and treat all without bias, attachment, or aversion, but with boundless

love and compassion.

7. Bodhichitta is categorized in a number of ways. The distinction

between "Bodhichitta in aspiration" and "Bodhichitta in action" is

portrayed by Shantideva as being like the difference between deciding

to go somewhere and making the voyage. Bodhichitta is also categorized

into "relative," or "conventional Bodhichitta," and "ultimate

Bodhichitta." Relative Bodhichitta entails the compassionate wish to

attain enlightenment for the benefit of all living beings, and the training

outlined here. Ultimate Bodhichitta is the direct insight into the

ultimate nature of things.

8. In Chapter 13, "Spiritual Help for the Dying," I shall explain

how the dying person can practice Tonglen.

9. Shantideva, A Guide, to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, 119.


1. Dame Cicely Saunders, "Spiritual Pain," a paper presented at St.

Christopher's Hospice Fourth International Conference, London 1987,

published in Hospital Chaplain (March 1988).

2. Stephen Levine, interviewed by Peggy Roggenbuck, New Age

Magazine, September 1979, 50.

3. Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö wrote this in his Heart Advice

for my great-aunt Ani Pelu (London: Rigpa Publications, 1981).

4. An audio cassette of readings from the Tibetan Book of Living and

Dying is available to help people who are dying.

5. "Son/daughter of an enlightened family": All sentient beings are

at one stage or another of purifying and revealing their inherent buddha

nature and are therefore collectively known as "the enlightened


6. The Sanskrit word Dharma has many meanings. Here it means

the Buddhist teaching as a whole. As Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche says:

"The expression of the Buddha's wisdom for the sake of all sentient

beings." Dharma can mean Truth or ultimate reality; dharma also signifies

any phenomenon or mental object.

7. Lama Norlha in Kalu Rinpoche, The Dharma (Albany: State

Univ. of New York Press, 1986), 155.

8. Marion L. Matics, Entering the Path of Enlightenment: The Bodhicaryavatara

of the Buddhist Poet Shantideva (London: George, Allen and

Unwin, 1971), 154; Shantideva, A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life

(Bodhicaryavatara), translated by Stephen Batchelor (Dharamsala:

Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1979), 30-32.


1. Lati Rinbochay and Jeffrey Hopkins, Death, Intermediate State and

Rebirth in Tibetan Buddhism (Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1985), 9.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines