408 NOTES 2. A collection of photographs of the people and places mentioned in this book will be published in the near future. 3. From Francesca Fremantle and Chögyam Trungpa, TibetanBookof the Dead (Boston: Shambhala, 1975), 68. 4. See Appendix 4 for an explanation of this mantra. 5. See Chapter 15, "The Process ofDying." 6. One text explains: "The route through which the consciousness escapes determines the future rebirth. If it escapes through the anus, rebirth will be in the hell realm; if through the genital organ, the animal realm; if through the mouth, the hungry ghost realm; if through the nose, the human and spirit realms; if through the navel, the realm of 'desire gods'; if through the ears, the demigods; if through the eyes, the 'form god' realm; and if through the top of the head (four finger-widths back from the hairline), the 'formless god' realm. If the consciousness escapes through the crown of the head, the being will be reborn in Dewachen, the western paradise of Amitabha." In Lama Lodö, Bardo Teachings (Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1987), 11. 7. The research was reported in "Psychophysiological Changes Due to the Performance of the Phowa Ritual," Research for Religion and Parapsychology, Journal No. 17 (December 1987), published by the International Association for Religion and Parapsychology, Tokyo, Japan. 8. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche told me of a number of such cases. When the famous Dzogchen master Khenpo Ngakchung was still a young boy, he once saw the corpse of a calf that had died of starvation at the end of winter. He was filled with compassion and prayed strongly for the animal, visualizing its consciousness traveling to the paradise of Buddha Amitabha. At that moment a hole appeared in the top of the calf's skull, from which blood and fluid flowed. 9. There are also certain buddhas who pledged that whoever hears their name at the moment of death will be helped. Simply reciting their names into the ear of the dying person can be of benefit. This is also done for animals when they die. 10. Literally the "prana-mind": one master explains that "prana" expresses mind's aspect of mobility, and "mind" its aspect of awareness, but they are essentially one and the same thing. 11. Padmasamhhava's explanation is quoted by Tsele Natsok Rangdrol in his well-known explanation of the cycle of four bardos, published in English as the Mirror of Mindfulness (Boston: Shambhala, 1989). 15. THE PROCESS OF DYING 1. These are methods of observing your shadow in the sky at certain times and on particular days of the month. 2. Ambrosia Heart Tantra, annotated and translated by Dr. Yeshi Dhondhen and Jhampa Kelsang (Dharamsala: Library ofTibetan Works and Archives, 1977), 33.
NOTES 409 3. In Kalu Rinpoche, The Dharma (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1986), 59. 4. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche explains that the pure wisdom winds are present together with die impure karmic winds, but as long as the karmic winds are predominant, the wisdom winds are obstructed. When the karmic winds are brought into the central channel through yoga practice, they vanish, and only the wisdom winds circulate through the channels. 5. C. Trungpa Rinpoche, Glimpses of Abhidharma (Boulder, CO: Prajna, 1975), 3. 6. In Inquiring Mind, 6, no. 2, Winter/Spring 1990, from a teaching by Kalu Rinpoche in 1982. 7. The order of appearance of Increase and Appearance varies. It can depend, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche says, on which emotion is stronger in the individual: desire or anger. 8. There are various accounts of this process of inner dissolution; here I have chosen one of the simpler descriptions, written by Patrul Rinpoche. Often the black experience is called "Attainment," and the arising of the Ground Luminosity, which is recognized by a trained practitioner, "Full Attainment." 9. His Holiness the Dalai Lama, The Dalai Lama at Harvard (Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1988), 45. 10. See Chapter 21, "The Universal Process," and also C. Trungpa Rinpoche's commentary in TheTibetanBookof the Dead, Francesca Fremanrle and Chögyam Trungpa (London: Shambhala, 1975), 1-29. 16. THE GROUND 1. "His Holiness in Zion, Illinois," in Vajradhatu Sun, vol. 4, no. 2 (Boulder, CO, Dec. 1981-Jan. 1982): 3. (It is now called Shambhala Sun.) 2. Bokar Tulku Rinpoche, in "An Open Letter to Disciples and Friends of Kalu Rinpoche," May 15, 1989. 3. The Sutras are the scriptures that are the original teachings of the Buddha; they often take the form of a dialogue between the Buddha and his disciples, explaining a particular theme. 17. INTRINSIC RADIANCE 1. In Dialogues with Scientists and Sages: The Search for Unity, edited by Renée Weber (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986), 45-46. 2. Kalu Rinpoche, The Dharma (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1986), 61. 3. Kalu Rinpoche, The Dharma, 62. 4. This is the bodhisattva Samantabhadra and not the Primordial Buddha.