<br />

conducted. RIL populations Halberd x Cutter (H/C) and Halberd x Karl 92 (H/K) both<br />

derive heat tolerance from Halberd and segregate in their response to heat stress. A heat<br />

susceptibility index (HSI) was calculated from the reduction of three main spike yield<br />

components; kernel number, kernel weight, and single kernel weight, following a threeday<br />

38°C heat stress treatment during early grain-filling. The HSI, as well as temperature<br />

depression of the main spike and main flag leaf during heat stress were used as phenotypic<br />

measurements of heat tolerance. Genetic linkage maps incorporating 170 and 190 genetic<br />

markers were constructed for the H/C and H/K populations, respectively, and were used in<br />

combination with phenotypic data and statistical software to detect QTL.<br />

In a comparison across the two across populations, seven common QTL regions were<br />

identified for HSI, located on chromosomes 1B, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5B, and 6D (Mason et al.<br />

2010 and in review). Individual QTL explained from 5% to 30% of the phenotypic variation<br />

for yield component HSIs. The location and genetic effect of a QTL on chromosome<br />

1B, QHkwm.tam-1B, was in agreement with other studies showing loci in this region to<br />

be important for both yield and grain-filling duration under heat stress (Kuchel et al.<br />

2007; Yang et al. 2002). Analysis of temperature depression in the H/K population identified<br />

seven QTL that co-localized for both organ temperature depression and HSI. At all<br />

loci, a cooler flag leaf and/or spike temperature (up to 0.81°C) was associated with greater<br />

heat tolerance. Four of the beneficial alleles at these loci were contributed by the heat<br />

tolerant parent Halberd. The genetic effect of combining QTL, including QHkw.tam-1B,<br />

QHkwm.tam-5A.1, and QHskm.tam-6D shows the potential benefit of selecting for multiple<br />

heat tolerance alleles simultaneously. Subsequent analysis of the H/K population in<br />

173


the field under ideal and late sowing detected a QTL on chromosomes 3B from Halberd<br />

that was in agreement with QTL results from the greenhouse study. This locus, QYld.tam-<br />

3B, was pleiotropic for temperature depression and HSI in both the field and controlled<br />

environment experiments and was associated with higher yield, biomass, spike density<br />

and thousand kernel weight under field conditions.<br />

The results presented here represent a comprehensive analysis of both the phenotypic response<br />

of wheat to high temperature stress and the genetic loci associated with improved<br />

heat tolerance and will be valuable for future understanding and improvement of heat<br />

stress tolerance in wheat.<br />

References<br />

Kuchel H, Williams K, Langridge P, Eagles H, Jefferies S (2007) Genetic dissection of<br />

grain yield in bread wheat. II. QTL-by-environment interaction. TAG Theoretical and<br />

Applied Genetics DOI 10.1007/s00122-007-0628-8<br />

Mason RE, Mondal S, Beecher FW, Pacheco A, Jampala B, Ibrahim A, Hays DB (2010)<br />

QTL associated with heat susceptibility index in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under<br />

short-term reproductive stage heat stress. Euphytica In press<br />

Yang J, Sears RG, Gill BS, Paulsen GM (2002) Quantitative and molecular characterization<br />

of heat tolerance in hexaploid wheat. Euphytica 126:275-282<br />

174


gge-BIPLoT ANALySIS of RAIN-fed duRum WheAT<br />

muLTI-eNVIRoNmeNTS TRIALS IN IRAN<br />

Reza Mohammadi 1 *, Ahmed Amri 2 ,<br />

Davood Sadeghzadeh 3 , Mohammad Armion 4 ,<br />

Malak Massoud Ahmadi 5 , Reza Haghparast 1 ,<br />

Salvatore Ceccarelli 2<br />

1 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), P O Box 67145-1164, Kermanshah, Iran.<br />

2 International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.<br />

3 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Maragheh, Iran.<br />

4 Center of Agricultural Research and Natural Resource, Ilam, Iran.<br />

5 Center of Agricultural Research and Natural Resource, Shirvan, North Khorasan, Iran.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: rmohammadi@in.com<br />

Genotype evaluation and mega-environment identification are among the most important<br />

objectives of multi-environment trials (MET). Genotype plus genotype-by-environment<br />

interaction (GGE) biplot analysis was applied on grain yield data of 20 durum<br />

wheat genotypes grown in 12 rain-fed environments (combination of four locations: Kermanshah,<br />

Ilam, Maragheh and Shirvan), representative of major durum growing areas<br />

of Iran, across 2005-2007 cropping seasons to graphic analysis of rain-fed durum wheat<br />

MET data. The combined analysis of variance showed that the variation among environments<br />

was the most important source of yield variability, and accounted for 76% of<br />

total variation. The magnitude of GE interaction than genotype (G) effect was about 10<br />

times, and suggesting the existence of two durum mega-environments in Iran. The first<br />

mega-environment consisted of the environments included in Maragheh and Shirvan<br />

(cold locations) and Kermanshah (moderate cold location) locations, where “Sardari”<br />

cultivar was the winner; the second mega-environment comprised Ilam (warm location)<br />

and Kermanshah locations with the recommended breeding lines G16 (Gcn//Stj/Mrb3),<br />

G17 (Ch1/Brach//Mra-i) and G18 (Lgt3/4/Bcr/3/Ch1//Gta/Stk). The results also indicating<br />

genotype G9 (71-7-3-5) with the highest stability was ranked as a second genotype in<br />

yield performance and is a good candidate for releasing in rain-fed areas of Iran. The discriminating<br />

power vs. representativeness view of the GGE biplot identified the Kermanshah<br />

location had the least discriminating ability but was more representative; suggesting<br />

it is possible to testing genotypes for warm and cold locations in Kermanshah location in<br />

the regional yield trials of durum breeding and selection program.<br />

Keywords: GGE biplot, mega-environment, discriminating ability, representative, durum<br />

wheat<br />

175


A SImPLe ANd effICIeNT TWo STeP mANNeR<br />

of dRoughT ToLeRANCe INdICeS uSe To WheAT<br />

SCReeNINg PRACTICeS foR dRoughT ToLeRANCe<br />

Goodarz Najafian and Farshad Bakhtiar<br />

Cereal Research Department, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute (SPII), Karaj,<br />

Postal code: 3135933151, Iran<br />

E-mail: goodarzn@gmail.com<br />

In order to identify wheat varieties tolerant to late season water scarcity, and also to find<br />

how drought resistance indices should be applied in screening practices, this study was<br />

performed in temperate region wheat breeding program of Iran for irrigated wheat. In<br />

this study 218 advanced breeding lines and cultivars of hexaploid wheat were planted in<br />

two field trials, one under normal irrigation and another one under water deficit. The<br />

normal trial received several irrigations when ever it was necessary (well watered plots)<br />

till maturity, while the stressed plots were irrigated until the wheat plants (50% of the<br />

field) entered heading stage and then no irrigation was applied. There was no rainfall after<br />

stopping of irrigation. Drought resistance indices including stress susceptibility index<br />

(SSI), tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), stress tolerance index (STI) and<br />

geometric mean productivity (GMP) were calculated for all investigated entries. Correlation<br />

coefficients among these indices were calculated and interpreted. STI and GMP were<br />

found to be the better indices than the other three for screening drought tolerant wheat<br />

varieties in breeding programs. Since STI value was still significantly affected by higher<br />

yield in one of the normal or stressed conditions, a 2-step screening strategy was applied.<br />

At the first step genotypes with a higher value of STI more than the average STI were<br />

selected. This was done simply by STI-based sorting and also clustering of all genotypes<br />

based on STI as well. This method led to the selection of 112 desired genotypes. Then SSI<br />

index was used to reselect the more drought tolerant genotypes based on a relationship<br />

between stress intensity (SI) and SSI cut off line (genotypes with SSI value of more than<br />

[1-SI] rejected). This method led to a final selection of 22 breeding lines with high yield<br />

potential and good drought tolerance property. This easy strategy is proposed to be applied<br />

in wheat breeding programs whose objective is drought tolerance.<br />

176


effeCTS of PRogReSSIVe WATeR STReSS oN<br />

PhoToSyNTheSIS IN WheAT (TRITICum AeSTIVum L.)<br />

Ricardo Ferraz de Oliveira, Mariam Sulaiman<br />

and Saulo de Tarso Aidar<br />

Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” – USP. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas.<br />

1348-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: rfo@esalq.usp.br<br />

For more than half of the world population, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a primary<br />

food source. Of all the cultivated food crops, wheat is among the heaviest ‘water-users’;<br />

30% of the freshwater used in crop cultivation is allocated solely to wheat. Consequently,<br />

water availability is often the limiting factor in wheat production. Water scarcity and<br />

drought are only two consequences that pose as potential threats to our food security.<br />

A rapid, non-invasive technique such as fluorescence measurement can be employed to<br />

monitor growth and performance in response to water deficit. This would allow the determination<br />

of optimal water input for maximum crop yield. Fluorescence studies can also<br />

be applied in crop improvement program, enabling the selection of stress-resistant plants.<br />

The literature is abundant with studies of resurrection plants and their responses to water<br />

stress. Very few investigated the similar effects on irrigated crops such as wheat, especially<br />

up to extreme water stress. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of<br />

progressive water deficit on wheat, accompanying changes in classic parameters (such as<br />

assimilation rate, etc.) and fluorescence kinetics. In the study of plant physiology, photosynthetic<br />

activity is often related to CO 2 assimilation rates (A max ) i.e. the amount of carbon<br />

dioxide being fixed per unit time. A positive rate indicates a net assimilation of CO 2<br />

by plants through photosynthesis. A negative value, on the other hand, could either mean<br />

that the plant stops photosynthesizing or that the amount of CO 2 released through respiration<br />

offset those being fixed. However, it would be imprudent to judge photosynthetic<br />

activity based on solely A max . This is because photosynthesis consists of 2 components: (1)<br />

Light reaction-Conversion of light energy into chemical energy (in the form of reducing<br />

powers, NADPH and ATP) by PSI and PSII. (2) ‘Dark’ reaction-Fixation or reduction of<br />

CO 2 by the enzymes of Calvin Cycle, into carbohydrates. A max only gives a measure of the<br />

latter. To analyze the former, chlorophyll fluorescence ratios and coefficients such as F V /<br />

F M, should be used. F V /F M quantifies the efficiency of Photosystem II in converting light<br />

energy into chemical energy. It depends on the ability of leaves to transfer electrons away<br />

from quinone acceptors of PSII. Our findings indicate that carbon assimilation is more<br />

susceptible to water deficit than photochemical conversion. A 10% decline in RWC leaf was<br />

sufficient to reduce A max to 0. Yet F V /F M was still maintained at 0.7. A possible reason for<br />

this could be the existence of mechanisms that maintain the integrity of the photosynthetic<br />

apparatus. Albeit being the more frequently used Chl fluorescence ratio, precaution<br />

must be taken when using F V /F M to analyze efficiency of photochemical conversion. It<br />

gives the maximum possible efficiency of PSII photochemistry, in dark-adapted leaves.<br />

Whether plants are as effective in the light cannot be ascertained only from this parameter.<br />

177


Furthermore, F V /F M is particularly slow to respond to changes in photosynthetic rate and<br />

detects stress-induced photoinactivation rather late (Lichtenthaler et al., 2005). Instead,<br />

they recommended the use of another ratio, F V /F 0 , which is supposedly, more sensitive.<br />

F V ’/F M ’ appears to be a better indicator of water stress. The actual proportion of light energy<br />

used to drive photosynthesis can be obtained by calculating qP (Lichtenthaler et. al,<br />

2003). As for the proportion dissipated as fluorescence and/or heat, it can be ascertained<br />

via the non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qN and NPQ). Our current study<br />

indicated that with increasing water stress, qP decreases and NPQ increases significantly.<br />

The efficiency of PSII to convert light into photochemical energy was impaired. Instead,<br />

more energy was quenched non-photochemically. Photosynthetic apparatus was significantly<br />

disturbed for the water deficiency. At the same light intensity, higher proportion<br />

of energy was channeled away from photochemical to non-photochemical quenching.<br />

Various processes bring about non-photochemical quenching. They can be further categorised<br />

into reversible photoinactivaton or slowly reversible photoinhibition. The first<br />

type of processes inactivates photosynthesis by reducing the efficiency of energy transfer.<br />

For instance, B-carotene trap energy before it reaches the reaction centers. Additionally,<br />

xanthophyll cycle converts violaxanthins to zeaxanthins, rendering them inefficient in<br />

passing energy to chlorophylls. Instead, they readily lose energy as heat. In state transition,<br />

phosphorylation of LHCII (light harvesting complex of PSII) occurs, leading to the<br />

preferential activation of PSI. Recent studies have just discovered the role of photorespiration<br />

and Mehler reaction in protecting plants against photodamage. The mechanism<br />

involves photoreduction of O 2 by PSI and subsequent detoxification of ROS produced,<br />

via Asada-Halliwel pathway. When reversible non-photochemical quenching becomes<br />

inadequate to remove excess energy, PSII reaction centers are damaged. Under normal<br />

growth condition, the D1 polypeptide of these centers is constantly being degraded and<br />

consequently repaired. However, with water-deficiency, the rate of photo-oxidative damage<br />

to the D1 proteins maybe accelerated beyond the repair rate.<br />

178


WheAT STudIeS IN ANAToLIAN RegIoN of TuRkey<br />

Emel Ozer, Seyfi Taner, Aysun G. Akcaçık, İbrahim<br />

Kara, Yüksel Kaya<br />

Bahri Dağdaş Int. Agric. Research Inst. PK:125 KARATAY KONYA 42020 Turkey<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: emel4272@yahoo.com<br />

In this study, a comparison is made between two variety one is former “GEREK-79 and<br />

the other newest “KARAHAN-99” widely grown in dry areas of the Anatolian plateau<br />

kind of yield and quality characteristics in terms of the last 6 years of cultivation (2003-<br />

2004-2005-2006-2007-2008).<br />

According to the results obtained statistically between years and between varieties in<br />

terms of yield differences were identified. Among the yield most high-yield was found<br />

in 2007. KARAHAN-99 was gave higher yield than GEREK-79 variety. Between varieties<br />

and years the interaction was occurred, when the highest yield occured KARAHAN-99<br />

variety had the highest yield.<br />

In terms of bread quality characteristics, protein, gluten, hardness, 1000 kernel weight<br />

and SDS(sedimentation) statistically significant results came in all year.<br />

SDS- 1000 kernel weight results differences were identification the cultivars on the basis<br />

of the results. According to the results of 1000 kernel weight, SDS and protein; between<br />

varieties and years interaction has occurred. The correlation between years and varieties<br />

as a result of 1000 kernel weightield and gluten-protein between statistically-significant<br />

positive correlations were found. As a result, in the Anatolian plateau from two kinds of<br />

widely planted variety of KARAHAN-99 both yield and bread quality were better than<br />

GEREK-79 variety.<br />

179


ALLeLIC dIVeRSITy foR VeRNALIzATIoN ANd<br />

PhoToPeRIod geNeS IN BReAd WheAT CuLTIVARS<br />

ANd LANdRACeS fRom TuRkey<br />

Enver E. Andeden 1 , Faheem S. Baloch 1 , Benjamin Kilian 2 ,<br />

Miloudi Nachit 3 , Hakan Özkan 1<br />

1 Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Çukurova, 01330 Adana,<br />

Turkey<br />

2 Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Genebank/ Genome<br />

Diversity, Corrensstrasse 3, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany<br />

3 ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: hozkan@.cu.edu.tr<br />

Vernalization and photoperiod response genes play a significant role in the geographical<br />

adaptation, agronomic performance and yield potential of wheat cultivars. Therefore,<br />

understanding the distribution patterns and allelic variations for vernalization and photoperiod<br />

genes are important in any wheat breeding program to develop cultivars adaptable<br />

to wide range of latitudes. In this study, we screened 69 bread wheat cultivars and<br />

7 bread wheat landraces for photoperiod (Ppd-D1) and vernalization (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1,<br />

Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3) genes by using allele specific DNA markers. The photoperiod insensitive<br />

dominant allele, Ppd-D1a, was present in 78% of wheat cultivars and landraces,<br />

whereas, the rest of the genotypes carried the sensitive allele Ppd-D1b as recessive allele.<br />

Eighteen cultivars contained recessive alleles for all four loci, whereas 58 wheat cultivars<br />

contained one or more dominant vernalization allele. The majority of cultivars contained<br />

the dominant Vrn-A1a allele followed by Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B1. Information on the alleles<br />

for vernalization and photoperiod response present in Turkish germplasm will facilitate<br />

the planning and implementation of molecular markers in wheat breeding programs.<br />

This information will be helpful to wheat breeders trying to develop elite wheat cultivars<br />

carrying suitable vernalization and photoperiod alleles with higher grain yield potential<br />

and better quality suitable for different production environments through marker<br />

assisted selection.<br />

180


NeW WINTeR WheAT VARIeTIeS foR RAINfed<br />

CoNdITIoNS kyRgyzSTAN<br />

Pakhomeev O.<br />

Kyrgyz Agricuetural Researgh Institute, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan<br />

E-mail: o.pakhomeev@yandex.ru<br />

Wheat is one of the most high yielding crops in seed balance of Kyrgyz Republic. It is<br />

grown in all agro climatic zones and occupies the main part of arable land which belongs<br />

to the non-irrigated of conditional irrigated lands. Rainted lands of Kyrgyzstan differ by<br />

water supply – from enough supplied by precipitations mountain and premountain zones<br />

to semi supplied (dry land) in down part. Most of land enough supplied by precipitations<br />

(650-800 mm per year) are located in Issyk-Kul valley and most dry land (with precipitations<br />

200-300 mm per year) in Jalal Abad, Batken, Osh regions. High yield of wheat Chuy<br />

region (7, 0-8, 0 t/ha) possible get in premountain zone, where will be enough of precipitations<br />

in spring in time. In down zone with no enough precipitations yield will not<br />

exceed 1.5-2, 5 t/ha, and sometimes (eash 2-3 year) because of drought farmers have very<br />

low yield. To receive the stable high yield under rainfeld conditions of Kyrgyzstan will be<br />

possible only through development of drought and heat resistant varieties.<br />

The breeding work of creation of drought tolerant winter wheat varieties in Kyrgyz Agricultural<br />

Research Institute is conducting at sufficient and semi sufficient by rainfed lands. This<br />

allows evaluating the new varieties plasticity and selecting the high adaptive forms at each<br />

stage of breeding process. Using geographically remote forms at crossing allowed strengthening<br />

of the separate quantity characters potential and also genetically adaptive developments.<br />

Consequent individual selection in hybrid populations fixes the positive agricultural valuable<br />

characters and properties in new breeding material. The new winter bread wheat varieties:<br />

Erutosperium 760, Adyr, Kairak and Ralub were created recently at Kyrgyz Agricultural Research<br />

Institute, which are admitted for rainfed areas. ECHO variety was passed to the State<br />

Variety Testing. These varieties have high potential yield at rainfed and irrigated areas. These<br />

varieties have high quality of seed. The Ralub variety of winter wheat released in 2010 has<br />

shown yield 7, 88 t/ha in Ak-Suu Variety testing plot (Issyk-Kul) and exceed the standard<br />

variety Kyal for 0, 34 t/ha. The Ralub variety by grain quality was on standard level (protein<br />

content – 12, 5%, gluten 30, 7%, falling number 312 sec.). The yield of new variety in Kara-<br />

Suu variety testing plot (Osh) was 5, 89 t/ha (0, 21), and quality indicators are next: protein<br />

content-14, 1%, gluten content – 31, 3 % and falling number 418 sec. The like indicators was in<br />

Sokyluk State Variete Testing plot (Chuy region) – 59, 3 (0, 4) t/ha; 11, 4 (-0, 7) %; 25, 4 (1, 8)%;<br />

374 (14) sec. The Ralub variety is tolerant to yellow rust. Yield of new variety ECHO under<br />

enough supplied by precipitations in experiences Kyrgyz Agricultural Research Institute was<br />

5, 15 t/ha that was higher of Adyr standard variety on 0, 17 t/ha. The new variety exceeded the<br />

standard by quality indicators: protein – 14, 4%, (+3, 7), gluten 26, 0%(+5, 0), bread volume<br />

910 (+100) ml, total evolution 5, 0 (+0.2). The ECHO variety resistant to powdery mildew,<br />

middle resistant to leaf rust and common bunt (State Variety Testing).<br />

181


PoSSIBILITy of uSINg RooT gRoWTh ANgLe AS A TRAIT<br />

foR eNhANCed dRoughT ToLeRANCe IN WheAT<br />

Madhav Pandey 1 , Amrit Paudel 1 , Katrin Link 2 ,<br />

Wolfgang Friedt 2<br />

1 Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Rampur, Chitawan,<br />

Nepal<br />

2 Plant Breeding Department, Research Center for Bio Systems Land Resources and Nutrition<br />

(IFZ), Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen,<br />

Germany<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: Mppandey.pb@gmail.com<br />

The vertical and lateral growth potential of root system determines the range of moisture<br />

availability to crop plants. Under drought conditions, improved vertical root growth is<br />

desirable in order to utilize residual moisture by the plants from the deeper soil profiles.<br />

Root architectural traits are, however, difficult to assess due to the lack of appropriate<br />

screening technique. In this study, we measured the angle of the first pair of seminal roots<br />

(growth angle) in a global sample of spring and winter bread wheat genotypes (Triticum<br />

aestivum L., n=65) using gel observation chambers and examined the possibility<br />

of using growth angle as criteria for drought adaptation screening. The analysis of variance<br />

revealed significant differences among the genotypes with respect to growth angle,<br />

which ranged from 28.5 to 135.0 (degree) with the highest variability in Nepalese landraces<br />

(range, 38.5 to 135.0 degrees). The growth angles of standard drought tolerant<br />

cultivars Dharwar Dry, SeriM82 and Pronghorn were determined at 60.5, 71.0 and 60.0,<br />

respectively. The high yielding cultivars bred for irrigated environments possessed wider<br />

growth angle compared to the drought tolerant cultivars, with some exceptions. Similarly,<br />

cultivars adapted to rainfed environments possessed growth angle comparable to that of<br />

the drought tolerant cultivars. The growth angle showed a weak negative correlation with<br />

seed weight (r=-0.33, p=0.013), but was unaffected due to the variability in root to shoot<br />

dry mass ratio. The results indicated growth angle of the first pair of seminal roots as a<br />

consistent trait that largely explained the drought adaptive value of the wheat genotypes.<br />

The perspectives and limitations of growth angle as a trait for root system improvement<br />

for enhanced drought tolerance in wheat are discussed.<br />

182


quANTITATIVe ANALySIS of PRoTeome IN WheAT<br />

SuBSTITuTIoN LINeS duRINg LoNg-TeRm CoLd<br />

ACCLImATIoN<br />

Vítámvás P. 1 , Kosová K. 1 , Škodáček Z. 1 , Pánková K. 1 ,<br />

Milec Z. 1 , Planchon S. 2 , Renaut J. 2 , Prášil I.T. 1<br />

1 Crop Research Institute, Prague, Czech Republic;<br />

2 Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Luxembourg<br />

E-mail: k.pankova@vurv.cz<br />

After exposure of wheat plants to low non-freezing temperatures a higher level of frost<br />

tolerance developed during the process called cold acclimation. The aim was to compare<br />

the changes in proteome, between wheat substitution lines, for the homoeologous group 5<br />

chromosomes which carry the genes regulating for frost tolerance. The quantitative changes<br />

in crown proteome during the acclimation were evaluated by 2D-DIGE. Spots of interest,<br />

containing 208 differentially expressed polypeptides (absolute abundance variation of<br />

at least 1.5-fold, p>0.05), were selected, digested, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Using<br />

PCA analysis, it was found out that the substitutions lines were grouped according to<br />

the duration of cold acclimation. The major changes in the expression of proteins in coldtreated<br />

plants in comparison with control ones were in the following processes: 1/ Carbohydrate<br />

metabolism: An up-regulation of enzymes involved in glycolytic pathway such as<br />

enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase and cytosolic 3-phosphoglycerate kinase was found. In<br />

contrast, a decrease in enzymes involved in anabolic pathways such as sucrose synthase<br />

1, UDP-glucosyltransferase BX8, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UTP-glucose-1phosphate<br />

uridylyltransferase was detected. 2/ Cell redox homeostasis: An up-regulation<br />

of enzymes which catalyse biosynthesis of active forms of glutathione and ascorbate was<br />

detected. A decrease of ascorbate peroxidase and an increase of monodehydroascorbate<br />

reductase leads to the elevation of ascorbate and reduction of monodehydroascorbate could<br />

be proposed in cold-acclimated crown tissues. These changes indicate an enhanced reducing<br />

activity in cold-acclimated tissues. 3/ Protein folding: An up-regulation of several chaperones,<br />

especially HSP70, mitochondrial chaperonin 21, chloroplast precursor of RuBisCO<br />

large subunit-binding protein, or copper-binding chopper chaperone was found. Generally,<br />

it can be concluded that an increase in proteins with chaperone and generally protective<br />

functions was found. 4/ Stress-related proteins: A significant increase in COR/LEA proteins<br />

(dehydrin, WCOR615, salt-tolerant protein) was found. These proteins exhibit protective<br />

functions against cellular dehydration during several stresses, especially drought and salt,<br />

but also cold stress. 5/ One-carbon metabolism (methylation reactions): An up-regulation<br />

of enzymes involved in methylation reactions (S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase and Sadenosyl-L-homocystein<br />

hydrolase) was found.<br />

Keywords: Cold acclimation; frost tolerance; proteom; stress proteins; Triticum aestivum<br />

183


ACCumuLATIoN of PhoToSyNTheSIS ASSImILATe<br />

IN gRAIN IN The ReComBINANT INBRed LINeS<br />

PoPuLATIoN of WheAT deRIVed fRom CRoSS BeTWeeN<br />

AzAR2 ANd 87zhoNg291 uNdeR dRoughT CoNdITIoN<br />

M. Roostaei 1, 2 , S.A. Mohammadi 3 , A. Amri 4 , E. Majidi 5<br />

and R. Haghparast 6<br />

1 Science and Research Unit of Tehran Azad Islamic University<br />

2 Dryland Agricultural Research, Institute (DARI), Maragheh, Iran, Tel: 00-984-212-228-<br />

078, Fax: 00-984-212-222-069<br />

3 Dept. of Agronomy & Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz<br />

51664, Iran<br />

4 International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria<br />

5 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute (ABRI), Karaj, Iran<br />

6 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Sararood, Iran<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: roustaii@yahoo.com<br />

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses and average grain yield remains low, due to<br />

drought. In order to study drought tolerance in bread wheat, 142 recombinant inbred<br />

lines in F8 generation, derived from a cross between Azar2 (winter type) and 87Zhong291<br />

(facultative type) was used. Experiment was conducted using randomized block design<br />

with three replications under drought stress and supplementary irrigation during 2006-<br />

08 seasons at Maragheh experiment station of the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute<br />

(DARI). Studied traits included morph-physiological traits such as plant height, date<br />

to heading, date to anthesis, date to maturity, 1000 kernel weight, grain filling relative,<br />

dry and wet weight of spike, spike length, seed number and seed weight in spike, spiklet<br />

number in spike and accumulation of assimilate in grain. Analysis of variance revealed<br />

significant differences among genotypes in two experimental conditions with respect to<br />

all the traits. Average of grain yield under drought and irrigated conditions were 928 and<br />

2547 Kg/ha, respectively. Under drought and irrigated conditions, grain yields ranged<br />

from 272 to 1935 Kg/ha and 1086 to 3805.4 Kg/ha, respectively. Accumulation of photosynthesis<br />

assimilate in grain were 10.64, 24.89, 52.61 and 11.86 percentage in first, second,<br />

third and fourth week after anthesis, respectively, under drought condition. More<br />

than 88 percentage of photosynthesis assimilate, accumulated in the three week after of<br />

anthesis. In the very early lines total of photosynthesis assimilate, accumulation finished<br />

in the three week after of anthesis. Accumulation of photosynthesis assimilate in the second<br />

and third week after anthesis has linear grain growth stage in this stage, accumulation<br />

was the highest amount. The results indicated that traits such as date to heading,<br />

date to anthesis, 1000 kernel weight and accumulation of assimilate in grain were very<br />

important selection criteria for increase of yield potential under drought condition in<br />

wheat breeding programs.<br />

Keywords: Wheat, drought, earliness, accumulation, and photosynthesis assimilate.<br />

184


meThodS of WINTeR hARdINeSS TeSTS IN BReedINg of<br />

WINTeR WheAT IN ukRAINe<br />

V. Ryabchun and N. Riabchun<br />

Yurjev Plant Production Institute, Moskovskyi prospect, 124, Kharkiv, Ukraine<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: vicno@mail.ru<br />

Winter hardiness is of utmost importance at winter wheat breeding in the north-eastern<br />

part of Ukraine. It is conditioned by a continental climate of this part of the country,<br />

where fall arid conditions are accompanied with the complex of winter and early unfavorable<br />

periods. The main unfavorable factors of fall - winter - spring period are fall<br />

drought, low negative temperatures, ice crusts, drench, late frost return, spring drought.<br />

In this connection newly developed and introduced varieties of winter wheat must be<br />

resistant to the mentioned factors, especially, such severe as low temperatures and ice<br />

crusts. This resistance more fully ensures the realization of genetical potential of yield of<br />

varieties.<br />

In natural conditions it’s not frequently possible in 1 – 2 years to evaluate forms and<br />

lines’ resistance to low temperature. Therefore the varieties from working collection and<br />

breeding materials are exposed to trials in the control conditions every year by means<br />

of freezing in the low-temperature chambers and then a posterior regrowth in the green<br />

house. Thus a critical temperature of freezing for each tested sample is set. In parallel<br />

these cultivars are grown in field trials. Here they are evaluated for stability to the other<br />

factors like ice crusts, fall, winter and spring drought, drench, snow mould, etc.<br />

It’s also effective to apply the method for plant freezing in bunches (Donskoi method):<br />

the plants go through a hardening process in field conditions, then they are formed in<br />

bunches and they are freezed in low-temperature chambers, regrowth in the green house.<br />

The method is remarkable by its good reliability and high hardening capacity. The freezing<br />

method for seedlings in rolls developed by the researchers of Selection–Genetical Institute<br />

(Odessa) and Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuryev (Kharkiv) permits for<br />

2 – 2,5 months to evaluate specimen stability to low temperatures as compared with the<br />

varieties – standards and to group them as to the degree of frost hardiness. All operations<br />

made in controlled conditions. This method is less labourous and permits to evaluate a<br />

large set of varieties.<br />

The indirect methods are also used. They classify winter plants according to their ability<br />

to winter hardening. This is such methods as: the dynamics of a content of soluble carbohydrates<br />

in plants’ tillering nodes, the duration of vernalization period. The analysis<br />

of the new introduced varieties of winter bread wheat from the collection of National<br />

Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, from Russia, Ukraine, other countries<br />

of Europe and America and of breeding materials has been carried out. All the varieties<br />

were divided into several groups according to a degree of hardiness from 1 to 9 balls<br />

185


(1 scores – low hardiness; 9 scores – very high hardiness). For growing in the Kharkov area<br />

the varieties possessing the degree of hardiness from 6 and higher scores are suitable.<br />

It has been established that the sources of the most frost-hardy varieties are Russia,<br />

Ukraine, USA. The highest degree of winter hardiness (8 scores accord to 9-scoring scale)<br />

was shown by the varieties: Donskoi surpriz, Gubernia, Zernogradka 11, Dominanta,<br />

Zhemchuzhina Povolzhya, Otrada of Siberia, Omskaya 6, Orenburgskaya, Kazanskaya<br />

237 (Russia), Kryzhinka, Volodarka, Vasilina, Astet, Doskonala, Doridna, Belosnezhka,<br />

Driada 1, Veselopodolskaya 2491, Lut.37-07, Lut. 760-05, Lut. 1201-07, Eritr. 583-06,<br />

Eritr.1315-08 (Ukraine), KS 93 WGRC 26 (USA).<br />

An over-mild resistance (7 scores) was shown by the varieties Yasochka, BOR-1,<br />

Vesta,Polesskaya 104, Oktava, Povaga, Dalnitskaya, Podolyanka, Donetzkaya 16, Al’yans,<br />

Rozkishna, Kharus, Antonovka, Turunchuk, Slavna, Mirlena, Krasen, Skarbnitsa<br />

(Ukraine), Rodnik Tarasovskiy, Rostovchanka 3, Volzhskaya short-stemmed, Konkurent,<br />

Tarasovskaya awned, Prestizh, Gubernator Dona, Lutescens 380, Lutescens 476,<br />

Zernogradka 10, Masha (Russia), MV Matador, MV Mezefeld, MV Vilma (Hungary),<br />

Podoima (Moldova), Alex (Romaniya), Bul. 5626.5.2 (Bulgaria), TX 97- A0219 (USA).<br />

The largest duration of vernalization was shown by the varieties: Kryzhinka, Driada 1,<br />

Vesta, Voronezhskaya 85, Kazanskaya 237 that points out to their stability to winter thaws<br />

and ice crusts.<br />

The majority of winter bread wheat varieties from France, Poland, Check Republic possesses<br />

a high yield potential, but don’t have a sufficient degree of winter hardiness for the conditions<br />

of the eastern part of Ukraine. They might be the sources of productivity in breeding<br />

under the condition of strict control of winter hardiness in the process of selection.<br />

186


ChANgeS IN The PATTeRN of AdAPTATIoN of BReAd<br />

WheAT VARIeTIeS WIdeLy gRoWN IN SPAIN duRINg<br />

The 20 Th CeNTuRy<br />

Sanchez Garcia M, Álvaro F, Martin Sánchez JA, Royo C<br />

Cereal Breeding, UdL-IRTA, Av. Rovira Roure 191, 25198, Lleida, Spain<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: miguel.sanchez@irta.es<br />

This research was undertaken to determine the relationship between yield increases in<br />

Spain over the last century and the pattern of adaptation of bread wheat varieties to specific<br />

environmental conditions. Five environments were used to study the GE interaction<br />

for yield on a set of 10 bread wheat varieties largely grown in Spain in different periods.<br />

Varieties were grouped as: landraces, old improved varieties (released before 1950),<br />

and winter and spring modern varieties. The bi-plot analysis showed that landraces were<br />

adapted to environments with high thermal stress during grain filling. Old improved varieties<br />

showed the greatest yield stability. Modern varieties had the largest yield potential,<br />

showing specific adaptation associated to their vernalization requirements. Modern<br />

spring varieties were the best adapted to environments not limited by cold or water<br />

stresses, while winter genotypes were the most productive in non-limiting environments<br />

in terms of water supply or high temperatures after flowering. Our results indicate that<br />

a decrease in yield stability and greater specific adaptation occurred in Spain during the<br />

20 th century with the introduction of new bread wheat varieties.<br />

187


exPReSSIoN of Seed doRmANCy IN CRoATIANgRoWN<br />

WINTeR WheATS AT dIffeReNT geRmINATIoN<br />

TemPeRATuReS<br />

Sarcevic, Hrvoje 1 , Ikic, Ivica 2 , Baric, Marijana 1 , Tomasovic,<br />

Slobodan 2 , Mlinar, Rade 2 , and Gunjaca, Jerko 1<br />

1 Department of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biometrics, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture,<br />

Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia<br />

2 Bc Institute for Production and Breeding of Field Crops Zagreb, Dugoselska 7, 10370 Dugo<br />

Selo, Croatia<br />

e–mail: hsarcevic@agr.hr<br />

The level of seed dormancy at harvest time is the main component of pre-harvest sprouting<br />

resistance in wheat and is determined by genetic as well as environmental factors.<br />

Temperature is an important environmental factor, which influence the induction of<br />

seed dormancy during seed development and maturation as well as the expression of<br />

seed dormancy during germination. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of<br />

germination temperature on expression of seed dormancy in different wheat genotypes.<br />

Twenty one winter wheat cultivars widely grown for commercial production in Croatia,<br />

two promising breeder lines and two checks, the line RL4137 possessing a high level of<br />

seed dormancy at harvest as well as cultivar Sivka with a low level of grain dormancy at<br />

harvest, were included in the study. Genotypes were grown in the field at two locations in<br />

Croatia during 2008/2009 growing season in a randomized complete block design with<br />

two replicates. From each plot 30 spikes were harvested at harvest ripeness (approximately<br />

14% moisture content on a wet weight basis). Three germination tests (experiments)<br />

were conducted with hand threshed seeds under controlled environment at temperatures<br />

of 15, 20 and 25°C in darkness. The first germination test was started immediately after<br />

harvest (Time 1) whereas the second and third germination tests were conducted after<br />

10 (Time 2) and 20 (Time 3) days of seed afterripening at 20°C, respectively. Germinated<br />

seeds were counted after three and six days and germination rate, expressed as weighted<br />

(by day) germination index (WGI), was calculated for each genotype by temperature combination.<br />

Combined analysis of variance across locations revealed significant (P


mination temperatures varied among genotypes in all three germination tests. Examples<br />

of different genotype response to germination temperatures at Time 1were Barbara and<br />

Renan, which at 15°C had similar WGI mean values (0.42 and 0.43) while at 25°C their<br />

WGIs were 0.06 and 0.23, respectively. Similarly, at Time 2 Superzitarka, Srpanjka and<br />

Petra, at 15°C had WGI mean values of 0.66, 0.65 and 0.63 and at 25°C 0.25, 0.15 and 0.08,<br />

respectively. The number of genotypes with the same level of seed dormancy as dormant<br />

standard RL 4137 at all three germination temperatures decreased from six (Time 1) to<br />

four (Time 3). In all three germination tests the number of genotypes ranked similar to<br />

standard RL4137 was lower at 25°C compared to other two germination temperatures. At<br />

15°C the ranges (maximum-minimum) of genotypic WGI mean values decreased from<br />

Time 1 (0.75) to Time 3 (0.45), at 20°C ranges of WGIs were similar for 15 and 20°C (0.80<br />

and 0.82, respectively) and decreased to 0.75 at Time 3, whereas at 25°C ranges of WGIs<br />

increased from Time 1 (0.67) to Time 3 (0.81). This indicates that maximum differences<br />

in dormancy among genotypes included in the current study occurred at different stages<br />

of afterripening depending on germination temperatures. We concluded that combination<br />

of lower and intermediate germination temperatures are suitable for testing dormancy<br />

level at harvest time while at later terms (after a period of afterripening) including<br />

tests at higher germination temperatures are recommended.<br />

189


eVALuATIoN of WheAT SyNTheTIC hexAPLoIdS<br />

foR heAT ToLeRANCe uSINg STReSS INdICeS<br />

Sindhu Sareen, B. S. Tyagi, Gyanendra Singh,<br />

Jag Shoran and S.S. Singh<br />

Directorate of Wheat Research, Aggarsain Marg, Karnal 132001 (Haryana) INDIA<br />

E-mail: sareen9@hotmail.com.<br />

Terminal heat and drought are two major abiotic stresses that limit wheat productivity<br />

in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. According to an estimate, in the developing<br />

world (19 countries), more than half (57.3%) of the wheat crop is adversely affected by<br />

heat stress leading to as much as 31% reduction in yield. High temperatures (> 30 0 C) at<br />

the time of grain filling decreases grain filling as well as total grain filling period in wheat<br />

which result in reduction in yield. Taking into consideration the current trends of climate<br />

change and predictions of global warming, there is need to identify genotypes that have<br />

yield potential under both stress as well as non stress conditions. Yield based indices<br />

are needed for the evaluation of high temperature tolerance for applied plant breeding<br />

programme. The stress susceptibility index (SSI) which is commonly used in wheat, is a<br />

ratio of genotypic performance under stress and non stress conditions adjusted for the<br />

intensity of each trial where as the stress tolerance index (STI), which is used to identify<br />

the genotypes that perform well under both stress and non stress conditions, has not been<br />

used in wheat. Sixty-six synthetic hexaploids developed by CIMMYT were evaluated under<br />

polyhouse and field conditions using stress indices to select stress tolerant lines with<br />

good yield potential under both conditions. A total of three sets of paired trials were<br />

conducted in field and polyhouse conditions to evaluate terminal heat tolerance. Sixtysix<br />

synthetic hexaploids were exposed to post heading high temperature in polyhouse<br />

for two consecutive years. The identified heat tolerant and susceptible lines were evaluated<br />

under timely and late sown conditions in field. Data was recorded on phenological,<br />

physiological and grain yield parameters and significant variability was recorded for most<br />

of the traits. All the traits registered reduction under stress conditions. The grain filling<br />

duration was reduced from -2 to 19 days whereas grain filling was reduced by -11 to 89%.<br />

The reduction in grain number/ main spike, grain weight/ main spike and 1000 grain<br />

weight ranged from -12 to 89.5%, -14 to 96% and 17 to 56% respectively under late sown<br />

field conditions. The genotypic performance under stress and non stress conditions was<br />

evaluated using heat tolerance index (HTI) and heat susceptibility index (HSI). Five synthetic<br />

hexaploids namely, Syn 11, Syn 18, Syn 34, Syn 52 and Syn 71 were found to have<br />

heat tolerance as well as higher grain weight under both conditions. These synthetics are<br />

being used further in abiotic stress tolerance wheat breeding programme.<br />

190


The ReLATIoNShIPS AmoNg The VeRNALIzATIoN<br />

ReSPoNSe, CARBohydRATe ACCumuLATIoN,<br />

deVeLoPmeNTAL STAgeS ANd fRoST ToLeRANCe<br />

IN BReAd WheAT<br />

S. Sasani 1 , S. Mahfoozi 2, , R. Tavakkol-Afshari 3<br />

& B. Trevaskis 4<br />

1 Department of Seed and Plant Improvement, Research Centre of Agriculture and Natural<br />

Resources Kermanshah, Iran.<br />

2 Department of Cereals Research, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran.<br />

3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Tehran, Karaj, Tehran, Iran.<br />

4 CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, GPO box 1600, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: shahryar.sasani@spii.ir<br />

Frost tolerance of winter wheat depends primarily on a strong vernalization requirement,<br />

delaying the transition to reproductive phase. The responses of four bread wheat cultivars<br />

to low-temperatures were examined in controlled environment and field conditions. Prolonged<br />

cold treatment accelerated the transition to reproductive development in winter<br />

wheats (cv. Norstar and cv. Shahryar) and facultative wheat (cv. Alvand), but not in a<br />

spring wheat (cv. Kavir). Exposure to low-temperatures also enhanced frost tolerance<br />

of the winter and facultative wheats. Maximum frost tolerance was achieved around the<br />

point where further cold treatment caused no additional acceleration of flowering time;<br />

the vernalization saturation point. This greatest frost tolerance potential was observed in<br />

the winter wheat Norstar, which required the longest cold treatments to fulfill the vernalization<br />

response. The increased frost tolerance observed after exposure to low-temperatures<br />

(cold acclimation) was associated with reduced water but increased sugar content,<br />

and there was a strong association between frost tolerance and increased fructan content<br />

in the crowns. Fructan levels increased proportional to the length of cold treatment until<br />

the vernalization saturation point was reached. These data support the hypothesis that<br />

vernalization and cold acclimation pathways are interconnected in cereals and that the<br />

delay of floral development until spring is critical to allow acclimation to low-temperatures<br />

during winter.<br />

Key words: Wheat, vernalization, cold acclimation, carbohydrate, freezing tolerance,<br />

final leaf number, fructan<br />

191


CoLeoPTILe LeNgTh of Some WheAT VARIeTIeS<br />

ANd LINeS ANd TheIR deRIVed muTANT LINeS<br />

Emilija Simeonovska 1 , Suzana Kratovalieva 1 , Sonja<br />

Ivanovska 1 , Zoran Jovovic 1<br />

1 Institute of Agriculture, Blvd. Aleksandar Makedonski b.b, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia<br />

2 Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia<br />

3 Biotechnical Faculty, Podgorica, Montenegro<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: simeonovska@yahoo.com, e.simeonovska@zeminst.edu.mk<br />

Coleoptile length is a morphological characteristic that is found important for wheat production<br />

in dry and semi-dry regions. In cases of lack of rainfalls and irrigation during the<br />

sowing season in autumn, longer coleoptiles provide better stand establishment of the<br />

seedlings after sowing in deeper soil layers with higher moisture level.<br />

This investigation is carried out in order to asses the sufficient source of promising genotypes<br />

for longer coleoptile under the framework of the wheat breeding program at the<br />

Institute of Agriculture in Skopje. The set of 42 different wheat genotypes (T. aestivum ssp.<br />

aestivum) was explored for coleoptile length under laboratory conditions (growing cabinet).<br />

The set consisted of 5 standard varieties and 2 stable breeding lines (representing the<br />

parent or control genotypes) and their derived mutant lines (in total 35). The mutant lines<br />

are of M 9 generation after irradiation treatment with gamma rays (21 lines were treated<br />

with 200 Gy while 14 were treated with 300 Gy).<br />

In general, the variability was low to moderate; the coefficients of variation of the mutants<br />

ranged from 6.61% to a maximum of 16, 48%. The parent varieties and lines had the similar<br />

variability, with coefficients of variation from 7.54% to 12.83%.<br />

The Duncan’s Multiple Rang Test was used for testing the differences among obtained<br />

mean values of each parent genotype and derived mutant lines. In total, 40% of the mutants<br />

showed longer coleoptiles than parents, but the differences were significant for 8%<br />

of mutant lines. The mutagen treatment resulted in shorter coleoptile length in 60% of<br />

mutants, in which the significant differences were found in 31.43%. The longest coleoptile<br />

in this investigation was measured in a mutant line Ba200-2 (mean value 72, 16mm;<br />

range from 53mm to 92mm, significantly longer than parent variety Babuna) and it will<br />

be included in the breeding program. However, since the desired coleoptile length is<br />

more than 10 mm, future breeding activities related to this trait should require searching<br />

for the new germplasm.<br />

192


effeCTS of ABIoTIC STReSS oN gRAIN yIeLd ANd quAL-<br />

ITy of WheAT<br />

J.H.J. Spiertz and Xinyou Yin<br />

Centre for Crop Systems Analysis (CCSA), Plant Sciences Group, Wageningen University,<br />

P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: huub.spiertz@wur.nl<br />

Drought and heat are the two major abiotic constraints determining yield and quality of<br />

wheat. Heat affects grain yield and quality of wheat through sink strength and source capacity.<br />

Wheat genotypes express a differential response to chronic heat as well as a heat shock<br />

(Yang et al., 2002). Differences in heat tolerance between genotypes were clearly reflected in<br />

individual grain weights and grain yields rather than in rate of leaf photosynthesis. A heat<br />

shock during grain filling affected grain quality as well as yield (Spiertz et al., 2006).<br />

Severe post-anthesis water stress reduced dry matter accumulation, remobilization and<br />

grain yield more under high than low nitrogen availability (Ercoli et al., 2008). Heat during<br />

grain filling increased grain protein mass fraction, but decreased the gluten index<br />

(Motzo et al., 2007). Improvement of grain yield and quality requires an optimization of<br />

dynamic interactions of both storage and photosynthetic processes. Narrowing the gap<br />

between genetic potential and phenotypic expression requires knowledge about diversity<br />

in plant physiological traits and the mechanism of grain growth and development (Barnabas<br />

et al., 2008; Reynolds and Trethowan, 2007). A better quantitative understanding of<br />

sink-source interactions during the grain filling phase can give guidance to breeders to<br />

select traits that are critical to improve the adaptability of the wheat crop to abiotic stress<br />

conditions.<br />

Modelling seed nitrogen accumulation and its related quality traits has increasingly received<br />

attention from crop physiologists (Martre et al. 2003). Mechanistic crop modeling<br />

can be an effective tool to understand crop phenotypes in response to environmental<br />

variables and genotypic characteristics (Yin et al. 2003). Improvement of grain yield and<br />

quality requires an optimization of dynamic interactions of both storage and photosynthetic<br />

processes. Heat affects grain yield and quality of wheat through sink development<br />

and source capacity. Narrowing the gap between genetic potential and phenotypic expression<br />

requires knowledge about the physiological mechanism of tolerance to high ambient<br />

temperatures during the vegetative and reproductive stages. We aim at analyzing the effects<br />

of heat on sink and source processes and consequently on grain yield and quality.<br />

References<br />

Barnabas Beata, Katalin Jäger & Attila Feher, 2008. The effect of drought and heat stress<br />

on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant, Cell & Env. 31: 11-38<br />

Ercoli Laura, Leonarda Lulli, Marco Mariotti, Alessandro Masoni and Iduna Arduini,<br />

2008. Post-anthesis dry matter and nitrogen dynamics in durum wheat as affected by<br />

193


nitrogen supply and soil water availability. Europ. J. Agron. 28: 138-147<br />

Martre Pierre, John R. Porter, Peter D. Jamieson and Eugene Triboï, 2003. Modeling grain nitrogen<br />

accumulation and protein composition to understand sink/source regulations of nitrogen<br />

remobilization for wheat. Plant Physiol. 133: 1959-1967<br />

Motzo Rosella, Simonetta Fois and Francesco Giunta, 2007. Protein content and gluten<br />

quality of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) as affected by sowing date. J. Sci.<br />

Food Agric. 87: 1480-1488<br />

Reynolds, M.P. and R.M. Trethowan, 2007. Physiological interventions in breeding for<br />

adaptation to abiotic stress. In: Scale and Complexity in Plant Systems Research: Gene-<br />

Plant-Crop Relations (Eds.: J.H.J. Spiertz, P.C. Struik and H.H. van Laar). Wageningen UR<br />

Frontis Series, Springer. p. 129-146 [ISBN: 978-1-4020-5905-6]<br />

Spiertz J.H.J., R.J. Hamer, Hengyong Xu, C. Primo-Martin, C. Don and P.E.L. van der<br />

Putten, 2006. Heat stress in wheat; effects on grain weight and quality within genotypes.<br />

Europ. J. Agron. 25: 89-95<br />

Yang J., R.G. Sears, B.S. Gill & G.M. Paulsen, 2002. Genotypic differences in utilization of<br />

assimilate sources during maturation of wheat under chronic heat and heat shock stresses.<br />

Euphytica 125: 179-188<br />

Yin, X., P. Stam, M.J. Kropff and Ad H.C.M. Schapendonk, 2003. Crop modeling, QTL<br />

mapping, and their complementary role in plant breeding. Agron.J. 95: 90-98.<br />

194


moLeCuLAR ChARACTeRIzATIoN of TeRmINAL heAT<br />

ToLeRANCe IN WheAT<br />

Ratan Tiwari, Rajender Singh, Sindhu Sareen,<br />

Jag Shoran and S. S. Singh<br />

Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal- 132 001, Haryana, India<br />

Email: tiwari1964@yahoo.com<br />

Frequent incidences of sudden spurt in temperatures during the grain filling period of<br />

wheat, has brought concerns to wheat researchers towards terminal heat stress. Development<br />

of heat tolerant genotypes is one of the approaches to mitigate the effect and<br />

increase production in a sustainable manner in a changing environmental regime. Keeping<br />

this in mind a mapping population involving wheat genotypes possessing tolerance<br />

to terminal heat stress as well as sensitive to stress has been developed at the Directorate<br />

of Wheat Research, Karnal, India, which is being utilized for mapping components of<br />

terminal heat tolerance. Two hundred and six Recombinant Inbred Lines developed for<br />

the study were phenotyped along with parents for terminal heat tolerance under poly<br />

house conditions. At heading stage, one set was transferred to poly house where average<br />

maximum temperature was about 3-5 o C higher than ambient temperature. Data was<br />

recorded on phenological, physiological and grain traits. Exposure to high temperature<br />

under poly house condition at the time of grain development resulted in higher reduction<br />

in grain weight in the sensitive genotype as compared to the tolerant one. Considerable<br />

variability for the trait in response to high temperature as well as for grain growth period<br />

under polyhouse environment was observed among the recombinant inbred lines. This<br />

was evident from per cent reduction in grain weight per spike. Chlorophyll fluorescence<br />

was recorded in RILs varying in their response to high temperatures inside and outside<br />

the poly house. Variation among the genotype in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was<br />

also recorded. Parental screening was carried out with 188 SSR markers. This included<br />

gwm (106), gdm (7), wmc (35), barc(33) and cfd(7). The percent polymorphism observed<br />

varied from 21.5% (gwm) to 30.3% (barc).<br />

195


IdeNTIfICATIoN of SouRCeS foR heAT, SALT, dRoughT<br />

ANd fRoST ToLeRANCe IN SPRINg WheAT (TRITICum<br />

AeSTIVum L.) geRmPLASm<br />

Aziz ur Rehman, Nadeem Ahmad, M Arif Khan,<br />

Makhdoom Hussain, NI Khan, M. Zulkiffal, W. Sabir,<br />

Naeem Ahmad, M M Iqbal, M. Munir, M.Younis,<br />

GM Subhani, MI Khokhar 1<br />

1 Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad-Pakistan<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: aziz_kml@yahoo.com, azizkamalia@gmail.com<br />

Climate change is threatening the global wheat production. There is a dire need to develop<br />

wheat varieties which can help improving wheat productivity by tolerating abiotic<br />

stresses. Identification of sources for tolerance against all such stresses is a prerequisite<br />

for development of wheat varieties capable of tolerating climatic hazards. Spring wheat<br />

germplasm, comprising of about 450 entries from CIMMYT, ICARDA, Pakistan, India,<br />

Bangladesh, Nepal, China etc., was evaluated for heat, salt, drought tolerance at Faisalabad,<br />

Pakistan. The material was evaluated for heat tolerance during 2004-05 and 2005-<br />

06 crop seasons. A set of germplasm was sown in a transparent plastic sheet tunnel and<br />

another set was sown in an open field adjacent to the tunnel. The material was planted<br />

on different sowing dates in November to ensure heading of all entries at the same time<br />

(4 th week of Feb). The heat stress was imposed for 2 weeks just after heading in the 1 st year<br />

and 4 weeks in the 2 nd year of study. The temp inside the Tunnel was maintained at about<br />

5C higher than the open field. The data regarding ability to stay green, grains per spike,<br />

1000 grain weight, yield per spike were recorded. The heat tolerance of an accession was<br />

defined in terms of staying green for longer time under stress and better relative values<br />

(stressed/non stressed) of the characters. The entries found the best were: MAYA/PVN;<br />

BB#2/PT//CC/INIA/3/ALD’S’; WL711/3/KAL/BB//ALD’S’; WL711/CROW’S’//ALD#1/<br />

CMH77A.917/3/HI666/PVN’S’<br />

The same set of germplasm was evaluated for salinity tolerance at 10dS m -1 and 20dS m -1<br />

levels by adding NaCl in aquaculture, wherein ½ strength Hoagland solution was used<br />

as nutrition media. The data regarding root length, root weight, shoot length and shoot<br />

weight were recorded from 3 weeks old seedlings grown under stressed and non stressed<br />

(control) conditions. The relative values of the characters were used as selection criterion<br />

for salt tolerance. The best 14 lines which showed the least effect of salinity on their<br />

seedlings and 6 high yielding checks were evaluated in a RCBD trial with 6 replications.<br />

Each variety/line was assigned a plot of 1.8m width and 5m length in salt affected field.<br />

196


The accessions Gamdow-6; Lakata-1; Fret-1; BAV 92//SAP/ MON performed better than<br />

Inqilab 91. A Pakistani variety Uqab was the best performer in field conditions and it was<br />

moderately tolerant in aquaculture, while a Pakistani variety AS-02 was susceptible in<br />

field and aquaculture. A Chinese variety Ning 8319 was found good in aquaculture.<br />

The germplasm was evaluated during the years 2004-05 and 2005-06 in field conditions<br />

for drought tolerance. Two sets of the material were planted in a double row plot of 2.5m<br />

length. Basal irrigation for germination was applied to both the sets. Afterwards, one<br />

set was irrigated normally (4 irrigations) and no irrigation was applied to the other set.<br />

Fertilizers and other practices were according to the standard recommendations. The<br />

rainfall received in the crop season during 2004-05 and 2005-06 was 158mm and 43mm,<br />

respectively. Hence, there were different stress levels in both the years. Yield per plant<br />

under stress and relative yield per plant (yield under stress /yield under normal) were<br />

used as criterion for drought tolerance. Kukuna; Weebil 1; Harrier’S’; PBW343; CROC/<br />

AE.SQ(203)//KAUZ/3/CASIA; PVN//CAR422/ANA/5/BOW/CROW//BUC/PVN/3/<br />

YR/4/TRAP#1 were the best drought.<br />

Unusual frost during the 2008-09 crop season helped in screening the material for frost<br />

tolerance. During the period 15 th Dec to 15 th Feb frost was observed in 48 nights. This<br />

damaged the early sown wheat crop of farmers particularly early heading varieties like<br />

Shafaq and Bhakhar. In a set of 450 germplasm entries, most of accession were severely affected<br />

but varieties/lines Uqab; HD2009; Kanchan; Shalimar88; MAYA/PVN; Bluesilver;<br />

HD2179; Punjab81; VEE#10/2*PVN completed heading and anthesis in the frost period<br />

and were not affected. The lines HUW234+Lr34 and HUW234+Lr34 //2* PRL/VEE#10<br />

have shown pollen sterility. When pollinated with viable pollen, they have shown about<br />

40-50% seed setting. They can further be studied for low temperature induced male sterility<br />

for use in wheat hybrid development. A Bangladeshi variety ‘Kanchan’ have shown<br />

moderate to high level of tolerance for all these stresses.<br />

197


PhySIoLogIC ANd BIoChemICAL ReSPoNSeS of WheAT<br />

PLANTS (TRITICum AeSTIVum L.) SuBmITTed To WATeRdefICIT<br />

STReSS IN dIffeReNT PheNoLogIC STAgeS<br />

of deVeLoPmeNT<br />

Lettice A. Canete Dias 1 , Eliane C.G.Vendruscolo 1 ;<br />

Ivan Schuster 2 , Marise Fonseca dos Santos 1<br />

1 Laboratório de Bioquímica e Genética, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus Palotina<br />

-Rua Pioneiro, 2153, Palotina-Pr, Brazil CEP 85950-000.<br />

2 Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Coodetec, Km 98, CP 301, Br467, Cascavel-Pr, Brazil, CEP<br />

85813-450.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: vendruscolo@ufpr.br<br />

Proline has been proposed to function as osmoprotector and scavenger of reactive oxygen<br />

species (ROS) in plants submitted to water deficit. The aim of this work was to study the<br />

effects of drought on each wheat phenological stage (tillering, booting, heading, flowering<br />

and grain filling) using stress parameters as RWC (relative water content), membrane<br />

stability index (MSI), lipid peroxidation through malondialdehyde levels (MDA) and<br />

proline content (PRO). The Brazilian commercial elite cultivar Triticum aestivum cv CD<br />

200126 was submitted to eight days of water deficit stress on each stage. The perception<br />

of stress was low at tillering, and higher at finals stages of growth verified by reduction<br />

of MSI and RWC and increase in MDA. PRO presented the highest value when stress<br />

was applied at the heading although it was not sufficient to prevent damages. The results<br />

indicate that the best stages to evaluate the effect of water shortage over wheat plant development<br />

and productivity is booting, heading or flowering.<br />

198


effeCTS of SALINITy ANd NITRogeN uSe meThodS oN<br />

yIeLd ANd yIeLd ComPoNeNTS of WheAT (TRITICum<br />

AeSTIVum L.)<br />

Gholam Reza Zamani 1 , Reihaneh Farshid,<br />

Mohammad Ali Behdani<br />

1 Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of<br />

Birjand, Birjand, Iran.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: grz1343@yahoo.com<br />

Salinity is one of the main constructions for grain wheat production in arid and semi<br />

arid regions such as east of Iran. In order to investigate effects of salinity and nitrogen use<br />

methods on wheat, an experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 in Research Station<br />

of Agricultural Faculty, The University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran, as split-plot based on<br />

complete randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were three different<br />

salinities of irrigation water (1.5, 4.4 and 7.9 dS.m -1 ) as main plots and four nitrogen<br />

use methods (total nitrogen splitted in to three equal parts and then: 1- soil application at<br />

sowing, tillering and heading stages, 2- soil application at sowing and tillering stages and<br />

foliar application at heading stage, 3- soil application at sowing and heading stages and<br />

foliar application at tillering stage, 4- soil application at sowing stage and foliar application<br />

at tillering and heading stages) as sub plots. “Back cross Roushan” variety was used<br />

in this experiment. Also, nitrogen was used as urea fertilizer (300kg.ha -1 ). Results showed<br />

as salinities of irrigation water increased number of spike/m 2 , number of seed per spike,<br />

1000- seed weight, grain yield and harvest index decreased significantly (p ≥0.05). Also,<br />

nitrogen use methods affected grain yield and yield components significantly. Generally,<br />

soil application of nitrogen at sowing and heading stages and foliar application at tillering<br />

stage (treatment 3), was better than the conventional nitrogen application (treatment 1).<br />

Whereas Foliar application at heading stage increased 1000-seed weight, but foliar application<br />

at tillering stage, increased number of spike.m -2 and number of grain per spike.<br />

Key word: salinity, nitrogen, wheat, yield, yield components<br />

199


ReSuLTS of eVALuATIoN of SPRINg WheAT geRmPLASm<br />

ThRough kAzAkhSTAN-SIBeRIA NeTWoRk<br />

Y. Zelenskiy 1 , A. Morgounov 2 , Y. Manes 3 , D. Singh 4 ,<br />

M. Karabayev 1 , A. Baytassov 1 , K. Abdullayev 5 ,<br />

A. Abugalieva 5 , I. Belan 5 , L. Bekenova 5 , V. Chudinov 5 ,<br />

V. Ganeyev 5 , M. Koyshibayev 5 , N. Korobeynikov 5 ,<br />

L. Maltseva 5 , V. Tsigankov 5 , V. Tyunin 5 , S. Rsaliev 5 ,<br />

V. Shamanin 5 , G. Sereda 5 , K. Stepanov 5 , V. Zykin 5<br />

1 CIMMYT, PO 1443, 010000, Astana, Kazakhstan,<br />

2 CIMMYT, PO Box 39, Emek 06511, Ankara, Turkey,<br />

3 CIMMYT, Apdo. Postal 6-641, C.P. 06600, Mexico D.F. Mexico,<br />

4 CIMMYT, Nairobi, Kenya,<br />

5 Kazakh-Siberian Network on Spring Wheat Improvement (KASIB), c/o CIMMYT<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: y.zelenskiy@cgiar.org<br />

The region of Northern Kazakhstan and Western Siberia lies between 50-56 N and 60-95<br />

E and represents relatively uniform region growing close to 20 millions ha of spring wheat.<br />

The major abiotic stress affecting wheat production in the region is lack of moisture.<br />

Precipitation varies between 300-450 mm per year and 80-250 mm per vegetation season.<br />

The region has fertile soils with humus content of 3-6%. The drought conditions, fertile<br />

soils and the grown genotypes provide with high protein (13-18%) and gluten (25-34%)<br />

content. The gluten is characterized by good strength and elasticity, allowing it to be used<br />

as a component in flour mixtures with grain of medium or poor quality.<br />

The wheat varieties grown in Kazakhstan and Siberia are primarily developed by the<br />

public research and breeding institutions. Since CIMMYT established its program in the<br />

region a new cooperative activities – the Kazakhstan-Siberia Network on Spring Wheat<br />

Improvement (KASIB) - were initiated. KASIB was established in 2000 and unites 15<br />

breeding and research programs of the region. The objectives of KASIB are germplasm<br />

exchange and generation of agronomic and disease data for newly developed varieties<br />

and advanced lines of spring wheat. Each program submits 2-3 new varieties or advance<br />

lines to the trial which is conducted for two years in a row. The nursery is tested as replicated<br />

yield trial across all participating locations. After two years new varieties (lines)<br />

are submitted for testing. For 10 years of the KASIB research 368 entries of spring bread<br />

wheat and 115 entries of durum wheat have been assessed. To monitor the breeding<br />

progress KASIB check varieties consist of region-wide cultivated varieties Pamyati Aziyeva,<br />

Tertsiya, Omskaya 35, Astana 2 as well as landmark variety Saratovskaya 29 which<br />

was widely spread and occupied millions hectares in 60-90s of the last century. Average<br />

yield across KASIB nursery locations varied from 2.15 to 3.0 t/ha. The highest yielding<br />

genotypes were Pamyaty Azieva, Omskaya 35, Tertsiya, Altayskaya 100, Lutescens<br />

706, Akmola 2, Lyubava, Chelyaba yubileynaya, Eritrospermum 78 etc. These varieties<br />

200


were 10-15% more yielding than average. The production area under these varieties has<br />

recently been increasing in the region. In addition to yield KASIB is looking at resistance<br />

to biotic and abiotic stresses, grain quality, micronutrient content (Zn, Fe) of the<br />

grain and other traits. Highly drought resistant varieties such as Stepnaya 17, Lutescens<br />

1501, Eritrosperum 55, Fiton 27 were identified under severe drought conditions. Varieties<br />

Lutescens 29, Lutescens 53, Stepnaya 62, Lutescens 196, Pamyaty Ryuba, Fiton 156<br />

etc. were characterized with high end-use quality of grain. About 25% of studied KASIB<br />

varieties are being used by breeders for crossing in their own breeding programs. The rust<br />

resistance research showed that highly effective resistance genes in the region Lr9, Lr24,<br />

Lr25 and Lr36. Genes Lr17, Lr20, Lr28, Lr29, Lr34 considered as resistant previously,<br />

proved to be susceptible to some leaf rust isolates. A number of genes (Lr12, Lr29, Lr30)<br />

possess slow rusting effect with low rust severity. Highly effective stem rust resistance<br />

genes to local population are Sr24, Sr33, Sr35 and Sr36. Good resistance level to leaf rust<br />

in 2006-2009 was demonstrated by Omskaya 38, Sibakovskaya yubileynaya, Lutescens<br />

158, Eritrospermum 78, Chelyaba yubileynaya. Assessment of 969 entries for stem rust<br />

resistance against Ug 99 was made in Kenya. Results of screening of 139 varieties (14%)<br />

showed good resistance to Ug 99 (1R-30RMR). The best resistant to Ug 99 genotypes were<br />

Omskaya 38, Stepnaya 62, Lutescens 307, Lutestsens 220, Fiton 41.<br />

Shuttle breeding program between KASIB and CIMMYT-Mexico was established to<br />

integrate resistance to rusts into local germplasm. The crossing program conducted in<br />

Mexico emphasizes Kazakh x Mexico crosses as well as top crosses with the relevant US<br />

and Canadian germplasm. Shuttle breeding in Mexico resulted in 818 crosses and 3624<br />

hybrid populations being studied under KSBN (Kazakh-Shuttle Breeding Nurseries). The<br />

“shuttle” material allowed a number of breeding programs to develop promising genotypes<br />

characterized with high yield, wide adaptation and rust resistance. They are currently<br />

being tested to advanced yield trial. Two of them Fiton 36 SB and Fiton 41 SB were<br />

involved in the 10 th KASIB nursery as advanced lines and were studied in multilocational<br />

trial in 2009.<br />

201


BReedINg foR ImPRoVed ToLeRANCe IN WheAT AgAINST<br />

ABIoTIC fACToRS To eNhANCe PRoduCTIVITy uNdeR<br />

gLoBAL CLImATe ChANgeS<br />

Gyanendra Singh, BS Tyagi, Sindhu Sareen, Jag Shoran<br />

and SS Singh<br />

Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal 132001, India<br />

Email: gs_knl@yahoo.com<br />

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most important crop of India and serves as<br />

the staple food for the majority of population. The crop productivity and production<br />

is limiting due to several biotic (rusts, foliar blight, powdery mildew etc) and abiotic<br />

factors (heat, drought, water logging, salinity etc). In India, among the abiotic factors<br />

drought and heat constraints on production have increased an importance as global climate<br />

change leads to increasingly warmer and drier conditions over more than 12 million<br />

ha of area under wheat. The problems of water logging, salinity and element toxicities also<br />

limit wheat productivity substantially. The Indian wheat programme has made remarkable<br />

progress in terms of managing biotic factors particularly rusts and other diseases.<br />

While, there had been comparatively less efforts on abiotic factors till the end of last century.<br />

Realizing the growing importance of abiotic stresses due to global warming, water<br />

scarcity and fluctuating weather patterns, the Indian wheat programme at Directorate of<br />

Wheat Research, Karnal initiated activities to address various researchable issues related<br />

to these factors and experiments have been conducted during last five years. For heat<br />

and drought tolerance, multi-location trials using 250 genotypes of wheat along with<br />

3 checks were conducted to assess for grain yield, contributing traits as well as for terminal<br />

heat tolerance under timely and late sown conditions. This way, 15-20 promising<br />

lines were selected based on their superiority for different specific traits by each centre.<br />

These lines showed better performance for yield and its contributing characters, heat tolerance,<br />

based on relative ranking. Genotype NWL 10 emerged as the most heat tolerant<br />

and it exhibited significantly higher grain number /spike, grain weight/spike and 1000seed<br />

weight along with highest grain yield. Lines namely DL1266-5, DL-325 and DL-321<br />

among the NPT wheats showed higher grain number/ spike combined with higher grain<br />

weight which is being exploited in developing very high yield potential genotypes. It was<br />

concluded that traits identified included bio-mass/plot, grain yield, harvest Index, grain<br />

per spike, 1000-grain weight, tillers/meter, plant height, canopy temperature at anthesis<br />

and at physiological maturity etc. and used as the criterion. It may be noted that such<br />

traits should be least effected by environment, acts as yield component and are highly<br />

heritable. In addition, traits specific donors were identified for utilizing them in crossing<br />

programme and improving abiotic stress tolerance. Besides, recently experiments on<br />

breeding for water logging, salinity and element toxicities have been initiated to widen<br />

the genetic base, enhance tolerance level and improve wheat productivity over larger area<br />

to fulfill ever increasing demand of food and nutritional security in India.<br />

202


PLeNARy SeSSIoN 4:<br />

WheAT geNeTICS ANd BReedINg<br />

foR BIoTIC STReSSeS<br />

203


STRATegIeS foR ImPRoVINg WheAT ReSISTANCe<br />

To NeCRoTRoPhIC dISeASeS<br />

Robert Loughman 1 , Manisha Shankar 1 , Michael<br />

Francki 1 , Robin Wilson 2 and Richard Oliver 3<br />

1 Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth<br />

6151 Australia; 2 InterGrain Pty Ltd, PO Box 4100 Victoria Park, 6100; 3 Curtin University<br />

of Technology, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845.<br />

robert.loughman@agric.wa.gov.au<br />

Foliar necrotrophic diseases such as tan spot (TS) caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis<br />

(Died.) Drechs. and stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) caused by Phaeosphaeria nodorum<br />

(E. Müller) Hedjaroude present resistance breeding targets in Australia as in many<br />

other wheat growing regions. Stubble retention farming optimised with efficient chemical<br />

weed control has favoured these leaf diseases which affect both yield and quality through<br />

the production of shrivelled and poor coloured grain. The two pathogens are sufficiently<br />

similar in their ecology to frequently occur together as a disease complex. Improving resistance<br />

to necrotrophic diseases remains a challenging area in wheat breeding hampered<br />

by both the quantitative control and partial expression of resistance. Phenotypic selection<br />

is frequently laborious and significantly influenced by plant growth stage and environment.<br />

Improving disease resistance is compromised by the need to achieve gains in other<br />

breeding objectives.<br />

Resistance to both pathogens is partial, generally expressed as restricted or slower lesion<br />

development. There has been some success in sourcing SNB resistance for breeding<br />

winter wheat germplasm. Resistance to SNB in white-grained spring wheats has been<br />

more problematic due to grain softness, low flour yield and high α-amylase activity. For<br />

TS, resistance expression in bread wheat sources has been less problematic. Surveillance<br />

outside the adapted primary gene pools, including synthetic bread wheats and wheat<br />

relatives, has also confirmed the reliance on partial resistance for both diseases. Effective<br />

resistance sources in this context are a balance between the expression of resistance,<br />

frequency in adapted gene pools, behaviour in breeding and association of penalties<br />

through linkage drag.<br />

Genetic studies have broadly focused on the inheritance of resistance in i) adapted germplasm,<br />

ii) germplasm potentially contributing resistance effects through gene diversity<br />

and iii) where genetic materials differentiate host response to specific fungal products as<br />

qualitative responses corresponding to quantitative trait loci for disease response to the<br />

pathogen. An international focus on these two necrotrophs has advanced a considerable<br />

understanding of the underlying mechanism of disease determined by multiple proteinaceous<br />

host-specific toxins (HSTs) that act in an inverse gene-for-gene manner. This international<br />

research effort has characterised at least five S. nodorum HSTs as necrotrophic<br />

effectors and three P. tritici-repentis effectors that interact with specific host sensitivity<br />

204


genes, of which some are already proving to have universal relevance in resistance breeding.<br />

There is considerable scope to use isolated effectors to select wheat genotypes lacking<br />

corresponding sensitivity loci. Continuing dissection of the complex resistance phenotype<br />

into a series of Mendelian gene interactions can offer avenues to enhance understanding<br />

of resistance in broader germplasm that enables targeting and combining genes<br />

into different adapted backgrounds.<br />

There has been more progress and practical success in improving resistance to TS than<br />

SNB in white grained Australian hard wheats. The progress with breeding for resistance<br />

to these diseases in adapted variety development can now be better placed in the context<br />

of the similarities and differences in pathogenesis of these fungal necrotrophs. How the<br />

application of these strategies has influenced breeding in Australia will be considered<br />

together with current knowledge that can shape future wheat improvement endeavours,<br />

with the objective of improving resistance breeding outcomes that diminish these disease<br />

impacts and so enhance the productivity and reliability of wheat production in disease<br />

prone farming systems and environments.<br />

205


deVeLoPmeNT of ISogeNIC LINeS foR ReSISTANCe<br />

To SePToRIA TRITICI BLoTCh IN WheAT<br />

Stephen B. Goodwin and Ian Thompson<br />

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit,<br />

Purdue University, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2054, USA<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: sgoodwin@purdue.edu, Steve.Goodwin@ARS.USDA.gov<br />

Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual<br />

stage: Septoria tritici), is one of the most economically important diseases of wheat worldwide.<br />

Control of the disease is by fungicides or cultural practices and, when possible, by resistant<br />

cultivars. Breeding for resistance has been hampered by disagreement about whether resistance<br />

was qualitative or quantitative and by a lack of rapid methods for phenotypic characterization.<br />

During the past decade 13 genes for resistance to STB have been identified and mapped in the<br />

wheat genome and several molecular markers have been developed that can be used for markerassisted<br />

selection. This process has been complicated by the presence of multiple resistance genes<br />

within some cultivars. Furthermore, expression of genes for resistance varies over time and so far<br />

almost nothing is known about the mechanism of resistance. Analysis of resistance gene expression<br />

and utility for plant improvement programs would be improved if the resistance genes were<br />

isolated in a common susceptible background. To address this problem, a program was begun to<br />

backcross resistance genes Stb1-8 into two susceptible wheat cultivars. Taichung 29 was chosen<br />

for one recurrent parent because it was the most highly susceptible spring wheat identified in<br />

previous testing. However, it is late and tall so is not ideal for greenhouse work. To address those<br />

problems and to have a very different genetic background in case of fertility problems between<br />

Taichung 29 and the other wheat cultivars, the rapid-cycling cultivar Apogee was chosen for the<br />

other recurrent parent. Apogee can flower within 3-4 weeks of planting so has a much shorter<br />

generation time compared to other wheat cultivars. It is susceptible to STB but not to the same<br />

degree as Taichung 29 so tester isolates must be chosen carefully. The program was initiated<br />

with all eight resistance genes but problems with the markers and phenotypic testing slowed<br />

progress for some genes. Apogee appears to have the gene Stb6 and the small size of its leaves can<br />

complicate testing. To address this problem, a new method of inoculation was developed that<br />

avoids the need for high humidity for infection and gives better results than spray inoculation<br />

of Apogee. Work with genes Stb2 and Stb3 has proceeded the farthest and is now at the BC3 or<br />

BC4 generations. These genes had been assumed to be dominant, but this was not directly tested<br />

previously. Analyses with different isolates have shown that resistance gene Stb3 is dominant,<br />

while Stb2 may be recessive when tested with an Indiana isolate of the pathogen. If the Stb2 results<br />

are confirmed it will be the first report of recessive resistance to STB. The Stb3 resistance so<br />

far has remained strong in the backcross progeny. Effectiveness of some of the other resistance<br />

genes has eroded slightly in the backcross lines, indicating that modifier genes may be necessary<br />

for complete resistance of some wheat cultivars. After six or seven generations of backcrossing<br />

the lines will be self pollinated to develop homozygous isolines that can be used to analyze the<br />

mechanism of resistance to STB in wheat. Molecular markers linked to the resistance genes are<br />

being validated in the backcross progeny and should provide the materials for efficient introgression<br />

of these genes into elite germplasm for future wheat improvement.<br />

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BReedINg foR ReSISTANCe To TAN SPoT of WheAT<br />

AT CImmyT, mexICo<br />

P.K. Singh*, E. Duveiller, and R.P. Singh<br />

Global Wheat Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT),<br />

Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico.<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: pk.singh@cgiar.org<br />

Tan spot, caused by an ascomycete fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is one of the major<br />

devastating foliar diseases of wheat. This fungus induces two distinct symptoms, tan<br />

necrosis and extensive chlorosis, on susceptible wheat cultivars. Besides causing average<br />

yield losses of 5-10%, tan spot also causes significant losses in grain quality by red<br />

smudge, black point and grain shriveling. Conservation agriculture in combination with<br />

wheat monoculture involving cultivation of susceptible cultivars has resulted in frequent<br />

onset of tan spot epidemics worldwide. Development of resistant wheat cultivars, in conjunction<br />

with crop rotation, will provide an effective, economical, and environmentally<br />

safe means of controlling tan spot. CIMMYT, Mexico has initiated major efforts to mitigate<br />

the threat of tan spot. Efforts include large scale screening of wheat germplasm, identification<br />

of new sources of resistance, characterization of new tan spot resistance genes<br />

through classical and molecular genetic analysis and the incorporation of broad based<br />

resistance into adapted cultivars.<br />

Screening studies reveal that elite CIMMYT germplasm has high level of resistance to<br />

tan spot caused by P. tritici-repentis race 1 in both bread and durum wheat. These germplasm<br />

have diverse genetic make-up and the resistance is likely broad based. Association<br />

mapping studies done with CIMMYT germplasm reconfirmed the presence of previously<br />

identified genomic regions for tan spot resistance; however, novel genomic regions on<br />

long arm of chromosomes 6A and 7B, have also been identified. Studies done to date<br />

indicate that CIMMYT germplasm possess high level diverse genetic based resistance<br />

to tan spot of wheat. Efforts are in place to develop desired wheat cultivars with tan spot<br />

resistance.<br />

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BReedINg STRATegIeS foR fuSARIum heAd BLIghT<br />

ReSISTANCe (fhB) ANd LoWeR deoxyNIVALeNoL (doN)<br />

ACCumuLATIoN IN WINTeR WheAT IN oNTARIo, CANAdA<br />

L Tamburic-Ilincic1, 2 , DE Falk2 1, 2<br />

, M Serajazari<br />

1, 2<br />

and AW Schaafsma<br />

1 Ridgetown Campus, University of Guelph, Ridgetown, Ontario, Canada, N0P 2C0<br />

2 Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: ltamburi@ridgetownc.uoguelph.ca<br />

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) is an important<br />

wheat disease worldwide. Selection for FHB resistance and lower deoxynivalenol (DON)<br />

content in the grain continue to be important goals of many wheat breeding programs.<br />

Different types of FHB resistance have been reported in wheat and one type of resistance<br />

alone is not sufficient to prevent severe FHB epidemics. In our breeding program, we<br />

have used several exotic sources of FHB resistance (Sumai 3, Frontana, NuyBay), North<br />

American sources (Vienna) and European sources (Arina). We have pyramided FHB resistance<br />

genes from Sumai 3 and Frontana into a winter wheat background to develop a<br />

line designated ‘RCATL33’ with increased overall FHB resistance but modest yield potential.<br />

A cross between ‘RCATL33’ (QTL resistance on chromosomes 3BS, 3A and 5A)<br />

and ‘RC Strategy’ (a susceptible, adapted, elite soft red winter wheat cultivar) was made to<br />

study yield and quality penalties associated with pyramiding the quantitative resistance.<br />

The advantages of using marker assisted selection (MAS) in early segregating generations<br />

for screening to determine which lines to carry on to homozygousity and relationships<br />

among yield, quality traits and FHB resistance will be discussed. Following initial MAS,<br />

additional phenotypic selection for several morphological traits that could influence FHB<br />

development is also recommended. However, screening for FHB resistance needs to be<br />

performed over multiple years and locations. The wheat breeding program at the University<br />

of Guelph has participated in the collaborative Northern Uniform Winter Wheat<br />

Scab Nursery (NUWWSN) with other breeders from USA for the past eight years. Several<br />

lines from our program were rated among some of the most resistant entries in the tests;<br />

the results can be seen at http://www.scabusa.org -NUWWSN Reports. In addition, forty<br />

winter wheat cultivars and breeding lines from Germany and Canada were screened for<br />

FHB resistance at three sites in Germany and Canada in 2008 and two sites in each country<br />

in 2009. Disease levels were calculated as fusarium head blight index (FHBI), which<br />

was the product of the percent heads infected (incidence) and the percent spikelets infected<br />

(severity), divided by 100. The harvested grain in Canada was quantified for DON<br />

accumulation using EZ-Quant® Vomitoxin ELISA kit from Diagnostix (www.diagnostix.<br />

ca). In general, all environments produce similar genotype rankings and results. FHB<br />

visual symptoms were significantly correlated between the continents (r=0.77 and r=0.37<br />

in 2008 and 2009, respectively). RCU06F110202D/4 and RCUOGDHACF110902D (Canadian<br />

lines from our breeding program) and DSV720500 (line from Germany) had<br />

the lowest overall FHB ratings among all lines tested. In 2008, FHB index ranged from<br />

208


1%-72% and from 3%-55% in Germany and Canada, respectively. In 2009, range was<br />

10.7-46.2% in Germany and 3.4-55.1% in Canada. DON level in Canada ranged from<br />

0.3 ppm- 41.3 ppm, while overall mean was 9 ppm in 2008. The resistant host cultivars<br />

were stable in performance across the environments. In conclusion, significant progress<br />

has been made in Ontario, Canada winter wheat development in the past ten years with<br />

respect to FHB resistance. We will present data on FHB index and DON levels from<br />

the Ontario Winter Wheat Performance and Orthogonal trials, after inoculation with F.<br />

graminearum, and discuss the relationships between these traits.<br />

209


INCReASed ToLeRANCe To WheAT PoWdeRy mILdeW<br />

By heTeRoLogouS CoNSTITuTIVe exPReSSIoN<br />

of SoLANum ChACoeNSe SNAkIN-1 geNe<br />

Faccio P. 1 , Vázquez-Rovere C. 2 , Hopp E. 2 , González G. 1 ,<br />

Décima C. 1 , Favret E. 3 , Díaz Paleo A. 1 , Franzone P. 1<br />

1 Instituto de Genética “Ewald A. Favret”, CICVyA, INTA Castelar, Argentina.<br />

2 Instituto de Biotecnología, CICVyA, INTA Castelar, Argentina.<br />

3 Instituto de Suelos, CIRN, INTA Castelar, Argentina<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: pfaccio@cnia.inta.gov.ara<br />

Plant diseases constitute an important limitation to the world food production. At present<br />

and due to production costs, efficiency and protection of the environment, a considerable<br />

effort is devoted to investigate the use of transgenes capable of conferring significant levels<br />

of resistance to phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the effect of constitutive expression<br />

of antimicrobial peptide snakin 1, derived from Solanum chacoense, on increased<br />

wheat resistance against fungal diseases was assayed after challenging transgenic wheat<br />

plants expressing the SN1 gene with the fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici which cause<br />

“powdery mildew” disease. Snakin 1 peptides are very similar in both S. chacoense and<br />

S. tuberosum (potato) and are the main antifungal proteins present in tubers. For proper<br />

expression in monocots, the original intron had to be removed from the coding region of<br />

SN1 under the transcriptional control of the constitutive promoter of the maize ubiquitin<br />

gene and introduced in wheat genotypes ProINTA Federal, SH9826 and SH9856 through<br />

a biolistic transformation procedure. The bar gene was used as selectable marker under<br />

the control of the rice actin gene promoter. SN1 and bar genes present individually in<br />

two different plasmids, were co bombarded on scutella of wheat immature embryos. The<br />

presence of bar and SN-1 genes was detected by PCR and the copy number of the transgenes<br />

estimated by Southern blot non radioactive digoxigenin hybridisation. Transcript<br />

analyses were performed by RT-PCR and quantitative Real Time RT-PCR.<br />

Transformation experiments provided 41 primary transgenic plants (T 0 ) expressing the<br />

SN1 transcript. Ttransgene expression in eight of these T 0 plants was silenced in the T 1<br />

or T 2 generations. Transgene expression remained stable through T 2 and T 3 generations<br />

derived from the rest of the T 0 plants obtained.<br />

Transgenic plants of T 2 and T 3 progenies expressing the SN1 gene were evaluated<br />

against the phytopathogenic fungus B. graminis f. sp. tritici. Inoculation assays were carried<br />

out on detached primary leaves. Leaf segments of approximately 3 cm were placed in<br />

Petri dishes on water-agar medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine to delay leaf<br />

tissue senescence. Each Petri dish contained leaf samples of plants expressing SN1, plants<br />

non expressing SN1 and non transgenic plants (wild-type) used as control. Inoculation<br />

was carried out by shaking infected plants at the top of a cardboard pipe of 1 meter height.<br />

210


Four to five open Petri dishes were placed at the bottom of the pipe. This inoculation<br />

procedure guarantees the homogenous distribution of spores on leaf tissue at a density<br />

of 80 to 120 spores/cm 2 . The number of developing fungus colonies was counted 6 days<br />

after inoculation and the leaf area covered by the pathogen was estimated at 6, 7, 8 and 12<br />

days after inoculation by image analysis using the JMicroVision software program. The<br />

infected area was considered a measure of disease severity. Statistical analyses were carried<br />

out using a random complete block design.<br />

Highly significant differences in the number of developing mildew colonies were found<br />

between plants expressing SN-1 and the non transgenic controls. The reduction of developing<br />

colony number on transgenic plants was approximately 50%. Likewise, the colonies<br />

grown on transgenic leaves showed a delay in development that rendered colonies of<br />

smaller size at the end of the experiments. An association was found between high disease<br />

resistance measured on leaf segments and high level of snakin transcripts in plant.<br />

Protection observed in those plants was similar to that observed by conventional “partial<br />

resistance” genes, which main characteristics are reduction of pustule size, smaller production<br />

of spores and longer latency period of disease development. This resistance type<br />

drives to less damage than in a susceptible host plant by retarding the development of<br />

the pathogen cycle. Likewise, the smaller amount of available fungus spores in the field<br />

along the cropping period leads to a delay in the spreading of the disease on susceptible<br />

cultivars. It is worth to mention that, to our knowledge, this is the first report on studies<br />

about the constitutive expression of the SN1 gene in wheat plants.<br />

211


The homoeoLogouS RegIoNS oN LoNg ARmS<br />

of gRouP 3 ChRomoSomeS IN WheAT ANd BARLey<br />

hARBouR A mAJoR CRoWN RoT ReSISTANCe LoCuS<br />

Chunji Liu 1 , Haobing Li 1 , Jun Ma 1, 2 , Guijun Yan 3 ,<br />

Sukumar Chakraborty 1<br />

1 CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia<br />

2 School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia;<br />

3 College of Life Science, Agricultural University of Hebei, P. R. China<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: sukumar.chakraborty@csiro.au<br />

Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum are among dominant pathogens causing<br />

crown rot (CR) of wheat and barley in most wheat growing countries. CR is widespread<br />

and chronic in the 11 million hectare Australian wheat belt to cost nearly $80 million<br />

each year in lost production and quality. These and other Fusarium species also cause<br />

head blight where trichothecene mycotoxins contaminate grains and these mycotoxins in<br />

large concentrations are harmful to human and animal health. In the Pacific Northwest<br />

of the USA F. pseudograminearum can reduce yield of winter wheat by 61%. These<br />

pathogens survive two or more years in residues of infected cereals and grass hosts and<br />

the widespread adoption of zero tillage has caused resurgence in CR in many cerealproducing<br />

countries. With no resistant varieties, stubble management crop rotation and<br />

partially resistant varieties are used to manage CR.<br />

In recent years there have been concerted efforts to improve understanding of CR so as to develop<br />

effective management. For the last eight years, a team at CSIRO Plant Industry has focused<br />

on various aspects of crown rot pathology, epidemiology and host resistance. New knowledge<br />

has emerged of pathogenicity, and toxigenicity phylogenetics of F. pseudograminearum, F.<br />

graminearum and F. culmorum; genomic regions controlling CR resistance and pathogenicity;<br />

mechanisms of host invasion in CR, including the role of mycotoxins and the identification of<br />

novel sources of CR using high throughput bioassays. The pre-breeding research has screened<br />

over 2, 400 wheat and 1, 058 barley genotypes to identify several germplasm with high CR<br />

resistance in each crop. This paper gives a brief overview of the genetics and mapping of<br />

three of these sources. Initially focused on two of the wheat and one of the barley resistance<br />

sources, we have identified major QTL with unprecedented magnitudes. One of the wheat<br />

QTL explains up to 49% (LOD 10.8) and the other 35% (LOD 7.6) of the phenotypic variance<br />

and the barley QTL explains up to 63% of the phenotypic variance (LOD 14.8). The larger<br />

wheat QTL has been further assessed in four validation populations, and it was found that the<br />

presence of this QTL alone reduces on average of 33% of CR severity. Surprisingly, all of the<br />

three major CR QTL are located in a similar region on the long arms of the homoeologous<br />

group 3 chromosomes, the two wheat ones on 3BL and the barley one on 3HL.<br />

Following their detection, we have developed near isogenic lines for these major QTL.<br />

We are also developing markers more closely linked to these QTL and to investigate<br />

212


the feasibility of enhancing CR resistance by stacking different QTL in the same genetic<br />

backgrounds. The possible homoeologous relationship between the 3BL wheat QTL and<br />

the 3HL barley QTL warrants further investigation. Relative rearrangements between 3H<br />

and 3B chromosomes are unknown, although the relative distances between the different<br />

QTL and the centromeres seem to be different. The 3B QTL seems to be more distally<br />

located. However genetic distance can be affected by many factors including the use of<br />

different populations thus the differences in genetic distances between the two different<br />

genera may have only limited value. The physical map of wheat chromosome 3B, which<br />

was recently made available as the first such resources for wheat, would make such a study<br />

much easier. Results will be presented on the detection, genetic analysis and mapping of<br />

these new sources of CR resistance.<br />

213


WAyS To ImPRoVe Weed ComPeTITIVe ABILITy IN WINTeR<br />

WheAT<br />

Nils-Ove Bertholdsson<br />

Dept. of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, SLU, P.O. Box 101, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden<br />

E-mail Address of presenting author: nils-ove.bertholdsson@ltj.slu.se<br />

Increasing problems with herbicide-dependent cropping systems have enlarged the interest<br />

in integrated approaches of weed management. In such systems weed competitive<br />

ability (WCA) is of great interest. Several studies show that cultivars are genetically<br />

variable in their ability to compete with weeds. Examples of important characters for<br />

high WCA are among others early vigour, leaf inclination, straw length and relative root<br />

growth. Allelopathy has also been put forward as a possible factor. Weed competitive field<br />

studies including allelopathy are, however, limited. Therefore, field trials with 12 modern<br />

winter wheat, two rye and two triticale cultivars were conducted in 2008 and 2009. The<br />

trials were sown and treated as normal yield trials, but without any weed management<br />

and with under-sown rape seeds and silky bentgrass (Aperea spica-venti L.). Characters<br />

included in the study were early crop biomass (ECB) and early shoot length (ESL) at<br />

Zadoks growth stage 30-32, straw length, thousand grain weight, seminal root length,<br />