8. From the Guru Yoga in Jikmé Lingpa's famous preliminary practice

to his cycle of Dzogchen teachings: Longchen Nyingtik,

9. Dilgo Khyentse, The Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, 83.


1. The Ngöndro is divided traditionally into two parts. The Outer

Preliminaries, beginning with the Invocation of the Lama, consist of

contemplation on the uniqueness of human life, impermanence,

karma, and the suffering of samsara. The Inner Preliminaries are Taking

Refuge, Generating Bodhicitta (the Heart of the Enlightened

Mind), Vajrasattva purification, Mandala Offering, and then finally,

Guru Yoga, followed by the Phowa (the Transference of Consciousness)

and the dedication.

2. This is not the place to explore in detail these preliminary practices.

I hope in the future to be able to publish a full explanation of

them for those who are interested in following them.

3. Dzogchen Monastery was a monastic university founded in the

seventeenth century in Kham, eastern Tibet, which was one of the

largest and most influential centers of the tradition of Padmasambhava

and the Dzogchen teachings until its destruction by the Chinese in

1959. It had a renowned study college, and produced scholars and

teachers of the very highest caliber, such as Patrul Rinpoche (1808-87)

and Mipham (1846-1912). With the blessing of the Dalai Lama, the

monastery has been rebuilt in exile by the Seventh Dzogchen

Rinpoche in Mysore in the south of India.

4. Quoted in Tulku Thondup Rinpoche, Buddha Mind, 128.

5. A mandala usually means the sacred environment and dwelling

of a buddha, bodhisattva, or deity, which is visualized by the practitioner

in Tantric practice.

6. One sure way I have found of discerning whether you are in

the state of Rigpa is by the presence of its sky-like Essence, its radiant

Nature, and its unimpeded Energy of compassion, as well as the

five wisdoms, with their qualities of openness, precision, allembracing

equality, discernment, and spontaneous accomplishment,

as described on page 157.

7. Through the practice of Tögal, an accomplished practitioner can

realize the three kayas in one lifetime (see Chapter 21, "The Universal

Process"). This is the Fruition of Dzogchen.

8. From a teaching given in Helsinki, Finland, in 1988.


1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Collier,

1970), 50.

2. Dame Cicely Saunders, "I Was Sick and You Visited Me," Christian

Nurse International, 3, no. 4 (1987).

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