CVD Diamond: The Industrial Landscape - EFree

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CVD Diamond: The Industrial Landscape - EFree

CVD Diamond

Applications in high-technology

high technology

Ricardo S Sussmann

King’s King s College London

1


Outline of presentation



Diamond Properties


Attributes, types of diamond

Applications



Optical and dielectric windows

Electronic devices






radiation detection

high-power and rf devices

biosensors

light emitting diodes

Quantum cryptography (spintronics)

2


Diamond Lattice

face-centred cubic

cube edge length a o

= 0.3567 nm

minimum separation ([3/4] 1/2

ao) = 0.154nm

3


Diamond – Nitrides - SiC

SiC (4H)

Diamond

4


CVD diamond

Sapphire

Tungsten carbide

Germanium

Zinc selenide

1

7

Hardness

17

22

0 20 40 60 80 100

Knoop hardness (GPa)

90

6


Thermal conductivity

Type-IIa diamond (single crystal)

Copper (397)

BeO (260)

AlN (170)

CVD diamond

(1200 - 2200)

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

Thermal Conductivity (W/mK)

7


Young’s Modulus (stiffness)

CVD diamond

Tungsten carbide

Sapphire

Gallium arsenide

Zinc selenide

0

83

70

200

344

400

583

600

800

Young's modulus (GPa)

1000

1100

1200

1400

8


Transparency range of diamond

UV IR

sapphire

diamond

LiF

ZnS

quartz

ZnSe

Ge

Th - Br - I (KRS-5)

0.1 1 10 100 1000

wavelength (microns)

Diamond

Diamond

Thalium Bromoiodide

LiF

quartz

ZnS

ZnSe

Ge

CO2 laser line

sapphire

diamond-extr.

Wavelength (microns)

9

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 9


Electronic Figures Figures of Merit of Merit

Material JFM KFM BFM BHFFM

Si 1 1 1 1

GaAs 7 0.45 13 10

InP 16 0.6 10 7

GaN 280 1.8 910 100

4H-SiC 410 5.1 290 34

Diamond 8200 32 8600 450

JFM = Johnson's Figure of Merit. High power, high speed. (EB vsat)^2

KFM = Keyes Figure of Merit, cooling limitations in high speed operation, ��(vsat/�)^1/2

BFM = Baligas Figure of Merit. conduction losses in power FETs, (��� Eg^3)

BHFFM = Baligas High Frequency Figure of Merit. switching losses in power FETs

10


Output Power

Demands for RF High-Power Semiconductors

(W)

10 K

1 K

100

10

1

0.1

Diamond

SiC

Si

Broadcasting

station

Wireless

base

station

Mobile

terminals

GaN

GaAs

Communications

satellite

Communications

Station to station

Wireless LAN

0.1 1 10 100

Operation Frequency

Diamond could replace

TWT vacuum tubes, which

are still used for RF high

power applications

Radar

Car radar

1000

(GHz)

11


Types of Diamond

12


Natural (mined) Diamond

50.15 carats, $ 0.6 M

12,000 $/carat

Not much use for

high-tech high tech applications:

(size, cost, purity).

Some exceptions:

Anvils

Diamond turning

13


High Temperature High Pressure (HPHT)

Diamond

Synthesised at > 60 kbars, kbars,

1700 C

Produced in vast

quantities (200

Tonnes/year)

Is the core of the

diamond cutting tool

industry

Contains 50 – 200

ppm

substitutional

nitrogen (yellow)

Grit

200 Tonnes of diamond grit

are manufactured annually

Monocrystal

14


CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) Diamond

CVD diamond

Window for high-power high power

microwave transmission

250-300 250 300 carats,

< $100,000


CVD Synthesis of Diamond

CVD diamond is synthesized in metastable temperature and pressure

conditions. Atomic hydrogen is key to diamond deposition.

Microwaves

CH 4

H 2

H 2

+ CH 4

e-, �

+ H CH 3

substrate

2 H

+ H 2

DIFFUSION

H H H

• Co-deposition (sp 2 , sp 3 )

• Etching (sp 2 , sp 3 )

CVD diamond

Plasma is created

T s

= 800 – 1000 oC 16 16


Crystalline texture of two

CVD diamond layers

2.0 mm thick layer

Grade "A"

0.5 mm thick layer

Grade "B"

17


75 mm diameter CVD diamond windows (polycrystalline)

Courtesy of E. Woerner, Diamond Materials, Freiburg .

18


Homoepitaxial

layer grown on a HPHT Ib

520 �m thick, 6 �m/h,

diamond 001 oriented

(J. Achard1, A. Tallaire1 et.al, proceedings of the DRM 2005 meeting)

Homoepitaxial layer

HPHT substrate

19

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 19


CVD single crystal plates with edge lengths

6.0 mm to 8.0 mm from E 6

8mm

1.2mm thick

$2700 (2100$/ct)

www.e6.com/en, www.e6sales.com

20

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 20


Single Crystal Diamond etalons

21


Very high purity CVD single crystal diamond

Plates: 4.5 x 4.5 mm, 0.5 mm thick from e6

(http://www.e6cvd.com/cvd/page)

Free carrier mobility: electrons = 4500 cm2 /Vs

holes = 3800 cm2 /Vs

Other typical values:

electrons= 1714 –

3100

(cm 2 /Vs) holes = 2060 -2250

Free carrier lifetime: microseconds

(


Diamond anvils

C S Yan, R Hemley et al, Carnegie Inst. Washington DC

Phys. Stat. Sol.(a), 201-4, pp 25, 2004

5 carats single crystal CVD diamond

12mm high, 6.7 mm diameter

cut from a 10 carat (8 x 8 x 12 mm3)Block.

From S.S.Ho et al. (Geophysical Laboratory,

Industrial Diamond Review 1/06, 28‐32, 1906

R S Sussmann

23

2.46mm


CVD diamond gemstones produced at the Carnegie

Institution

[Meng et al., PNAS (2008)]

Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington

24

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 24


CVD Diamond gem stones from De Beers-e6

(Grown only for research to ensure consumer confidence in natural diamond gemstones)

P M Martineau et al, DTC Research Center,

Gems & Gemology, Spring 2004

25


Gem market

Amount of rough gem stones sold per year:

70 million carats rough (14 tonnes)

Revenue per year (US Dollars)

rough: $7.6 billion (7.6

polished: $13 billion

jewellery: $60 billion

The industrial diamond market

is less than 1 billion world wide

x 10 9 )

26

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 26


The Centenary Diamond

39.9 x 50.5 x 24.55 (mm)

273 cts

Insured for over

$100 Million

27

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 27


Optical applications

IR transmission

Microwave transmission

28


Optical Windows for

high-power Laser beams

laser

beam

laser

window

water

cooling

�T

water

cooling

�T

A.R.

coating

29


Temperature gradient created in

ZnSe and diamond windows by a

5kW CO 2 Laser beam

ZnSe

(6 mm)

Diamond

(1 mm)

30


CVD diamond polished dome,

3” (75 mm) diameter, ~2 mm thick

Thermal imaging

missile dome

31


Microwave Windows

Microwave Windows

To be used in “ITER”

(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

32


The inside of the "JET"

Tokomak Thermonuclear

Fusion Reactor

fusion plasmas are heated to temperatures

above 100 million degrees centigrade

33


1 MW Gyrotron Tube

(courtesy of Dr S Sakamoto, JAERI)

Microwave beams

from high-power

Gyrotrons will be

used for the ignition

and overheating of

thermal fusion plasmas

In excess of 10 MW

power will be required

34


RF power

Cooling Configuration:

CVD Diamond Window

Edge water cooling

CVD Diamond Window

Because of its very high thermal conductivity,

CVD diamond can be used as an edge-cooled

window

35


First Ever Transmission Experiment

of 1 MW Microwave Power

for over 2 Seconds

Si3N4 window (0.5 MW)

Courtesy of Dr S Sakamoto, JAERI

36


Radiation Detectors

37


adiation

track

electrodes

CVD Diamond

(~0.5 mm thick)

Radiation Detector

Principle of Operation

holes

electrons

bias

to charge

measuring

sytem

38


Advantages of diamond for radiation detection






Radiation hard


Low Z number



long life, use in high rad.

environments

tissue equivalent, energy independent

not very good for gamma radiation

High electron and hole mobilities



good charge collection

fast time of response

Chemically inert

� nuclear waste monitoring

Large band-gap


low dark current, high breakdown field, high

operating temperature

39


High-Energy Physics Experiments

Acnowledgements to Harris Kagan,

W Trischuck and RD42

The CERN ATLAS Detector

courtesy of P Weilhammer, CERN

For the inner detector

approximately 1 square

meter of CVD diamond

will be required

40


12 cm wafer with dots 1cm appart

Mean charge of

11340 electrons

correspond to a

CD of 315 �m

41


Atlas pixel module: 20 x 60mm

with 46080 pixels showing

the bump bonding pads

Spatial resolution

in both directions:

It is the digital

resolution

42


30

20

10

Radiation Hardness

Number of events

15 -2

1.1 x 10 cm

zero dose

0

0 5000 10000

Charge collected (e)

Irradiation with 300 MeV

pions

to a dose of

1.1 x 10 15 cm 2

This is the dose

expected

during the life of the

experiment (10 years)

43


P-CVD diamond detector for

Use in the CDF experiment in the

Fermi Lab Tevatron

Final module used by ATLAS for the

BCM system

Comparisson of diamond and silicon

In the BaBar eperiment

44


Heavy ions

With acknowledgments to Eleni Berdermann

and her team at GSI

Future accelerator complex in

GSI Darmstadt

45


The development of diamond for the detection of heavy

ions has been done predominantly at GSI Darmstadt

from about 1990. Current applications include:

�� Timing applications

��

��

��

��

Beam diagnostics

Ion-therapy Ion therapy detectors

Focal plane detectors for ion spectrometers

Time-of Time of-flight flight detectors for mass identification

�� Ion spectroscopy

��

��

Target monitors

Energy loss detectors

�� Tracking devices

��

��

High and low-energy low energy branches of the super FRS

MIP tracking at FAIR

46


Low-energy ions 'stopped' in CVD diamond

Eleni Berderman, GSI Darmstadt, private communication

polycrystalline

single crytsal

*scCVDD sensors show energy resolution similar to silicon detectors

(working at same conditions).

*pcCVDD detectors cannot be used for energy or energy-loss

measurements (inhomogeneous crystals) and become in addition quickly polarized.

47

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 47


Relativistic heavy-ions in CVD diamond

They traverse CVDD depositing several hundreds of MeV in the sensors, which

nevertheless is an energy loss of only ≈ 1% of their total kinetic energy.

*scCVDD sensors show energy resolution superior to the resolution of silicon detectors

(working at same conditions) since they not suffer 'pulse-height defects'. The reasons are:

high-mobility carriers and high break-down fields.

48


Polycrystalline sensor Single crystal sensor

Performance of CVD diamond detectors in a time-of-flight

measurement. There is excellent intrinsic time resolution

of 28ps for both type of detectors

49


Focal plane detector of the

magnetic spectrometer.

Working at GSI since 2000

P-CVD 60x40 mm with 32

read out strip electrodes

Single crystal CVD diamond

Quadrant beam monitor (3.5 x 3.5 mm)

Monitoring of intense

highly-focused heavy-ions (GSI)

and non-destructive X-ray beam

control at ESRF Grenoble

50


Medical dosimetry

51


Priming and persistent

photoconductivity effects

52


Response of a UV photodetector

De Sio et al, App. Phys. Lett. 86, 213504 (2005)

EQE

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

1V/µm

2V/µm

1E-3

140 160 180 200 220 240 260

Wavelength (nm)

- UV continuous

excitation

- Sandwich configuration

-N 2 : 2ppm in the gas

phase

- Sample thickness: 500

µm

EQE of 300 corresponding to a � � ��product of 700.10 -6 cm²/V

53


Impurity active centres in diamond

Band gap= 5.5 eV

Phosphorous donor level

Nitrogen deep donor level

Boron acceptor level

0.57eV

Conduction band

1.7 eV

0.37eV

Valence band

54


Room-temperature resistivity of homoepitaxial boron-doped films

J.P. Lagrange, et. al. Diam. Rel. Mater., 7, 1390-1393 (1998).

55

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 55


D J Twitchen et. al. T-ED2099B, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev., 51, 826, 2004

blocking 2.5 kV at < 1 mA/cm2 leakage

1.4 MV/cm

on-resistance ~ 3 Ωcm 2

at 10 V forward bias

Paper tomorrow at 10:30 by Isberg et al: Diamond Electronic Devices

56

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 56


Diamond Schottky-pn

diodes (SPND)

Toshiharu Makino, Nanotechnology Research Institute. Ibaraki, Japan (private communication)

Device structure

SBD

PND

Current density J (A/cm 2 )

10 3

10 1

10 -1

10 -3

10 -5

10 -7

10 -9

Schottky

n

p +

W n

Ohmic

[B]: Boron conc.

Ib(001) Sub.

J-V properties at RT

Increasing W n

SPND-A

SPND-B

-60 -40 -20 0

Voltage V (V)

Vblock is determined by

“Wn ”.

Key points

SBD is merged

with PND tandemly.

n-layer is fully depleted.

SPND-A

SPND-B

SPND-B

W n

70 nm

160 nm

SPND-A

-4 0 4 8

Voltage V (V)

Conventional

PND

[B]

~1018 cm-3 ~1020 cm-3 J > 60000 A/cm 2

Increasing [B]

Ron is determined by

“resistance of p ++ -layer”.

Comparison to SBD’s data

Specific on-resistance [�-cm 2 Specific on-resistance [�-cm ]

2 ]

10 -1

10 -1

10 -2

10 -2

10 -3

10 -3

10 -4

10 -4

10 -5

10 -5

10 1

10 1

Ulm(‘96)

AIST(‘06)

AIST(‘07)

SPND-A(RT)

SPND-B(RT)

10 2

10 2

Toshiba (‘06)

Si 4H-SiC

AIST(‘07)

AIST(‘07)

300K 400K 500K

10 3

10 3

Diamond

10 4

10 4

Blocking voltage [V]

Theoritical

limit of SBD

Future

No trade-off properties between

“on-resistance” and “Vblock”. Extremely low on-resistance (~10-5 �cm2 )

Fast switching speed (ns-order)

Useful to high power switching devices.

10

H. Umezawa et al.,

Proc. 21st ISPSD,

259 (2009).

5

10 5

57 57


Intensity (arb. units)

Device structure

n +

i

p

[P]:~10 20 cm -3

[B]:~10 17 cm -3

Substrate: IIb(111)

electrode

Diamond deep UV-LEDs

Toshiharu Makino, Nanotechnology Research Institute. Ibaraki, Japan )

�150um

~1�m

~20�m

350�m

Light emission properties

0.8

Exciton

0.6

0.4

0.2

Pulse

10Hz(duty10%)

Integ. intensity (a.u.)

Deep level

0.0

200 300 400 500 600

Wavelength (nm)

Key points

Thick i-layer by

suppressing

overflow of injected

carriers and

excitons.

10 6

10 4

10 2

10 0

10 -2

2 4

2

10

Output power:

0.3mW @500mA

i-layer:~20�m

> 1000 times

i-layer:

~0.1�m

2 4

3

10

10 4

Current density (A/cm 2 )

Sterilization by diamond LED

UV-light irradiation Incubation for 24 hours

Power ~0.1mW@300mA

Irradi. time: 100s

Proliferation of E. coli

on agar plate

UV-light irradiation area

(E. coli was killed.)

1.0cm

Diamond deep UV-LED achieved 0.3mW

output power and sterilized E. coli.

Diamond LED has potential applications

as portable germicidal lamps.

58 58


Surface Conductivity of diamond

Diamond plate

R S Sussmann

Expose to air

Hidrogen termination

A surface conductive layer is created

�������10 -4

–10 -5

The layer is p-type

� -1

Hole areal density: 10 11

–10 13

Hole mobility: 30 – 70 cm2 /Vs

Max value: 335 cm2 /Vs for

a carrier density of 7 1011 cm-2 diamond is the only semiconductor that

exhibits this kind of surface conductivity

applications in FETs and ion and pH‐sensitive devices

59

cm -2


Drain current I DS (mA/mm)

-700

-600

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100

0

0

L G =0.1 �m

W G =50 �m

-2

IDS= 550 mA/mm

DC Output Characteristics

polycrystalline diamond

-4 -6 -8

Drain voltage V (V)

DS

-10

V GS =

-3 V

-2V

-1V

0V

1V

-12

Drain current I DS (mA/mm)

10 4

10 2

10 0

10 -2

10 -4

10 -6

10 -8

-2 -4 -6 -8 -10

Drain voltage V (V)

DS

60

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 60

2

L G =1 �m, W G =100 �m

0

No bulk leakage current;

impurity conc. < 1.8x10 14

K. Ueda, M. Kasu, et al. IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27 (2006) 570.

VGS=0~2 V

cm -3

-1 V

-0.5 V

-12


Gain (dB)

40

30

Cut-off Frequency for Diamond

K. Ueda, M. Kasu, et al. IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27 (2006) 570.

MSG/MAG

(power gain)

fT=45 GHz, fMAX=120 L G =0.1 �m, W G =50 �m

V GS =0 V

V DS =-10 V

20

U(power gain)

10

|h21|

0

-10

1 10

Frequency (GHz)

100

2 -6 dB/oct

(current gain)

fT =45 GHz

fMAX =88 GHz

Gain (dB)

40

30

20

10

0

GHz

MSG/MAG

|h21| 2

L G =0.1 �m, W G =50 �m

V GS = 0.5 V

V DS = -18 V

-10

1 10

Frequency (GHz)

100

U

fT =38 GHz

fMAX =120 GHz

-6 dB/oct

f T : Transition freq. (current gain cut-off freq.)

f MAX : Max. freq. of oscillation (power gain cut-off freq.)

61


Power Characteristics @ 1 GHz

Class A

Homoepitaxial

diamond

M. Kasu, K. Ueda, et al. Electronics Letters 41 (2005) 1249.

Cf. GaAs power amp.

Pout ~ 1 W/mm

GaN: 10 W/mm or 35 W/mm

(without and with field plate

Estimated for diamond:

75 W/mm

PAE: Power Added Efficiency

=

POUT(RF) -PIN(RF) POUT(DC) The Pout value of 2W/mm is the highest ever

for CVD Diamond a 2 times higher than GaAs

62


Temperature Rise during RF Power Operation

P OUT(TOTAL)

M. Kasu et al. Diamond and Related Materials 15 (2006) 783.

~0 W

probes

TFET= 25.56o Self-heating can be ignored

C

P OUT(TOTAL)

stage

= 0.84 W

sample (4x 4mm 2 )

TFET= 26.20o �T= 0.64 o

�T= 30 o C

LG= 0.4 �m

WG= 200 �m

@ 1 GHz

63

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 63

C

C

�T∞

�� =22 W/cmK)

P OUT


GaAs FET 0.6 W

(�= 0.46 W/cmK)


Surface Conductive Diamond Enzime FET

Measures the charge transfer

across the electrode interface.

The bioreceptor is an enzime

that catalyzes the conversion

of the analyte into the products

J Garrido chapter 16 in CVD Diamond for Electronic Devices and Sensors, RS Sussmann Editor

, John Wiley & Son 2009

64

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 64


Characteristics of a Solution Gate FET based on a surface conductive

diamond substrate

J Garrido chapter 16 in CVD Diamond for Electronic Devices and Sensors,

R S Sussmann Editor, John Wiley & Son 2009

65

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 65


Microscopic diagnostics of DNA molecules on

mono-crystalline diamond

B Rezek et. al. Phys. Stat. Sol. 204.9, p.2888, 2007

66

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 66


Applications in quantum spintronics

Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center in diamond

Courtesy of J Wrachtrup, University of Stuttgart

�E=1.945eV

3 E

Fluorescence *

1 A

Photons emitted from single

colour centers

-bandgap 5.5 eV

-TDebye: 2000K

3A -low LS coupling (Spin relaxation due to phonons: 10s @300K; GaAs: 10-4s @2K)

-Diamagnetic material: 1% 13 QC Victoria

Single photon source for

e.g: quantum cryptography

C

67

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 67


Summary and conclusions

�� The synthesis of diamond by

CVD has resulted in a paradigm

shift in the technical uses of

diamond:

��large large size diamond components

��very very high and reproducible purity

��possibility possibility of p and n type doping

68


Current and potential applications

��

��

��

��

��

��

��

��

��

��

��

IR and MW windows

Radiation detectors

Bio sensors

High-power, High power, high-frequency high frequency devices

Quantum decoding, Spintronics

Anvils

Thermal management

Electrochemistry (sensors, water purification)

MEMs

Speaker cones

Raman Lasers

69


Sapphire cameo (Roman)

engraved with a diamond tool

First century a.d.

Fitzwilliam Museum

Cambridge UK

70


The End

Thank you for your attention

71


Natural Diamond

Type Ia: white, nitrogen is

aggregated, (> 100ppm), not IR

transparent.

Type IIa: purest form of natural

diamond, (nitrogen < 20ppm), white,

IR transparent,

highest thermal conductivity

Typical prices($/ct):

Gem: 200 – >20,000

(depending on size,

colour, and clarity)

Industrial: 1 - 100

Type IIb: boron doped, blue,

p-type semiconductor (conductive

at room temperature)

Others: “Fancy colour”, yellow,

pink,green

72


spatial resolution:

better than 15 �m

Strip detector, 25 �m pitch

on p-CVD diamond

73


The CD for a single crystal is much

larger

74


�E spectra of 132 Xe fragments

75


Radiation Hardness

76


Growth structure of a typical polycrystalline

CVD diamond layer

Coarse-grained

growth side

Fully

intergrown

structure

Fine-grained

nucleation

side

2.3 mm

77


CVD diamond

layer

Thick Layer CVD Diamond

(manufacturing (manufacturing

sequence)

substrate

finished layer

remove

from

substrate

process

78


There are some applications that require

very thick single crystals > 2 –

12 mm

79


Very high purity CVD single crystal diamond

Plates: 4.5 x 4.5 mm, 0.5 mm thick from e6

(http://www.e6cvd.com/cvd/page)

Free carrier mobility: electrons = 4500 cm2 /Vs

holes = 3800 cm2 /Vs

Other typical values:

electrons= 1714 –

3100

(cm 2 /Vs) holes = 2060 -2250

Free carrier lifetime: microseconds

(


Production and revenues

(p/a)

Gem diamond:

70 M cts (14 tons) (1 carat = 0.2 g)

$7b (7 109 )

HPHT:

1000 M cts (200 tons) (grit only)

< $600M

(all products)

81


Radiation Detector: Radiation principle Detectorof

operation

Principle of Operation

radiation

track

electrodes

CVD Diamond

(~0.5 mm thick)

holes

electrons

bias

to charge

measuring

sytem

The major advantages

of diamond for radiation

detectors are

�radiation hardness,

�speed of response,

�energy resolution.

82

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 82


Polycrystalline CVD diamond particle detector

H Kagan et. al. RD42 Collaboration Status Report 2006

12 cm wafer with dots 1cm appart

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010

83

83


Towards a time-resolution well below 100ps for

relativistic light-heavy-ions and MIPs.

Eleni Berderman, GSI Darmstadt, private communication

84

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 84


Surface conductivity in diamond

85

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 85


HPHT diamond single crystals

(Sumicrystals)

Large stone out of the press

Cut inserts used mostly as cutting tools

Typical side sizes: 3 – 4 mm

86

R S Sussmann MRS, June 2010 86


Phase distortion due to temperature gradients

(thermal lensing)

�������n x t = (dn/dT) x �T x t < �/(10) ~= 1.0 µm

dn/dT 6/1 �T 12/2 t 6 /1

��(ZnSe)

��(CVDD) =

216 (for a 5kW beam)

��(ZnSe) = 4.3 µm ��(CVDD) = 0.02 µm

87


12 cm wafer with dots 1cm appart

Mean charge of

11340 electrons

correspond to a

CD of 315 �m

88


HPHT (High Pressure – High Temperature)

Synthesised at > 60 kbars, 1700 C,

Type Ib: single substitutional nitrogen (50 –

Yellow, metal inclusions

Type IIa is possible

200

ppm)

89


��Optical Optical and microwave windows

��Radiation Radiation detectors

��High High-power, power, high-frequency high frequency devices

��Electrochemistry Electrochemistry (sensors, water

purification, etc)

��Bio Bio sensors

��MEMs MEMs

��Speaker Speaker cones

��Anvils Anvils

��Quantum Quantum decoding

��Spintronics Spintronics

90

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