freelance designer - Liz Dixon Graphic Design

lizdixongraphicdesign.com

freelance designer - Liz Dixon Graphic Design

Liz Dixon

> .................. freelance designer

020 7681 7431 9770 3902

SCULPTURED

FOR

ETERNITY

CHAHÂR MAHAL

VA BAKHTIÂRI

Habib Miri

Treasures of Hellenistic, Roman

and Byzantine art from

I . STANBUL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

INCLUDING THE FERIDÂN AREA

Village, Workshop & Nomadic Rugs of Western Persia

Peter Willborg


Liz Dixon

SMICHLMAYR

&COLTD

CLOCK & WATCHMAKERS

Tempus Works, Ladysmith Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR3 4TN

T: +44 01603 403687 F: +44 01603 465828

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VAT NUMBER: 451 2739 56

DIRECTORS: S. Michlmayr FBHI, S.E. Michlmayr BSC (HON) MCIPD. COMPANY SECRETARY: D.H. Clarke ACMA

REGISTERED OFFICE: 33 Kingfisher Crescent, Fulford, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST11 9QE

COMPANY REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2849623

SMICHLMAYR

&COLTD

CLOCK & WATCHMAKERS

QM

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REGISTERED FIRM

SMICHLMAYR

&COLTD

CLOCK & WATCHMAKERS

Tempus Works, Ladysmith Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR3 4TN

T: +44 01603 403687 F: +44 01603 465828

E: admin@michlmayr.com W: www.michlmayr.com

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REGISTERED FIRM

Work Ticket

JOB NUMBER

● Private ● Trade Trade Job Number

● Estimate Date / /

NAME ...............................................................................................................................

ADDRESS ..........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

TELEPHONE .........................................................................................................................

ITEM ● Watch ● Clock ● Jewellery

ADDITIONAL ITEMS SUPPLIED ● Pendulum ● Finials ● Weights ● Keys Other

DESCRIPTION ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Provisional Collection/Delivery Date / /

GENERAL WORK REQUIRED/WORK REQUIRED ON MOVEMENT ● No Work Required on Movement

Total £.........................

WORK REQUIRED ON DIAL ● No Work Required on Dial

Total £.........................

WORK REQUIRED ON CASE ● No Work Required on Case

ADDITIONAL COSTS

Total £.........................

● Mainsprings @ £......................... = £......................... ● Gutlines @ £......................... = £.........................

Miles @ £......................... = £......................... Hours @ £......................... = £......................... Total £.........................

ESTIMATE

● +VAT Grand Total £.........................

Estimate by ................... / / Customer given Estimate / / ● Verbal ● Written ● Answer Phone

CUSTOMER RESPONSE

Proceed /

Return /

/

/

● Verbal ● Written ● Answer Phone

● Verbal ● Written ● Answer Phone

QUALITY CHECKLIST

Repaired by ................... / / Inspected by ................... / /

Item Returned by ................... / / ● Collected ● Delivered ● Posted

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> .................. company ID/simon michlmayr & co ltd

VAT NUMBER: 451 2739 56

SMICHLMAYR

&COLTD

CLOCK & WATCHMAKERS

Tempus Works, Ladysmith Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR3 4TN

T: +44 01603 403687 F: +44 01603 465828

E: admin@michlmayr.com W: www.michlmayr.com

STATEMENT TO:

DATE DESCRIPTION AMOUNT

CURRENT 1-30 DAYS 31-60 DAYS 61-90 DAYS OVER 90 DAYS

PAST DUE PAST DUE PAST DUE PAST DUE

Statement

SPECIALIST WORK

construction of the Gurney clock in

1975 and used Harrison’s principles

We have undertaken with great

to construct one of the most

pleasure prestigious overhauls

accurate mechanical clocks in the

and commissions including

world. After taking 12 years to

the repair and maintenance

build it was given to the City of

of Norwich Cathedral, the

Norwich and stood in a public park

until vandalised. After a lengthy

reconstruction and re-siting

overhaul it now stands in safety in

of the Gurney clock and the

the Castle Mall, Norwich. We were

reproduction of a large clock in

involved in the redesign of the

historic Portsmouth Docks.

case, up-grading of the automaton

system and reconstruction of the

dials and motion works.

Above: Close up of the mechanism of the Reconstruction of a four dial clock Above: This is one of the largest clocks

Gurney clock

Left: Norwich Cathedral clock

in Portsmouth Docks. This clock

was destroyed in the Second World

we have constructed to date. It consists of

four dials each 3.4m in diameter positioned

on the Vulcan Clock Tower at the historical

Norwich Cathedral clock dates War and was reconstructed as part

Gunwarf Quays in Portsmouth Docks

from 1850 and has a large chime of the redevelopment of this historic

of eight bells. We restored the dockyard. Our work included

works and now carry out an annual construction and installation of the

maintenance contract.

movement, four dials, finial and

Martin Burgess commenced weather vane.

DATE

Balance

QM

S

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REGISTERED FIRM

SMICHLMAYR

&COLTD

CLOCK & WATCHMAKERS

Tempus Works, Ladysmith Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR3 4TN

T: +44 01603 403687 F: +44 01603 465828

E: admin@michlmayr.com W: www.michlmayr.com

SMICHLMAYR

&COLTD

CLOCK & WATCHMAKERS

S Michlmayr & Co Ltd

are moving on

18th April 2001

to

Tempus Works, Ladysmith Road,

Norwich, Norfolk NR3 4TN

Our phone and fax remain the same

T: +44 01603 403687 F: +44 01603 465828

E: admin@michlmayr.com W: www.michlmayr.com

THE COMPLETE

SERVICE FOR

CHURCH

CLOCKS

THE LOCAL SPECIALIST IN

CHURCH EXTERIOR CLOCKS

Major overhaul & annual work undertaken

Emergency call outs

Dials & weather vanes restored and re-gilded

New clocks manufactured

CONTACT: Simon Michlmayr, Fellow of the British

Horological Institute, for a Brochure, Information

& Advice

Tempus Works, Ladysmith Road, Norwich, Norfolk

NR3 4TN T: +44 01603 403687

F: +44 01603 465828 E: admin@michlmayr.com

W: www.michlmayr.com

QM

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REGISTERED FIRM

Updated logo, stationary, adverts and brochure for a clock

and watchmaker. The company’s decision to move to larger

premises precipitated a decision to review their graphic design

needs. The result was a thorough update of their logo followed

by completely redesigned stationary including a complex new

work ticketing form. They also required moving cards and a

press release based around a CD presentation. Lastly a

brochure was needed, the first they had ever commissioned,

the main aim of which was to bring the company to the

attention of architects and interior designers.

1. Letterhead, 2. Work ticket, 3. Statement, 4. Logo, 5. Moving card,

6. Compliments slip, 7. Brochure cover, 8. Brochure body, 9. Press ad.

Angel R o a d

Aylsham R o a d

Waterloo Roa d

St. Clements Hill

Magdale n S treet

Constitution Hill

Lawson Road

St. Crispins Road

Denmark Rd

Spro w s t o n R o ad

Bell Rd V io l e t R o a d

Silver Road

Spencer Street Branford Rd

Spro w s t o n R o a d

G e r t r ud e R o a d

Ladysmith mith Rd

M o u s e hold Ave

Barrack Street

Compliments

C r o m e R o a d

G ilman Road

G e r tr u d e R d

1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.


Liz Dixon

CHAHÂR MAHAL

VA BAKHTIÂRI

Village, Workshop & Nomadic Rugs of Western Persia

[1]

Nomads

Dashtak

Habib Miri

CHAHÂR MAHAL VA BAKHTIÂRI

Peter Willborg

‘The little field’, as it translates from Fârsi, is not a large village. oldest version I have seen. Note also the ivory border – an

It is inhabited by 8,000 Haft Lang Bakhtiâris and situated early feature – as well as the simple stylised shrub designs in

along the Ardal Kâdj to Ali Kûh road, i.e. in the western part the squares.

of Chahâr Mahal. Quite a few nomads camp in Dashtak during

The twin medallion design can also be found here. I

the summer – they apparently belong to the Gandali tâyefeh think that plate 131 is a Dashtak on account of its borders and

of the Haft Lang. There is a tribal migration route just to the the general colouring. It may be compared to a Bâbâ Heidar

west of the village that passes the road to Bâbâ Heidar much [pl. 100] twin medallion. The herati carpet [pl. 130] is the

further east. The villagers cultivate wheat and oats, and use a only one known of its kind.

lot of donkeys in their farming.

Plate 129 displays a C-gol medallion with diamond

They also produce a fair amount of carpets. Some of pendants that I suggest was made in Dashtak or in a neigh-

the smaller, poorer neighbouring villages like Karimâbâd and bouring village, for example Kâdj. The colouring and the corner

Rostamâbâd actually knot carpets for the Dashtak market. spandrel motifs indicate this general area. The main border is

As in so many other Chahâr Mahal places, the old tech- characteristic. I have seen it on five rugs that can all be linked

nique was based on beige or light grey woollen warps with no together.

or very little warp depression. The change to cotton warps

The last design group and arguably the most ubiqui-

(Z3S and Z4S) took place in the 1920/30s. Similarly wefts used tous is the ghâb. Dashtak ghâb rugs have a characteristic look

to be of twin pale red, beige or grey wool until the 1930/40s, with rosettes or shrubs seen in some of the compartments, as

when twin cotton wefts were introduced (usually sky blue). I well as two half rosettes (or palmettes) seen in others. Plate

have only seen one Dashtak [pl. 130] with single wefts. 135 shows an early 20th century version and plate 134 a more

Dashtak rugs can be recognised by their main border recent example (Z3S2Z warps).

– five of our illustrated examples carry the composite boteh

pattern. Most minor borders also show the boteh motif. The

colouring is vivid with saturated dyes.

The kheshti is frequently used. Plate 133 shows the

[168]

129.

Dashtak village rug

Chahâr Mahal Province

‘medallion’ design

178 x 252 cm

1920-35

Roland Nilsson Collection,

Stockholm

CHAHÂR MAHAL PROVINCE

[169]

above.

A Chahâr Mahal valley with

grazing sheep

CHAHÂR MAHAL

VA BAKHTIÂRI

Habib Miri

CHAHÂR MAHAL VA BAKHTIÂRI

INCLUDING THE FERIDÂN AREA

Some of the following information refers to the Bakhtiâri

nomads of bygone days and may not be applicable today.

Bakhtiâri nomads are followers of the ‘Shia’ Muslim

faith. Most Iranians today are Shia. The difference to the

‘Sunni’ faith is that among the Shia, Ali (the prophet

Mohamad’s cousin) and his descendants are reckoned to be

the legitimate leaders of the Muslim congregation, whereas

according to the Sunni, the caliph should be the leader.

However, Bakhtiâri men are not religious and basically one

can say they follow their ‘own way’. The women cover their

heads, but if some skin should show around the face, lower

arms or ankles it is not the end of the world.

Being nomads, they adhere to a patriarchal way of life.

The man is the supreme ruler of the family and his word is

law. He can beat his wife if she errs without being considered

out of order. The oldest son is the most important of the siblings.

Even if a younger brother becomes khân, he still has to

obey his older brother.

Paramount to the Bakhtiâri nomad is his horse, for

which he cares deeply. Second is his rifle – he never goes anywhere

without his rifle slung across his back. Third comes his

wife and family (especially the oldest son). For khâns and rich

nomads it is customary to have more than one wife. They are

called wife number one, wife number two, etc. Four wives are

[28]

CHAHÂR MAHAL VA BAKHTIÂRI

[320]

Village, Workshop & Nomadic Rugs of Western Persia

> ............. book design/jp willborg ab

Peter Willborg Contents

Habib Miri

the maximum allowed to Shia followers.

The woman’s position in normal society is sacred. No

man (other than her husband) is allowed to touch her, make

small talk or in any way abuse her – in such cases, the man in

question will be attacked by the woman’s husband or male

family members. An insult to a woman will always be

avenged, and it often results in death. On the same note, if a

wife has been unfaithful she will be killed and, if possible, so

will the man she was unfaithful with. These killings often lead

to blood feuds between families and tribes.

Marriage at a very early age is the norm – the girls are

around fifteen and the boys a few years older. The girls start

bearing children immediately. It is quite the norm to have

between ten and twenty children – a few die of course at an

early age and many die in feuds and intertribal skirmishes.

The division of labour between the sexes is as can be anticipated:

women tend to the children and their husbands; they

bake bread, make tea and yoghurt, clean and do all the other

domestic chores, while the men take care of the animals –

sheep, goats, donkeys and their beloved horses. They also

fight, talk with other men, smoke the water pipe and drink

copious amounts of chay (tea). Incidentally, the nomads do

not use cutlery. All food – rice and meat, or rice and bread –

is placed into one large bowl. Everyone washes their right

4.

nomadic Bakhtiâri rug

Chahâr Mahal Province

‘tile’ design

165-73 x 277 cm

circa 1925

�274.

Shalamzâr village rug

Chahâr Mahal Province

‘triple medallion’ design

khersak type

184 x 258 cm

1910-40

�275.

Shalamzâr village rug

made by Khanûm Soltane Amini

Chahâr Mahal Province

‘triple medallion’ design

khersak type

171 x 284 cm

circa 1940

NOMADS

[29]

CHAHÂR MAHAL PROVINCE

[321]

Foreword 8

Introduction 10

Weaving Techniques 21

Map 24

[1] Nomads 26

[2] Feridân Area 52

Âbâdji 60

Châdegân 64

Cingerd 73

Dâmaneh 74

Eskandari 76

Gharghân 82

Khoigân 84

Komitak 91

Mashad Kâveh 97

Rozveh 99

Sang Barân 104

[3] Chahâr Mahal Province 106

Âlbolâgh 118

Ardal 120

Ardjanak 126

Asadâbâd 130

Bâbâ Heidar 131

Bârdeh 142

Bardeshâh 146

Ben 150

Boldâji 155

Borodjen 161

Châl-e Shotôr 163

Dashtak 168

Dastenâ 175

Dastgerd 177

Deh Cheshmeh 180

Djamâlô 181

Farâh Donbeh 183

Filâbâd 191

Gahrû 192

Geshnegân 197

Ghafarrukh 204

Ghalléh Mamakâ 214

Ghalléh Salim 219

Hafshedjân 220

Harchegân 222

Hârôni 231

Heidari 234

Hodjiâbâd 239

Hûreh 247

Juneghân 249

Kâdj 251

Kâkalak 253

Kalbibak 254

Kharâdji 257

Khoy 259

Konark 260

Latûn 264

Nâfch 266

Pirbalût 272

Sâmân 275

Sar Tishniz 290

Sefid Dasht 292

Shahr-e Kord 302

Shahraki 308

Shalamzâr 311

Shamsâbâd 322

Sheikh Chupân 327

Sirak 334

Soudegân 339

Soureshdjân 341

Tâghânak 345

Tishniz 347

Vânân 349

Vardandjân 350

Yân Cheshmeh 354

Zanyon 356

[4] Carpet Types 358

Zighlar 360

Khersak 370

Gilim 374

Glossary 379

Bibliography 381

Structural Analysis 382

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Project management & book design for an antique textile

dealer & publisher. JP Willborg, based in Stockholm, required

a book/catalogue to accompany one of the largest ever private

exhibitions of antique carpets. For this project I was required

to manage all aspects of the production of the book from

sourcing the printers to appointing an editor and passing all

the pages on press as well as designing & preparing the pages

fo print. The client required a contemporary design which

would appeal to a sophisticated mainly Scandanavian clientel.

1. Jacket, 2. Title spread, 3. Contents Spread, 4. Chapter title spread,

5. Essay spread, 6. Sub Chapter, 7. Sub Chapter Spreads 8. Plate spread.

The ghâb design

FERIDÂN AREA

47.

possibly Cingerd village rug

Feridân Area

‘medallion’ design

138-44 x 209 cm

1920s

Cingerd

Driving northwards along the road from Komitak to Feridân village where one can automatically place this rug.

Eskandari, one passes this small village, which used to be The layout with a central medallion and floral sprays is found

inhabited by Armenians – but today only a few of them still elsewhere, but not in this delicately drawn style.

live here.

The borders are unusual and seem to be specific to

We do not really have any information about carpet one village. Nearby Khoigân rugs are found with similar field

weaving here and I cannot recall having been offered a so- designs, but they are executed in a much more geometric and

called Cingerd piece during the past few years.

angular style. Hence my guess that this may be a Cingerd rug.

The attribution of plate 47 to Cingerd is a very tentative Our example has Z6S cotton warps and single light blue cotton

one. The reasons are as follows: There is no other known wefts (Z3S and Z5wS).

[73]


Liz Dixon

[2]

SCULPTURED

FOR

ETERNITY

Treasures of Hellenistic, Roman

and Byzantine art from

I . STANBUL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

Text

R.R.R. Smith

Photography and Editorial Coordination

Ahmet Ertu ˘g

Published by

Ertu ˘g & Kocabıyık

THE I . STANBUL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUMS

THE . ISTANBUL

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

MUSEUMS

From the Collection of Antiquities to the

I . stanbul Archaeological Museums

DR ALPAY PAS . INL . I

Director General of Monuments and Museums, Ministry of Culture

The I . stanbul Archaeological Museums are located in a wooded part of the upper section of Gülhane Park within the outermost

walls of the Topkapı Sarayı complex. The museum is one of the richest and most important institutions of its kind in the world.

It is also Turkey’s first real museum (in the sense that it was created to be a museum) and still the country’s biggest. Officially

named the “I . stanbul Archaeological Museums”, it is in fact a complex made up of more than one museum: the Museum of

Archaeology, the Museum of Oriental Art, and the Tiled Pavilion (the Museum of Turkish Tiles and Ceramics). All together

the museum houses collections of works numbering more than a million objects. The complex also includes a large specialist

library, numismatic cabinets, an archive of cuneiform tablets, and restoration and conservation workshops.

The tradition of developing collections of works of art in Turkey can be dated to at least as early as the reign of Mehmed II (1451-

1481). When that sultan built the mosque that bears his name today, Byzantine imperial marble sarcophagi were used in the

grounds for their decorative effect. Mehmed also had Byzantine columns and capitals that were strewn around what is now

Sultanahmet Square collected and set up in the Topkapı courtyard, as was the base of a statue of a famous Byzantine charioteer

by the name of Porphyrius. In a real sense, these objects formed the core of the palace’s collections. Notions of collecting and

museology at Topkapı were also fostered by the tradition of retaining all the garments and accessories that the sultans and

members of their immediate family wore or used throughout their lifetimes and carefully storing them away in bundles and sacks.

Some time after the conquest of the city in 1453, a group of Byzantine-period armour, weapons and the like was installed in

Aya I . rini, the building of the former church of Hagia Eirene, which was located inside the first courtyard of Topkapı Sarayı

and which had been transformed into an armoury. In the centuries that followed, this was a place where both Ottoman

weaponry and other military gear and equipment as well as war trophies were stored. In 1846 the building was turned into

a military museum and remained so for nearly a century.

The founder of that museum was Rodosluzade Fethi Ahmed Pasha. He was one of the damad (son-in-law) pashas through

his marriage into the imperial family: he was married to Princess Atiye, a daughter of Mahmud II (1808-1839) and the older

sister of that sultan’s son and successor, Abdülmecid (1839-1861). Fethi Ahmed was a graduate of the palace schools (called

the Enderun) and had gone into military service. He had a successful career, rising to high military rank, serving both as a

government minister and in the Ottoman diplomatic service, in which capacity he was posted to Paris, Vienna, and London.

He was a highly cultured man, progressive in his outlook, and an advocate of innovation and reform. Between 1843 and 1858,

holding the rank of field marshal, he served as head of the Imperial Arsenal at Tophane and it was here that he began to

take an interest in museology. Among the objects stored at Aya I . rini were examples of the costumes that had been worn by

the soldiers of the Janissary corps (which had been abolished two decades earlier during the reign of Mahmud II) as well as

[9]

> ............. book design/the creative book company

ARCHAIC

SIXTH CENTURY BC

COLUMN DRUM WITH DANCING FIGURES IN RELIEF

From Cyzicus. c. 540 bc. Marble, H: 30 cm. Inv. 5370

E. Akurgal, ‘Neue archaische Bildwerke aus Kyzikos’, Antike Kunst 8 (1965), 99-101, pl. 2.2;

Fuchs-Floren, 405, pl. 36.3

Three frontal youthful figures holding hands in a dance decorate a rounded block. The central figure is a

veiled girl in a chiton; she is flanked by two naked youths with long hair. Subtle turns in the bodies break the

strict frontality of the composition. The fragment may originally have belonged to a decorated column drum

or a small round base (its back and lower half are now missing). In style, the relief relates to sculptures

from Miletus, the mother city of Cyzicus.

HEAD OF YOUTH (KOUROS)

Part of statue from sanctuary of Hera on Samos. Early sixth century bc. Marble, H: 49 cm. Inv. 1645

Mendel 530; B. Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen Zeit und des Strengen Stils. Samos 11

(Bonn 1974), 88-93, no. 47 A/B, pls. 30-33

The head belonged to a statue of a youth (kouros) of about twice life-size (c. 3.25 m), and it joins a body

preserved in several fragments on Samos (Vathy Museum). The soft and rounded face with its swelling

forms is typical for archaic sculptures from Ionia. The small mouth with full lips displays the formulaic

‘archaic smile’, and the hair is arranged in an intricate coiffure of long parallel plaits. In style and effect, this

statue resembles the colossal kouros dedicated by Isches, son of Rhesis, discovered on Samos in 1990.

ARCHAIC

plate 1

left

plate 2

gatefold

[49]

SCULPTURED FOR ETERNITY

plate 14

p.68

plate 15

p.68

plate 16

p.69

[58]

CONTENTS

PROCESSION OF PERSIAN NOBLE WITH ENTOURAGE

Grave stele from Daskyleion. 500-450 bc. Marble, H: 2.93 m. Inv. 5761 and 5764

Found in 1964 in a field near the village of Aksakal (Bandırma district) close to ancient Daskyleion

(Ergili). The stele had been re-used as part of a Byzantine tomb together with two other reliefs and

several relief fragments

M. Nollé, Denkmäler von Satrapensitz Dasykleion (Berlin 1992), 11-16, no. S 1, pls. 1-2

The stele is tall and slim in the archaic fashion and carries two relief panels on the upper part of the shaft. It

is crowned by a palmette growing out of a double volute. The upper scene is damaged and shows a procession

of men and horses. In its centre, there is a mounted and bearded Iranian wearing an eastern headdress. He

is followed by two men on foot who wear the same eastern headdress. In front walks a bare-headed youth

with a horse. The lower scene features a heavy cart with typically Persian eight-spoked and studded wheels

drawn by two horses. The cart’s superstructure, decorated with three Ionic columns, has often been interpreted

as a sarcophagus, but may rather be the tent-like cabin of a carriage used for travel. Two retainers follow

the cart on foot. Both registers together represent the travelling procession of a Persian nobleman and his

entourage, a well-known Iranian motif.

The Aramaic inscription below states that the stele was erected by a man called Elnaf (or Arnapes), son of

Asai, who invokes the gods Bal and Nabu to protect his tomb. Daskyleion was the seat of a Persian satrap

and an important administrative centre. The relief is distinctly eastern in style, with figures in Persian

dress, and its crowning finial is typical of late archaic stelai in western Anatolia. It was probably carved by

a local craftsman for a satrapal official eager to imitate the style of the Persian aristocracy.

ABOVE: PROCESSION WITH CART

BELOW: RECLINING MAN WITH SERVANTS AND WIFE AT PRIVATE BANQUET

Grave stele from Daskyleion. 500-450 bc. Marble, H: 2.21 m. Inv. 5763

From the same context as pl.14

M. Nollé, Denkmäler von Satrapensitz Dasykleion (Berlin 1992), 16-19, no. S 2, pl. 3

The stele was found together with pl.14 which it closely resembles. There are two relief scenes at the top, and

the crowning palmette is now missing. In the upper scene, a heavily loaded Persian-style cart is followed

by two attendants on foot. Below, there is a banquet scene with a bearded man reclining on a dining couch.

A woman, probably his wife, sits next to him, wearing a four-pointed crown over a long veil. On either side

are servants offering wine and food. To the outdoor noble procession, featured in pl.14, this stele adds the

widespread subject and theme of the privately catered banquet with wine-drinking and reclining on couches.

FLYING VICTORIES

Part of frieze from Xanthos. 470-450 bc. Marble, H: 29 cm. Inv. 5449

Found in 1957 re-used in the Roman theatre at Xanthos in Lycia

P. Demargne, ‘Sur un relief de Xanthos’, Revue Archéologique (1968), 85-92

The block was once part of a larger monument, perhaps a tomb, and may have served as a door lintel. Carved

in low relief are two Nikai, or Victories, flying horizontally to the left, one carrying a wreath, the other a

pomegranate. The figures combine archaic dress and features with a fluid early classical composition. Much

of the detail, for example of the wings, would have been added in paint.

plate 6 right YOUNG WARRIOR, WITH HELMET, SHIELD, AND SPEAR

Grave stele from Macedonia. Later fifth century bc. Marble, H: 1.73 m. Inv. 85

SCULPTURED FOR ETERNITY

Foreword 7

the essays 8

THE I . STANBUL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUMS 9

Dr Alpay Pasinli

THE MARBLE CULTURE OF ANTIQUITY, 600 BC - AD 600 16

Prof R.R.R. Smith

the plates 45

ARCHAIC 46

Sixth century BC

CLASSICAL 54

Fifth-fourth century BC

SARCOPHAGI FROM SIDON 70

Fifth-fourth century BC

HELLENISTIC 112

Third-first century BC

IMPERIAL ROMAN 158

First-third century AD

LATE ANTIQUE 302

Fourth-sixth century AD

MIDDLE AND LATE BYZANTINE 344

Seventh-fifteenth century AD

Bibliography 360

SCULPTURED

FOR

ETERNITY

Treasures of Hellenistic, Roman

and Byzantine art from

I . STANBUL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

R.R.R. SMITH

AHMET ERTU ˘ G

ERTU ˘G & KOCABIYIK

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

Book design for a publisher of high quality books. The

Creative Book Company, based in Istanbul, commissioned a

design for a book highlighting the best of the collection of

sculpture in the Istanbul Archeological Museum. All of their

books are produced to the highest standards of photography,

origination and print using the best papers and binders. This

large format book (335 x 410mm) retails for $450 and is

bought mainly by bibliofiles and the worlds top libraries. This

classical subject needed a sympathetic design which was clean

and simple allowing the sculptures to stand out.

1. Title spread, 2. Contents spread, 3. Slipcase,

4. Chapter title spread with gate fold, 5. Caption spread, 6. Essay title spread.


........................................ magazine/hali publications ltd

Magazine and book design as well as associated promotional

and stationary requirements for a publishers specialising in

antique carpets and textiles. After working for Hali for 14 years

I had gained a comprehensive knowledge of magazine & book

design & production. During that time I produced all kinds of

graphics from fair stands, annuals, subscription brochures,

cards, advertising campaigns, indices to letterheads. The

subject matter required a very high standard of colour

origination which necessitated not only rigorous proofing but

also passing every page on press. On becoming freelance I

continued to work mainly on production and special projects.

1. Hali cover, 2. Hali editorial page, 3. Hali fragments page,

4./5. Hali feature pages, 6. Hali postcard page,

7./8./9./10./11. Subscription brochure, 12. Hali index, 13. Hali fair brochure.

Liz Dixon

As I left London with my HALI

colleague Yasmine Cherkaoui, it

seemed that the main challenge of

our flying visit to Cairo would be

working through the checklists of

people, places and sights that friends

had kindly supplied. In hindsight

perhaps it was just as well that I for-

got to extricate them from the aero-

plane seat pocket. The schedule of

events organised by our generous

hosts, Oriental Weavers, and the

time restraints imposed by Cairo

traffic were more than enough to

keep us fully occupied.

If you believe that first impres-

sions are all-important, then mine

could not have been better when, on

arrival at Cairo airport we were met

by a driver who ushered us past

police, through a flashing and beep-

ing metal-detector and into a mar-

bled room where we were served

fizzy pop while immigration formal-

ities were dealt with elsewhere.

The drive into downtown Cairo,

apart from resembling a scene from

the Steve McQueen movie Bullitt,

was on the stately Sharia al-’Urubah

Boulevard, site of Baron Empain’s

palatial folly, which takes the form

of a Hindu temple with a revolving

tower to allow the interior maximum

sunshine. The boulevard is eventu-

ally swept up into a triumphant new

flyover. The views across the city

from this were striking: grand vistas

of modern office blocks peering over

busy streets; acres of ochre coloured

brick houses with unfinished roofs;

brief glimpses into the rooms of

families living in the top apartments

of grand colonial buildings over-

shadowed now by more progress.

The next evening was the red let-

ter event of our stay, Oriental Weav-

ers’ gala launch of The Claire Murray

Collection, but the rest of the day

was for adventures. We were taken

by one of our hosts, Hatem Banann,

to the Ramses Wissa Wassef School

of weaving in Harrania, established

in 1951 by a Coptic architect who

wanted to exemplify fundamental

beliefs about society and education

through a philanthropic experiment.

Children from the village were,

and still are, offered the chance to

learn to weave tapestries on a high

loom. These are based on the weav-

ers’ own experience and inspiration;

one of the school’s founding princi-

ples is that craftsmanship has been

thwarted by industrialisation and

that fundamental creativity is lost

when creator and executor are div-

orced from each other by the stan-

dardisation of the industrial age.

The development of imagination

and ability over several decades, from

the age of eight until retirement, can

be traced through a series of works

by some of the first pupils in the

School’s museum. It was fascinating

to see the progression from simple

geometric and zoomorphic forms to

more colourful, realistic and there-

fore textured patterns, through to

assured and stylised impressions,

with sophisticated perspective incor-

porating the play of light and shadow.

All the weavers are responsible for

choosing colours and dyeing with

dyestuffs grown in the school grounds.

The next day we made our way to

the Pyramids of Giza. The shock of

discovering that these are literally

in the city suburbs must be one exp-

erienced by many visitors, but I was

even less prepared to find that you

can actually enter the heart of the

Great Pyramid. As I followed Hatem

and Yasmine up the steep, cramped,

airless passage, our sense of historic

awe and expectation were palpable,

but on reaching our goal we found

the black granite burial chamber

entirely empty – apart from a couple

of other tourists rather embarrassed

to be found kissing on the stone sar-

cophagus. The Sphinx, in direct

contrast to the Pyramids, is surpris-

ingly small and would be all the

more complete and beautiful had

Napoleon not shot its nose off for

some inexplicable reason.

It was all over far too quickly but

on my next trip I shall definitely be

working on those checklists.

HALI

81

HALI 103

POSTCARD

Travellers’ tales from the world of carpets & textiles

PYRAMIDS

AND POP

An invitation to Cairo provided

a welcome opportunity for

HALI assistant editor Ben

Evans to survey Cairene

products ancient and modern.

Top: Cairo, overlooking the

Northern City of the Dead.

Centre: Market Place (detail),

tapestry by Garya Mahmoud,

Egypt, 1984. Wool, 3.45 x 2.25m

(11'6" x 7'5").

Right: The Ramses Wissa Wassef

School, Harrania, Cairo.

PENNY OAKLEY

JAPANESE FOLK TEXTILES

73

HALI 102

JAPANESE FOLK TEXTILES

72

HALI 102

Kawai and Shoji Hamada), he decided to

build a museum dedicated to folk crafts.

“I have decided to concentrate on

building the museum collection for one

whole year. I believe it is the best time to

purchase items...It is like going hunting

on an uninhabited island”, 2 he wrote to

a friend in 1929. For over ten years he

avidly amassed ceramics, lacquer, wood-

work and textiles and it is this collection,

hunted down throughout Japan, which

forms the core of the Mingeikan, which

was inaugurated in 1936. To this day it

remains a private self-funded museum;

Yanagi’s eldest son Sori is its president

and also president of the Japan Folk

Crafts Association.

At the time Dr Yanagi was acquiring

these treasures, folk crafts were neglected

and sold at modest prices. He was thus

able to assemble outstanding examples in

many fields, particularly that of textiles.

But by their very nature, folk textiles

were made to be worn and not preciously

conserved; they were patched and turned

and re-utilised, often finishing their

lives as floor rags or baby diapers. 3 Few

very ancient pieces survive and so the

J ust a few minutes

from the flashing

neon hysteria of

Tokyo’s trendy Shibuya

district is an altogether

different world. Here, set

peacefully among maple,

cherry and pine trees, its

scenery ‘borrowed’ from

adjoining Komaba Park,

is an imposing traditional

Japanese building, with a

heavy tiled roof curling up

at the ridge ends, white-

washed upper walls, slat-

ted windows and a sliding

wooden door. Designed

by the Japanese philo-

sopher and writer Soetsu

Yanagi (1889-1961) as

a museum dedicated to

conserving and promoting

Japanese folkcraft, it

holds the collection he

built up at a time when these crafts were

undervalued or even downright rejected.

Arrayed in the spacious rooms are pot-

tery, metalwork, wood-carvings, bamboo,

straw work, dolls, paintings...but the

most striking exhibits, as you enter and

exchange your outside shoes for inside

slippers, are the textiles. In the hall, hang-

ing over the main staircase, depending on

the day of your visit may be a bold futon

cover, its design a Chinese phoenix resist-

dyed in shades of indigo. Also on view may

be deerskin jackets for firemen, stencilled

with smoke, bright Okinawa kimono, dark

stitched robes from Aomori or even rain

capes and back cushions woven in rice

straw and scraps of discarded cotton (11).

The museum is called the Mingeikan

(Mingei Museum) from the word mingei

which combines the idea of ‘people’ with

‘skill’ or ‘craft’. The term was first coined

by Dr Yanagi in the 1920s. According to

his definition, folk craft

should be “functional,

simple and have no

excess ornamentation...

it must reflect the region

it was made in; and it

must be made by hand”. 1

Soetsu Yanagi was

much influenced by the

British Arts & Crafts

movement, William

Morris and William

Blake, and as a philo-

sopher very interested

in Walt Whitman and

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Like Morris, Yanagi

dreamed of a utopian

rural community in which

craftsmen worked in

harmony with nature.

He was horrified by the

galloping industrialisa-

tion and urbanisation of

Japan, which by the early 20th century

was enthusiastically adopting all things

Western and rejecting much of its own

fine traditions. In 1924, as a result of

vivid discussions on the subject with two

like-minded friends (the potters Kanjiro

MINGEIKAN

Japanese Folk Textiles in Tokyo

1. Top: Soetsu Yanagi, 1889-1961.

2. Above: The Mingeikan, Tokyo.

Georgina Adam

Japan has a long and glorious textile tradition. While the most immediate and familiar image is that of dazzling

silk kimono resplendent with brilliant colour, there is a humbler but equally fine tradition – that of folk

textiles. The author focuses here on examples from the Japanese Folk Crafts Museum in Tokyo.

3. Futon cover, 19th century. Cotton,

with hand-drawn resist-dyed auspi-

cious motifs, 1.55 x 1.30m (5'1" x 4'3").

The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art

UK – £17 Europe – £19/DM57/ _ C _ 38 USA – $34 Rest of World – £22/$44

Marasali Prayer Rugs

Andean Textile Nomenclature

March/April 1999 Issue 103

NEVER SAY DYE

Aficionados of natural dyes and

pigments recently gathered for the

17th year running to exchange ideas

and research. Organisers Chris

Cooksey, formerly of University

College, London, and Robert

Withnall, University of Greenwich,

covened the Dyes in History and

Archaeology conference in the

historic setting of Greenwich in

November 1998.

As usual at these meetings, a

balance was provided between highly

scientific papers on dye chemistry

and reports of practical fieldwork or

historical research. Among the

former, Jan Wouters (Koninklijk

Instituut, Brussels), a pioneer of the

HPLC technique of dye analysis

(high-performance liquid chro-

matography), gave a fascinating

paper on the red components of

‘Levant madder’. Such research

often throws new light on the history

and provenance of textiles and

painted artefacts, as well as being

invaluable for conservation purposes.

Zvi Koren (Israel), revealed that

the usefulness of safflower extended

beyond dyeing to provide the Jewish

equivalent of viagra in biblical times,

while the ever-elusive mysteries of

shellfish purple, a hardy perennial,

were tackled by Chris Cooksey and

Israel Ziderman.

André Verhecken reported on

his recent studies of the cochineal

insects that breed as happily on the

polled cacti in his sitting room as

they do in the wilds of Peru.

Practical fieldwork studies were

reported by Rowena Hill (Bourne-

mouth University), who journeyed

to Papua New Guinea to study the

traditional dyes still used there, and

in my own paper, which focused on

dyeing with indigo and mud in Mali

and Senegal.

Moving into the realm of bio-

technology and the future role of

natural dyestuffs, Philip John

(Department of Agricultural Botany,

Reading University), demonstrated

the value today of delving into the

past. By isolating a new strain of

Clostridium, he and his team have

unearthed the bacteriological secrets

of the medieval woad fermentation

vat. This discovery could affect

agriculture and dye technology in

the future as more emphasis is put

on using renewable, non-polluting

resources. In that case our blue

jeans may one day turn ‘green’.

Jenny Balfour-Paul

PRESERVING THE IMAGE

As a result of the recent merger

between the Textile Conservation

Centre and the University of

Southampton, the TCC will move

this summer to the university’s

Winchester School of Art campus.

Before bidding adieu to its

Hampton Court Palace home, how-

ever, the Centre will be participat-

ing in the 1998 Association of Art

Historians conference (Southampton

University, 9-11 April 1999).

The TCC’s day of lectures

confronts the question of ‘Preserving

the Image and Enhancing the

Value’ from the varying perspectives

of art historian, conservator, collector

and curator. Speakers will include

Dr Regula Schorta from the Abegg-

Stiftung, Dr Ruth Barnes from the

Ashmolean Museum, and Dr

Miriam Clavir from the University of

British Columbia.

HALI

73

HALI 103

FRAGMENTS

People, events and items of interest in the world of carpets and textiles

HOLBEINS IN NEW SPAIN

Oriental carpets turn up in the oddest places. One of the more intriguing items spotted hanging in the

wonderful Denver Art Museum during ACOR 4 last spring was a Mexican painting featuring an accurately

rendered but strangely diminutive large-medallion Ushak carpet. Luis Juarez’s Birth of the Virgin was

painted around 1610, in oils on copper, in the mannerist style of Spanish artists who settled in Mexico.

Juarez, the first of a well known family of New World painters, was born in Mexico City in about 1585.

Members of the DHA meet at Queen’s House in Greenwich to share in

the fermentation of scientific theories and practical experience.

EDITORIAL

69

HALI 103

■ Events in the San Francisco Bay Area, the local carpet and

textile community, and the city’s Fine Arts Museums have received

an unusual amount of coverage on this editorial page in recent

months. The fact is that it is difficult to keep them out of the

headlines in the world of antique carpets and textiles.

The FAMSF have just announced the pledge of the George and

Marie Hecksher Collection of early Middle Eastern and Turkmen

rugs and rare early Indian and Central Asian silks to the Textile

Department at the de Young Museum, as well as of funds for

textile facilities – galleries, conservation laboratories and storage.

The Hecksher Collection consists of some fifty rugs and textiles,

many of which rank among the rarest and best to come onto the

international market during the 1990s. It first attracted the wider

attention of the rug and textile collecting community when over

twenty pieces were included in the various exhibitions mounted in

Philadelphia during the 1996 ICOC (see Dodds & Eiland, Oriental

Rugs from Atlantic Collections).

The collection comprises three main areas, two of which are

closely complementary to the de Young’s present oriental carpet

holdings. These are a small group of early Turkish carpet fragments,

and some thirty Turkmen tribal pile rugs, bags and trappings.

Arguably the most important piece is one of the earliest, a 13th

century Anatolian animal carpet fragment (HALI 92, p.86). The

Hecksher Turkmen weavings also

include examples that are among

the rarest and most unusual known,

among them a ‘unique’ ivory-ground

Chodor asmalyk (HALI 69, p.158), a

Salor ensi (HALI 60, p.93) and two

Yomut family multi-göl carpets.

Perhaps the most important of the

third group, the early Asian textiles, is

a 3rd-1st century BC skirt fragment,

found in Xinjiang, with a slit-tapestry

panel of ‘Pazyryk-style’ antlered stags

(detail right). The Central Asian silks,

some of which date to the 8th century

AD, have designs that reveal the many influences to which this

region, the heart of the ancient Silk Road, was subject. The five

Indian samite fragments, probably of 14th century origin, are

among the earliest known compound silks from northern India

(HALI 91, pp.100-101).

The Heckshers, who recently moved to San Francisco from New

York, are relatively new to the oriental rug and textile field, but not

to collecting or museum patronage. While in New York, they built

an important collection of original manuscripts by George Bernard

Shaw, which they donated to the J.P. Morgan Library, and they

are also benefactors of the Islamic Department of the MMA. They

only began to collect rugs and textiles in 1993, and have brought

to their new interest the same diligent study, aesthetic judgment

and market sense they had honed in their earlier collecting.

Diane Mott, FAMSF Associate Curator of Textiles, has commen-

ted “What most excites me about the Hecksher gift are the Central

Asian and North Indian silks... Until now, we have not been able

to acquire textiles from the court traditions of Asia. This gift simul-

taneously launches us in an entirely new collecting direction and

establishes us as one of the foremost collectors of this material”.

■ That the Hecksher Collection is at present a pledge to the

FAMSF rather than an immediate gift reflects the fact that the de

Young Museum, built in 1895 and structurally damaged in the

1989 earthquake, is in transition. After several years of uncer-

tainty, it has also just been announced that private sector funding

of nearly $65 million has been raised as a major contribution

towards the seismically sound rebuilding of the museum on its

present site. The Swiss architectural firm of Herzog & de Meuron

(whose work includes the Tate Gallery’s Bankside development in

London) have been invited to design, in FAMSF Director Harry

Parker’s words, “a major new San Francisco landmark, while

ensuring sensitivity to Golden Gate Park’s unrivalled environ-

mental splendours”. The architects in turn promise “a place for art

and for people”. Under a best-case scenario, construction of the

new de Young could begin in 2002 and be complete by 2006.

In the meantime, following the move of the adjacent Asian Art

Museum to the Civic Center in late 2001, the de Young plans to

use the AAM’s former space for temporary exhibitions.

■ The San Francisco story continues with news of the death on

21 January 1999, from complications following heart surgery, of

the leading local rug collector and museum benefactor Wolfgang

Wiedersperg. His fine collection of some eighty Turkmen rugs

(see Eiland, Oriental Rugs from Pacific

Collections, 1990, pls.112-131), was

given to the de Young Museum in 1997

(HALI 97, p.59). Like many others, the

collection began as something of an

accident, with the purchase of a new

house with walls and floors to cover.

Wolfgang and Gisela Wiedersperg’s

first acquisition, in 1961, was a Tekke

main carpet. Others soon followed. Mrs

Wiedersperg’s domestic requirements

were soon met, but her husband’s enthus-

iasm for carpets was just beginning.

What started as a purely aesthetic

response to Turkmen weaving developed into an absorbing inter-

est that continued through three decades of study and connois-

seurship.

The Wiederspergs acquired their rugs from collectors and

dealers in the US or from auctions in the US, London and

Germany. They found the crown jewel of their collection, a

magnificent Salor bridal trapping which Wolf Wiedersperg

referred to as “the Hollywood piece”, in the home of a Bay

Area collector. Sadly, Wolf Wiedersperg did not live to see his

collection on show at the de Young (scheduled for autumn 1999),

or the publication of the forthcoming catalogue, written by Robert

Pinner and Murray L. Eiland Jr.

■ Finally, and nothing whatsoever to do with San Francisco, the

20th Anniversary Quiz in HALI 100 has been won by Willem

Beumer & Tineke Beumer-Becx of Osterbeek in Holland. Second

prize goes to Rob White of Great Wilbraham in Cambridgeshire,

England, and third prize to Dr Brian Dennis of Bath, England.

Congratulations to the winners and to everyone who responded

to what was admittedly a rather tough exercise. To check your

A PLACE FOR ART

AND FOR PEOPLE

DON TUTTLE

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

12. 13.

HALI, meaning carpet in

Turkish, is an international

magazine of exceptional

style and design. The leading

journal for the field of carpet and

textile arts, HALI’s authority is

recognised across the globe.

Subscribe and let HALI expand

your knowledge of this remarkable

world...

Here is your chance to view

some of the most

beautiful examples of

artistic achievement.

Kilims, tapestries,

embroideries, brocades... From

the palaces of the Emperors

of China to the great halls

of medieval Europe –

HALI takes you on an

inspirational journey across countries,

centuries and cultures.

Fragments, ideas, sightings,

events... travellers tales

and new discoveries.

HALI is the forum for an

international community

of enthusiasts – and a fabulous

creative source. Discover in

every bi-monthly issue...

MARKET INTELLIGENCE

HALI trawls the globe to

bring you the latest market news

and trends. Auction Price Guide

reviews the auctions so both

purchase decisions and selling

prices are well-informed. HALI

sets the market rationale – and

provides indispensable intelligence

for dealers and collectors

ENTICING FEATURES

Stimulating articles on the

world’s endlessly rich textile

heritage – ranging from ancient

traditions to today. Authoritative,

yet accessible writing blends

with full-colour illustrations of

the highest quality. Admire the

skills of past civilisations as you

discover their cultures

O R D E R C A R D

Let HALI expand your horizons...

subscribe today.

A subscription saves up to 35% on

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you will receive a free gift – the

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This high resolution folding magnifying

stand is worth £8/US$16.

Simply complete your details overleaf

and return with your payment

‘Oh you painters who ask for a technique of

colour – study carpets and there you will

find all knowledge’

Paul Gauguin

The HALI Fair is a unique

opportunity for collectors, enthusiasts

and art lovers to admire and acquire

collectable and decorative art in a fully

vetted environment.

Over 50 dealers from Europe, Asia and the USA will

be showing fascinating and varied collections of the

world’s carpet and textile traditions.

THE HALI INTERNATIONAL

ANTIQUE CARPET

AND TEXTILE

ART FAIR

London in June

The HALI Fair is an exciting

addition to the London in

June scene featuring a variety

of fairs, including The

Grosvenor House Antiques

Fair, The Olympia Fine Art

and Antiques Fair, The Inter-

national Ceramic Fair, impor-

tant art auctions and

exhibitions. The HALI Fair

will run alongside The

Olympia Fine Art & Antiques

Fair, taking place in the

Olympia Grand Hall, and

visitors can attend both fairs

for a discounted price.

The HALI International Antique Carpet

and Textile Art Fair

Thursday 11th – Monday 15th June 1998

These unique works of art originate from all the weaving cultures of

Asia, Oceania, Africa, Europe and the Americas,

starting as early as 2000 years ago, with

particular emphasis on the 16th to 19th centuries.

Visitors will see rugs, carpets, tapestries, fine courtly silks and

velvets, ceremonial costumes and trappings, nomadic bags

and tent furnishings, and discover a wide spectrum of

weaving, embroidery and appliqué techniques.

Admission Prices

Purchase your ticket in advance and

receive a complimentary copy of Istanbul -

The HALI Rug Guide (worth £8.99).

£5.00 per person for The Hali Fair.

£8.00 per person for The HALI Fair and The

Olympia Fine Art and Antiques Fair.

Please contact the Ticket Hotline on:

Tel: +44 (0)181 710 2153 Fax: +44 (0)181 673 1335

All major credit cards are accepted

A full colour catalogue will be available at the fair for £5.00

Tickets may also be purchased on arrival at Olympia

BAGS, BANDS & TRAPPINGS

Anatolia see Turkey

Baluch

Afghan, khorjin face 97: 91

Afghan?, ru-korssi 114: 115

bag face 85: 124, 88: 134, 104: 108, 106: 65

balisht 86: 120, 89: 142, 91: 164, 95: 145, 103: 141,

105:124

chanteh 113: 123

Iran

bag face 94: 135, 96: 50

balisht 86: 120, 92: 127, 96: 146, 97: 138

khorjin face 92: 135

Khorasan

balisht 97: 86

khorjin 91: 168

khorjin face 94: 122, 97: 86, 87, 104: 131

sofreh 91: 138

khorjin, bird design 85: 138

khorjin face 90: 104, 126

Northeast Iran, balisht 111: 96, 112: 135

Northeast Iran?, ru-korssi 114: 115

salt bag 98: 113, 101: 139

Sistan

balisht, boteh design 97: 90

khorjin face 97: 90

Timuri, bag face 90: 113

Byzantine, silk, amulet bag 88: 102

Caucasus

Armenia

saddle bag 90: 59

saddle cover 110: 19

Azerbaijan

bag face 96: 50

horse cover 88: 22

saddle bag, sumakh 85: 132

Shahsavan

bag face, sumakh 112: 129

Khamseh, bag face, sumakh 112: 133

bag face 88: 130

sumakh 98: 156, 109: 50

Daghestan, Lesghi 101: 25

dowry bags, silk 86: 95

East Caucasus, mafrash, sumakh, afshan design 88: 140

Georgia

Nakhiduri Caves, bag, fragment 99: 59

Tiflis, saddle bag 87: 150

Karabagh

bag face, sumakh 97: 120

bedding bag 100: 152

chuval 93: 116

khorjin face 89: 144

saddle bag, sumakh 99: OFC, 4

Kazak

bedding bag 100: 152

Borjalu, mafrash 93: 126

khorjin face 104: 133

mafrash 96: 140

salt bag, sumakh 87: 130

Kuba

saddle rug 108: 46

Zeikhur

bag face, with dragons 99: 101

masnad 109: 80

Moghan

chanteh 97: 129

saddle bag, sumakh 104: 97

Shahsavan, khorjin face, sumakh 109: 149

saddle bag, slit tapestry 93: 109

Shahsavan

bag face 108: 44

sumakh 93: 64, 137, 140, 101: 135

khorjin, sumakh 108: 126

khorjin face, sumakh 86: 96, 97: 118, 107: 129,

109: 149, 112: 129

Moghan, khorjin face, sumakh 109: 149

Shahsavan?, khorjin face, sumakh 86: 98

Shirvan, Marasali, horse cover 105: 73

South Caucasus

bag face 89: 115

camel cover, sumakh 94: 35

khorjin face 97: 135

Southeast Caucasus, mafrash, end panel, sumakh

109: 37

sumakh bag 86: 99

Caucasus?, mafrash, side panel 86: 98

Central Asia

Afghan

Aimaq, khorjin 92: 107

Timuri

bag 102: 114

khorjin 94: 32

khorjin face 96: 113

sumakh 93: 64

see also Baluch

Kirghiz

çig (reed screen) 87: 114

felt, storage bag 93: 88

Kirghiz?

Kizil chuval 109: 39

tent band, embroidered 98: 149

tapestry-weave, bag, with felt lining 112: 57

tent bag 93: 128

Turkmen 111: 121

ak-yup (tent band), fragment 91: 168

Arabachi

asmalyk 87: 104

camel trapping 100: 107

chuval 86: 115, 96: 92, 94, 95, 108: 137

ensi 94: 112, 96: 96, 97, 100: 105, 101: 136,

110: 43

germech 96: 99, 100: 105

kapunuk 96: 99

torba 96: 95, 99: 127, 101: 136, 103: 123,

104: 132

mina khani design 109: 57

trapping 112: 152

wedding camel trapping 96: 98

wedding trapping 104: 73

asmalyk

Eagle-göl, group 2 87: 129

embroidered 87: 104, 111: 64, 134

on English broadcloth 111: 64

bag face 113: 109

Chodor

asmalyk 109: 151

stylised bird 87: 112

camel trapping 91: 102

chuval 96: 143, 105: 111

ensi 88: 109, 100: 105

kap 102: 132

kapunuk 89: 128, 91: 158

P-Chodor

kapunuk 104: 83

tent band 104: 85

tent band, fragment 101: 139

torba 102: 127

trapping 111: 93

Eagle göl

group 1

torba, fragment 112: 152

trapping 112: 60

group 1?, torba 111: 111

group 2

asmalyk 87: 129, 106: 139

chuval 110: 126, 113: 37

fragment 91: 105

torba 106: 139

ensi 101: 136, 107: 111, 118

double mihrab 104: 45

Ersari

asmalyk 97: 139

Beshir

asmalyk 109: 110

bag face 95: 117

chuval 106: 139, 112: 153

mina khani pattern 88: 145

ensi 89: 20

trapping, cloud-band design 88: 145

camel trapping 88: 104

chuval 94: 139, 97: 152, 99: 135, 107: 28,

109: 109, 111: 112, 112: 49, 113: 23, 25, 116

fragment 85: 124

ikat design 107: 39

ensi 106: 100, 108: 45, 109: 110, 110: 133,

111: 8, 113: 27

fragment 104: 85

kap 85: 140

ok-bash 90: 106

torba 87: 159, 88: 54

trapping, fragment 98: 116

Ersari?, bag face 110: 43

felt, horse trapping 105: 145

khalyk 114: 125

Kizil Ayak

chuval 92: 9

torba 100: 74

Kizil Ayak?, camel trapping 88: 104

Kizil Bash, chanteh 97: 129

Kizil chuval 108: 110

salachak 103: 141

Salor

animal trapping 85: 79

camel trapping 87: 159

chuval 86: 101, 87: 105, 91: 105, 100: 36, 106,

103: 142, 104: 82, 106: 100, 108: 79,

110: 156

ensi 95: 69, 97: 63, 106: 34, 109: 158

Type B 106: 131, 112: 133

torba 91: 93, 95: 60, 99: 127, 102: 59,

112: 152

fragment 104: 85

kejebe design 104: 113, 110: 153

trapping 94: 135, 102: 59, 109: 108

wedding trapping 87: 105, 95: 61, 100: 165

fragment 93: 128

Salor?, asmalyk, embroidered 91: 94

Saryk

chuval 108: 81, 112: 153

silk and wool 103: 9

ensi 87: 104, 90: 104, 94: 59, 97: 140, 104: 73,

84

kap 91: 103

torba 95: 138, 96: 143, 97: 150, 104: 72,

112: 126

shoulder bag, modern production 94: 87

Tekke

asmalyk 113: 48

animal-tree 90: 126, 108: 133

bird 87: 104, 113, 109: 146

embroidered 99: 128, 100: 107, 102: 126,

105: 50, 109: 37

bag? 109: 109

chuval 92: 9, 93: 118, 94: 136, 113: 47

ensi 90: 162, 91: 167, 103: 57, 106: 140,

108: 8, 112: 119

animal-tree 102: 101

eyerlik (saddle cover) 103: 141

germech 86: 122, 87: 112, 159, 92: 127,

108: 80

kap 108: 80, 81

‘white-panel’ 86: 100

kapunuk 87: 105, 93: 128, 103: 151

khalyk 88: 145, 91: 158, 108: 79

mafrash 99: 127

torba 89: 142, 143, 94: 129, 136, 99: 107,

100: 106, 101: 138, 102: 69, 103: 141,

106: 139, 108: 80, 109: 158, 110: 141, 156,

112: 53, 113: 48

chemche güls 88: 140

trapping, 112: 67

Tekke?, Kizyl, chuval 104: 73

tent band 102: 139

fragment 112: 69

mixed technique 92: 67

torba 92: 74

animal-gül 87: 130

Yomut 94: 37

asmalyk 88: 145, 89: 76, 91: 158, 92: 9,

94: 35, 47, 100: 104, 103: 102, 117, 142,

104: 72, 73, 106: 139, 109: 132,

112: 121, 152

embroidered 85: 145, 91: 158

tree 97: 139

bokche 100: 106

camel cover 106: 47

chuval 90: 92, 92: 121, 94: 107, 100: 141,

108: 101

Eagle göl, group 2, chuval 110: 126

ensi 94: 111, 97: 140, 98: 9, 146, 101: 25,

106: 116, 113: 11

horse cover 88: 124, 101: 137

kap 85: 140, 86: 137, 92: 106, 131, 93: 131,

97: 139, 105: 126, 109: 111

mafrash 86: 137, 87: 144, 93: 131

PICTURES Bags, Bands & Trappings Africa – Central Asia

177

P

CAUCASIAN RUGS

83

HALI 103

T he popular east Caucasian rugs

commonly referred to in the West

as Marasali or Marasali-Shirvan are

some of the most beautiful small rugs ever

woven in the villages of Azerbaijan. The

overwhelming majority were woven,

mainly in the 19th century, in various

prayer designs, although smaller numbers

of ‘secular’ rugs without overt or implied

‘prayer’ niches were produced, either in

small sizes or much larger kelleh formats.

Marasali rugs have asymmetrically

(Turkish) knotted pile, cut short. The wool

is soft, shiny and velvety in the best pieces.

Warps are almost invariably wool, usually

natural ivory or brown, occasionally mixed.

It is always Z-spun, mostly 3-ply (Z3S),

although instances of Z2S, Z4S and even

Z5S (4 silk, 1 wool) are known, on a rug

offered at Sotheby’s, New York in April

1996. The Kalmann rug (1) also has silk

warps, which is most

unusual. The Bausback

pictorial rug (Caucasian

Prayer Rugs, London

1998, pl.96; HALI 100,

p.140) has warps (and

wefts) of beige cotton,

while a variant design rug

from the Dixon Collection

(CPR, pl.97) has warps of

Z-spun cotton and wool.

Cotton (Z2S or Z3S),

usually white, is the pre-

ferred weft material in at

least two-thirds of the rugs.

When wool is used (Z2S or

Z3S) it is typically either

ivory or natural brown.

There are at least four

known examples with silk

wefts: an early, ultra-fine

fragment in the Burns Collection (CPR,

pl.93); another ivory-ground piece in the

same collection (2); a later indigo-ground

rug (9), and the distinctly unusual

Sotheby’s New York rug mentioned above.

Sides are usually of white cotton, wrap-

ped over two cords, although at least one

rug (9) has wool selvedges. Ends are typi-

cally plainweave, with a knotted (macrame)

fringe, as in so many east Caucasian rugs.

A degree of controversy exists regard-

ing the name and location of the weaving

village(s). Many maps and accounts in the

rug literature refer to a village called

Marasali as the principal source of these

rugs, 1 but in a recent letter to the editor

(HALI 101) John Mills has pointed out

there is no such place. Instead, he suggests

that Maraza is the correct name for this

village, located some fifty miles northwest

of Baku, on the road to Shemakha. One of

the authorities he cites for this view is the

Azerbaijani expert Latif Kerimov, with

whom he had a personal discussion on the

subject in Baku in 1981. 2

However, a couple of decades earlier

the influential Kerimov was also the main

source of information for Ulrich Schür-

mann, who makes no mention of Maraza

in his seminal book on Caucasian rugs.

Schürmann’s map places Marasali south

of Bijov and northwest of Chajli. The map

in Kerimov’s more recent Rugs and Carpets

from the Caucasus (1984) does not show

either name and illustrates just one early

20th century rug, with

borders and a vertically

banded field with some

designs we readily associ-

ate with the Marasali genre,

as being from Maraza.

The sheer number of

Marasali rugs makes one

doubt whether they could

have been woven in a

single village, whatever its

name. However, it is prob-

able that the earlier pieces

– ‘black’ Marasalis with the

curved prayer arch, woven

in the late 18th and early

19th centuries – were all

from one village, which lent

its name to similar rugs

woven by later generations

in the surrounding area.

CAUCASIAN RUGS

82

HALI 103

IVORY, BLACK

& GOLD

Marasali Prayer Rugs

Ralph Kaffel

One of the themes to emerge from the author’s

recently published collector’s-eye view of

Caucasian prayer rugs is his admiration for

so-called Marasali rugs, thought to have been

woven in considerable numbers in and

around the village of Maraza in the

Shemakha District of Azerbaijan since at least 1800.

With their ‘flaming’ boteh and floral-lattice

designs and rich colours, the earliest

examples of this distinctive group are

among the finest and most desirable

of all Caucasian prayer rugs.

1. Marasali prayer rug,

east Caucasus, early 19th century.

1.04 x 1.29m (3'5" x 4'3").

Courtesy Rippon Boswell, Wiesbaden.


Liz Dixon

BOKHARA

COLLECTION

AMC

Why do I

need to do a

Foundation

course?

RUGS LTD

1 Alice

GETTING INTO ART & DESIGN COURSES | 5

Foundation courses

Art and Design Foundation courses – the full name is

Level 3 Diploma in Foundation Studies (Art and Design) –

provide a bridge between the kind of study undertaken

at GCSE and A-level and the type of work you will do on

courses offered at degree level. Although there are exceptions,

for those of you currently studying A-levels and

hoping to get into art school, taking up a place on

a Foundation course will be your next step. Most typically

they are self-contained one-year courses available at

a variety of different types of institution including

universities, art schools and colleges of further and

higher education.

For those of you who have not completed a GNVQ or Diploma in

Art and Design, studying on a Foundation course will give you an

opportunity to find out much more about your creative interests

and abilities.You will have the chance to experiment with methods

and materials which will not have been previously available.You

will have the freedom to explore your own ideas and will be truly

working for yourself.You can expect to have a lot of fun.While

each course will have its own individual style and content may

vary, all Foundation courses will attempt to challenge and develop

aneasylife .net is for people who are too

busy to handle the boring day to day

things like: remembering to tax the car,

waiting in all day for a plumber who

does’nt show up, or sending that stuff to the

accountant. Oh! and you promised to take your

godson to a show... What show? And how do you

get tickets? Let’s face it, life is much easier with

6 | GETTING INTO ART & DESIGN COURSES

Williams

Final year Alevel

student,

MPW 2003

What can I

expect to do

on a

Foundation

course?

For just £125 per

month you will be

free of the hassle,

the headache and

the guilt of not

being a perfect human

being! Our aim is to give you back that elusive

time to enjoy organised, fulfiling, exciting and

relaxing free time for the first time in a long time.

your critical awareness and creative skills.They will help you to

select a specialist area of study, prepare your portfolio and make

applications for degree courses.There is probably no better way to

prepare for a specialist degree course than by completing

Foundation studies.Take a look at the views of an ex-student.

‘Applying for a place on an Art and Design Foundation course

felt like the next step on the ladder for me. I was still unsure

of which career path to go down but knew that I loved Art

and wanted to pursue it in the future.The great thing about

the Foundation course is that you can use it in whatever

art-based career you choose: it’s an extra year in which to

explore your artistic talents, have fun and move closer to

fulfilling your ambitions. Although I had experimented

with a variety of media during my A-level, I didn’t feel that

I had done so to my full potential. A Foundation course

gives you the opportunity to experiment further and, most

importantly, helps you to discover your true abilities.’

Foundation courses are divided into three phases, each phase being

roughly equivalent to one of the three terms that make up the

academic year.

The exploratory phase will give you a general introduction to the

theory and practice of art and design.You will have the chance to

experiment with a wide range of materials and will work on projects

designed to help you identify your strengths and interests.

In the second or pathway phase you will investigate a specialist area

of art and design practice, guided by a tutor experienced in that field.

Colleges vary in the ways in which they divide their courses but in

nearly all cases you will choose from the following areas of study:

Art – painting, sculpture and drawing – could also include film and

photography.

Communication – graphic design, illustration and time-based media.

Design – ceramics, metals, fashion, and product design.

At this stage of the course you will also begin to put together

a portfolio for degree course applications.

Our team of lifestyle managers will deal with

anything large or small, that will ease the day to

day running of your life. Try us, you’ll like us.

Call us on 020 7431 3902 or email enquiries@

aneasylife.net.

We could be just

your cup

of tea.

Beige 60 x 180 / 2' x 6'

Rose 180 x 270 / 6' x 9' Beige 75x270 / 2'6" x 9'

BOKHARA COLLECTION RUGS

AMC Rugs, a long established manufacturer of traditional handmade

rugs, is pleased to present to our comprehensive range of

Bokhara rugs. They are all made from 100% pure wool and are

hand-knotted in our own workshops. We can deliver immediately

any of the sizes and colours listed overleaf from stock. Should you

require a custom size, please contact us for a quote.

Charlotte

Blower

Foundation

course,

Chelsea

> ................................................................................... general graphics

AMC RUGS BOKHARA

FOUNDATION COURSES | 7

Last comes the confirmatory phase during which you will complete

your portfolio, work on a major project normally negotiated with

your specialist tutor and put together a final show.The Foundation

course exhibition might include static exhibits, multimedia displays

and a fashion show.

Although there are exceptions, Foundation courses are often very

big, sometimes with as many as 400 students all following the same

programme of study.For those of you used to small class sizes this

prospect can be daunting.In practice, nearly all students find that

they quickly adjust to their new working environment.Many

students find that they really feed off the hustle and bustle that

comes with working in large groups and in part the course will be

about learning to work with others.

Expect to work hard.Most courses will run from Monday to Friday,

often from 9.30 to 4.30 or later.You can also expect to attend at

least one evening class a week.Your working week will be divided

into studio practice, lectures and seminars, visits and personal

study time.

Expect to have to speak up for yourself.Don’t expect lecturers to

spend too much time chasing you up.Making the most of the

course will be your responsibility.You will find yourself involved in

group projects and can expect to forge strong friendships with

your fellow students.The course will be exhausting at times but it

will also be very exciting.The build-up to the end-of-year show and

the show itself are something that you won’t forget.

Have a look at the views of an ex-student and a course tutor.For

examples of Foundation course artwork please see the colour section

(pp.57–61).

‘I was surprised, when I first started the course, by the

emphasis on self-motivation.There is more pressure on

the students to push themselves, compared to school.

No one forces us to do anything, so we need to create our

own momentum. For this reason, the course suits those

people who are really interested in art and are excited

by it.What I like about the course is that it has opened

personal

styling

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020 7431 3902

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dedicated to carpets, textiles, asian and tribal art

It costs Chicago tribal art dealer Douglas Dawson only

£5.40 a month to display this mask in the Cloudband Arcade.

Just one of the many items now for sale on Cloudband

Al~Malik brochure, KH folder, Cloudband media pack, press

adverts, postcards and exhibition design, book for Trotman,

Easylife logo, stationary and brochure. An oriental carpet

manufacturer, Al~Malik, required a series of brochures a well

as a logo redesign. Karen Hale runs a personal shoping service

and wanted a logo revamp and folder. Cloudband, an online

antique textile marketplace and magazine company,

commissioned me to produce much of their conventional print

needs. As well as advertising in about 20 magazines they also

attended several trade fairs for which I designed and produced

the stand graphics. Easylife, a life style management company,

required a logo, stationary and a brochure that can be adapted

to form the basics of a web site

1./2. Al~Malik brochure, front & inside, 3. KH Folder, 4. Cloudband advert,

5./6. Trotman book, 7./8. Cloudband media pack, 9. Easylife brochure body

10. Easylife brochure cover.

www.cloudband.com

6 Haven Street, Hawley Wharf, London NW1 8QX

e. contact.us@cloudband.com t. +44 (0)20 7284 4141

The ‘cloudband directory’ is an international ‘yellow pages’, featuring

businesses, museums and a host of subsidiary services. In addition to

featuring many of the leading dealers in rugs, textiles, Asian and tribal art,

it includes restorers and conservators, photographers, travel agents, hotels,

shipping companies, insurers and booksellers. All listings can be accessed

using the directory search facility. There are two types of listing in the directory:

standard directory listings

Showcasing leading businesses, museums and subsidiary services, these listings feature business

card style ads of up to 150 words, in a variety of formats, plus links and graphics, if required.

Listings run for one year.

classifieds

Featuring general announcements, requests for information, employment vacancies, items (e.g.

books) for sale, and wanted – a section where the trade can post details of particular items they are

interested in buying. Classifieds are text-only small ads of no more than 100 words, which run for

one month.

Note: no art objects may be offered for sale in the directory.

How does it work?

All commercial modules on cloudband.com are controlled from the ‘my cloudband’ section of the

site. This is a secure, password-accessed area, where registered users can manage their inventories.

Go to the ‘my directory’ section and follow the detailed instructions on how to post your own

directory listings. All listings will be reviewed by cloudband editors prior to ‘going live’, and we may

ask you to send us a bromide of your logo to ensure the best possible representation of it online.

RATES

There is a £100 • $165 • C= 160 surcharge for including your logo and/or an image in your standard

listing.

type period words £ $ C=

standard 1 year up to 150 150 248 240

standard with logo and image 1 year up to 150 250 413 400

classified 1 month up to 100 20 33 32

Note: all arcade members are granted a free standard directory listing as part of their annual arcade

membership fee.

THE ONE STOP HUB FOR COMMERCE AND INFORMATION

arcade gallery magazine discussion listings my cloudband

Mask, Chancay culture,

Peru, 1100-1300 CE.

Douglas Dawson Gallery,

Chicago, USA

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1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.


Liz Dixon

60

ANATOLIAN CARPETS / ANATOLIAN SAF CARPETS

CONTENTS

DETAIL PLATE 20

1 ANATOLIAN CARPETS WITH CENTRALIZED DESIGNS 12

2 ANATOLIAN CARPETS WITH GEOMETRIC DESIGNS 38

3 ANATOLIAN SAF CARPETS 50

4 CARPETS FROM OTTOMAN COURT MANUFACTORIES 74

5 ANATOLIAN CARPETS WITH ‘LOTTO’ DESIGNS 80

6 ANATOLIAN CARPETS FROM US¸AK MANUFACTORIES 88

7 ANATOLIAN CARPETS WITH US¸AK-RELATED DESIGNS 124

8 ANATOLIAN RUGS WITH TEXTILE PATTERNS 136

9 OLDER ANATOLIAN SECCADE RUGS 148

10 19TH CENTURY WEST ANATOLIAN CARPETS 164

11 19TH CENTURY ANATOLIAN CARPETS FROM VARIOUS AREAS 178

12 19TH CENTURY CARPETS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA 188

A NEW PUBLICATION FROM ERTU ˘G & KOCABIYIK

“ Such lavish emphasis on the visual has paid off in huge,

crystalline images often breathtaking in their immediacy.”

Julia W. Bailey, HALI

“ A bibliophiles treasure, and a book that earns the title

of 'The Millennium Book', in form, content and price,

without any doubt.” Dr. Michael Buddeberg, Preetorius Stiftung

ANATOLIAN CARPETS

MASTERPIECES FROM

THE MUSEUM OF TURKISH AND ISLAMIC ARTS

I . STANBUL

Text: DR NAZAN ÖLÇER & PROF WALTER DENNY

Photography: AHMET ERTU ˘G

PRICE 1,000 US DOLLARS

Please fax your order direct to the publisher on

⁽+90⁾ 212-293 71 71

Or e-mail on info@ertug-kocabiyik.com

Visit our web site at

http://www.ertug-kocabiyik.com

A NEW PUBLICATION FROM ERTU ˘G & KOCABIYIK

LAUNCHED AT THE 9TH ICOC, MILAN, 23-29 SEPTEMBER 1999

ANATOLIAN CARPETS

MASTERPIECES FROM

THE MUSEUM OF TURKISH AND ISLAMIC ARTS

I . STANBUL

Text by PROF WALTER DENNY & DR NAZAN ÖLÇER

Photography by AHMET ERTU ˘G

ANATOLIAN CARPETS, a two-volume limited edition of 1,500 copies, brings together a selection of Anatolian

carpets from the peerless collection of the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts (TI . EM) in I . stanbul. Many of these

carpets have never been published before. THEY WERE CHOSEN from among over a thousand pieces that were

individually studied and considered for inclusion by Dr Nazan Ölçer, the museum’s director; Prof Walter Denny,

a renowned specialist in Ottoman textiles, carpets, and art; and Nils Rüters, the chief restorer at the Berlin

Museum of Islamic Arts. Nearly all the carpets making up the TI . EM collection were brought in from the

country’s mosques and mausoleums and many of the pieces, particularly those selected for this book, date

from the 16th to 18th centuries. ALL THE CARPETS were photographed under a strict illumination standard

using a state-of-the-art large-format camera in order to faithfully reproduce the original tones. The printing was

done in Switzerland by a single master printer working under daylight conditions only. In order to achieve

absolute perfection in the printing and to reproduce the original colors at their best, only two pages were

printed at a time. THE BINDINGS, WHICH are fashioned from a special Japanese cloth, and the deluxe bookcase

were done at one of the best binderies in Switzerland by specialists in the hand-binding of facsimile and

limited editions. The plates volume is large-format (35.5 x 43.5 cms), has 204 pages, and is printed on 200

gms Scheufelen Phoenix Imperial Ivory paper. The text volume is bound separately and contains scholarly

information as well as technical analyses of each carpet.

PRICE: 1000 US DOLLARS

ORDER FORM

NAME

ADDRESS

■ I wish to order __ copies of ANATOLIAN CARPETS

PLEASE FAX YOUR ORDER DIRECT TO THE PUBLISHER

ON ⁽+90⁾ 212-293 71 71

OR E-MAIL ON info@ertug-kocabiyik.com

OR VISIT http://www.ertug-kocabiyik.com

All orders must be prepaid in full before any books can

be sent.

AHMET ERTUG˘, TURNACIBAS¸I SOKAK 53, BEYOG˘LU,

I . STANBUL, TURKEY

FAX (IF NOT AVAILABLE; TEL)

■ Please charge my ■ Visa ■ Mastercard ■ Eurocard

CARD NO. |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_

EXPIRY DATE |_|_|_|_

SIGNATURE

CHAPTER ONE

> ............. book design/the creative book company

ANATOLIAN CARPETS / PLATES

SAF RUG WITH WHITE FLOWERS Us¸ak area, 474 x 162 cm, inv. no. 129 PLATE 38

ANATOLIAN CARPETS WITH

CENTRALIZED DESIGNS

FROM THE EARLIEST SURVIVING examples, we know that Anatolian carpets traditionally

used three different types of design layout: (1) overall patterns, usually geometric in

nature, but also frequently derived from curvilinear patterns in other media such as textiles;

(2) repeating small motifs, again usually geometric, which may be derived from

the repetitive pattern of motifs often termed gül – literally “rose” or “flower”, but in

practice a sort of tribal symbol utilized by Turkic nomadic peoples in their carpet weaving;

and (3) centralized designs in which a single large motif, sometimes repeated in

larger carpets, forms the main focus of the carpet’s design. CARPETS WITH CENTRAL-

IZED DESIGNS form many of the most famous types of early Anatolian weaving. The socalled

‘large-pattern Holbein,’ ‘Crivelli’ and ‘Bellini’ carpets, and the enormous number

of carpets with variations on medallion designs, are a very powerful indication that, from

the earliest times in Anatolian weaving history, carpets were considered not merely

as repetitive, patterned variants on small-scale designs from textiles or from repetitive

architectural decoration. Rather, many carpets were seen as unitary works of art in

which a central artistic idea predominated, and which presented the entire expanse of

the woven carpet as a single artistic composition. The variety of centralized designs in

Turkish rugs, and especially the remarkable variety of medallion forms, attest to the

DETAIL PLATE 4 long Anatolian tradition of viewing the carpet as an arena for big artistic ideas.

62

13

18

ANATOLIAN CARPETS / ANATOLIAN CARPETS WITH CENTRALIZED DESIGNS

PLATE 7 RUG WITH DESIGN OF BLUE HEXAGONAL MEDALLION West Anatolia, 270 x 163 cm, inv. no. 405

ANATOLIAN CARPETS

MASTERPIECES FROM

THE MUSEUM OF TURKISH AND ISLAMIC ARTS

I . STANBUL

VOLUME II / PLATES

Text

DR NAZAN ÖLÇER & PROF WALTER DENNY

Photography and Editorial Coordination

AHMET ERTU ˘G

Published by

ERTU ˘G & KOCABIYIK

BERN 1999

Book design for a publisher of high quality books. The

Creative Book Company, based in Istanbul, commissioned a

design for a book highlighting the best of the collection of

carpets in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic arts. All of their

books are produced to the highest standards of photography,

origination and print using the best papers and binders. This

large format book (335 x 435mm) book retails for $1,000 and is

bought mainly by bibliofiles and the worlds’ top libraries. This

book was produced in two volumes and then bound in silk and

boxed. The first volume illustrated the carpets and the second

contained the explanatory text. I also designed a number of

promotional items including press advertisments, order forms,

postcards and a fair stand.

1. Picture spread with gate fold, 2. Title spread, 3. Contents page,

4. Chapter title spread, 5. Picture spread, 6. Press advert, 7. Order form.

ANATOLIAN CARPETS / PLATES

RUG WITH DESIGN OF BLUE HEXAGONAL MEDALLION West Anatolia, 206 x 135 cm, inv. no. 408 PLATE 8

1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

19


Liz Dixon

Personal Details

Education

Career History

Other Interests

References

......... prospect house, church street

...... happisburgh, norfolk, nr12 0pn

....................................tel 07889 | 050521

..........................tel/fax 01692 | 652983

> ......... e-mail liz.dixon@tesco.net

> ...................................................... Name Elizabeth Anne Dixon

Date of Birth 12 March 1962

Driving License Full, clean

> .................. September 78 - June 82 Great Yarmouth College of Art & Design

East Anglian Diploma in Graphic Design

Higher Diploma in Graphic Design – Credit

GCE A Level; Art (B)

Licentiate membership of the Society of Typographic Designers

Diploma membership of the Charted Society of Designers

John Cossar Memorial Award

> .............................................. March 99 Become freelance, working mainly as a designer for Ertug & Kocabiyik, a

very high quality book publishers based in Istanbul. Also, I work for my

former employer, Hali Publications and Televisual Magazine providing

design and production services at their premises. I have also worked on

book projects for Peter Willborg in Stockholm, where all my skills in

production, design and coordination were used and many other smaller

jobs from web site design to exhibition graphics.

May 85 Art Director, Hali Publications, London, part of Centaur Communications

Working on Hali, a high quality, bimonthly magazine for collectors of

and dealers in antique carpets and textiles.

I joined Hali as an Art Assistant, became Art Editor in July 87 and was

promoted to Art Director in April 92.

My responsibilities included: organising the flat plan for each issue;

setting the deadlines and ensuring that they are met; laying out

editorial pages in collaboration with the Editor; overseeing and

checking all advertisements; liaising with suppliers; checking colour

proofs to a high standard of colour accuracy; passing all sheets at the

printers.

Hali also published high quality, full colour books on regular basis. I

was closely involved in all aspects of their design and production from

art direction to passing colour on press in the Far East.

I was also responsible for the day to day running of the Art Department

including: organisation, maintenance & upgrades of the computer

system, recruitment, quality control and production of company

graphic requirements, i.e. stationary, forms, exhibition displays,

advertisements for Hali, subscription promotions, etc.

Hali is produced entirely by Apple Macintosh using Quark Xpress,

Adobe Freehand and Adobe Photoshop

September 83 Art Assistant, Bunch Books (now Dennis Publishing), London

Two years working on the Home Computer Course, a weekly partwork.

Operating within a small team, I pasted up, produced art work and

created diagrams on an Apple Macintosh.

March 83 Art Assistant, Banks and Miles, London

Six months during which I worked on several projects for British

Telecom, books, newsletters and Which Magazine.

> .................................................................... Cinema, History, Art, Tailoring, Interior Decoration, Cycling

> .................................................................... Supplied on request

> ....................................................................................... curriculum vitæ

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