404 NOTES 2. See Chapter 10, "The Innermost Essence," on Dzogchen. The Dzogchen Tantras are the original teachings of Dzogchen compiled by the first human Dzogchen master, Garab Dorje. 3. In Tibet masters did not make a show of their realization. They may have had immense psychic powers, but nearly always they kept them to themselves. This is what our tradition recommends. True masters never, on any occasion, use their powers for self-aggrandizement. They use them only when they know they will be of real benefit to others; or in special circumstances and a special environment, they may allow a few of their closest students to witness them. 8. THIS LIFE: THE NATURAL BARDO 1. Tulku Thondup, Buddha Mind (Ithaca, NY Snow Lion, 1989), 211. 2. Kalu Rinpoche, Essence of the Dharma (Delhi, India: Tibet House), 206. 3. From "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell," Blake: Complete Writings (Oxford and New York- OUP, 1972), 154. 4. The three kayas are the three aspects of the true nature of mind described in Chapter 4: its empty essence, radiant nature, and allpervasive energy; see also Chapter 21, "The Universal Process." 5. Shunryu Suzuki, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind (New York: Weatherhill, 1973), 21. 9. THE SPIRITUAL PATH 1. The Tantras are the teachings and writings that set out the practices of Vajrayana Buddhism, the stream of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet. The Tantric teachings are based on the principle of the transformation of impure vision into pure vision, through working with the body, energy, and mind. Tantric texts usually describe the mandala and meditation practices associated with a particular enlightened being or deity. Although they are called Tantras, the Dzogchen Tantras are a specific category of the Dzogchen teachings, which are not based on transformation but on self-liberation (see Chapter 10, "The Innermost Essence"). 2. Dilgo Khyentse, The Wish-Fulfilling Jewel: The Practice of Guru Yoga According to the Longchen Nyingthig Tradition (London and Boston: Shambhala, 1988), 51. 3. A dakini is a female embodiment of enlightened energy. 4. A stupa is a three-dimensional construction symbolizing the mind of the buddhas. It often contains the relics of great masters. 5. Dilgo Khyentse, The Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, 11. This quotation contains many traditional elements, and a similar praise of the master is found in the writings of Patrul Rinpoche. 6. Matthew 7:7. 7. Dilgo Khyentse, The Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, 3.
NOTES 405 8. From the Guru Yoga in Jikmé Lingpa's famous preliminary practice to his cycle of Dzogchen teachings: Longchen Nyingtik, 9. Dilgo Khyentse, The Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, 83. 10. THE INNERMOST ESSENCE 1. The Ngöndro is divided traditionally into two parts. The Outer Preliminaries, beginning with the Invocation of the Lama, consist of contemplation on the uniqueness of human life, impermanence, karma, and the suffering of samsara. The Inner Preliminaries are Taking Refuge, Generating Bodhicitta (the Heart of the Enlightened Mind), Vajrasattva purification, Mandala Offering, and then finally, Guru Yoga, followed by the Phowa (the Transference of Consciousness) and the dedication. 2. This is not the place to explore in detail these preliminary practices. I hope in the future to be able to publish a full explanation of them for those who are interested in following them. 3. Dzogchen Monastery was a monastic university founded in the seventeenth century in Kham, eastern Tibet, which was one of the largest and most influential centers of the tradition of Padmasambhava and the Dzogchen teachings until its destruction by the Chinese in 1959. It had a renowned study college, and produced scholars and teachers of the very highest caliber, such as Patrul Rinpoche (1808-87) and Mipham (1846-1912). With the blessing of the Dalai Lama, the monastery has been rebuilt in exile by the Seventh Dzogchen Rinpoche in Mysore in the south of India. 4. Quoted in Tulku Thondup Rinpoche, Buddha Mind, 128. 5. A mandala usually means the sacred environment and dwelling of a buddha, bodhisattva, or deity, which is visualized by the practitioner in Tantric practice. 6. One sure way I have found of discerning whether you are in the state of Rigpa is by the presence of its sky-like Essence, its radiant Nature, and its unimpeded Energy of compassion, as well as the five wisdoms, with their qualities of openness, precision, allembracing equality, discernment, and spontaneous accomplishment, as described on page 157. 7. Through the practice of Tögal, an accomplished practitioner can realize the three kayas in one lifetime (see Chapter 21, "The Universal Process"). This is the Fruition of Dzogchen. 8. From a teaching given in Helsinki, Finland, in 1988. 11. HEART ADVICE ON HELPING THE DYING 1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death andDying (New York: Collier, 1970), 50. 2. Dame Cicely Saunders, "I Was Sick and You Visited Me," Christian Nurse International, 3, no. 4 (1987).