information - Scottish Natural Heritage

snh.org.uk

information - Scottish Natural Heritage

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

FOR COUNTRYSIDE

RECREATION SITES

COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION FOR SCOTLAND

BATTLEBY

DISPLAY

CENTRE


Note to Subscribers

The role of the Battleby Display Centre is to encourage and

develop high standards of design and to provide guidance on the

choice of equipment and materials appropriate to the

countryside. A wide range of products is displayed embracing

most materials and techniques likely to be of interest to those

making informal recreation provision. Display Centre staff keep

under review relevant trade literature and develop new design

solutions which are produced in the Commission's workshop.

Priority is given to the development of cost-effective new designs

and production methods geared to the financial and manpower

resources likely to be available to providers. The Centre cannot

recommend 'best buys,' but shows a range of design solutions to

help users to make their own decisions on what to buy or how to

develop designs appropriate to their circumstances.

To make the Commission's advice of this kind available to others

the Display Centre publishes a series of information sheets held

in ring binders. These sheets are supplied free of charge to all

Scottish local authorities and, at a modest fee, to other

subscribers.

The four main facilities currently provided by the Display Centre

are as follows:

— an outdoor display area, containing items listed in Section 20;

— a series of information sheets, each describing a product or

technique;

— a reference library containing an extensive selection of

manufacturers' information; and

— a reference collection of 2,500 colour slides showing the

application of products and techniques in the field.

Staff of the Display Centre will always do their best to respond to

enquiries for advice and, if necessary, will refer to alternative

sources on subjects not covered by the information sheets. For

this the slide collection and the trade catalogue library are useful

additional aids to visitors.

The activities of the Display Centre are based on development

and innovation, and new or revised information sheets are issued

to subscribers at regular intervals. The Commission has received

much valuable feed-back information from users and thus the

Centre is itself a means of exchanging information about the

merits and shortcomings of new products. It is hoped that this

two-way flow of information will continue. Any subscribers

wishing to make enquiries or make suggestions should write to

the Display Centre Manager, Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PH1

3EW, or make contact by telephoning 0738-27921.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

S Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION SHEETS

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

CONTENTS Spring 1988

This is a list of all sheets published in the information sheet series on

equipment and materials at December 1987. Replacement or duplicate sheets

may be purchased from the Battleby Display Centre at a cost of 10p per sheet.

This list may be used as a re-order sheet, by making an entry in the 'quantity

column.

Quantity Sheet No. Title

c.c.s.

LITTER BINS

1.1.1

LITTER BIN concrete pipe and wire mesh basket with lid

1.1.2

LITTER BIN concrete pipe and wire mesh basket with GRP lid

1.1.5

LITTER BIN Solway 'tidiway'

1.1.7

LITTER BIN Concrete pipe disposable sack GRP lid

1.3.1; 1.7.1 LITTER BASKET with timber surround

1.3.2

LITTER BASKET with timber surround

1.4.2

LITTER BIN free-standing, guarded, slab clad

1.5.3

LITTERBIN 'Yorke'

1.6.5

LITTERBIN post-mounted

1.7.2

LITTERBIN 'Compton'

1.7.5

LITTER BIN circular using square posts

1.7.6

LITTERBIN circular using round posts

1.7.8

LITTER BIN post and rail mounted sackholder

1.7.11 LITTERBIN with slab surround

1.7.13 LITTER BIN rail, post and surround

EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY 1. Litter bins

SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS 1. Litterbins

SIGNS, NOTICES AND INFORMATION BOARDS

2.1.1 WORD AND LINE SPACING

2.1.2 SIGN LAYOUT

2.1.3 WAYMARK SYMBOLS 1. Standard arrow. 2. Scottish long distance route symbol

2.2.2 TRAILSIDE INFORMATION BOARD

2.2.3 CAIRN MOUNTED INFORMATION BOARD

2.2.4 INFORMATION BOARD

2.2.5 FRAMED INFORMATION BOARD

2.2.6 INFORMATION SHELTER

2.2.8 INFORMATION SHELTER NTS DESIGN

2.2.9 VIEWPOINT INDICATOR FIXING

2.2.10 TEMPORARY SIGNS 1. Signboard 2. Direction marker

2.2.11 TEMPORARY SIGNS 3. Post-mounted. 4. Free-standing

2.3.3 SANDBLASTED SIGNS

2.4.3 VACUUM-FORMED PLASTIC SIGNS

2.5.1 ROUTING: GENERAL METHOD

2.5.3 FORESTRY COMMISSION SIGN SYSTEM

2.5.4 WAYMARKERS

2.5.5 WAYMARK CAIRN

2.5.6 LONG DISTANCE ROUTE FINGERPOSTS

2.5.7 LONG DISTANCE ROUTE WAYMARK POSTS

2.7.2 SIGNS WITH ADHESIVE LETTERING

2.8.4 SIGN SCREEN - PRINTED ON ADHESIVE PVC

2.8.5 GRP MUSHROOM WAYMARKER

2.9.1 MELAMINE LAMINATE SIGNS

EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY 2. Signs

SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS 2. Signs


Quantity Sheet No. Title

SURFACING MATERIALS

3.1 GRASS REINFORCEMENT 'Grasscrete'

3.2 GRASS REINFORCEMENT 'Mono BG slabs'

3.3 SURFACING Local washed river gravel on quarry aggregate

3.4 PAVING BLOCK concrete interlocking 'Uni-block'

3.5 GRASS REINFORCEMENT 'Broplene' land mesh

3.6 GRASS REINFORCEMENT Sommerfeld reinforcement track

3.7 GRASS REINFORCEMENT 'Grassblock' system

3.9 GRASS REINFORCEMENT 'Wyretex'

3.10 PAVING BLOCK concrete, interlocking

3.11 GRASS REINFORCEMENT 'Grasscel'

BARRIERS AND FENCING

4.1.11/12 FENCING interwoven

4.1.14 FENCING 2.5m high screen/security

4.1.16/17 FENCING timber post and rail

4.2.2 FENCING PVC 'Intrad' horizontal

4.2.3 FENCING PVC 'Intrad' vertical

4.3.1 VEHICLE BARRIER

4.3.2 VEHICLE BARRIER/SEAT

4.3.3 VEHICLE BARRIER log kerb stockade type

4.3.4/5 VEHICLE BARRIERS

4.3.6 VEHICLE BARRIER temporary

4.3.7 BOLLARD

4.3.12 VEHICLE BARRIER

4.3.13 BOOM BARRIER with concrete counterweight

4.3.14 CARAVAN BARRIER

4.5.1/2 FENCING high tensile wire

4.5.3/4/5/6 FENCING single strand barbed wire

4.8.2 FIELD GATE universal model

4.8.3 GATE long and short gate combination

4.8.4 KISSING GATE

4.9 STILES

4.9.1 STILE gap and single step

4.9.2 STILE squeezer type

4.9.3 STILE ladder type

4.9.5 STILE two step, crossover

4.9.6 STILE demountable

4.9.7 STILE vertical ladder type

4.9.9 STILE lift up and step through

4.9.10 STILE high ladder

4.9.11 STILE two step, straight

4.9.12 STILE two step, crossover

4.9.13 STILE the 'Rambler'

4.10 DRYSTANE DYKES

4.10.3 TYPES OF DRYSTONE WALLING

4.10.4 TYPES OF COPE

4.10.5 BASIC DYKE CONSTRUCTION

4.10.6 WALLHEADS

4.10.7 GAP STILE

4.10.8 THROUGH-STEP STILE and HANDHOLD

4.10.9 LUNKIE HOLE

4.10.10 DYKES ON SLOPES

4.10.11 RETAINING WALL

4.10.12 DYKES CROSSING WETLAND, STREAMS etc

4.10.13 DYKES and TREE ROOTS

4.10.14 GALLOWAY HEDGE and other methods of heightening dykes

4.10.15 DYKE with wire fence top

| I EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY 4. Barriers and Fencing

I I SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS 4. Barriers and Fencing


Quantity Sheet No. Title

PICNIC FURNITURE AND SEATING

5.1 BENCH SEAT AND TABLE

5.2 TABLE AND SEAT COMBINED

5.3 GRIZEDALE BENCH

5.4 PICNIC BENCH 'Grizedale'

5.5 PICNIC TABLE/SEATS combined

5.6 SEAT/PICNIC BENCH

5.7 SEAT WITH BACKREST

5.9 PICNIC TABLE 'Totland'

5.10 PICNIC TABLE heavy duty

5.11 BENCH SEAT

5.12 BENCH SEAT

5.13 SEAT with backrest

5.15 BENCH seat/table

5.16 PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined)

5.17 PICNIC TABLE and SEAT

5.18 PICNIC SEAT

5.19 PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined)

5.20 PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined)

5.21 PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined)

5.22 PICNIC TABLE

5.23 BENCH SEAT

5.25A PICNIC TABLE; BENCH SEAT

5.25B TABLE; SEAT

5.26 PICNIC PALLET

5.27 PICNIC SEAT

5.28 PICNIC SEAT

5.40 PICNIC TABLE (see 5.41 for matching seat)

5.41 BENCH SEAT (to match 5.40)

EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY 5. Picnic furniture and seating

SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS 5. Picnic furniture and seating

FOOTPATHS, STEPS AND WALKWAYS

6.1 STEPPED RAMP CONSTRUCTION plank/sleeper/log + infill

6.2 TIMBER WALKWAY railway sleeper

6.3 TIMBER PILING CAUSEWAY

6.7/8 FOOTPATH construction over soft ground using fabric

6.9 BOARD WALK

6.10 BOARD WALK

6.11 TIMBER STEPS

6.13 BOARD WALK

6.14/15/16 TIMBER STEPS; STONE/CONCRETE SLAB STEPS

6.17 PLATFORM/DECK viewing platform/stairhead construction

6.19 STEP DETAIL

BUILDING FINISHES AND MATERIALS

13.1* THE TREATMENT OF EXTERIOR TIMBER AGAINST DECAY

EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY 13.1 Timber protection

SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS 13.1 Timber protection

FIREPLACES, BARBECUES ETC

14.4 PARK CHEF charcoal barbecue

14.5 CAMP COOKING BENCH

14.6 BARBECUE converted oil drum

16.1 FOOTBRIDGE

* 13.1 is a 20-page A4 leaflet costing £1.50


Quantity Sheet No. Title

PROVISION FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

17.1 GENERAL NOTES ON DESIGN FOR ACCESS TO THE COUNTRYSIDE BY

DISABLED PEOPLE

17.2 CAR PARKING FOR THE DISABLED

17.3 RAMPS AND GRADIENTS

17.3.1 RAMP CONSTRUCTION for wheelchair users

17.5.1 CIRCULATION SPACE ambulant disabled people

17.5.2 CIRCULATION SPACE wheelchairs

17.5.3 CIRCULATION SPACE wheelchairs

17.6 FOOTPATH SURFACES for ambulant disabled people and wheelchair users

17.6.1 FOOTPATH CONSTRUCTION for ambulant disabled people and

wheelchair users

I wish to order information sheets as above at a cost of 10p per sheet.

Name

Dept

Organisation

Address

Signature

Date


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738) 27921

LITTER BIN concrete pipe and wire mesh basket with lid

ec.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET 1.1.1


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

cc.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

1.1.2

LITTER BIN concrete pipe and wire mesh basket with GRP lid scale 1:10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

Litter Bin concrete pipe disposable sack GRP lid scale 1:10

©c.c s 10:83

INFORMATION

1.1.7

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET 1.3.1 and 1.7.1

LITTER BASKET with timber surround scale1:10

ELEVATION


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

1.3.2

Litter Basket with timber surround scale 1:10

NOTES:

oc.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

a Perth (0738)27921

LITTER BIN free-standing, guarded,'slab'clad scale 1:10

©c.cs. 10:83

INFORMATION

SHEET

1.4.2


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET

1.7.2

Litter Bin Compton W F Broomfield scale 1:20

©c.c s. 10:83


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

LITTER BIN (circular using square posts)

c.c.s. 10:83

INFORMATION 1.7.5

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

©Perth (0738)27921

LITTER BIN (circular using round posts)

©c.c.s 9.80

INFORMATION 1.7.6

SHEET

Scale 1:10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

LITTER BIN post and rail mounted sackholder

© c.c.s 10:83

INFORMATION 1.7.8

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

1.7.11

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921 SHEET

LITTER BIN with slab surround Durham c.c.Design Scale 1:20

©


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738)27921

1.7.13

LITTER BIN Rail, post and surround East Lothian design Scale1:20

PLAN/

INFORMATION

SHEET

V

© c.c.s. 9.80


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

WORD AND LINE SPACING

Word spacing

As with letters, the spaces between

words should be the minimum

necessary in order to separate one

from another, but should be

separated sufficiently to prevent

them from merging together. As a

general rule, the space between

words should be approximately the

width of two lower-case 'i's' as

shown below.

Word and line spacing

Line spacing

The space between lines must be

sufficient to ensure that the eye can

travel easily along each horizontal

line of type and absorb the meaning.

This means a line-space of

approximately two lower-case 'i's'

on their side between the bottom of a

Line-space

descender and the top of an Space occupied by

ascender in the next line. 'ascenders'

© c.c.s.

INFORMATION

2.1.1

SHEET

^

Space occupied by

'descenders'


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

® Perth (0738) 27921

Signing systems have to be read

with light, dark and textured

backgrounds. The lower examples

use a broad border — this can aid

visual impact.

Remember that the seasons change

and signs easily seen in winter can

become obscured by summer

foliage.

Attention to detail, the refinement of

layout and construction increases

effectiveness.

This pair of signs will be more easily

understood . . .

© c.c.s.

FOOTBRIDGE

FOOTBRIDGE

FOOTBRIDGE

HILL TRAIL-

laid out like this FOOTBRIDGE

INFORMATION

2.1.2

SHEET

HILL TRAIL


Odia etia

Odia etiam sunt

luptam propter

atque ut odia

etiam sunt luptam

propter.

Odia etiam sunt

luptam propter

atque ut odia

etiam sunt luptam

propter.

When the heading is

in a larger size than

the text within one

panel, the type

should line to the

same margin.

If the panel and

type-sizes are to be

kept constant, it is

important not to

'stretch' a shorter

message to fit the

area, but to leave

space.

Odia etiam sunt

lumptam propter

atque ut odia

etiam sunt luptam

propter. Atque ut

odia etiam sunt

luptam propter at

ut odia

Odia etiam sunt

luptam propter

atque ut odia etia

sunt luptam

propter. Atque ut

odia etiam sunt lu

propter atque

WOODLAND

ESTATES

FOOTBRIDGE

Signing like this can look like this.

© c.c.s.

There could be

situations when

there are a number

of panels equal in

size, with the type

equal in height but

the length of

message variable.

There may be

instances when

space is required for

the purpose of

separating text and

isolating titles and

headings.

HILL TRAIL }

Please keep to the paths

HIGH FIRE RISK AREA

Note the use of two panel depths, various

colour combinations and word styles to give

priorities.

A temporary notice is at the foot of the panel

to enable removal immediately the danger is

over.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

® Perth (0738) 27921

WAYMARK SYMBOLS 1. Standard Arrow

To draw waymark

arrow using rule

and compasses

1. Draw vertical and

horizontal axes AD

and HG.

(These will be at 45°

for upward pointing

left or right arrows).

2. Draw circle of radius

45mm centred on

intersection of axes.

3. Mark 15mm intervals

from circumference

at B & C on vertical

axis.

4. Draw BE and CF

parallel to horizontal

axis.

5. Join EF, DG and AG.

Some notes on basic waymarking

1. Keep it to a minimum. The best waymark of

all is the path itself, so waymark only where

a stranger would otherwise have difficulty

following the correct path.

2. Use existing surfaces on man-made objects

(gates, fence-posts, the cope of a dyke etc)

wherever possible, and natural objects (eg

tree-trunks) only as a last resort.

3. Remember that paths are two-directional

and therefore the route should be clear to

people approaching from either direction.

4. Waymarks should always be directly facing

the oncomer and where possible be placed

before a junction or change of direction.

5. The recommended colours are:—

Footpaths: Yellow B.S. No. 08 E 51

Bridleways: Blue B.S. No. 20 E 51

Further references: "Waymarking public paths

— a practical guide", a

leaflet obtainable from the

Countryside Commission

for Scotland.

"Waymarking for footpath

and bridleway", HMSO

1974

© c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.1.3

Top of arrow

horizontal


WAYMARK SYMBOLS 2. Scottish Long Distance Route Symbol

A white-painted thistle in the form illustrated

right is the standard symbol waymarking all

official long distance routes. It can be applied

by a number of techniques, by stencil and

paint to a wayside boulder for example, but it

is most often found on timber waymark posts

(see sheets 2.5.6 and 2.5.7) where the image is

first routed into the wood then painted white.

The diagram below shows how the symbol

can be drawn up to allow the construction of

stencils or templates for use with routing

machines — see information sheet 2.5.1.

Begin by drawing the horizontal and vertical

axis AB and CD.

With the intersection O as centre draw circles

with radii of 45, 25, and 19mm.

With the 45mm radius draw arcs centred on A

and B to cut the outer circle at E, F, G, and H.

Draw the hexagon AEFBGH. Draw parallel

lines 3.5mm and 9.5mm on either side of the

axis CD to intersect the base of the hexagon

and the two innercircles as shown.

Draw JF and EK as shown then LO and MO

parallel to JF and EK.

© C.C.S.

The symbols on this sheet are drawn to the

recommended size for use on all waymark

posts and route boards.

When using a router it may be convenient to

cut out the bulk of the symbol quickly with a

large cutter then tidy up the corners with as

fine a cutter as possible.

Initial cut

with 6mm

cutter.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

TRAILSIDE INFORMATION BOARD

Bevel cut the end of the,

sleeper to 30° so that

display is set at 30°

to the horizontal. /

This method of displaying information has

been designed to present interpretive material

at the trail-side so that it may be easily read by

both adults and children.

It is robust and difficult to vandalise, and trail

numbers or direction arrows may be routed

into the sleepers.

© c.c.s.

75mm long

screw here i

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.2.2

'Pop' rivets

(6-off at app

250mm

centres)

25mm from

edge

100mm 16g zinc plated

pozidrive 'Twinfast'

c/sunk screws

For upright panel

250 x 125, set on edge

eg railway sleeper

For landscape position

set sleeper as below.

Display panel


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

CAIRN MOUNTED INFORMATION BOARD

A robust mortar-built stone plinth displaying

interpretive information screen-printed onto

melamine which is bonded to marine ply:—

Front elevation

f 425

End elevation

Plan view Section through board and fixing

bracket.

© C.C.S.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.2.3

Screen-printed melamine display boards

580 x 762 (as drawn) or 457 x 762mm.

Scale 1:10 For the smaller size reduce the plinth to the size

indicated by the dotted line.

Fixing

brackets

embedded

in mortar

Reduced to 775 for smaller board — j

. 3mm Melamine laminate

18mm marine ply

3mm Flat Bar bracket screwed to

underside of board with 18mm x

14mm guage zinc-plated round-head

screws.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION BOARD

12mm solid display panel

Detail of tenon

Fixing for melamine panels

Gel-coat with image.

Glass cloth and resin

Core material

Glass/resin —

Fixing

Glass/resin —

Fixing for GRP panels

© C.C.S.

Section B-B

'Bighead' fastener

bonded to rear of panel

View on

15° weather

counterbore

75 x 25

/Fasteners at

. centre of rail

50mm long

countersunk

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.2.4

15° weather

This is a strongly built post and frame

construction designed for mounting

information panels which have had fasteners

bonded to them either in the core material —

such as would be the case with a GRP panel —

or to the rear surface, using a fixing such as the

'Bighead' fastener illustrated.

The panel should be specified with fasteners

set at the corners about 100mm from each

edge, and at centres elsewhere no greater than

500mm. Thus the overall dimensions of the

framing will be determined by the size of the

panel.

The timber may be hardwood, such as oak, or a

softwood suitably preservative-treated.

For details of melamine and GRP panels see

information sheets 2.9.1, 2.9.2.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

FRAMED INFORMATION BOARD

Sectional plan BB

Wedges

to be

glued

Detail of mortise and tenon

© C.C.S.

Scale 1:5

Slots for panel

Mortise tapered

Dowel

Sectional

elevation AA

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.2.5

Groove

10 x 10 mm

^ 6mm

Bevel

Weather 15°

1550

Solid grade

display panel

See detail 'C'

800 x 500 x 9mm thick

See detail 'D'

20mm

less than panel

width, (see note)

1150

Concrete

where necessary

Scale 1:20

This is a sturdy post and frame construction

designed to display information panels (such

as solid-grade melamine) without recourse to

nut and bolt fastenings.

The panel is mounted in 10mm slots routed

into the inside face of solid framework

constructed using mortise-and-tenon joints

which are both wedged and dowelled.

The timber may be hardwood, such as oak, or a

softwood such as larch or pine which should be

preservative-treated.

The mounting slot should be about 1mm wider

than the thickness of the panel to be mounted,

and approximately 10-12mm deep. To allow for

expansion, add 1mm extra per 500mm of each

dimension of panel.

For details of display panels see information

sheet sections 2.6, 2.8 and 2.9.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION SHELTER

Scale 1:20 2080 j

(30 x

Stiffener

Scale 1:10

(150 x 50) angled

This construction requires a certain

amount of joinery skill and is

suitable for the display of semiweatherproof

panels. It also affords

some protection to the reader. The

framing is manufactured in larch,

with standard sarking used for

roof cladding.

For suitable timber finishes

see information sheet

© C.C.S.

Concrete

1050

INFORMATION

2.2.6

SHEET

150 x 50)

x 30)

Stiffener

main framing

150 x50)

Stiffener

1m in length.

Cutting list

Roof angles

Roof framing

Roof & main framing

Stiffener

Main upright

Main framing

Seam laps

Ridge piece

Roof cladding

Stiffeners

290

(180x25)

(55x25)

2-off 620x100x50

2-off 1150x100x50

2-off 1370x100x50

2-off 2080x100x50

1 -off 1820x100x50

2-off 2080x150x50

2-off 1000x150x50

4-off 4800x150x50

2-off 1820x150x50

20-off 1460x 55x15

20-off 790x 55x15

2-off 2240x 55x15

20-off 1500x180x15

20-off 810x180x15

2-off 2080x 30x30

Construction

Pre-treat all components before assembly.

1. The main roof framing is constructed

(without cladding) prior to erection.

2. The main frame must be pre-cut, but is

assembled on site.

3. Set main frame assembly in concrete —

checking levels — using temporary

supporting stays. Leave for 24 hours.

4. Fix roof framing and clad.

5. Fix information panels.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

3400

INFORMATION SHELTER N.T.S. DESIGN

Scale 1:20

© c.c.s.

*"=r

250x50

cill

100x100x38 .

spacer block

(125x50)

upright

Padstone

and hardcore

alternative

(150x25) I

INFORMATION

2.2.8

SHEET

100x125

(175x150)

ridge

frame

150x50 filler

3225 —^

- 950 ») frlOM^

NATIONAL T

225x50 mounting board

175x50 uprights

Alternative method of 'slotting' mounting boards

Simple joinery skills are required for this

design, and some workshop preparation of

components would be an advantage. The posts

are first set up with temporary stays using a

mounting board and the ridge piece to gauge

the centres accurately. The mounting panels

must be incorporated before the roof structure

is added.

The roof structure should be built, starting with

the lower horizontal end frames, continuing

with the 'rafters' and eave board, finally adding

the 175 x 38 ridge plank and roof cladding

boards. An optional name board may be added

as shown.

The plinth may be started once the uprights are

firm, and should be built up to the level of the

cill. Cement pointing should slope from cill to

edge.

Finally, after painting, mount display panels


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

VIEWPOINT INDICATOR FIXING

Peripheral studs threaded or ragged,

6mm dia., 6mm long

Central pivot stud

6mm dia., 50mm long

Peripheral slots

cut 8mm wide

at 275mm radius.

Hole at centre 12mm dia

12mm between slots C

At wide spans

(> 125mm)

bore hole

in stone to

take plug

Fixing Procedure:

2.

3.

4.

6.

7.

600mm dia. 6mm thick acrylic disc.

Set plugs at appropriate positions in mortar

joints.

Ensuring that the centres of slots in acrylic

disc are orientated to allow accurate final

adjustment, mark centres for fixing-plugs.

Bore and countersink acrylic disc.

When mortar is set, screw down acrylic

onto a thin bed of soft, fine mortar, keeping

peripheral slots clear of excess mortar.

Fill slots and coat acrylic disc with

'Araldite'.

Fill central hole with 'Rockite' grouting.

Press home s/steel disc, slewing to give

final, accurate orientation.

© c.c.s.

INFORMATION

2.2.9

SHEET

600mm dia. 16g. stainless steel disc,

image deep-etched, filled black 6mm dia. stud

welded to plate

Section at edge

of s/steel disc

c/sink underside of slot

Section at edge

of acrylic disc

Heavy duty plugs set in

concrete to take brass screws

'Araldite'

•1½ x 12 gunmetal or

brass c/sunk screw

'Rawlplug' or 'Thunderplug'


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

ffi Perth (0738) 27921

TEMPORARY SIGNS 1. Signboard

Scale 1:2

This is a temporary signboard, designed to be

easily transportable when dismantled, but

large enough to be legible to motorists at

moderate speeds.

The main board may be made from melamine

surfaced exterior grade ply, 19mm thick. On

this may be printed or stencilled the logo and

title.

The individual title-boards may be made from

150 x 20mm white plastic fencing planks; the

lettering is 100mm black 'Letrasign'.

© c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.2.10

FAMILY DAY

ON THE

FARM

COLTON

MAINS

In windy conditions drivesecuring

pins into ground

at angles, or on solid

ground weight base

frame with sand bags

The 'Level adjusting clamp' is made from a 125

x 9mm bolt bent through 75°, with the head

removed.

All metal components should be hot-dip

galvanised.


TEMPORARY SIGNS 2. Direction Marker

A useful method of marking a route on a

temporary basis, such as is required for a Farm

Open Day. Not being permanently fixed, it is

suitable only for use on occasions when there

is a high level of site management.

For permanent protection the market should be

hot-dip galvanised.

Arrows may be painted on — a stencil cut to the

required shape is useful for marking out a

standard pattern.

Alternatively, black self-adhesive plastic

'Letrasign' (100mm size) may be used. This

may be obtained from 'Letraset' stockists.

Letrasign arrows have the advantage of being

easily replaced to cater for local conditions, or

not affixed until the site requirements are

known.

© c.c.s.

Ex. 3mm plate

Weld-

12mm square bar

Weld

Scale 1:10

Buff corners to app.

12mm. radius

1200

100

G.L.

300


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

TEMPORARY SIGNS 3. Post-mounted

Top frame.

Top frame

390 x 580

(internal)

End Elevation

6mm dia lug welded to

frame to locate in main

frame. See detail \

View showing assembly

— note, Display Panel

omitted.

© c.c.s.

frame.

Display panel

Main frame.

Hole for padlock in ( jr

12mm dia. locking bolt

Flap hinges

welded to

frame.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.2.11

Hinge not

shown.

Corners mitred by cutting

90° notch at 45° folding to

right angle and welding

flange.

A method of temporarily displaying

Information Boards in any location with square

fence posts.

15mm diam. hole to take

locking bolt

Display panel

575x385x3mm

Main frame

25x25x3mm O.A.

Elevation

from 'field' side

of fence.

9mm dia hole for lug in

top frame

Hinge not

shown

75x75mm fence post

Note: Augur hole

through post to 18mm

dia.

.'Box' formed from 12g

M.S. plate to be 80 x

80mm internal cross

section.

View showing

method of locking

top frame to main

frame and post.

Note: The main frame may be hot-dip

galvanised but NOT the top-frame (the hinge

would seize) which should be given one coat

metal primer and one coat black gloss enamel


TEMPORARY SIGNS 4. Freestanding

Standard section of

folded steel U-channel

used for frame (scale

actual size)

Material required per

sign:

1.120m channel

2.000m tube @ 25 x 25

0.300m tube @ 20 x 20

DAN|GER

© c.c.s.

Lettering and arrows

from black self-adhesive

'LETRASIGN'

fold mitred corners:

Cut 90° notch at 45°

in channel sides

Fold together

Weld at 90'

Ground spike to secure

base in strong wind.

Ex. 9mm rod.

150 x 18mm white plastic

'planking' cut to 485mm

lengths from Marley

fencing.

500

BULL PENS

Weld

1000

TfT"

310

-25 x 25 Hollow

square tube

•20 x 20 Hollow square

tube welded to centre of

crossfoot to take upright.

25 x 25 Hollow square

tube.

Plan view • .

at centre of yr

base unit

Weld

This free standing information/direction board

is made up of two components — a base and a

frame unit. The frame takes two 'planks' giving

a high degree of flexibility in the selection of

suitable wording. For permanent protection the

base and frame units should be hot-dip

galvanised.

Scale 1:10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

SAND BLASTED SIGNS

Sand-blasting

This is a technique developed and widely used

in America, now available commercially in

the United Kingdom. It allows quite intricately

detailed carving to be done at a reasonable

cost, and lends itself to 'one-off' or small

number production.

The method used is to transfer the finished

graphic layout to a sheet of self-adhesive

masking material which is applied to the

prepared board. If the graphics are to be in

relief, then the background areas of the mask

are cut away. Once the masking is prepared

then a dry sand/air mix blasts away the

exposed surface. Because timber has grain of

varying degrees of hardness, it erodes at

different rates, producing a textured finish. To

obtain this effect, open-grained timber such as

western red cedar is used. Hard timbers such

as iroko, oak, etc., are not suitable.

Finally, the sign is hand-finished with stains

and surface coatings appropriate to the

graphics.

Areas protected by

masking

Undercut areas showing

textured grain

background.

Composite panel

made up from several

boards.

© C.C.S.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.3.3


Protective tape being applied to wood

Burnish down to remove wrinkles and even

bond. Trim off excess tape

Transfer design to tape, cut around design and

strip away cut tape

© c.c.s.

Sandblast, holding blaster at some distance

from surface and at right angles to surface.

Blast evenly until the wood grain develops a

rich texture. Watch out for any sign of tape lift

off.

Tape removed ready for applying wood stain.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

VACUUM-FORMED PLASTIC SIGNS

INFORMATION

A simple and inexpensive method of making

signs by vacuum-forming thermoplastic sheet

over raised letter moulds.

They are lightweight, durable and available in

plain plastic or with plywood backing.

For vehicles, magnetic or adhesive signs are

available.

© c.c.s.

INFORMATION

2.4.3

SHEET

RANGER SERVICE

COUNTRYSIDE

COMMISSION

FOR SCOTLAND

Individual symbols may be incorporated and

lettering is available 3", 2",,1½" and 1" high in

capitals with serifs as in "RANGER SERVICE"

above.

I½" high script with capitals and lower case

letters is also available.

All letters are coloured, the background white.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battieby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738)27921

©c.c.s 579/2

metus plena sit, ratiodipsa monet

pariender iuptam seiung non

amititiao non modo fautrices file

Lorem ipsum dolor si amet, cons

incidunt ut labore et dolore

nostrud exercitation ullamcorper

duis autem vel eum irure dolor

dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. At

praesant luptatum delenit aigue

provident, simil tempor sunt in

fuga. Et harumd dereud facilis

INFORMATION

2.4.12/13

SHEET

Waymarker using Standard Arrow and or Legend Board scale 1:10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

WAYMARKER CAIRN scale 1:10

©ccs 579

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.4.14

Fiqures and wayrnark arrow

routed 3mm deep and painted with

emulsion paint BS 08E51


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

STANDARD WAYMARK ARROW

SOME NOTES ON BASIC WAYMARKING

INFORMATION 2.4.15

SHEET

TO DRAW WAYMAHK ARROW USING RULE AND COMPASSES

1. Draw vertical and horizontal axes AD and HG.

(These will be at U5 for upward pointing left or

right arrows).

2. Draw circle of radius 45mm centred on intersection

of axes.

3. Mark 15mm intervals from circumference at B & C on

vertical axis.

U. Draw BE and CF parallel to horizontal axis.

5. Join EF, DG and AG.

Keep it to a minimum. The best waymark of all is the path itself, so waymark

only where a stranger would otherwise have difficulty following the correct path.

2. Use existing surfaces on man-made objects (gates, fence-posts, the cope of a

dyke etc) wherever possible, and natural objects (eg tree-trunks) only as a last

resort.

3. Remember that paths are two-directional and therefore the route should be clear

to people approaching from either direction.

U. Waymarks should always be directly facing the oncomer and where possible be

placed before a junction or change of direction.

5. The recommended colours are:-

Footpaths : Yellow.

Bridleways: Blue.

B.S. No. 08 E 51

B.S. No. 20 E 51

Further references: "Waymarking public paths - a practical guide", a leaflet

obtainable from the Countryside Commission for Scotland.

"Waymarking for footpath and bridleway", HMSO 197^

©C.C.S. 11.79.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTES - Fingerposts: General dimensions Scale1:5

NOTES: All "fingers" made with 60 Bevel cuts at both

ends (as in Type l) and trimmed square and drilled for

bolts on site to suit direction.

Timber preservative for finger and post :

SADOLINS ACRYL 101 colour No. 28 Dark Brown or

equivalent in BS No 08 B 29, symbol white.

An alternative application in certain special cases

is to use a place name on the "finger" and rout the

name of the L.D.R. vertically on the post.

This information sheet has been prepared as a guide to

local authorities engaged in implementing Long-Distance

Route proposals approved in Scotland by the Secretary of

State for Scotland in terms of Section 1+0 of the

Countryside (Scotland) Act 1967.

©C.C.S 11.19

INFORMATION 2.4.16

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738) 27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTES - FINGERPOSTS: Typical locations

FINGERPOST

Type 1 : "Finger" centred to

indicate line of L.D.R. at

'T' - junctions and straight

crossings.

FINGERPOST

Type 2 : One "finger", used

each side of the direct crossing

of a road where a Type 1 at one

side is deemed insufficient.

FINGERPOST

Type 3 : Two "fingers" at

Right Angles used, for example,

where the L.D.R. crosses a road

indirectly, and the posts are

reasonably distant or obscured

from one another.

This information sheet has been prepared

as a guide to local authorities engaged

in implementing Long-Distance Route

proposals approved.in Scotland by the

Secretary of State for Scotland in terms

of Section UO of the Countryside

(Scotland) Act 1967.

©c.cs. 11.79

INFORMATION

SHEET

2.4.16.a


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTES - WAYMARKER POSTS: General dimensions Scale 1:10

STANDARD WAYMARK POSTS

The standard waymark post, with a logo and

legend (name of route) on one face only and

a logo alone on opposite face, is non-directional

and designed to confirm the presence of a Long

Distance Route at a particular point. It maybe

either of a short or long post type, as

illustrated, and where a series of posts are

used it may not be necessary to repeat the

legend on each.

SHORT POST TYPE :

Recommended height 750 - 1000 mm.

Used where:-

i) It is not possible or desirable to

see posts over long distances.

ii)

in i)

The post will not be obscured by other

objects such as dykes or the seasonal

growth of vegetation.

The ground is open, beside buildings

or in areas of low ground cover.

LONG POST TYPE :

Recommended height 2000 - 2225 mm.

Used where:-

i) Objects such as dykes or vegetation

(bracken, farm crops etc.) would

obscure the shorter posts.

ii) In open countryside where it may be

possible to see longer posts over

greater distances, thus enabling

fewer posts to be used.

iii) In situations where the logo and

waymark arrow, if added, might be

rubbed by stock on a shorter post.

VARIATIONS.

The standard waymark pes'", may be made

directional by the addition of a standard

waymark arrow (sec sheet 2.U.15 ) beneath

the logo as illustrated, and if required,

associated with an additional logo on an

adjacent or opposite face of the post as

illustrated on sheets

This information sheet has been prepared

as a guide to local authorities engaged in

implementing Long-Disxance Route proposals

approved in Scotland by the Secretary of

State for Scotland in terms of Section 1+0

of tne Countryside (Scotland) Act 1967-

cc.c.s. 11.79

INFORMATION 2.4.17

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

» Perth (0738)27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTES - WAYMARKER POSTS: Typical locations

STANDARD CONFIRMATORY WAYMARK

SHORT POST TYPE :

Lettering and logo on one face only with

logo alone on opposite face so that it

may he seen from both directions.

STANDARD CONFIRMATORY WAYMARK

LONG POST TYPE :

As above but used where seasonal

vegetation or other objects (drystane

dykes etc) may obscure the standard

post, or where post should be seen at

a distance etc.

PATH JUNCTION VARIATION

SHORT OR LONG POST TYPES :

Logo and arrow used on second face

to indicate line of route at

"Y" - junction with other path.

This information sheet has been prepared as a guide to

local authorities engaged in implementing Long-Distance

Route proposals approved in Scotland by the Secretary of

State for Scotland in terms of Section 40 of the

Countryside (Scotland) Act 1967.

©CCS. 11.79

INFORMATION

2.4.17.a

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

a Perth (0738) 27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTES-Standard Scottish Symbol

To draw the standard Scottish LDP waymark

below, construct as follows:

1. Draw horizontal and vertical axes

A B and C D.

2. With the intersection 0 as the

centre, draw circles of radius 19,

25 and l+5mm.

3. Using radius U5, describe arcs

centred on A and B to intersect

circumference at F and G and

E and H respectively.

J+. Draw nexagon A G H B E F A.

5- Draw parallel lines 3-5 ana

9- 5mm either side of vertical

axis to intersect base of

hexagon and the two centre

circles as shown.

6. Draw F K and E J as shown.

7. Draw L M and N P 6mm from, and

parallel to E J and F K.

INFORMATION

SHEET

TEMPLATE

2.4.18

To construct a template for use with

a pantographic router:

1. Using the principles of

construction for the symbol and

the above dimensions draw the

above on 0.5mm 'Plasticard'

(obtainable from model shops).

2. Cut out stippled areas shown as

'Groove'.

3. Bond in place on 1.5mm

'Plasticard'. The above

template will cut the pattern

below, using a 2mm stylus and

a 6mm cutter.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738)27921

ROUTING:GENERAL-Freehand Method

2.4.19

Routing' is a method of cutting away a material such as wood using a

special cutter revolving at high speed. This may be done free hand

or under some kind of control such as a template, or machine table,

"The cutter is usually moved over a fixed workpiece although, less usually,

"the converse may be the case

To ROUT SIMPLE WORDING,SUCH AS A NAME-BOARD, WITHOUT A TEMPLATE

Prepare an actual size tracing of

"the words in the typeface required

and using transfer paper or

office carbon paper trace the

outline onto a prepared board.

A standard set of packing case,

stencils can also be used to

pencil the outline, on to the board.

When a satisfactory layout has been

achieved, rout about 3mm deep

This method may be used on'off-saw'timber; but planed timber or-plywood is easier

© c.c.s. 579

INFORMATION

SHEET

Finally -the timber may be -treated with

preservative (see 15.13.1) and the

lettering may be infilled with a contrasting

colour.

For word and line spacing advice see:information

sheets 18.8; 18.9;


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

ROUTING: GENERAL METHOD

Routing is a method of cutting away a material

such as wood using a special cutter revolving

at high speed. This may be done free hand or

under some kind of control such as a template

or machine table. The cutter is usually moved

over a fixed workpiece although, less usually,

the converse may be the case.

The method may be used on timber, plastic,

aluminium or where a machine table is used.

Planed timber or plywood are easier to rout

than 'off-saw' timber.

Routing simple wording without a template

Prepare an actual size tracing of the words in

the typeface required and using transfer paper

or office carbon paper trace the outline onto a

prepared board.

Trace typeface required

and transfer.

Or — outline typeface

with stencils.

A standard set of packing case stencils can

be used to pencil the outline on to the board.

© C.C.S.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.5.1

When a satisfactory layout has been achieved,

rout about 3mm deep.

It is usual to cut the letters as recesses, but for a

'one-off' job the background may be cut away

leaving the letters standing proud. Greater care

is needed however, to avoid spalling using this

method.

Finally the timber may be treated with

woodstain (see information sheet 13.1) and

the lettering may be infilled with a contrasting

colour. For word and line spacing advice see

information sheet 2.1.1.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

FORESTRY COMMISSION SIGN SYSTEM

Secondary sign

Scale 1:20

All Forestry Commission signs are

standardised in that all lettering is routed in

one selected typeface, in-filled with white

enamel paint on a dark-green emulsion painted

board. The panels are of either of two lengths

or of either of two depths, mounted on two

posts.

The system allows for a wide variety of

legends, titles and selected symbols; the signs

sit well against a wide variety of forest

backgrounds throughout the seasons. Above

all, the signs are simple, legible and

unobtrusive from a distance — unmistakeably

'Forestry Commission'.

© c.c.s.

6mm galv. bolt

and nut

Board

fixing

Scale 1:5

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.5.3

Example of main threshold sign

Specification

Additional boards are

NOT added to main entry

signs — a separate sign is

required.

Panels 25mm Iroko, good both sides, painted

with exterior grade emulsion. Letters routed

75mm high, filled with white enamel. Posts 100

x 75mm pressure-treated softwood. Fastenings

100 x 6mm zinc-plated bolts and nuts, with nuts

countersunk.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

WAYMARKERS

Scale 1:10 Forestry Commission design

Grooves infilled with

different colours to

delineate routes

© C.C.S.

Posts

,100 x 100

Top weathered 4 times to

Scale 1:5

INFORMATION

2.5.4

SHEET

Method of mounting panel to post: scale 1:5

75mm x No 14

plated c/s

screw N

K

V 6mm bevel

Blind' s/s pop rivet

c/sink to seat nut and

washer

3mm panel on

18mm backing

Recess to accommodate

'Bighead' fastener

bonded to back of panel

Nut c/sunk

Alternative methods of fixing panel

18mm Marine ply

Scale full size

Although the best waymark is the good, wellconstructed

and well-used footpath itself, there

are instances when it is necessary to make the

route by other means: for example a simple

waymarker post will delineate the correct route

where there are several alternatives. The

waymark could be a symbol, and may also

have a directional arrow with it. It should be

remembered that a path is usually two

directional and therefore waymarking should

be considered from both directions.

Occasionally it may be appropriate for the

waymark to carry simple interpretive

information, in which case an A4 (297 x 210mm)

panel fixed as shown should suffice.

The posts are prepared off-site, and dug-in in

carefully selected positions: see information

sheet 2.5.7 for guidance.

For details of standard waymark arrow see

information sheet 2.1.3.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

WAYMARK CAIRN

(1000 x 100 x 100) larch post

A * ~

350

<

© C.C.S.

Scale 1:10

I

y i

App. 20°

Batter

A sturdy waymark cairn chiefly of use on rocky

terrain where posts cannot be driven. In some

cases the cairn may be 'dry-stane' as shown

above, or a mortar mix of coarse sand, lime and

Portland cement may be used. Water should be

used sparingly to give a 'dry' mix of the

consistency of damp sand.

uilders paper to facilitate post removal for maintenance

750 >

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.5.5

Rout figures and waymark arrow 3mm deep —

see information sheet 2.5.1 on routing and 2.1.3

for the standard waymark arrow design.

Pre-treat post with a non oily timber

preservative after routing. When thoroughly

dry apply emulsion paint to the routed

numbers, arrows or symbols.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

ffi Perth (0738) 27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTE FINGERPOSTS

Check

110 x 40

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

All "Fingers" made with 60° Bevel cuts at both

ends (as in Type 1) and trimmed square and

drilled for bolts on site to suit direction.

Finger and post treated with wood stain

colour BS 08 B 29, a dark brown. Symbol is

infilled with white.

Weathered 4 times to 30°

LEGEND

->25 Length to suit legend

(690 for West Highland Way)

An alternative application in certain special

cases is to use a place name on the "finger"

and rout the name of the LDR vertically on the

post.

© C.C.S.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

LONG DISTANCE ROUTE WAYMARK POSTS

STANDARD WAYMARK POSTS

The standard waymark post, with a logo and

legend (name of route) on one face only and a

logo along on opposite face, is non-directional

and designed to confirm the presence of a Long

Distance Route at a particular point. It may be

either of a short or long post type, as

illustrated, and where a series of posts are used

it may not be necessary to repeat the legend on

each.

SHORT POST TYPE:

Recommended height 750-1000mm.

Used where:—

(i) It is not possible or desirable to see posts

over long distances.

(ii) The post will not be obscured by other

objects such as dykes or the seasonal

growth of vegetation.

(iii) The ground is open, beside buildings or in

areas of low ground cover.

LONG POST TYPE:

Recommended height 2000-2225 mm.

Used where:—

i) Objects such as dykes or vegetation

(bracken, farm crops etc.) would obscure

the shorter posts.

ii) In open countryside where it may be

possible to see longer posts over greater

distances, thus enabling fewer posts to

be used.

iii) In situations where the logo and

waymark arrow, if added, might be

rubbed by stock on a shorter post.

VARIATIONS

The standard waymark post may be made

directional by the addition of a standard

waymark arrow (see sheet 2.1.3) beneath the

logo as illustrated, and if required, associated

with an additional logo on an adjacent or

opposite face of the post as illustrated on

sheets.

© C.C.S.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.5.7

Top weathered 4 times to 30'

Max Ht. 2225

above G.L.

265

Note: if no arrow is

required, leave a space of

165mm between Logo

and top letter of legend.

To suit

height

of legend

150

25

75

50

"•T

90

25

To suit

height

165

of legend

900

G.L.

Scale 1:10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION

2.5.9

SHEET

TEMPORARY DIRECTION MARKER Scales 1:5 & 1:10

cc.c-s. lo.ai


SIGN - portable, temporary.

INFORMATION

SHEET

C.C.S. Design Scale 1:10

Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921 2.5.10

OC.C.S. IO:83


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

• Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

2.5.12

SHEET

RESERVE BOUNDARY MARKER scale 1:5

©c.c.s.579

TERN

BREEDING

GROUNDS

PLEASE DO

NOT ENTER

OR DISTURB


INFORMATION BOARD SHELTER

INFORMATION

SHEET

CCS Design scale 1:20

Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

tt Perth (0738)27921 2..6.11

©C.C.S. l10:83


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

® Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET

2.6.13

INFORMATION BOARD SHELTER NTS. Design scale 1:20

©c.cs.579


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

S Perth (0738)27921

"Mushroom" GRP Waymark scale 1:20

©c.c s 579

INFORMATION 2.6.14

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

SIGNS WITH ADHESIVE LETTERING

© c.c.s.

Weather

top of posts.

18mm —Jl

Corner radius.

Edge

profile

100 x 50 support stay at

45° optional — useful in

soft ground conditions or

where sign is exposed to

strong winds.

INFORMATION

2.7.2

SHEET

Hooks mounted in lowest

board to take temporary

additional board

Pack with well rammed

hard core

for greater security use

concrete at base of posts

Lettering to be 100mm white 'Letrasign' —

'Helvetica Medium', Upper and Lower case

Boards, made from 18mm marine ply,

should be given two coats of exterior wood

stain. Mid-toned boards on dark-toned

posts look well.

Boards should all be of the same length

and, as a general rule, no more than two

depths of board should be mounted on one

set of posts.

Title board and planks are fixed with 50mm

size 14 zinc plated 'pozidrive' c/sunk

woodscrews, and must be positioned clear

of lettering.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

SIGN SCREEN-PRINTED ON ADHESIVE P.V.C.

Wall thickness 6mm.

900

300/600

to suit

ground

conditions.

PLEASE DO

NOT ENTER

OR DISTURB

TERN

BREEDING

GROUNDS

PLEASE DO

NOT ENTER

OR DISTURB

Label: Red symbol

and lettering.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.8.4

Lengths of lightweight plastic pipe with printed

self-adhesive PVC labels are an effective

method of delineating temporary boundaries at

critical times of the year, such as during the

tern breeding season on a reserve.

75mm bore 6mm wall thickness dark grey class

B PVC piping is suitable, obtainable in 6m

lengths.

Cut 5 @ 1200mm length for firm ground or 4 @

1500mm for soft sand or mud.

A log may be turned to fit the top of the tube as

shown, to protect the tube whilst driving into

firm ground. Alternatively a soft wood off-cut

may be used.

In soft ground the tube may be driven carefully

without protection.

© c.c s.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

G.R.P. 'MUSHROOM' WAYMARKER

100

To obtain an image integral with the panel, the

original drawings (ink on tracing-paper) are

transferred, in reverse, to silk screens, and

used to screen an image on to a mould in

reverse. This is then backed with a layer of

gel resin in the background colour, followed by

layers of glass strand matting and rovings in

the usual way. After curing, the flat truncated

triangular panels are accurately trimmed to

size and laid in a female mould the shape of the

finished 'mushroom'. After bonding the

adjacent edges and further laying up, 12mm

plywood stiffening panels are added and

overlayed with a final layer of GRP. Also at this

stage the mounting bracket is incorporated.

On site, each top, post and base plate is

assembled, the hole dug, and the assembly

concreted in, orientated in the proper direction.

The unit sketched here is manufactured by —

Glasdon Ltd.

© CCS

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.8.5

This design provides interpretive information

on several themes at each of a number of halts

on a trail — each of which can be colour coded

in relation to a section of a trail booklet. In

addition each post is capable of carrying

directional arrowheads in colours related to

adjacent posts.

A combination of screen printing glass

reinforced plastic lay up and moulding

techniques is used, the finished pentagonal

'mushroom' shape being mounted on a

standard resin coated 100mm steel tube

concreted into the ground.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

MELAMINE LAMINATE SIGNS

Melamine lamination allows a detailed

screen-printed image to be encapsulated in a

totally weatherproof and light-fast package.

The image is screen-printed using special inks

onto specially prepared paper: this is then

bonded under heat and pressure with layers of

Kraft paper.

To prevent warping a 'balancing' layer of paper

similar to the printed sheet is incorporated in

the back of the panel.

The finished signs may be drilled for fixing

without fear of moisture seeping into the

plastic.

Original artwork may also be encapsulated in

this way, if painted on special paper.

© C.C.S.

INFORMATION

SHEET 2.9.1

TAKE CARE

DO NOT START FIRE

^ Riverside Walk •

'Transparent protective layer.

Screen-printed image on special paper

Backing sheets of Kraft paper

'' impregnated with phenolic resin

..'Balancing' layer

Standard signs in this material may be

produced in quantity by the manufacturers to

be bought 'off the shelf'. The 'Fire Risk' sign is

an example.

The finished laminate may be any thickness,

the thinner grades (app. 1.5mm thick) usually

being bonded to a core material such as

aluminium or marine-ply. However, by

choosing 6mm or 9mm thickness, the core can

be eliminated, the material being stiff enough

to be self-supporting.

For suggestions on mounting interpretive

panels made in melamine laminate,

see information sheets 2.2.2, 2.2.3, 2.2.4 and

2.2.5.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738) 27921 3.1

GRASS REINFORCEMENT- GRASSCRETE

GCI GC2 GC3

Plan shapes

Appearance:

GCI, 44 per cent grass, 56 per

cent concrete.

GC2, 43 per cent grass, 57 per

cent concrete.

GC3, 48 per cent grass, 52 per

cent concrete.

Section : GCI

Scale MS

©c.c.s.

grass

concrete infill

reinforcing mesh

* 143 ^

INFORMATION

SHEET

Description:

Grasscrete is an in-situ process

using polystyrene formers, reinforced

concrete and grass which

combines the load-bearing and

durability of concrete with the

appearance of grass.

The GC1 former is suitable for

moderately heavy vehicles and

pedestrians, the GC2 for heavy

vehicles, pedestrians and heavy

water flow, and GC3 for pedestrians,

light vehicles and embankment

stabilisation.

Materials and manufacture:

Formers, polystyrene.

Concrete, minimum strength,

28MN/sq.m.: maximum recommended

size of aggregate, 10mm.

Installation:

The top soil is removed and the

ground contoured to the required

level, any organic or very soft

soil being replaced by gravel or

similar material. Should a subbase

be required, it should be

fully compacted before laying the

formers. Steel reinforcing mesh is

placed round the formers to position

them accurately and later control

surface cracking of the concrete.

The concrete mix (which should

include an air entraining agent to

assist working) is then poured into

the formers, tamped and floated off

and, after a short interval, the

- surface brushed level. Expansion

joints are required at 10m intervals.

When the concrete has hardened, the

polystyrene former tops are burnt

off and the voids which are left

filled with soil. When the level

of the soil has subsided after rainfall,

the voids are topped up with a

mixture of soil and grass seed.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

ft Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 3.2

GRASS REINFORCEMENT - MONO BG SLABS

Approved by

Design Council

Length

Width

Depth

Weight

600 mm

400 mm

100 mm

35 kg

(23 n

(15*")

( 4J")

(80 lb)

SALES OFFICE: Wettern House,

Dingwall Road, Croydon,

CR9 2NYTel: 01-686 4311

©c.c.s.

Mono Bg slabs produce a mud defeating surface at

low cost.

They require only the minimum of surface preparation,

usually mere levelling of the ground is all that is required.

Drainage is no problem, they do not require gullies,

pipework or soakaways. Providing the soil is of average

permeability, rain soaks away as quickly as it falls and

there is no danger of waterlogging.

Laying is simple and easily handled by any available

labour, another help in reducing costs.

Mono have four manufacturing works in the U.K. and

rapid delivery of Mono Bg slabs can always be made.

FILLING AND SEEDING

Use clean, friable soil, or soil with an

additional mixture of peat. Level off 30 mm

(1 i") below the top and sow grass seed.

Fill further with of fine soil and level with

a hard broom. Final level should settle to

25 mm (1") below upper surface

of the slabs. (This is important in order not

to impede germination.) Always seed

immediately after filling while soil is still

loose.

A leaflet is available on laying and seeding

procedure.

ROAD & TRACKS

The amount of foundation preparation required before

laying a road surface of MonoBgslabs, depends on the

existing stability of the sub-soil and the weight of the

vehicles expected to use the road.

Normally, forthe usual vehicle used in agriculture only a

firm bed of well tamped sharp sand, 20 mm. (f") thick is

all that is required.

For roads carrying heavy vehicles a sub-grade of well

tamped ballast 150 mm. (6") thick, followed by a bedding

layer of sharp sand 20 mm. (f ") thick is necessary.

CAR PARKS

For motorcars, the 20 mm. ($") sand bed described above

is quite adequate.

A significant advantage of Mono Bg slabs overthe

conventional hard surface is that they are not prone to

flooding. The soil filling the gaps lies directly onto the

sub-base beneath, and providing the sub-soil is of average

permeability, rain soaks away as quickly as it falls.

No pipes or gullies for drainage are needed.

HARD STANDINGS

Forcaravanersand camping trailers the foundation

requirements for light vehicles may be employed. Areas of

hard standing can either be provided for each individual

caravan orforthetotal parking area concerned.

For heavy vehicles the recommendation as previously laid

down should be adhered to.

COMMENT

A hard, wearing surface with "the

appearance of natural grass. This

appearance can give rise to a

reluctance to park on it "by some

motorists, a factor which should he

considered when designing car parking

areas. It should also be borne in

mind that the surface is not easy to

walk on due to the castellated nature

of the concrete slabs, which also make

wheelchair movement very difficult.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

Local washed river gravel on quarry aggregate scale 1:5

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

3.3


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

S Perth (0738)27921 SHEET

3.4

PAVING BLOCK, CONCRETE INTERLOCKING UNI-BLOCK

Technical Details

Quality of Concrete:

Weight:

Size:

No. of Blocks m 2:

No. of edge blocks lin m

Standard Colour:

Special Colours:

Average crushing strength

50 N/mm 2

Average per m 2172 kgs.

Length 225 mm

Width 112.5 mm

Thickness 80 mm

39

9

Grey

Red, Yellow and Charcoal

BRITISH DREDGING

CONCRETE PRODUCTS. LTD

Corporation Road,

Newport, Mon., NPT OWT

Tel:0633 52181

Telex: 497783

oc.c.s.

Preparation and laying

Before laying Uni-block paving, a

suitable base and sub-base should be

prepared, taking into consideration the type of

sub-soil and the intended use of the paved

area.

Any falls required for surface water

drainage should be built in during preparation

of the sub-base, which is then compacted for

stability and "blinded" so that the subsequent

layer of sand cannot penetrate to any

appreciable degree.

The laying base of 0-3 mm sand is laid at

50 mm thickness and should be accurately

screeded and levelled, when any inaccuracies

in the sub-base can be allowed for, subject to

the minimum thickness of 50 mm of sand being

maintained. The screeded height of the laying

base should be approx. 60 mm lower than the

required finished level of paved area to allow

the blocks to be vibrated down. Once

screeded and levelled, the laying base must not

be compacted or disturbed.

The Uni-blocks should then be laid and

vibrated down, using a plate vibrator, until the

required level is reached. After vibrating, 0-3

mm sand (preferably dry) should be brushed

over the entire surface to fill the joints

completely. The paved area is then ready for

immediate use.

HERRINGBONE

NORMAL

PARQUET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

» Perth (0738) 27921

GRASS REINFORCEMENT - BROPLENE LAND MESH

for use on

permanent grass

parking areas

landscaping

river and flood banks

©c.c.s

INFORMATION

SHEET 3.5

Broplene Land Mesh provides an effective reinforcement when

it becomes firmly enmeshed with grass roots; the time taken

depends upon the season of laying and weather conditions

during consolidation.

Areas for treatment must be well drained and able to sustain a

healthy growth of grass. Broplene Land Mesh gives best results

when laid towards year end when grass growth is minimal,

but it can be applied any time before commencement of spring

growth, provided the ground is not over hard. Winter

weather helps the Mesh to become embedded but traffic should

be kept off the treated area during this period.

The area is reinforced for use when grass growth causes the

Mesh to disappear from sight.

Preparation of the Site

Cut grass short and remove debris.

Fill in bad depressions, pot holes and ruts; remove large-leaf

weeds and level area to be treated.

Turf or reseed bare and disturbed patches of ground with

deep-rooted varieties of grass.

Spike roll the area if possible.

Remove further debris and lightly roll the area before and

after laying the Mesh.

Lay the Mesh with as little ground disturbance as possible and

lightly reseed when the Mesh is in position.

Method of Laying

As a positioning guide for the laying operation, a straight line

along one side of the area should be marked by stakes. These can

be removed later.

Pull out from the package about 30 feet of the Mesh from the

end of the length.

Position the full 25 feet width at the end of the area to be

covered and pin down temporarily.

Pull out the full length and place in position with one edge

following the line marked by the stakes.

Permanently pin down at approximately 18" intervals with the

25 feet end temporarily secured, making sure that the

width is stretched as tight as possible without causing distortion

of the Mesh.

Secure about 30 feet of the length along the side aligning

the stakes, again spacing the pins at 18", then pull and stretch

the Mesh in the opposite direction and away from the end,

as tight as possible without causing distortion, and pin down

for an equivalent length along the other edge. Repeat until the

entire length has been laid.

In most cases it will be found advisable to put in a further row

of pins down the centre of the length spaced at wider intervals.

It is important that complete contact between the

whole of the Mesh and the ground is established.

Additional pins should be used where the Mesh may

appear to ride over small surface depressions.

When the Mesh is firmly consolidated, the pins can be removed

for future use. A short length of twine attached to the head

of each pin will assist in locating them for subsequent recovery.

Particular attention should be given to the anchorage of the

Mesh on river banks. In some instances such places will require

the use of extra long securing pins.

Care of Broplene Land Mesh

When grass is first cut, set cutter blades at maximum height and

watch for snags. Any damage to ground surface should be

repaired in the normal way. Re-pin any exposed Land Mesh.

When the Mesh is established, animals may graze on the site.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

Sommerfeld Reinforcement track

I SO YD OF

STIFFENED NETTING

WEIGHS ABOUT 7 LBS

I ROLL WEIGHS APPROX

5 CWT 2QRS 14 LBS

32 ROLLS WEIGH 9 TONS AF

£ OIA M S RODS INTERLACED AT ABOUT B" ^ ^

CENTRES INTO GALVANISED WIRE NETTING

3" MESH, 12 GAUGE (13 GAUGE ADMISSIBLE)lO'WIDE

A WEIGHT OF WIRE NETTING PRODUCED ON

DFFtRENT MACHINES VARIES COMSOERABLY

TRACK BEFORE STRAINING

SHOWING CLEARANCE FOR BARS,

LINKING

TRACK AFTER STRAINING

'WELDED

-APPROX.4 PLY SELVAGE

12 GAUGE

03 .G. ADMSSCLE)

STRETCHING THE TRACK

I. HIT PICKET [PREFERABLY WITH

14 LB SLEDGE HAMMER]AT THE

SAME TIME PULL IT OUTWARDS

WHILE EDGE OF THE TRACK IS

ABOVE GROUND LEVEL.

D . PICKET IS DRIVEN

HOME. THE TRACK IS

STRETCHED & FLUSH

WITH GROUND LEVEL.

©c.cs

INFORMATION

SHEET

MATERIAL SUPPLIED FOR MOVABLE ROAD TRACK

INCLUDMG A SUFFICENT NUMBER OF SPARES.

COMPONENTS

STIFFENED NET TNG ROLLS

25 YDS. LONG BY IO'-7*

BARS, LINKING l£x gx 15 FT

IO PER ROLL + 5* BQ9

NUMBER SUPPLIED NO. SUPPLED PER

PER 25 YD. ROLL IOOOYDS LINEAL.

1 - 88-2 SO.YDS 40

IO-5 420

Zn PICKETS') ONE PICKET 18-75 750

PICKETS) ROAD TRACK 6-25 250

BUCKLES.ENO JOINTING 6 * 257. SPARES

2 4 0 FIXCD TO POLLS

6 0 SPARES M BACS

END RODS FASTENED

TOGETHER WITH SIX

SPECIAL BUCKLES

24 GAUGE SHERARDISED SHEET

METAL BUCKLES, 5" LONG

6 BUCKLES ARE ATTACHED TO INSIDE

ROD OF EACH ROLL AND 25% SPARES

SUPPLIED SEPARATELY IN A BAG.

M.S. FLATS

3.6


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION

3.7

SHEET

GRASS REINFORCEMENT - GRASSBLOCK SYSTEM

©c.c.S

600mm

(average)

Not to scale SECTION A-A

soil

sand layer

sub-base

reinforcement

\

SUB-BASE

In common with any other surfacing system the preparation

and compaction of the sub-base is an important step in

achieving a stable and level finished surface.

Where a new sub-base is being provided, sufficient ground

must be removed to allow an adequate thickness of

compacted sub-base material to be laid. Generally this will

be a minimum of 100mm (4") although it is not possible

to lay down hard and fast rules as conditions on each site

will vary. The sub-base preparation should conform to the

minimum standards laid down for an equivalent solid

surface designed for the same loading conditions. On to

this sub-base should be placed a blinding layer of sand

approximately 20mm thick. A light compaction of the

sand should be carried out before laying the GRASSBLOCK

units.

LAYING

The laying of GRASSBLOCK precast concrete units is simple.

Once the sub-base and sand have been laid and compacted, the

blocks are laid edge to edge on the sand bed. To help in

reducing the risk of variable settlement the precast concrete

units can be tamped in position with a surface compactor.

SOILING and SEEDING

For filling in the voids through the GRASSBLOCK surface a

good quality topsoil should be used free from weeds and all

injurious substances. Grass seed containing a high

proportion of fescue grasses should be sown in the normal

way. At the same time an application of suitable root-

promoting fertiliser should be given.

As with any newly seeded surface care should be taken to

ensure that the seed is kept moist.

Following either watering or rainfall the soil in the holes

will settle by up to 15mm, which will mean that the growth

of grass can develop undisturbed by the surface traffic. The

use of the root-promoting fertiliser will encourage the grass

roots to establish quickly and after establishment of growth

it is advisable to apply a further two treatments of a

suitable top dressing fertiliser.

LANDSCAPE

GRASS

CONCRETE

LIMITED

22 BOND STREET, WAKEFIELD,

YORKSHIRE, WF1 2QP

Telephone: Wakefield 74818 (STD 0924)


Countryside Commission for Scotland

INFORMATION

3.9

Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PH1 3EW

SHEET

S Perth (0738) 27921

'WYRETEX' Malcolm, Ogilvie & Co Ltd

"WYRETEX" is woven from a galvanised wire

and reinforced jute or polypropylene fibre

thread to form a stiff fabric. It is available in

ten standard fabric structures from very close

to very open mesh, and is also available

coated with olive 'drab' or other coloured

PVC. The polypropylene 'WYRETEX' is U.V.

stabilised and acid resistant for use in

sunlight and acid soils.

The fabric is marketed jointly by Malcolm,

Ogilvie and Company Limited, and John

Boath (Jnr) Limited. It was first produced by

Malcolm, Ogilvie some years ago to meet

Ministry of Defence requirements for the

revetting of trenches and underground

shelters in the military role. It has been

extensively tested and used successfully by

the Ministry for a number of years.

The two companies have now been allowed

to develop variations of the material for the

construction, civil engineering, agriculture

and forestry industries for use in the following

applications:—

Grass Conservation — grass car parks,

recreation areas, footpaths, golf courses

and caravan sites.

Soil/sand stabilisation, riverbank

reinforcement.

Protection against sand and soil erosion.

Path and roadway membranes, temporary

roads and paths.

Visual screening, snow and windbreak

fencing.

Structures such as wildlife observation

hides and shelters.

Trench lining and concrete formwork.

Fabric Number 7

© c.c.s.

Some examples of the lighter weight fabrics.

"WYRETEX" has the following properties:—

Strength; flexibility; ease of handling; easy to

secure; compactness and ease of storage (it

comes in roll form); porosity or waterproofed;

variability of construction as required;

recoverability, providing economy of use.

Full details are available on request from:—

MALCOLM, OGILVIE & CO LTD

CONSTABLE WORKS

31 CONSTITUTION STREET

DUNDEE DD36NL

Telephone Dundee 0382 22974

Fabric Number 8 Fabric Number 9


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

Technical content

Quikpave blocks are manufactured from selected high strength

concrete by sophisticated production methods ensuring long term

durability and dimensional accuracy.

They have been designed on a modular basis, to a grid of

200 mm x 100 mm.

Full block

No. blocks per No. edge blocks Average weight

sq. m — 49 per lin. m — 5 per sq. m —147 Kg. (65mm)

per sq. m-174 Kg. (80mm)

Standard colour — grey. Also available random buff or red.

Corner block'"'and edge block * available 65mm thick only

Quikpave pattern permutations

Quikpave blocks are fully interlocking in all directions, thus, even

natural coloured blocks can be effectively laid in many pattern

permutations.

In addition, random coloured blocks are available which adds

immensely to the decorative possibilities.

Contrasting colours can also be used to form letters, direction

markings and car parking bays.

1 Staggered joints 2 Herringbone

3 Squares 4 Stripes

ec.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

3.10

Paving Block, concrete, interlocking Quikpave

N.B. Other than for pedestrian areas, patterns 2:4 (or other broken

bond patterns) are recommended.

Head Office:

1 Market Close, Poole, Dorset BH15 1NQ.

Telephone Poole 5751/2/3

Scottish Works:

Grange Road, Houston Industrial Estate, Livingston,

Lothian EH54 5DD.

Telephone Livingston 32307

Laying instructions for Quikpave blocks

1. Sub-Base

a. Where surface water drainage is required, minimum falls of

1 in 40 are recommended. The appropriate gradients should be built

in during the construction of the sub-base.

b. Lay the sub-base, compact by using a vibrator roller or tamping,

and blind the surface with fine material to achieve a smooth even

finish to within an accuracy of ± 10 mm of the correct levels.

(An ideally compacted sub-base will permit a man to stand on it

without leaving any footprints).

c. If the perimeter line of the sub-base is unrestrained, it should be

extended by at least 300 mm beyond the finished edge of the paving.

d. Any free-standing water or) the sub-base, should be dispersed

prior to laying the sand bed.

2. Laying Course

a. A laying course, formed from sand (0-5 mm grain size) is placed

on the sub-base and accurately screeded and levelled to a thickness

of 50 mm. The sand should not contain any free draining water.

b. On large areas, it may be advisable to sub-divide the area by the

use of accurately aligned 50 mm high screed boards, firmly anchored

to the sub-base.

c. Where the edge blocks are being used without any side restraint,

extend the area as in 1 .c.

ONCE THE SAND BED HAS BEEN FORMED, IT SHOULD NOT

BE DISTURBED OR STEPPED ON.

3. Wearing Surfaces

a. Laying of the paving blocks should commence at right angles to

the main pavement axis, preferably starting from one end of the area.

b. The blocks must be placed on the sand bed in such a manner as

not to disturb the already laid blocks. This is clearly illustrated in

figure A, where work has commenced

from the right hand side

of the area to be paved. A similar

approach should be adopted when

starting from the left. Given

correct laying procedure a

maximum joint gap of 2mm can

occur between adjacent blocks.

c. After laying the first two or three rows, check the paving for

over all dimensional accuracy, uniformity of the joint gap,

alignment and squareness.

d. As laying proceeds, preferably completing each course before

commencing the next, it is advisable that the paver should lay the

blocks whilst standing on the blocks already laid.

e. l-or efficient

operations, stockpiles

of the blocks should be

positioned on the already

paved area, within easy

reach of the paver.

f. Where edge blocks

are used, they should

be incorporated as

the laying progresses.

g. Checks for alignment,

squareness and falls

should be carried out

at regular intervals.

h. The paving should be consolidated down to the required levels

using a plate vibrator, having a compaction force of 9-16 Kilo

Newtons. (Suitable products are manufactured by Wacker and

Vibromax).

N.B. The blocks will compact down approximately 20-25% during

this operation.

i. No paving should be left uncompacted overnight except for a

margin 600 mm wide adjacent to subsequent laying.

j. When all the paved area has been laid and compacted, finally

check the alignment and the surface irregularity, which should not

exceed ± 5 mm from the correct levels or profile,

k. Should any surface irregularities be found, the blocks in the

affected areas should be removed, to adjust the sand bed, then

re-instated to the correct levels.

I. Finally, sweep fine sand (0-3 mm particle size) over the paving

until all the joints are filled, followed by a further pass with the

plate vibrator.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battieby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION 3.11

SHEET

Grass Reinforcement GrassCel

Specification

GrassCel units consist of

a series of cavity forming interconnecting

concrete bars with

localised upstands for wheel contact

at the surface. The cavities and

channels are filled in with soil, and

grass is sown, resulting in a surface

consisting of 75% grass and only

25% concrete.

There is just one basic unit,

manufactured frbm high quality

concrete to ensure long term

durability.

Quikkova GrassCel units are based

on a modular grid of 600 x 400 mm

and each unit is 120 mm thick.

Weight per unit = 35 Kg

Number per sq. m = 4.16

Top soil requirement = approx.

1 tonne per 10 sq. m of area.

Laying Course

A laying course formed from sharp

sand(0-5mm grain size) is placed

on the sub-base and screeded and

levelled to a thickness of 20 mm.

Prior to layinq the GrassCel the

sand should be lightly compacted

using a tamping board.

Soiling and Seeding

(a) Fill the voids and channels with

clean, good quality top soil.

(b) Level off 10mm below the top

surface, using a stiff broom and

sow the grass seed.

©cccs

Sand bed

Sub-base or sub-grade

Wearing Course

(a) Place the GrassCel units, edge to

edge, onto the prepared sand bed.

(c) If required, apply a suitable root

promoting fertilizer.

(d) Add a further 10mm layer of

fine soil and level off to the

top surtace.

Typical section on AA

Recommended construction for

Quikkova GrassCel

The Quikkova GrassCel system

consists of three main elements:

(i) a free draining sub-base (granular

material, hardcore, hoggin etc.).

(ii) a 20 mm thick laying course of

sharp sand.

(iii) 120mm thick Quikkova GrassCel

upits infilled with soil and grass.

Laying instructions

Sub-base

(a)

Lay the sub-base, compact by using

a vibrator roller or tamping and blind

the surface to achieve a smooth, even

finish. (An ideally compacted subbase

will permit a person to stand on

it without leaving any footprints).

(b)

If the perimeter line of the sub-base

is unrestrained, it should be extended

by at least 300 mm beyond the

finished edge of the GrassCel.

The units should be consolidated

into position by using a wooden

tamping board.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

B Perth (0738)27921

FENCING, Interwoven

4.1.11

4.1.12

© CCS

INFORMATION

SHEET 4.1.11 ; 4.1.12


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

FENCING 2.5m high screen/security CCS Design scale1:20

©c.c.s

INFORMATION

4.1.14

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738)27921

FENCING-Timber Post and Rail

4.1.16

4.1.17

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION 4.1.16:4.1.17

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battieby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

a Perth (0738) 27921

FENCING PVC Intrad' horizontal Harrison Thompson scale 1:2.5

c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

4.2.2


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

» Perth (0738) 27921

FENCING PVC Intrad vertical Harrison Thompson 1:20

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

4.2.3

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

S Perth (0738)27921 SHEET

4.3.1

VEHICLE BARRIER SCALE 1:20

C.C-S.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

» Perth (0738)27921

VEHICLE BARRIER/SEAT

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

4.3.2


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

a Perth (0738) 27921

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

VEHICLE BARRIER-Log Kerb'stockade'type

4.3.3

SCALE 1:5


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

VEHICLE BARRIERS

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET 4 . 3 . 4 ; 4 . 3 . 5


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 4.3.6

Vehicle Barrier temporary CCS Design scales 1:50 and 1:10

©c.c.s


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738)27921

BOLLARD

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

4.3.7

SHEET

scale 1:5


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

8 Perth (0738)27921

VEHICLE BARRIER

©c.cs.

INFORMATION

SHEET

4.3.12


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921 4.3.13

BOOM BARRIER with concrete counterweight c.c.s .Design

©C C S. 10:83

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

S Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION 4.3.14

SHEET

CARAVAN BARRIER.CCS Design. scales 1:20&1:50

©c.cs


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

® Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 4.5.1; 4.5.2

FENCING High tensile wire Fountain Forestry scale 1:25

4.5.2

©c c s.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

S Perth (0738) 27921

4.8.2

FIELD GATE Universal Model British Gates(&Timber) Ltd

©C.C.8.

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION 4.8.3

SHEET

Long and Short Gate Combination scale 1.25

©c.c.s


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 4.8.4

Kissing Gate scale 1:10

©c.c.s. 5.80


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

a Perth (0738)27921

STILES

A stile should provide a simple, and inexpensive way

of crossing a fence or wall. It must be strong and safe,

yet it must remain as a barrier to stock. A well-built

stile with handhold can be a good waymark, visible

from some distance from the fence or wall.

Type of fence

A stile should be made from materials similar to the

barrier it crosses. Thus, a dry-stane dyke should have

long through-band stone steps in preference to timber

treads (see I S. 4.10.8). A post-and-rail fence should

have a timber stile, while a post-and-wire fence will

probably best be crossed with a timber structure

related to the wooden post on which will be mounted

any hand-hold provided.

Type of user

A simple structure such as a vertical ladder stile (I.S.

4.9.7) is adequate for occasional access, but not for

large numbers of the general public. A vertical ladder

stile is also useful where farming operations, like

ploughing, run close to the line of the fence. The

demountable stile (I S. 4.9.6) is of use for machinery

access or where at some times of year the way may be

left open. In areas where dogs are walked near

residential areas, a small vertical sliding 'hatch' for the

dog may be built beside the stile, or a design like the

'Rambler' (I.S. 4.9.13) may be used.

Skills

Most stiles are simple to construct, but they require to

be stable and safe, with properly fixed hand-holds.

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

4.9

Scale

The optimum 'riser' height is about 250mm, the maximum

350mm. All vertical intervals should be the same. Except for a

'bar' rung on a ladder, the width of tread should not be less

than 150mm.

Construction

Always support treads directly onto uprights. If treads are

supported on a cross-piece it is prudent to use a small bolt and

nut to secure the cross-member, not a nail. In addition, a small

check in the upright will give better support than just a

fastening, but the check should not be such as to weaken the

upright.

Safety

If a fence used barbed wire, the barbs should be removed or

covered in some way to prevent injury to users. Hand-holds

should be provided wherever possible.

Maintenance

Inspect for damage or deterioriation every six months — more

often at heavily used sites.

Treatment

All components should be treated to B.S. 4072. Timber cuts

made on site should be deluged with preservative before final

assembly.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

4.9.1

SHEET

STILE-GAP and SINGLE STEP Scale 1:10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738) 27921

©c.cs 11.95

INFORMATION

4.9.2

SHEET

STILE "Squeezer'type C.C.S.Design Scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

©C.C.S.

INFORMATION

4.9.3

SHEET

Stile ladder type scale 1:20


I N F O R M A T I O N

S H E E T 4.9.5

Stile "two-step crossover" C.C.S. Design. Scale 1:20

SIDE ELEVATION FRONT ELEVATION

C.C.S revised 1989

Split tube

protection

-100 x100mm

Countryside Commission for Scotland Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PHI 3EW

Telephone: (0738) 27921, Fax: (0738) 30583

700mm

1200mm

N o t e s

1This stile is simple to construct

requiring no joinery skill. It is ideal for

broad application of negotiating 7 strand

farmland fences with safety as it avoids the

need to turn around on the descent. It is

unobtrusive yet obvious to the footpath user.

2The riser height of the steps is at the

suggested maximum dimension of

350mm, with 400mm from the top step over the

wire. The minimum width of the steps is

150mm.The hand rail can be nailed, or for

extra strength, bolted to the fence post

upright.

3For added safety and long term stability,

the fence post upright can be concreted

into the ground. The split tube protection over

the barbed wire is essential to avoid injury and

clothing damage. Some barbs are removable, if

so remove them in the way of the stile.

C u t t i n g L i s t

Uprights 2-off 1250x100x100mm

2-off 900x100x100mm

Steps 2-off 1000x150x50mm

Handhold 1-off 1200x 75x50mm

Stiffening Blocks 2-off 200x100x50mm


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

8 Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

4.9.6

SHEET

STILE, DEMOUNTABLE scale 1:10

©c.c.s


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

ffi Perth (0738) 27921

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

4.9.7

STILE-Vertical ladder'type scale1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 4.9.9.

STILE "Lift up and step through" West Yorkshire pattern

©c.cs 11.85

Scale 1:10

and as marked


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

» Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 4.9.10

STILE "high ladder" C.C.S.Design Scale 1:20

©C.C.S.1.86


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

tt Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION 4.9.11

SHEET

STILE—'Two step,straight' Scale 1:10

©c.c.s. 11.79.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

B Perth (0738)27921

STILE Two-step crossover" Jacksons Fencing Scale 1:20

©c.c.s 10.65

INFORMATION

SHEET 4 . 9 . 1 2


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

©Perth (0738)27921

STILE - The "Rambler" British Gates and Timber Ltd. Scale1:10

c c s 9.85

INFORMATION

4.9.13

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

4.10

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921 SHEET

DRYSTANE DYKES

Publications

Brooks, Alan 1977 Dry Stone Walling — A

Practical Conservation

Handbook

Hart, Edward 1980 The Dry Stone Walling

Handbook — Employing

the Permanence and

Beauty of Natural

Stone

The skills of building 'dry', without mortar, are ancient. The

construction of Iron Age brochs show the same technique which

was used widely in the 18th and 19th Centuries to mark out and

enclose fields. The technique has survived so long because

drystane dykes are strong, durable and afford excellent protection

both for and against stock. They shelter animals from wind

and snow and reduce the blowing of soil. The stones provide a

habitat for wild plants, insects, animals and birds.

Dykes can be built in places too bleak for hedges and too rocky

for fences and, constructed by skilled labour, they will outlast a

fence several times. Once the material is on site a man can build

up to 6.0 lineal metres a day, depending on the nature of the

stone and the terrain.

The way a dyke is built reflects its surroundings, the slope and

nature of the ground, the type of stone available locally and the

experience, skill and inventiveness of the dyker. Each dyker

develops his own style, and the information sheets which follow

illustrate a few of the variations on this technique.

The sheets describe traditional constructions and include some

of the ways of building around obstacles; they are provided to

encourage those who may consider building or repairing dry

stane dykes, and to help all readers to see pattern, skill and

tradition in the 'drystane' method.

Footnote: With regard to costs it can be the case that to repair an existing dyke is

little more expensive per running metre than to replace it with a post-and-wire

fence.

British Trust for Conservation

Volunteers

36 St. Mary's Street

Wallingford

Oxfordshire 0X10 OEU

Thorsons Publishers Ltd

Wellingborough

Northamptonshire

Rainsford-Hannay, F 1976 Dry Stone Walling Stewartry of Kirkcudbright

Drystane Dyking Association

Gatehouse-of-Fleet

Kirkcudbrightshire

©c.cs


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921 4.10.3

TYPES OF DRYSTONE WALLING Cdrystane dyke')

©CCS

INFORMATION

SHEET

Variation

half dyke

Single dyke

Galloway double dyke

uses throughband

Coursed dyke

uses trimmed quarry stone

Rubble dyke

double dyke without through

band

Caithness flag fence

flagstones may be linked

at top with metal staples


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

TYPES OF COPE

©CCS

ELEVATIONS

4.10.4

Note: the cope is an important element

of the dyke in terms of strength and

appearance. The cope height is

determined and suitable stone selected,

a guide line is stretched as shown and

the cope built to it, where stones of

suitable size are not to hand, height

is achieved using smaller stones.

Buck and Doe

Advantages: decorative, wall height

increased with minimum of material.

Disadvantages: weak, stone must be

selected.

Dressed Cope

Advantages: neat appearance, tight

construction.

Disadvantages: more material required,

availability, expense.

Locked Top

Advantages: strong, when used with

hard rough stone.

Disadvantages: slow to build, loosens

on settlement.

Tilted Cope

Advantages: suitable.on slopes,

bind as wall settles.

Disadvantages: less heigh achieved,

stone must be selected.

Turf Cope

Advantage: quick to build.

Disadvantages: less height achieved,

turf may fail to 'take' and be

displaced.

Flat Cope

Advantages: speed of construction,

neat appearance.

Disadvantages: less height gained,

massive size.

Rubble Cope

Advantages: quick construction, mixed

stones may be used.

Disadvantages: less stable than other

types of construction.

Mortared Cope

Advantages: useful where there is a

shortage of suitable cope stones.

Disadvantages: lacks flexibility when

wall settles, mortar may not harmonise

with stone.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

« Perth (0738)27921

BASIC DYKE CONSTRUCTION

INFORMATION

4.10.5

SHEET

Note: Trench excavated to a depth of 50 - 150mm according to soil conditions

and to a width allowing up to 50mm projection of founds (scarcement) on either

side of the base. A light timber wall frame may be used as a template for

the cross sectional profile of the dyke. A plumb line is suspended from the

top of the frame, lines from the frame are drawn taut and pinned to the wall

so providing guides, dimensions are to the outer edges of the frame.

Construction Guidelines:

i. Place the biggest stones to the bottom

ii. Break the joints

iii. Taper the dyke to batter suitable

for stone used

iv. Keep the hearting full

v. Longest dimension of stone should

run into dyke

©c.c.s


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

0 Perth (0738)27921

WALLHEADS

Note: wall heads are constructed where it is desired to terminate a dyke;

to denote change of ownership; where openings or partial openings

are created and to impart stability by the regular inclusion of

wall heads in a dyke on a continuous slope.

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

4.10.6


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

GAP STILE

Note: Height of step above ground and width

of opening are crucial factors in ensuring

that the slit stile is impassable for all

but the most agile sheep breeds.

©CCS

wall brought to a head

through stone step

INFORMATION

4.10.7

SHEET

large end cope stone


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

THROUGH-STEP STILE and HANDHOLD

NB:

the construction of this

stile depends upon suitable

stone being available.

Railway sleeper sections

are an acceptable alternative

longer than normal

end cope stones

diagram of fixing

of posts using fence

wire doubled

passing through

wall and round "batten

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

4.10.8

SHEET

through stone

forms top step

I

diagram shoving

'locking in' of

sten in wall

Handholds, provided as

shown, are necessary as

stone covered with moss

or mud in wet conditions

can be slippery.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

LUNKIE HOLE

Note: to construct a sound

lunkie hole it is

necessary to have

available an adequatelysized

lintel stone.

©c.c.s.

lunkie hole must be paved to protect

wall and founds against wear and erosion

INFORMATION

4.10.9

SHEET

wall brought to a head


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

DYKES ON SLOPES

Dyke construction on a slope should start at the

bottom. Large base stones are laid :

at the slope, with subsequent

courses of diminishing

size laid to true

horizontal.

vail with no stock proof

purpose may be stepped

up a slope in this manner

wall brought to

with one course tying

into lower portion of wall

©c.c.s

cope stones vertical or

canted up-hill

note importance

of end cope stone

wall heads

batter may be

increased on

downhill face

cope stones are tilted

up-hill or are vertical

INFORMATION

4.10.10

SHEET

continuous uphill wall

should be brought to a head

at 20m intervals to

improve stability

Wall height

should be constant

measured at right

angles to the ground

A dyke meeting an

out-crop or obstacle

is brought to a head

against it and is

continued above to

remain stock proof.

wall face vertical

or near to vertical

section through

wall traversing slope


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

ft Perth (0738)27921

RETAINING WALL

should run off water

endanger wall, cut off

drain 400-600mm deep

by 400-600mm wide may

be formed

occasional

large stones

recessed into

bank to key,

known as

'tusking*

©c.c.s

VERTICAL SECTION

INFORMATION

4.10.11

SHEET

stones are laid lengthwise into the

retained soil

retaining wall

running into "bank

individual stones

being keyed in


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

0 Perth (0738)27921

DYKES CROSSING WETLAND, STREAMS etc.

A dyke crossing wetland may "be

constructed as "below with a series

of small lunkie holes allowing a

through flow of water.

If dyke construction of any type is impossible the

dyke may be brought to a wall head on either side

of the soft bearing and a fence used to continue

the line of the dyke.

Small diameter sections of

clayware pipe built into a dyke

at suitable intervals along the

base allows water movement.

A lunkie hole built

to allow a stream

passage through a

dyke. A metal grille

hung on the downstream

face of the lintel and

swinging freely deters

animals but allows

debris through.

INFORMATION

4.10.12

SHEET

If the bearing is soft, found stones

should "be increased in size and bedded

in gravel. Lining the trench with

woven/non-woven textile membranes

will give excellent stabilization.

A section of reinforced concrete

drain may be used allowing a

small stream to pass through a

dyke.

NB: Dykes must have more massive founds where water erosion is possible,

stream beds should be consolidated in the vicinity of dykes, openings

should be adequate to deal with spate conditions.

©c.cs.

t


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

DYKES and TREE ROOTS

Where it is

not possible to divert the

line of the dyke small lunkie'

holes may he built to allow tree roots

to pass through wall. Allowance must be made

for growth. ,

INFORMATION

4.10.13

SHEET

Alternatively, the dyke may be brought to heads on either side

of the tree, and a fence used to continue the wall line.

©c.c.s.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION 4.10.14

SHEET

GALLOWAY HEDGE and other methods of heightening dykes

Galloway hedge suitable

for use across sloping

ground. Thorn hush is

planted in the dyke at

time of construction

and effectively increases , no batter to this face

dyke height,particularly

on the uphill side.

single wire fence with posts'

at 5.00m centres deters more

active sheep breeds from

climbing the dyke.

posts secured to dykes

with doubled fencing wire

passing round posts through

wall and strained to battens

Method of increasing 1.5m dyke to make deer proof.

©CCS

original profile of slope

soil excavated from here is

transferred uphill for use as

backfill on uphill side of

completed dyke.

2.1m treated thinnings

at 5.00m centres


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

DYKE with wire fence top

Suitable flat steel standards

(preferably galvanised) drilled

to accept wire

Note: may be used to extend

existing dyke height

or built into dyke

under construction

Standard cut and

key formed to bed

into mortar

©C.C.S.

INFORMATION

4.10.15

SHEET

Standards spaced as necessary (2 - 3m)

'through stone


INFORMATION

SHEET 5.1

BENCH SEAT AND TABLE scale 1.20

Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

B Perth (0738) 27921

©c.c.s


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 5.2

TABLE AND SEAT COMBINED scale 1:20

SlDE ELEVATION


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

©c.c.s

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.3

GRIZEDALE BENCH scale 1.20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

©c.c.S

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.4

PICNIC BENCH Grizedale' Forestry Commission scale1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

©c.c s 980

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.5

PICNIC TABLE/SEATS combined 'Battenhursfdesign Scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION

SHEET 5.6

SEAT/ PICNIC BENCH Scale 1:10

©c.cs


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

& Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION 57

SHEET

SEAT WITH BACKREST c.c.s . Design scale1:10

©CCS


5.8

I N F O R M A T I O N

SHEET

Timber Seat C.C.S. Design. Scale 1:20,1:5,1:2.

©C.C.S revised 1

Countryside Commission for Scotland Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PHI 3EW

Telephone: (0738)27921, Fax: (0738)30583


I N F O R M A T I O N

S H E E T

Timber Seat C.C.S. Design. Scale 1:20,1:5,1:2.

Frame dimensions and

structural details

Scale 1:5

Base

Section front slat

Scale 1:2

\ /

Holes for 100x5mm

galvanised nails to be bored

145 x95mm

Dressed timber

Slope concrete away from seat

upright to prevent rain water

collecting at base of upright.


600 to 800mm

deep

FRONT ELEVATION

Scale 1:20

END ELEVATION

©C.C.S revised 1989

If necessary for

vandal resistance

include a 200mm

length of steel pipe.

• 2000mm -

Details at R

N.T.S.

Countryside Commission for Scotland Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PHI 3EW

300mm—

450mm

5.8

N o t e s

1An aesthetically pleasing timber seat,

offering a great degree of comfort due

to the rake of the back, seat and the shaped

slats. Suitable for use when extended stays are

expected such as children's play areas,

viewpoints, parks and picnic areas. The

construction is not suitable for the unskilled

woodworker and the use of machine tools is

necessary. Great care needs to be taken to

obtain the correct rake of the seat back to the

seat.

2Cut out and shape all the pieces and

bore holes where indicated. Holes for

nails should be slightly undersized. Treat with

exterior stain before assembly. Stake the seat in

an upright position whilst the concrete sets.

Use a spirit level against the back of the seat to

check the seat is in the correct position when

cementing in.

3Apply an exterior stain (Ref. Blue Sheet

13.1 'Timber Protection') Creosote or

other oily stains are unsuitable as they will

mark clothing.

C u t t i n g L i s t

Timber: Pine or Douglas Fir pressure treated

against fungal rot.

Uprights 2-off 1480x145x95mm

dressed timber

Seat bearers 4-off 595x 145x70mm

dressed timber

Seat slats & 5-off 2000 x95x45mm

back slats dressed timber

Plugs 20-off 15x 12mm diameter

F i x i n g s

Coach Bolts (galvanised) 4-off 200x12mm

Fence Nails or

Coach Screws (galvanised) 20-off 100mm


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION 5.9

SHEET

PICNIC TABLE -'Totland' wfBroomfield Ltd scale 1:20

©ccs 579


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

5.10

PICNIC TABLE - Heavy Duty wf Broomfield Ltd Scale 1:20

©c.cs

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

5.11

BENCH SEAT C.C.S.Design scale 1:20

©c.cs

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

BENCH SEAT

©CCS

INFORMATION

SHEET 5.12


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

SEAT with backrest

©CCS

INFORMATION 5.13

SHEET

scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921 5.15

BENCH SEAT/TABLE scale 1:20

©c.c.s. 9.80

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

©CC S 579

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.16

PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined) c.c.s .Design scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

5.17

PICNIC TABLE and SEAT c.c.s.Design scale 1.20

©c.c.s

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

5.18

PICNIC SEAT C.C.S.Design scale 1:20

©c.c s 579

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

©ccs

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.19

PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined) c.cs Design scale1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

PICNIC TABLE/SEATS (combined) C.C.S. Design

©C C S

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.20

scale1:20


©C.C.S revised 1989

I N F O R M A T I O N

S H E E T 5.21

Picnic Table/Seats (combined) CCS Design. Scale 1:20,1:10

Fix below or above with 9x 130 coach screws c/sunk and

plugged if fixed from above. Timber Connector

Countryside Commission for Scotland Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PHI 3EW

Telephone: (0738) 27921, Fax: (0738)30583

Detail of Bottom

Rail/Seat

Support Joint

Scale 1:10

N o t e s

1A popular heavy duty, free standing unit

best made with pine or Douglas fir or

combined with larch for ground contact

members.

Designed with timber connectors only

2on bottom rail/upright joints to allow

unbolting of table-top, seats and struts after

initial assembly for transportation and

stacking units for winter storage and

maintenance. It is only necessary to include

one timber connector to the bottom end of

each of the table and seat supports.

Timber should be planed and exposed

3edges bevelled to 4mm.

4An exterior, non-toxic stain finish such

as listed on blue sheet 13.1 Timber

Protection' should be applied preferably

before assembly of the unit. 'Creosote' or other

oily finishes may stain clothing and should be

avoided. Dark brown framework and midbrown

table and seats look well in a

countryside setting.

This unit is not easily moved and

5therefore should have a hardstanding

as a base to alleviate the problem of grass

cutting round the unit.

Slightly lighter weight versions of this 6design are available from certain

manufacturers. Please contact Battleby Centre

staff for details.

C u tt tt i nn g LL ii s t

Table-top/Seats 8-off 200x60x 1850mm

Table-top bearers 2-off 100x50x810mm

Seat bearers 4-off 100x50x400mm

Bottom rails 2-off 100x50x1620mm

Seat supports 8-off 200x60x365mm

Table supports 4-off 200x60x665mm

Footrest 1-off 880x100 x50mm

F i x i n g s

16-off 180x12mm Bolts

16-off 100x12mm Bolts

32-off 130x9mm Coach Screws

2-off 100x9mm Coach Screws

8-off Timber connectors


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

5.22

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921 SHEET

Picnic Table scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

BENCH SEAT Model SF1 scale 1:20

©cc s 579

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

5.25A

PICNIC TABLE; BENCH SEAT SF9;SF5 scale 1:20

©c.c s 579

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

TABLE;SEAT SF11:PG18

c c s 579

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.25B

scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland

5.26

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921 SHEET

PICNIC PALLET ccs Design scale 1:10

©c.c s 579

INFORMATION


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

5.27

PICNIC SEAT c.c.s.Design scale 1:20

© CCS

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotlsnd

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

PICNIC SEAT C.C.S.Design 1:25

©c.c s 579

INFORMATION

SHEET

5.28


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

5.40

PICNIC TABLE (see 5.41 for matching seat) c.c.s.Design Scale 1:20

© CCS

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION 5.41

SHEET

BENCH SEAT (to match 5.40) C.C.S. Design Scale 1:20

©C.C.S 579


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

0738 27921

5 Picnic furniture and seating

5.1 Bench Seat and Table

5.2 Table and Seats Combined

5.3 Single Bench, Concrete Base

5.4 Table and Seat Combined (concrete base)

5.5 Table and Seat Combined

5.6 Seat/Picnic Bench

5.7 Seat with Backrest

5.9 Table and Seat Combined 'Totland'

5.10 Table and Seat Combined 'Heavy Duty'

5.11 Bench Seat

5.12 Bench Seat

5.13 Seat with Backrest

5.14 Seat/Picnic Bench

5.15 Bench Seat/Table

5.16 Combined Seat/Table

5.17 Seat and Table

5.18 Bench Seat

5.19 Combined Seat/Table

5.20 Picnic Table/Seats

5.21 Picnic Table/Seats

5.22 Combined Seat/Table

5.23 Southampton Island Bench SF1

5.24 Southampton Seat SF111

5.25a Picnic Table and Bench SF9 and SF5

5.25b Picnic Table and Bench SF11 and PG1B

5.26 Picnic Pallet

5.27 Picnic Seat

5.28 Picnic Seat

5.29 Picnic Bench 306HB

5.30 Picnic Table and Seat 30HP

5.31 Seat with Backrest 306H

5.32 Seat with Backrest 304H

5.38 Heavy Duty Picnic Unit

5.39 Heavy Duty Bench with Backrest

5.40 Picnic Table

5.41 Bench Seat to match 5.40

5.45 Seat with Backrest

5.45 "Kelvin" Bench

5.47 "Kelvin" Seat

5.48 "Freshwater" Seat with Backrest and

Concrete Uprights

EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY

5 Picnic Furniture and Seating

Forestry Commission (Scotland)

Forestry Commission (Grizedale)

W F Broomfield Ltd

3 & 3 Learmonth

Neptune Concrete Ltd

Abacus Municipal Ltd

Forestry Commission (Grizedale)

A M Russell Ltd

ii

Marshalls Mono Concrete (Scotland) Ltd

W F Broomfield Ltd

M

Spring 1986


(5. Continued)

5.49 "Brightstone" Bench with Concrete Uprights W F Broomfield Ltd

5.50 "Eagle" Combination Table/Seat F W Hawker 4 Sons Ltd

5.51 "Falcon" 5'0" Long Seat "

5.52 "Happy Wanderer" Combination Table/Seat Wicksteed Leisure

5.53 "Oakley" Bench "

5.54 "Huntingdon" Seat "

5.55 "Kelmarsh" Bench "

5.56 "Napier" Seat A M Russell Ltd

Spring 1986


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

0738 27921

SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS

5 Picnic Furniture and Seating

5 Picnic furniture and seating Spring 1986

Abacus Municipal Ltd Tel 0623 511111

SUTTON-IN-ASHFIELD Nottinghamshire NG17 5FT

Alcan High Duty Extrusions Ltd Tel 0900 2581

Lillyhell WORKINGTON Cumbria CA14 4JY

Arden Associates Tel 01 337 3975

42 Ebbiaham Road WORCESTER PARK Surrey KT4 8NE

(Agents)

Artisan Accommodation Units Ltd Tel 841 62321

Cexton Way THETF0RD Norfolk (Agents)

Astolat Co Ltd Tel 0483 575211

Six Acre Works Peasmarsh GUILDFORD Surrey GU3 1NE

A Ballaritine 4 Sons Ltd Tel 0506 822721

New Grange Foundry B0'NESS West Lothian EH51 9PW

Bardsleys Colchester Ltd Tel 0206 853670

196 Bergholt Road COLCHESTER C04 5AL (Agents)

Barlow Tyrie Ltd Tel 0376 22505

Springwood Industrial Estate BRAINTREE

Essex CM7 7RN

T P Bather Tel 0544 230860

Hergest Camp KINGTON Herefordshire HR5 3ER

W F Broomfield Ltd Tel 0983 752921

Afton Road FRESHWATER Isle of Wight P040 9UH

Broxap and Corby Ltd Tel 061 773 7831

Walker Street Radcliffe MANCHESTER M26 9JH

(Agents)

Chipman Ltd

HORSHAM West Sussex RH12 2NR

Dorothea Restoration Engineers Ltd Tel 0298 3834/77115

Pearl Assurance House Hardwick Street BUXTON

Derbyshire SK17 6DH

Empire Stone Co Ltd

NARBOROUGH Leicester LE9 5GR

Tel 0533 864301

Forestry Commission Tel 0343 820223

Speyside Forest District Balnacoul FOCHABERS

Moray IV32 7LL

Forestry Commission

South Lakes Forest District

Cumbria LA22 0QJ

Tel 0403 60341/5 Log bench.

Tel 0229 84373

Grizedale AMBLESIDE

Furniture International Ltd Tel 01 691 0016

International House 90 Royal Hill Greenwich

LONDON SQ0 8RT

Glasdon Ltd Tel 0253 694811

Industrial A Municipal Sales Division

Preston New Road BLACKPOOL Lancashire FY4 4UL

(Agenta)

Gloster Leisure Furniture Ltd Tel 0272 540349

Universal House Pennywell Road BRISTOL BS5 0TJ

Hangar Products Ltd Tel 096273 4644/5

Construct House Winchester Road ALRESF0RD

Hampshire

Seats, double seats, bench, tables and

combined picnic table and seats. All with

Square rectangular hollow section mild eteel

supports. Timber in pine or iroko.

SeatB with backrests. Aluminium extrusions

for seats, back supports and pedestals.

Seats with backrests and benches. Steel box

section and timber uprights. Timber in

Burma teak.

Seat with backrest, bench and combined picnic

table and seats.

Seats with backrest. Timber, concrete and

metal uprights. Timber in teak, iroko and

hardwood.

SeatB with backrests. Cast iron uprights.

Seats with backrests. Timber and metal

uprights. Timber in teak and iroko.

Seats with backrests. Timber and metal

uprights. Timber in teak.

Combination table and Beats.

English oak and pine.

Timber in

Seats and combined picnic table and seats,

heavy duty with concrete and timber uprights.

Timber in deal, pine, selected hardwoods and

iroko.

Seats with backrests and arms. Benches and

combined picnic table and seats. Timber in

iroko, hardwoods or softwood. Metal, timber

or concrete uprights. Free-standing or

ground fixings.

Seats with backrests and benches. Iron

castings uprights. Timber in iroko.

Seats in precast concrete and reconstructed

stone.

Combined picnic table and seats. Seat with

backrest. Timber in home grown Douglas fir.

Heavy duty combined picnic table and seats,

benches, and seats with backrest. Timber and

concrete uprights. Free-standing and ground

fixings.

Combined picnic table and seats, benches, and

seats with backrests. Timber in teak, iroko

and hardwoods. Timber, metal and concrete

uprights.

Combined picnic table and seats, bench and

seats with backrests. Concrete, metal end

timber uprights. Free-standing and ground

fixings.

Seats with backrests and bench. Timber in

teak. Metal and timber uprights.

Combined picnic table and seats.


(5. Continued)

F M Hawker & Sons Ltd Tel 0225 858233

Northend Joinery Works North End BATHEASTON

Bath BA1 7HN

B Hirst 4 Sons Ltd Tel 0422 53073/57763

Fenton Road Works King Cross HALIFAX

West Yorkshire HX1 3SL

Hoiton Builders Ltd Tel 0673 858348

H0LT0N CUH BECKERING Lincoln LN3 5NG

Koapan (UK) Ltd Tel 0908 642466

3 Holdom Avenue BLETCHLEY Milton Keynes MK1 1QU

3 & 3 Learmonth Tel 0575 72112

The Poplars KIRRIEMUIR Angus DD8 5LH

Levercrest Ltd Tel 0634 727164

16 Lingley House Commissioners Road ROCHESTER

Kent ME2 4EE

Macemain Engineering Ltd Tel 01 946 1062

54 Weir Road Durnsford Road Industrial Estate

WIMBLEDON SW19 8UG

Mclays Playground Supplies Ltd Tel 041 763 0000

35 Sandilands Street Annick Street Industrial

Estate GLASGOW G32 0HT (Agents)

Marshalls Mono (Scotland) Ltd Tel 0324 22922

Bleachfield Works FALKIRK FK2 7YQ

Bill Moore Products

32 Harper Road COVENTRY CV1 2AP

Tel 0203 553005

Neptune Concrete Ltd Tel 0703 225513

Quayside Road BITTERNE MANOR Southampton S09 4YP

Norman 4 Sons (Marketing) Pre-Formed Components Ltd

Tel 01 391 0533 or 01 397 9166

Davis Road CHESSINGT0N Surrey KT9 ITU

(Agents)

Orchard Seating Ltd Tel 0491 36588/35529

21 St Martin's Street WALLINGF0RD Oxon 0X10 ODE

Pamal Tel 0476 860266

The Cottage Sproxton MELTON MOWBRAY

Leicestershire

F Peart 4 Co Ltd Tel 0429 63331

Baltic Works Baltic Street HARTLEPOOL

Cleveland TS25 1PW (Agents)

Playscape Ltd Tel 0902 331868/761763

33 Leithton Road Pattingham WOLVERHAMPTON WV4 4AP

Road Signs-Franco Ltd Tel 0902 782444

Boundary Estate Stafford Road Fordhouses

WOLVERHAMPTON WV10 7ET

Russell Leisure Products Ltd Tel 031 333 3525

P0 Box 415 Roddinglsw Gogar EDINBURGH EH12 9DW

SMP (Playgrounds) Ltd Tel 09328 68081/68090

Pound Road CHERTSEY Surrey KT16 8EJ

Combination picnic table and seats,

with backrest, tables and chair*

Seat

Combined picnic table and seats. Seats with

backrests and benches. Metal and timber

uprights. Timber in softwood.

Seat with backrests, benches and combined

table and seats, double seat with arms.

Uprights in concrete and timber.

Combined picnic table and sests for children.

Timber in a special weather-reBistsnt plywood

in a proprietary paint end stsin for the

tops and seats.

Sests with backrests,

and seats.

Combined picnic table

Seats with backrest and bench. Steel hollow

square sectional uprights. Free-standing and

ground fixtures.

Combined picnic table and seats. Seat with

backrest. Tubular steel framework and timber

in iroko.

Seats with bsckrest, tables, benches.

Combined picnic table and seats. Metal,

concrete and timber uprights. Timber in

softwood or hardwood.

Seat with backrests and benches. Timber in

hardwood or iroko. Concrete uprights. Freestanding

and ground fixings.

Combination table and seats, benches and seats

with backrests. One design feature is the

use of round and half round logs in some

furniture. Timber in softwood and hardwood.

Combined picnic table and seats, benches,

cantilever seats, and seats with backs.

Concrete uprights. Timber in hardwood.

Seat with backrest, benches and combined

picnic table and seats. Metal or wood

uprights. Free-standing, ground or wall

fixing. Timber in softwood, hardwood or

iroko.

Seats with backrests, benches and combined

picnic table and aeats. Metal and timber

uprights. Free-standing or ground fixings.

Combination table and seats,

or pressure-treated softwood.

Timber in iroko

Combination table and seats, benches and seats

with backrests. Also angled bench seating.

Concrete, metal and timber uprights. Timber

in softwood and hardwood (iroko or English

oak).

Seats with backrest and benches. Steel hollow

square sectional uprights. Timber in iroko.

Free-standing and ground fixings.

Seats with backrests,

and concrete uprights.

Tubular steel, timber

Timber in hardwood.

Seat with backrests, combined picnic table

and seats, and benches.

Benches, seats with backrests, tables and

combination tables and seats, some with

canopies. Children's benches. Timber in

hardwood.


(5. Continued)

Street Equipment Ltd

Unit 4 Goldhawk Industrial Estate

2a Brackenbury Road LONDON W6 OBA

Tel 01 749 5906

Superwood Ltd Tel 952011/2/3/4

16 Sandyford Industrial Estate DUBLIN 18

Swan Seats Tel 0952 615581

Stafford Park 15 TELFORD Shropshire TF3 3BB

Town Art + Design (Scotland) Ltd Tel 041 778 1717

9 Sandilanda Street GLASGOW G32 0HT

Townscape Products Ltd Tel 0623 513355

Fulwood Road South SUTTON-IN-ASHFIELD

Nottinghamshire NG17 2JZ (Agents)

Urban Enviroscape Ltd Tel 0256 54446

Telford Road Houndmills BASINGSTOKE RG21 2YW

Wealden Woodlands (Kent) Ltd

Heme Common HERNE BAY Kent

Tel 0227 710694

Wicksteed Leisure Tel 0536 517028

Digby Street KETTERING Northamptonshire NN16 8YJ

Woodscape Ltd

374 North Road

PRESTON PR1 1RU

Tel 0772 57558

Wrinch A Sons Ltd Tel 0473 78128

Leisure Division St Lawrence Works Nacton Road

IPSWICH IP3 9Q3

Seat with backrest.

Seat with backrest. Concrete uprighta.

Laths in solid plastic.

Spring 1986

Combined picnic table and seats, bench and

seatB with backrests. Concrete and timber

uprights.

Seats with backrests and benches. Metal or

concrete uprights. Timber in softwood or

hardwood. Free-standing or ground fixings.

Combination table and seats, benches and seats

with backrests. Also circular shaped table

and seats. Metal uprights. Timber in

harcWood.

Seat with backrest,

in hardwood.

Metal uprights. Timber

Sest with backrest and combined picnic table

and seats. Timber in softwood and hardwood.

Combined picnic table and seats, seats with

backrest, benches. Wicksteed range all have

metal and hardwood timber uprights. Lappset

range are all softwood.

Benches snd seats with backrests,

greenheart. Ground fixings.

Timber in

Seat with backrest, benches and combined

picnic table and seats. Timber and metal

uprights. Timber in iroko or teak.


STEPPED RAMP CONSTRUCTION

6.1

Plank/sleeper/log+infill (scales as marked)


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

INFORMATION

SHEET

6.2

TIMBER WALKWAY (Railway Sleepers) Scale 1:20


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW SHEET

Perth (0738) 27921

6.3

TIMBER PILING CAUSEWAY Scale 1:20

© CCS


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738)27921

Footpath Construction over soft ground using 'Wiretex' or 'Terram' fabric. Scale 1:20

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET 6.7;6.8


Board-walk Scale 1:25,1:5

©C.C.S revised 1989

Countryside Commission for Scotland Battleby, Redgorlon, Perth PHI 3EW

Telephone: (0738) 27921, Fax: (0738) 30583

6.9


Board-walk Scale 1:25,1:5

SIDE ELEVATION

Detail

at end of

board walk.

150 x50mm

I

i l

50 x 50mm

50 x 50mm

Larch edge rail

I N F O R M A T I O N

75mm

galv. nails

I

Detail

Scale 1:5.

T

50mm

END ELEVATIONS

Scale 1:25

Spacing between

I boards 10mm

S H E E T

T7 -

II 100mm

galv. nails

150 x 50mm

Larch decking

Larch Brackets

200 x100 x50mm

All fixings (except edge rails)

100mm galvanised nails.

Edge rail

50 x 50mm-

For heights above ground-level in excess of 600mm

use 75x38mm cross-braces.

(stringers 2.0m in length)

-2m centres —

Minimum I

600mm I


Edging is important

where disabled access

is intended.

To curve edge-rails

make sawcuts %

way through at app.

100mm intervals.

NOTE: For a trim appearance it is

essential that the boards at the bend

are out to an even taper - use a

line and peg to make it thus:-

Drawing exaggerated forclarity

NOT TO SCALE

©C.C.S revised 1989

offcut

COMPLETE BOARD

PLAN

Isometric View

To maintain a regular curve

use the stake and line as

compasses to position the

outer ends of the boards.

Countryside Commission for Scotland Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PHI 3EW

Telephone: (0738) 27921, Fax: (0738) 30583

Edge rail

shown

6.9

N o t e s

1A board-walk is an obtrusive element in

the landscape, and should be used

selectively. They can add interest to wildlife

interpretation by allowing close access to

interesting vegetation. The use of curved runs

adds interest and enables the board-walk to be

fitted into natural uneven terrain. They are

most useful for the protection of fragile areas

to which controlled access is required, and

provide a smooth, firm surface for wheelchair

users. If used as ramps, the maximum gradient

should not exceed 1:12, but 1:20 is better.

2Surface coatings or pressure treated

timber should not be used where

subsequent damage to adjacent wildlife may

occur. This is specially important in Sites of

Special Scientific Interest. In such cases use

larch for ground/water contact members and

check regularly for rot.

FINISHES

3Subject to note 2 above, all timber

should be pressure-treated against

fungal rot. For a non-slip surface spray boards

with hot tar and dust with grit, or fix chicken

wire to surface, using galvanised staples.

C u t t i n g L i s t

PER 2.0 meter RUN

Piles 4-off 1500x100x 100mm

Boards 13-off 1500x150x50mm

Stringers 2-off 2000x100x100mm

EdgeRail 4lin. metres 50x50mm

Brackets 4-off 200x100x50mm

F i x i n g s

Galv. Nails 26-off 75mm

60-off 100mm


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

©Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION 6.10

SHEET

BOARDWALK C.C.S.Design Scales as marked

©c c s


Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

6.11

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

• Perth (0738)27921 SHEET

TIMBER STEPS scale 1:10

© CCS


6.13

Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW SHEET

Board Walk Scales 1:10&1:25

©CCS


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

• Perth (0738) 27921

©C C S 579

INFORMATION

SHEET 6.14;6.15;6.16

TIMBER STEPS - ex.sleeper, STONE /CONCRETE SLAB STEPS 1:10


6.17

Countryside Commission for Scotland INFORMATION

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

tt Perth (0738) 27921

SHEET

PLATFORM/DECK' for overlook viewing platform/stairhead construction anc| as marked

©c.c.s.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

6.19

STEP DETAIL Scales as marked

©c.cs

INFORMATION

SHEET


The Treatment of Exterior Timber against Decay

INFORMATION

SHEET 13.1

COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION FOR SCOTLAND


page 3

The Treatment of

Exterior against Decay Timber

1.

2.

3.

4.

CONTENTS

Introduction

The causes of timber decay and the means of its

control 3

Durability

The natural durability of different timbers and

their ease of treatment by preservatives 5

Preservation

Types of preservative and their methods of

application 10

Surface Coatings

Paints, varnishes, oils and exterior stain finishes 18

COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION FOR SCOTLAND

Battleby, Redgorton, Perth PH1 3EW Tel: (0738) 27921

Acknowledgements

This guide has been prepared under contract by the Information and Advisory

Section of the Timber Research and Development Association. The

Countryside Commission for Scotland are grateful both to that organisation

and to the Building Research Establishment for their willingness for

information to be abstracted from their technical publications.

Countryside Commission for Scotland, 1983

ISBN 0 902226 68 1

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by

any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information

storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher.


CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE

TO DECAY —

1 FOOD

2 MOISTURE

3 OXYGEN

4 WARMTH

The spores germinate, producing fungal strands

Fruiting Body of Fungus releases spores which penetrate and digest the timber

page 4


page 5

1. INTRODUCTION

Causes of timber decay

Timber is an attractive, sympathetic and practical material for a wide variety of

uses in the countryside such as buildings, fences, bridges, signs and picnic

furniture. Sunshine and rain, however, do present special problems, and an

understanding of the measures which can be taken to combat these will

lessen the risk of premature failure through fungal decay, or disappointing

results through the development of an unattractive appearance.

Although insects may attack timbers used outside, the principles and

remedies outlined for the prevention of fungal decay will also in practice

prevent insect attack. Under dry internal conditions where decay is not a

problem, insects may warrant separate consideration and further advice

should be sought.

Wetting and ageing do not in themselves reduce the strength of timber. Decay

is due to the growth of very simple plants called Fungi. Their reproductive

spores, each one invisible to the naked eye, are released in unimaginably vast

numbers and are carried by natural air currents to every part of our

environment. Certain types of fungi use wood as food, and timber decay is the

direct result of their feeding and digestion The frontispiece shows the typical

life of these fungi.

Fungi have four basic requirements for growth: Food, Moisture, Oxygen and

Warmth. If any of these is lacking, growth will be prevented. A closer look at

these basic requirements provides the key to methods of preventing decay

FOOD

Some species of timber are classed as 'naturally durable' as they possess

substances produced within the tree which are harmful or toxic to fungi.

Timber that does not contain these substances may be treated with wood

preservatives containing chemicals which achieve the same result The use of

naturally decay-resistant timbers and wood preservatives are the most widely

used means of preventing decay.

A group of fungi known as 'moulds' may produce unsightly black, green or

orange discolourations. They feed upon a variety of airborne debris which

collects on the surface of most damp materials, but they cannot cause decay

of timber. Surface coatings may contain special fungicides to prevent these

growths but these are not effective in preventing timber decay. Conversely

wood preservatives will not necessarily prevent mould growth.

MOISTURE

Freshly felled timber can contain as much weight of water as wood substance,

in which state the timber is said to be at 100% moisture content. Timber which

has a moisture content below 20% will not decay. Simple moisture meters may

be obtained which will readily determine whether timber is above or below this

value When used outside, timber which has been dried to below 20%

moisture content will not exceed this level simply by exposure to damp air.

However, direct wetting by rain, splashing or condensation may cause the

moisture content to rise above 20%. When exposed to these risks, control may

be achieved by careful design to avoid water traps and to provide maximum

ventilation. Further protection may be provided by the application of water

resistant coatings to the surface, such as oils, waxes, paints, varnishes and

exterior stain finishes. Timber in contact with the ground is most at risk since

it is difficult to avoid high moisture contents for long periods.

OXYGEN

For growth, fungi require only minute traces of oxygen for which there is no

effective means of control Surface coatings such as paints and varnishes, or

wrapping in plastics or metal will not exclude sufficient oxygen to prevent

decay. Timber which is totally immersed in water, or is buried under an

impermeable soil type such as clay, may be sufficiently isolated from oxygen

to have a greatly extended life.

WARMTH

Decay is most active at around 20° C., i.e., during summer months, but will

continue down to 5° C. before becoming dormant. Therefore temperature

does not provide an effective means of controlling fungal growth under

normal exterior conditions in the UK.


Protection methods

The treatments used to prevent decay may be either wood preservatives or

water resistant surface coatings, and in some circumstances both may be

used. However, the distinction between these treatments is sometimes

blurred, and confusion between them in either their application or intention

can lead to failure. One is not a substitute for the other, as will be seen from

the following table.

TABLE 1

EXAMPLES 1. Organic solvents

2. Pentachlorophenol in heavy oil

3. Water borne copper chrome arsenate

4 Creosote

WOOD PRESERVATIVES SURFACE COATINGS

1. Paints and varnishes

2. Oils

3. Exterior stain finishes

PURPOSE To make the wood toxic to fungi To prevent the wood becoming wet.

To improve the appearance of the wood surface

page 6

ADVANTAGES To prevent decay if the wood becomes wet. To lower the risk of decay.

To provide a variety of colours and appearance.

To help keep the surface clean and free of mould growth.

To stabilise the timber to reduce shrinkage, swelling and

splitting.

APPLICATION Intended to produce maximum depth of penetration.

Achieved by forcing in under pressure and/or vacuum, by

alternate hot and cold cycles, or prolonged immersion.

(B.S. levels of treatment do not approve of brush or spray

applications).

Specification of the method of application is as important

as the choice of a particular preservative type.

MAINTENANCE NONE — usually only applied initially

Limited specialist products are available where in-situ

remedial work is necessary.

STANDARDS Both the product type and the method of application are

adequately covered by British Standards

Safety aspects are given special consideration by the

Health and Safety Executive PSPS (Pesticide Safety

Precaution Scheme).

It will be seen that surface coatings have a less straightforward role than that

of wood preservatives but that their main purpose is to prevent excessive

water absorption by the timber.

No surface coating has been found to remain completely impermeable to

moisture. When used in a particular exterior situation the life expectancy of

timber is normally assessed by a consideration of its natural characteristics

and the type of wood preservative treatment, if any, which has been applied

For much work in the countryside maintenance may not be a realistic

proposition and a weather-beaten appearance may be acceptable or even

desirable providing the timber retains its strength. In such cases surface

coatings may be eliminated altogether.

Summary

There are therefore three major decisions which must be taken.

What timber species will be used?

What wood preservative if any is to be used and how is it to be applied?

What surface coating if any will be applied?

These three choices cannot be taken independently of each other as the

timber must be capable of absorbing sufficient preservative and the

preservative must be compatible with the surface coating.

The following sections provide assistance in making these decisions.

DURABILITY — Provides estimates of service life, British Standards

Specifications, choice of timbers, their natural durability and their response to

preservatives.

PRESERVATION — Offers guidance on types of preservative, methods of

application, safety, uses; and lists commercial products.

SURFACE COATINGS — Offers guidance on types of surface coatings,

advantages, methods of application and lists commercial products

Intended to achieve a high concentration on the surface

Achieved by brush, spray or simple dipping. Usually 2 - 4

coats

Specification of individual commercial products is most

important as there can be big differences in performance

between apparently similar types.

NECESSARY— All products of this type require periodic

maintenance.

Typically at 2 - 6 year intervals depending upon type of

product and type of exposure.

Virtually no standards covering product types: reliance

must be placed on manufacturers' specifications for a

product and its application


page 7 2. DURABILITY

The term durability,' applied to timber, is solely concerned with the resistance

of the timber to fungal decay. It gives no indication of the hardness, strength,

or abrasion resistance of the timber, despite the wider use of this term in

everyday language. An understanding of the principles which affect durability

will assist in choosing an appropriate timber, preservative treatment, and

exterior finish, for any particular countryside application.

Structure of a Tree

The trunk of a tree consists of a main core of heartwood, surrounded by

sapwood and finally wrapped in bark. Table 2 shows the major characteristics

of these regions.

FEATURE HEARTWOOD SAPWOOD BARK

Appearance Varies with species: may be rich dark brown or red, e.g., YEW,

MAHOGANY or pale, indistinct from sapwood, e.g.. BEECH,

SPRUCE.

White or pale colour Usually brown

Thickness Depends on diameter of tree, may be greater than 2000 mm Variable —

commonly 10-100 mm

Strength High strength, varies with different species and is roughly

proportional to density

Resistance to

decay

Permeability to

preservatives

Bark is an impermeable layer and must always be removed prior to

preservative treatment, and its presence is a certain indication of the

presence of sapwood

TABLE 2

Variable —

commonly 10—50mm

Same as Heartwood Low, often corky

Varies with species from very high to low Low Moderate

Varies with species May be impermeable and

difficult to treat or permeable and easy

Permeable and relatively

easy to treat.

Impermeable —

must be removed

before treatment


Sapwood has a low natural resistance to decay but is relatively easy to treat Page 8

with preservatives. The ring of permeable sapwood is particularly useful when

preserving poles and round timbers as it allows deep penetration of the outer

layers. The presence of sapwood can be seen as an advantage when

preservative treatments are applied and a disadvantage where reliance is

placed upon high natural durability.

Heartwood varies widely in both its natural durability and its permeability to

preservatives, depending upon the species.

Where timber has a low natural durability, then preservative treatment may

provide the necessary protection if the timber is sufficiently permeable to

absorb enough preservative. These key characteristics of natural durability

and permeability are described below and in Table 3. The classifications are

those used by the Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough

Laboratory published as Technical Note No. 40, 'The Natural Durability of

Timber' and Information Paper 15/79 'The resistance of timbers to

impregnation with wood preservative.'

Natural durability

The heartwoods of timber species have been assessed for their natural

resistance to decay by partly burying standard sized posts (50mm x 50mm

square) in the ground, a condition which represents the most hazardous

circumstances normally encountered. Their average life under these

conditions places them in one of five classes:

PERISHABLE. Timbers expected to last for less than five years in ground contact.

NON-DURABLE: Timbers expected to last between five and ten years in ground contact.

MODERATELY DURABLE: Timbers expected to last between ten and fifteen years in ground contact

DURABLE: Timbers expected to last between fifteen and twenty-five years in ground contact.

VERY DURABLE: Timbers expected to last more than twenty-five years in ground contact

In practice, timbers may not be in ground contact and may not be of these

dimensions. Most situations out of ground contact would be less hazardous

and greater service life would be achieved, subject to wide variations

depending upon the site conditions, the design of the components and the

future prevailing weather conditions. Also, the service life of timber is more or

less proportional to its minimum cross-sectional dimension. For example, a

post measuring 100 x 100mm would have approximately twice the life

expectancy of a post measuring 100x 50mm The use of substantial timbers

has practical as well as possible aesthetic value.

Ease of preservation

Depending upon the ability of the heartwood to absorb preservative, timbers

are placed in one of four groups:

PERMEABLE: These timbers can be penetrated deeply and almost completely

under pressure without difficulty

MODERATELY RESISTANT. These timbers are fairly easy to treat and

worthwhile protection may be achieved using any of the approved methods of

application.

RESISTANT: These timbers are difficult to impregnate even under pressure

and require a long period of treatment.

EXTREMELY RESISTANT: These timbers cannot be penetrated to any

appreciable depth and are generally not worth treating

Regardless of the heartwood permeability, the sapwood of any of the

commercial species will be either moderately resistant or permeable and

therefore can be effectively treated


SPECIES

Afrormosia

Afzelia

Alder

Balau

Beech

Birch

Cedar, South American

Cedar, Western Red"

Cedar, Western Red

Danta

Douglas Fir-

Douglas Fir

Elm Dutch

Elm English

Elm Rock

Elm White

Elm Wych

Fir Balsam

Fir Grand*

Fir Noble

Fir Silver

Greenheart

Guarea

Hemlock Western*

Hemlock Western

Hornbeam

Horse Chestnut

Idigbo

Iroko

Jarrah

Kapur

Kempas

Keruing

Larch European

Larch Japanese

Lauan Dark Red

Lauan Light Red

Lime

Mahogany African

Mahogany American

Makore

NATURAL DURABILITY

TABLE 3

EASE OF PRESERVATION

HIGH LOW DIFFICULT EASY


TABLE 3 — continued

SPECIES Years 2 5 1 5 1 3 !

Maple

Meranti, Dark Red

Meranti, Light Red

Merbau

Oak American Red

Oak American White

Oak European

Obeche

Opepe

Parana Pine

Pine, Lodgepole*

Pine, Maritime

Pine, Pitch (American)

Pine, Pitch (Caribbean)

Pine, Radiata

Pine, Scots

Poplar, Black Italian*

Poplar, Grey

Ramin

Redwood (European)

Robinia

Sapele

Sequoia*

Spruce, Canadian

Spruce, European

Spruce, Sitka*

Sweet Chestnut

Sycamore

Teak

Utile

Wallaba

Walnut, African

Walnut, European

Willow, White

Willow, Crack

Yew

* Information relates to home-grown timber

NATURAL DURABILITY EASE OF PRESERVATION

HIGH LOW DIFFICULT EASY


page 11

Choice of specification

The decision whether to specify preservative treatment of a timber with a low

natural durability or whether to specify naturally durable timber without

preservative treatment can usually be determined by answering two simple

questions. If the answer to both of these questions is YES', then either option

may be considered.

Is there a choice of timber species?

In a lot of countryside work there is a natural desire to use locally available

timber which may restrict the choice. Inspection of the natural durability and

permeability characteristics should determine if the timber has sufficient

natural durability or will accept preservative treatment. If sapwood cannot be

excluded or limited, preservative treatment will be necessary.

Is 'on-site' fabrication limited to boring and cross cutting?

For effective preservative treatment, deep penetration is necessary but with

most timber species even pressure impregnation does not fully penetrate but

only provides an envelope of protection. Cutting or machining the timber may

remove this protection and reduce the effectiveness of the treatment. The end

grain of timber is particularly absorbent and providing working is limited to

cross cutting or boring which only exposes end grain surfaces then a liberal

brush application to deluge these areas will restore the protection. The

methods of applying preservatives to give high levels of protection do not lend

themselves to 'on-site' application and where more elaborate site work is

envisaged the use of naturally durable heartwood timber would be preferable.

Life expectancy

The life expectancy of a particular timber component is embodied in the

question How long do you want it to last?' The usual reply of, as long as

possible,' or 'forever,' may produce an impracticable or uneconomic solution

and a more realistic question would be What is the shortest life that will be

considered satisfactory?' The specification that will achieve this service life

will balance the degree of hazard against the possible combinations of natural

durability and preservative treatment.

Current British Standards provide assistance in making this decision by

reference to Performance Categories,' which, though not guarantees of

performance, do indicate the defined service life against which the

specification was drawn up. British Standard 5589: 'Code of Practice for

preservation of timber' relates to a variety of end use situations, many of

which will be relevant to work in the countryside This Standard provides a

comprehensive specification for preservative type and application and

indicates appropriate commercial timbers which will accept the treatment It

also advises on timbers with sufficient natural durability to meet the

performance levels without preservation. Table 4 overleaf indicates the

relevant situations covered by this Standard and the anticipated service lives

British Standards do not cover all countryside purposes, nor those

circumstances where a relatively short service life may be acceptable. A

suitable timber for use without preservative treatment can often be

determined by considering the natural durability aspect of Table 3, as this

gives a more or less direct indication, after appropriate allowance for

dimensions, of performance under the worst circumstances. Also, the table

generally indicates timbers which are permeable enough to acccept a

preservative treatment. Guidance on appropriate preservative types and

methods of application may be found in the next section.

Finishes

Surface coatings may be applied over most timber and preservative

combinations (except creosote) and their use may provide supplementary

protection from decay and a more attractive appearance. Also, some

preservative treatments require a surface coating in order to prevent leaching

of the preservative.


TABLE 4

B.S. 5589: 1978 Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber

TYPE OF USE EXAMPLES ANTICIPATED SERVICE LIFE

SECTION TWO —

External woodwork in buildings and

out of contact with the ground

SECTION THREE —

Agricultural and horticultural timbers

SECTION FOUR —

Timber for use permanently or

intermittently in contact with sea or

fresh water

SECTION SIX —

Fencing timber

3. PRESERVATION

TABLE 5

QUESTION

Can the treated timber

be painted, varnished

or glued?

What colour is the

treatment?

Does the treatment

reduce the strength of

the timber?

Does the treatment

affect the stability of

the timber?

Is the treatment

corrosive to metals?

Are plants safe in

contact with the treated

timber?

Are animals safe in

prolonged direct

contact with the treated

timber?

ORGANIC SOLVENT

TYPE

Generally YES, check

with supplier

Generally colourless,

some horticultural

grades are green

Dyes may be added,

check with supplier

External Joinery:

window frames

casements and sashes

surrounds for non-wooden windows

doors (excluding flush doors)

door frames

porches

External cladding

External fittings:

soffits, fascias and barge boards

Agricultural timber: in buildings and equipment for housing

livestock or the storage of farm products and machinery

Horticultural timber: in buildings and equipment for the

growing, storage and processing of produce.

Marine piling

Structural timbers in piers, jetties, quays, dolphins, etc

Lock and dock gates and sluices

Revetments on inland waterways

Timber used in sea defence works

Wooden foundations and piers for bridges

Structural timbers in cooling towers

Fence and gate-posts and struts

Gravel boards

Rails

Timbers for gates

Boarding and slats

Droppers

Post caps

Dowels

COPPER-CHROME ARSENATE

WATERBORNE TYPE

YES, but treatment may roughen

surface. Treated timber should

be allowed to dry before use

CREOSOTE

TAR OIL TYPE

Two levels of material/

specification are described,

referring to service lives of 60

years and 30 years

Two levels of material/

specification are described,

referring to service lives of 50

and 20 years

In fresh water:

30 years

In sea water:

15 years

NO NO

Two levels of material/

specification are described,

referring to service lives of 40

years and 20 years

PENTACHLORO-

PHENOL

IN HEAVY OIL

Pale green, occasionally brown Light to dark brown Colourless

NO NO NO NO

NO — If the product

includes a water

repellent, stability may

improve

Generally NO Some

grades may corrode

aluminium

Variable Special

Horticultural grades

available Check with

supplier

NO, but may be

isolated by surface

coatings — check

with manufacturer

Treatment may cause slight

swelling and distortion After

re-drying stability is not impaired

Slightly increased corrosion

risk Avoid direct contact with

aluminium Allow 7 days after

treatment and re-drying before

contact with other metals

No loss of stability — General oiliness may give

slight improvement

NO NO

YES NO NO

Generally YES after 7 days

Check with manufacturer

NO NO


page 13

Wood preservatives offer a means of greatly extending the life of timbers

which have a low natural resistance to decay. There are four main types of

preservative suitable for general use in countryside work and Table 5 outlines

the main characteristics relevant to their use in the countryside.

The protection given by these preservatives is related directly to their depth of

penetration into the timber and the most effective treatments must be applied

using specialised equipment. The method of application chosen will depend

partly upon the type of preservative and partly on the degree of protection

required. Table 6 provides general guidance to the appropriate methods of

application for wood preservative types, and an indication of the performance

which may be achieved when applied to timbers with a low natural durability.

Users should consult preservative suppliers' instructions for further details of

the treatment appropriate to their particular timber species and end use.

As described in the previous section, for certain types of countryside work,

BS 5589 'Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber' provides a detailed

specification of preservative types and methods of application, and where

appropriate this standard should be employed.

Preservative Types

ORGANIC SOLVENT PRESERVATIVES

These consist of active ingredients such as pentachlorophenol, tributyl tin

oxide, copper and zinc naphthenates, which separately or in a mixture are

dissolved in an organic solvent similar to 'white spirit.' The choice of possible

ingredients and solvent types permit wide variations in the characteristics of

individual commercial products in this group and full details of a particular

product should be sought from the manufacturers. The organic solvent

carries the ingredients into the timber and then evaporates leaving them

behind. These solvents are usually flammable and care is necessary in their

storage and during application. After the solvent has evaporated the treated

timber has no increased flammability. These preservatives do not contain

water; their application causes no swelling or distortion to timber and does

not raise the grain. In exterior situations subject to persistent wetting,

preservative may be washed out or 'leached' from the surface iayers. This

may be reduced or prevented by application and maintenance of a surface

coating such as a paint, varnish, or exterior wood stain. Organic solvent

preservatives commonly have a degree of water repellency present which will

extend the life of surface coatings. Such preservatives are not generally

intended as a final finish.

PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN HEAVY OIL

These products are a solution of the active ingredient pentachlorophenol in a

heavy non-evaporating oil which prevents them being leached when in

ground contact or immersed in water They require no additional protection,

and their general oiliness makes them incompatible with most surface

coatings.

WATERBORNE COPPER CHROME ARSENATE (CCA) PRESERVATIVES

These are solutions of copper, chromium and arsenate salts dissolved in

water. The wetting associated with this treatment may cause the timber to

swell or distort which generally restricts their use to items such as fences and

structural members where precise dimensional tolerance is not required.

Despite being initially water soluble, over a period of approximately seven

days after treatment they become chemically bonded to the timber and are

then highly resistant to leaching. CCA preservatives are thus suitable for

ground contact and water immersion situations, and will generally accept a

wide range of surface coatings. These preservatives are characteristically

pale green in colour, and are only applied by vacuum pressure methods.

Re-drying after treatment is not part of the preservative process and should

be specified if required.

CREOSOTE

These products are sometimes known as tar oils and although traditional are

still very effective wood preservatives. They are highly resistant to leaching

and are suitable for ground contact or immersion situations. It is not generally

possible to apply other surface coatings to the treated timber They vary in

colour from light to dark brown and may be regarded as decorative. They

have a persistent odour, and may become slightly sticky during hot summer

weather. Some grades of creosote (to BS.144) are fairly viscous and are only

suitable for application hot by pressure methods Other grades (BS.3051) are

very fluid and may be applied by any of the normal methods including

brushing or immersion


Application methods

VACUUM PRESSURE

This is sometimes just referred to as pressure impregnation. The timber is

loaded into a cylinder which is sealed and a vacuum is drawn to partially

extract the air from the timber. The cylinder is then flooded with preservative

and pressure applied to force it into the wood. This type of treatment provides

the highest levels of protection for the most hazardous circumstances and is

used with either the CCA waterborne preservatives or creosote types.

DOUBLE VACUUM TREATMENT

This method again uses a cylinder into which the timber is loaded and an

initial vacuum drawn to remove the air; it is then flooded with preservative and

the vacuum released, causing the wood to suck in the preservative. This may

be followed by a holding period during which pressure may be applied before

a second vacuum is drawn to remove surplus solvents and to speed drying.

This method of application is only used with either the organic solvent type

preservatives or the pentachlorophenol in heavy oil, and it is the most

effective method of applying these types of preservative.

HOT AND COLD OPEN TANK

This method of application is only used to apply creosote and consists of

immersing the timber for a few hours in creosote heated to approximately

90° C. This causes expansion of the air within the timber. The timber is then

permitted to cool, still immersed in preservative, and the contraction

associated with the cooling draws in the preservative. This provides a useful

method of providing high levels of protection where creosote is an acceptable

preservative, and without the need for sophisticated equipment. Full details of

this procedure are provided by BRE/ PRL Technical Note 42, 'The Hot and

Cold Open Tank Process for Impregnating Timber.'

IMMERSION TREATMENTS

These simply require that the timber be totally submerged in preservative for a

defined period, which should not be less than three minutes. Only

preservatives of the organic solvent type or the fluid grades of creosote may

be applied by these means and the treatment is suitable for medium hazard

situations. This method requires no sophisticated equipment and a simple

temporary bath could be produced by laying two layers of heavy gauge

polythene over a brick or timber surround. Timbers may need to be weighted

or turned to ensure that all surfaces receive treatment. Particular attention

should be paid to manufacturers' safety warnings regarding storage, spillage

and operators' protection.

BRUSH OR HIGH PRESSURE SPRAY

These methods are generally not recognised as providing substantial

protection against decay due to the limited penetration which they achieve.

They are used only in situations where other methods cannot be employed.

Where no surface coatings are to be used reapplication (every 2 - 3 years)

must be anticipated. To obtain maximum benefit they should be applied as at

least two generous flood coats, paying particular attention to end grain and

joint areas, and the second coat should be applied as soon as the first coat

has started to dry on the surface, to keep the preservative moving into the

timber. When applied to relatively thin timbers, e.g., woven fence panels,

surface application can provide realistic protection against decay. Careful

attention should be paid to manufacturers' safety warnings and attention is

drawn to the particular hazards of splashes or spray entering the eyes.

page 14


page 15 STORAGE TANKS

PRESSURE PUMP

TRANSFER PUMP

VACUUM PUMP

VACUUM

, CHEST

HOT AND

DOLD OPEN TANK

TREATMENT

IMMERSION TREATMENT

CYLINDER

VACUUM/PRESSURE OR DOUBLE

VACUUM TREATMENT PLANT

BRUSH or

HIGH PRESSURE

SPRAY


TABLE 6

PRESERVATIVE PROCESS

PENTACHLOROPHENOL

IN HEAVY OIL

COPPER CHROME

ARSENATE

CREOSOTE

ORGANIC SOLVENT

1. Vehicle Barriers

Double vacuum

impregnation

Vacuum pressure

impregnation

Vacuum pressure

impregnation

Hot and cold

open tank

Immersion

minimum 3 minutes

Brush or spray

minimum 2 flood coats

Double vacuum

impregnation

Immersion

minimum 3 minutes

Brush or spray

minimum 2 flood coats

ANTICIPATED SERVICE LIFE

YEARS

10 • • • • • • •

Fences Fences

Gates

Steps IN IN GROUND CONTACT

CONTACT

Posts, Gravel, Boards, etc.

20

40

• •





Stiles

Walkways

NOT IN GROUND CONTACT

10

20

• • •


• • •








Rails, bars, treads,

infill panels

40 • • •

2. Notice Boards, Signs, Litter Bins 10 • • • • • • • • •

20 • • • • • • •

30 • • • • •

3. Picnic and Recreational Furniture

10 • • • • • • •

* Caution Caution — see see note note on Safety Safety aspects aspects

20 • • • • • •

30 • • • •

4. Cladding and Joinery of outbuildings, 20 • • • • • • •

huts and small buildings

40 • • • • •

5. Footbridges, wooden foundations, piles 30 • •


page 17 General Considerations

CONDITION OF TIMBER

When timber is freshly felled it contains a lot of water, commonly 70% or more.

This water will prevent the absorption of other liquids and it is essential that

the timber be at least partly dried before preservative treatment is carried out.

The zone of timber which is expected to be treated with preservative should

have a moisture content no higher than 28%.

To satisfy this requirement, fresh sawn timber should be carefully stacked to

ensure ventilation to all faces and protected from the rain. Air drying will then

normally take between one and six months, depending upon the timber

thickness and time of year. Even pressure impregnation of wet timber is a

waste of resources and will lead to poor performance. The bark of trees is

impermeable and it is essential that this should be removed prior to drying and

preservation.

Wherever possible all machining and working of the timber should be carried

out before preservative treatment. Simple cross cutting and boring operations

after treatment should be followed by generous brushing with further

preservative. Suppliers of pressure impregnated timber will normally provide a

product for this purpose; if not, an organic solvent or fluid creosote type

should be used.

CHECKING ON PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT

Many timbers, particularly after a short period of weathering, give little

outward sign that preservative has been applied. There are no simple

universal tests that can be applied to determine the presence or absence of

preservatives and detection would usually require the cutting out and removal

of samples for laboratory testing. This testing can determine whether

preservative chemicals are present or not but cannot give reliable information

regarding the method of application, or whether a particular specification has

been correctly carried out. It is therefore important that specifiers should use

reliable processors, and where appropriate should be prepared to send

inspectors to check that correct procedures are being carried out.

Initial moisture content can easily be checked using a moisture meter of the

resistance type. Such a meter measures the electrical resistance across two

steel pins which are pushed into the timber. As water conducts electricity, the

pins in wet timber will pass more electricity than those in dry. The meter is

calibrated to show this value as moisture content. The most useful

instruments for this work have pins with insulated shanks which can be driven

up to 20mm into the timber, thereby avoiding false readings from the surface

which may be superficially wet or dry.

SAFETY AND HEALTH

All wood preservatives are by nature toxic and their use requires careful

regard for potential health hazards. Wood preservatives are covered by the

Pesticide Safety Precaution Scheme (PSPS) operated by the technical

secretariat of the Health and Safety Executive and the Ministry of Agriculture

and Fisheries and Foods. Specifiers and users should ensure that any wood

preservative proposed for use has been cleared under this scheme .

Manufacturers of preservatives should be able to confirm the acceptance of

their product under this scheme and product containers should carry labels to

this effect. The PSPS ensures that the active ingredients of a preservative

have been evaluated for their possible effects upon both the processors, the

users and the environment and that approved products are considered

satisfactory when used for the purpose and in the manner designated by the

scheme.

Particular attention is drawn to the possible hazards which may occur when

applying preservative fluids 'in-situ' in the countryside, when special

consideration must be given to the disposal of any containers and residues

and possible accidental spillage into water courses.

Persons applying wood preservatives or handling treated timber should be

provided with protective clothing and should avoid prolonged skin contact.

Facilities to permit operatives to wash thoroughly before eating, drinking or

smoking should be provided. If used in closed areas, adequate ventilation is

essential and face masks may be necessary, especially if spraying


Items such as picnic table tops, children's play equipment, containers for Page 18

foodstuffs such as potatoes, and surfaces which may be in prolonged contact

with animals, require special consideration. The only wood preservatives

which should be considered are the CCA types. These preservatives are free

of taint or odour and have a satisfactory record of use in these areas. Before

being used for these purposes, the treated timber should be left for at least

seven days followed by hosing down and light scrubbing to remove any loose

surface deposit. Low levels of arsenic occur naturally in our everyday

environment and although not to be encouraged, the ingestion of small wood

particles treated with this form of preservative is unlikely to be of serious

consequence. Where surface coatings are used in these sensitive areas, the

manufacturer should provide an assurance of their suitability.

Where preservatives may come into close contact with valuable plants, the

waterborne CCA preservatives will generally present no problems when

treated as above, but creosote, pentachlorophenol in heavy oil, and some of

the organic solvent based preservatives may be damaging. Organic solvent

preservatives are made in special horticultural grades, usually bright green in

colour, and providing the preservative is allowed to thoroughly dry after

application, they are harmless to most plants.


page 19

List of Wood Preservatives and Methods of Application

The following products are suitable for general use in the countryside. This list is based

upon the Building Research Establishment Princes Risborough Laboratory Technical Note

No. 24 'Preservative Treatments for External Softwood Joinery Timer' Appendix B.

Preservative Type — Copper Chrome Arsenate

Application Method — Vacuum/Pressure Impregnation

Manufacturer

Hickson's Timber Products Ltd.

Castleford

Yorkshire WF10 2JT

Rentokil Ltd.

Felcourt

East Grinstead

Sussex RH19 2JY

Preservative Type — Organic Solvent

Product

Tanalith C(CT 106)

Celcure A

Treatim CCA

Application Method — Double Vacuum Treatment

Manufacturer

Cuprinol Ltd.

Adderwell House

Frome

Somerset BA11 1NL

Hickson's Timber Products Ltd.

Castleford

Yorkshire WF10 2JT

Fosroc Ltd.

Timber Treatments Division

Fieldhouse Lane

Marlow

Buckinghamshire SL7 1LS

Rentokil Ltd.

Felcourt

East Grinstead

Sussex RH19 2JY

Wykamol Ltd.

Tingewick Road

Buckingham MK18 1AN

Product

Cuprinol Industrial Clear

*Cuprinol Industrial Clear WR

Cuprinol Industrial P

Cuprinol Joinery QD

*Cuprinol Joinery Clear WR

Cuprinol Joinery Clear

(applied by the Cuprivac process)

Vacsol

Vacsol J

*Vacsol WR

•Vacsol JWR

(applied by the Vac-Vac process)

Protim 80

•Protim 80WR

Protim 90

Protim FD

•Protim JP

(applied by the Prevac process)

Rentokil Joinery Preservative

*Rentokil Joinery Preservative—WR

Rentokil Protektim

•Rentokil Protektim — WR

(applied by the Multivac process)

Dispar Clear

•Statox

•Statox L

(applied by the VIV process)

•Possess a degree of water repellency but suitable for overpainting.

Preservative Type — Organic Solvent

Application Method — Immersion Treatment

(also suitable for brush or spray application).

Manufacturer

Blundell-Permoglaze Ltd.

Sculcoates Lane

Hull HU5 1RU

Catomance Ltd.

88/96 Bridge Road East

Welwyn Garden City

Hertfordshire PL7 1JW

Cuprinol Ltd.

Adderwell House

Frome

Somerset BA11 1NL

Feb (Great Britain)

Albany House

Swinton Hall Road

Swinton

Manchester M27 1DT

Hickson's Timber Products Ltd.

Castleford

Yorkshire WF10 2JT

LTD Building Products

Church Road

Litherland

Liverpool L21 8NX

Fosroc Ltd.

Timber Treatments Division

Fieldhouse Lane

Marlow

Buckinghamshire

SL7 1LS

RD (Chemicals & Wood

Processes) Ltd.

300 Bearsden Road

Glasgow G13 1EP

Rentokil Ltd.

Felcourt

East Grinstead

Sussex RH19 2JY

Name of Product

*Timbafilme

•Permoglaze Timber

Preservative WR

Permoglaze General Purpose

Timber Preservative Clear

Mystoc PCP No. 2

Cuprinol

Cuprinol

Cuprinol

*Cuprinol

Cuprinol

Clear

Cuprinol

•Cuprinol

Cuprinol

Cuprinol

Green

Joinery Clear

Joinery QD

Joinery QD Special

Joinery Clear WK

Wood Preservative

Industrial Clear

Industrial Clear WF

Industrial P

Wood Preservative

Febwood WP3 Clear

Imersol

"Imersol WR

Arborsan 109

Arborsan 110

Protim GD

•Protim JP

Protim 80

•Protim 80 WR

Protim 90

Woodseal GP

Woodseal WR

Celpruf

Sadolin (UK) Ltd. Sadovac

Tower Close

St. Peter's Industrial Park

Huntingdon

Cambridgeshire PE18 7DR

Rentokil Joinery

Preservative

•Rentokil Joinery

Preservative — WR

Rentokil Preservative

for Wood, Clear

Rentokil Protektim

•Rentokil Protektim — WR

Sikkens UK Ltd. Sikkens WP Special

Sikkens House

Station Road

Didcot

Oxon OX11 7NQ

Solignum Ltd.

Thames Road

Crayford

Dartford

Kent DA1 4QJ

Sovereign Chemical

Industries Ltd.

Park Road

Barrow-in-Furness

Cumbria LAM 4QU

Tenneco Organics Ltd.

Rockingham Works

Avonmouth

Bristol BS11 0YT

Wykamol Ltd.

Tingewick Road

Buckingham

MK18 1 AN

Soljoin 2

Soljoin 4

*Soljoin 6

*Soljoin 8

Colourless Solignum

•Colourless WR Solignum

Sovereign Clear 24

Sovereign Light Green 24

•Sovereign Water-

Repellent 24

•Timbrene Clear

•Timbrene Clear Grade E

Dispar Clear

•Statox

•Statox L


4. SURFACE COATINGS

Bare timber, left outside exposed to the combined effects of sunshine and

rain, gradually has the natural colour washed out from its surface. Regardless

of the type of timber, the appearance will eventually change to a silvery grey in

clean atmospheres and a dirty grey black where there is more pollution. At the

same time the alternate wetting and drying of the timber surface will result in

wood fibres becoming loosened from the surface, causing roughening and

possibly the development of cracks or splits. For many situations in the

countryside this appearance is acceptable and has the advantage of not

requiring maintenance.

Some uses, however, are more demanding, requiring minimal shrinkage and

swelling to keep joints tight, and perhaps a smoother and more attractively

coloured surface. Creosote provides both a colour and a degree of water

repellency and therefore goes some way towards meeting these

requirements. Traditionally its appearance is considered acceptable for many

applications in rural areas. Most other preservatives do not provide a lasting

decorative appearance and timber so treated will require additional surface

coatings.

There are four main types of exterior decorative finishes and the major

characteristics of these are described. Individual commercial products may

however have intermediate properties and it may be difficult to decide to

which group they belong.

Paints

In their simplest form paints consist of a solvent, such as white spirit,

containing coloured pigments dispersed in a resin or 'binder.' When applied,

the solvent evaporates and the binder forms a tough, flexible, water resistant

skin, coloured by the pigments. Paints are often described by the type of

binder, e.g., alkyd, oleoresinous, acrylic, or polyurethane, and by the type of

pigment, e.g., aluminium, red lead, red oxide.

The use of paint should be restricted to areas where a high quality of smooth

surface finish is required and where regular maintenance (3-5 years) can be

provided. Paints provide an obliterating opaque colour to the surface and

when well maintained ensure maximum dimensional stability to the timber. If

neglected, a partly failed paint coating may increase the risk of decay by

allowing water to penetrate but retarding its escape.

Paints should only be applied to smooth surfaces, generally as four coats,

using a 'system' of primer (1 coat), undercoat (1 or 2 coats) and top coat (1 or

2 coats). To prevent possible problems of compatibility it is better to avoid

mixing different manufacturers' systems.

Maintenance is complicated, requiring removal of blistered or loosened paint

film, local priming to exposed timber, followed by undercoat and top coats. If

paint failure has allowed water entry, careful redrying may be necessary to

avoid further applications of paint from sealing moisture in.

Paint performance may be improved by the prior use of organic solvent type

wood preservatives with a degree of water repellency, which will reduce the

absorption of water through a broken paint film.

Further guidance on the choice and application of paints may be found in

BS.6150 : 1982 'Code of Practice for Painting of Buildings.

Varnishes

A typical varnish consists of a resin, dispersed in a solvent, which when

applied to a surface forms a tough, flexible, transparent skin. Varnishes are

not suitable for general purpose work in the countryside and should be

restricted to specialist high class joinery where the item is not exposed to full

weathering and where comprehensive maintenance can be provided They do

however provide the only means of retaining the original natural colour of the

wood.

These products should be applied as a minimum of four coats and the better

products would probably require maintenance at approximately two-year

intervals. If neglected, maintenance problems will escalate dramatically due to

discolouration of the timber.

page 20


page 21

Oils

The application of simple vegetable or mineral oils, e.g., linseed oil, is not

generally recommended. The water repellence of these materials does not

last longer than a few months and the frequent reapplications necessary

progressively darken the surface of the wood.

The term 'Teak Oil' is not specific and commercial products may be of either a

varnish or exterior stain finish type.

Creosote may be applied as a decorative surface coating, and provides a

moderate degree of water repellency. Colour is generally limited to shades of

brown and maintenance is likely to be at 2 - 5 year intervals. Creosote should

not be diluted with old engine oil; this reduces its effectiveness as both a

wood preservative and a surface coating.

Exterior Stain Finishes

These are the most recently developed finishes and have been known

variously as 'Water repellent preservatives' and 'Preservative Stains,' which

has led to their widespread confusion with wood preservatives, which they are

not.

They do, however, provide a most suitable general purpose finish for

countryside work, and are available in a wide choice of colours, from

translucent natural wood shades which allow the grain and character of the

timber to show through, to opaque reds, blues and greens, where a more

dramatic effect is required. Exterior stain finishes tend to be absorbed by

the surface layer of fibres rather than forming a skin on the surface. In

contrast to paints and varnishes, their performance is enhanced when

applied to rough sawn and weathered surfaces which tend to absorb more

stain.

A feature of exterior stain finishes is their relatively high permeability to water

vapour. Comparison with paints and varnishes may be likened to comparing a

gaberdine fabric raincoat and a plastic mac. Both will keep out the rain but the

fabric, with high vapour permeability, will permit any moisture which does

penetrate to escape by evaporation. As no known surface coating can be relied

upon to remain 100% intact on outside woodwork, the advantage of vapour

permeability is obvious and is the reason for the spawning of this new

generation of 'breathable' finishes.

Exterior stain finishes are sometimes referred to as 'high solids' or low

solids.' High solids' products tend to leave a distinct surface deposit,

producing a noticeable sheen. They have a high water repellency and are

most suited for situations where the surface is unlikely to absorb much finish,

e.g., smooth planed dense hardwoods, or where maximum dimensional

stability is required. Their possible disadvantage lies in the greater risk of

eventual failure by flaking or cracking, reducing their ease of maintenance.

Low solids' products produce a more or less matt finish without a surface

deposit, relying on absorption by the surface fibres. The lack of surface

deposit usually ensures that eventual failure, as with the better high solids

materials, will be by a gradual erosion and bleaching, leaving a surface ready

for recoating with little further preparation

Exterior stain finishes are usually applied as 2 - 3 coats, although their

individual manufacturer's instructions should be followed in this respect.

These products are usually much more fluid than paints or varnishes and

require a slightly different application technique. They should be generously

flowed onto the timber rather than being brushed out, providing the surface

with as much as it will hold without excessive runs This may result in uneven

brush marks but these may be removed by lightly rebrushing the areas some

5-15 minutes after the initial application. Particular attention should be paid

to the manufacturers' instructions regarding stirring, before and during

application as these products tend to settle in containers more rapidly than

paints

Maintenance is likely to be at 3 - 5 year intervals and with the better materials

a simple wash or brush down to remove any accumulation of dirt should be all

that is necessary before reapplication. After weathering, a change of stain

finish product generally presents no problems. Surfaces with traces of old

paints or varnishes will reduce absorption and may impair the performance of

exterior stain finishes, although further weathering will eventually remove

these remaining deposits.


Commercial exterior stain finishes are tested by the Timber Research and

Development Association (TRADA) and products are assessed for their water

repellency, colour retention and ease of maintenance after approximately two

years' exposure to natural weathering. A number of exterior stain products

are also exhibited in the Battleby Display Centre at the headquarters of the

Countryside Commission for Scotland.

The following list of exterior stain finishes indicates products which have

performed satisfactorily in these trials.

Manufacturer/Agent

A. T. Woodfinishes Ltd.

42 Saughton Crescent

Edinburgh EH12 5SH

Berger Decorative Paints

Petherton Road

Hengrove

Bristol BS99 7JA

Product

Valtti wood protection T. & R. Williamson Ltd.

Ripon

North Yorkshire

Berger Cuprinol paints and

stains

Cuprinol Ltd. Berger Cuprinol paints and

Adderwell stains

Frome

Somerset BA11 1NL

Carson Hadfield Timbadecor and Timbatop

Mitcham

Surrey CR4 3YQ

Donald MacPherson & Co. Ltd. Flexarb Timber Coatings

Trade Division Transparent Wood Finish

Radcliffe Road Opaque Wood Finish

Bury

Lancashire BL9 9NB

Dulux Trade Group

ICI Paints Division

Wexham Road

Slough SL2 5DS

Fosroc Ltd.

Fieldhouse Lane

Marlow

Buckinghamshire SL7 1LS

Glasurit Beck Ltd.

Slinfold

Horsham

West Sussex RH13 7SH

Dulux Timbercolour

Dulux Woodsheen

Dulux Weathershield

Bondex

Lasutect HL & DSL

Venti 1-2-3

Glen Products Impra-Elan

Glencoe Impra-Color

Woodland Avenue

Hagley

Nr. Stourbridge

West Midlands DY8 2XQ

Joseph Mason Paints (Scotland) Ltd. Masopar

Randolph Industrial Estate

Kirkcaldy

Fife

Jotun Decorative Coatings Ltd. Benar

16 Alston Drive Oxan

Bradwell Abbey Demidekk

Milton Keynes MK13 9HA

Kay-Metzeler Ltd. Xyladecor

Wood Preservative Division Consolan-S

Bollington

Macclesfield

Cheshire SK10 5JJ

Manders Paints Ltd.

PO Box 9

Mander House

Wolverhampton WV1 3NA

Monzie JoineryLtd.

Monzie

Crieff

Perthshire PH7 4HE

Sadolin (UK) Ltd.

Tower Close

St. Peter's Industrial Park

Huntingdon

Cambridgeshire PE18 7DR

Sikkens (UK) Ltd.

Didcot Industrial Estate

Station Road

Didcot

Oxfordshire 0X11 7NQ

Timbercare wood finishes

Butinox

Dekkbeis

Classic

Extra

Focus

Cetol HLS

Cetol THB

Cetol Filter 7

Solignum Ltd. Architectural Solignum

Thames Road Timbertone

Crayford

Dartford

Kent DA1 4QJ

Sovereign Chemical Industries Ltd. SX70

Barrow-in-Furness

Cumbria CA14 4QU

Spencer (Aberdeen) pic

Froghall Terrace

Aberdeen AB2 3JN

Preserva Wood

W. W. Hill, Son & Wallace Ltd.

Elton Street

Broughton Bridge

Salford M7 9TL

Spurseel

Granyte 20-20

page 22


REFERENCES

Section 2 — Durability

PRINCES RISBOROUGH LABORATORY. The natural durability classification

of timber. Technical Note 40. Garston, Building Research Establishment 1969

(1979).

BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. The resistance of timbers to

impregnation with wood preservatives. Information Paper 15/79, Garston,

BRE. 1979.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Code of practice for preservation of

timber. British Standard BS 5589. London, BSI. 1978.

Section 3 — Preservation

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Specification for coal tar creosote for

the preservation of timber. British Standard BS 144. London, BSI. 1973.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Specification for coal tar creosotes for

wood preservation (other than creosotes to BS 144). British Standard BS

3051. London, BSI. 1972.

PRINCES RISBOROUGH LABORATORY. The hot-and-cold open tank process

of impregnating timber. Technical Note 42, Garston, Building Research

Establishment. 1969.

PRINCES RISBOROUGH LABORATORY. Preservative treatments for external

softwood joinery timber. Technical Note 24, Garston, Building Research

Establishment. 1979.

Section 4 — Surface Coatings

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Code of practice for painting of

buildings. British Standard BS 6150. London, BSI. 1982.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

© Perth (0738) 27921

EXHIBITS ON DISPLAY AT BATTLEBY

13.1 Timber Protection

Exterior Stain Finishes Autumn 1986

13.1.1 'Butinox'

13.1.2 'Bondex'

13.1.3 'Uvitec' Preservative and Varnish

13.1.4 'Timbrene'

13.1.5 'Cetol Transparent'

13.1.6 'Rubbol THB and Cetol Transparent'

13.1.7 'Decor*

13.1.8 'Architectural Solignum'

13.1.9 'Timbertone'

13.1.10 Exterior Browns

13.1.11 'Oxan'

13.1.12 'Rustikal'

13.1.13 'Timbertection'

13.1.14 Wood Preservative Stain

13.1.15 Sadolin Classic

13.1.16 Sadolin Pinotex Focus

13.1.17 Sadolin Pinotex Superdec

13.1.18 'Timba-Dura'

13.1.19 'Granyte 20-20'

13.1.20 'Lasutect*

13.1.21 'Masopar'

13.1.22 'Xyladecor'

13.1.23 'Consolan - S'

13.1.24 'Spurseel'

13.1.25 2021 Colour Collection 'Rubbol DSA'

13.1.26 'Demi Dekk' High Opaque Wood Stain

13.1.27 'Timbadecor' - Hadfields

13.1.28 Sadotop

13.1.29 Dulux Woodcare Light Preservative Basecoat

13.1.30 Dulux Woodcare Dark Preservative Basecoat

13.1.32 'Benar'

13.1.33 Transparent Wood Finish

13.1.34 Opaque Wood Finish

13.1.35 Butinox Dekkbeis Highly Pigmented

13.1.36 XTP Exterior Timber Protection

13.1.37 Valtti Wood Protection

13.1.38 Cetol Filter 7

13.1.39 Permoglaze MVP

13.1.40 Nordac System 52

13.1.41 Dulux Timbercolour

© C.C.S.

Monzie Joinery

Protim Ltd

L G Wilkinson Ltd

Tenneco Organics Ltd

Sikkens UK Ltd

it

Hickson's Timber Products Ltd

Solignum Ltd

Jotun Decorative Coatings Ltd

Sigma (Coatings) Ltd

Timbertection Ltd

Leyland Paint and Wallpaper Ltd

Sadolin (UK) Ltd

Timba-Dura Ltd

W W Hill, Son & Wallace Ltd

Glasurit (GB) Ltd

Joseph Mason Paints (Scotland) Ltd

Bo'ness Iron Company Ltd

TAR Williamson Ltd

Sikkens (UK) Ltd

it

Jotun Decorative Coatings Ltd

Carsons Hadfield

Sadolin (UK) Ltd

Dulux Trade Group

ii

Jotun Decorative Coatings Ltd

Donald MacPherson 4 Co Ltd

Monzie Joinery Ltd

II

Berger Paints

A T Woodfinishes Ltd

Sikkens UK Ltd

Blundell-Permoglaze Ltd

Dacrylate Paints Ltd

Dulux Trade Group


(13.1 Continued)

13.1.42 Dulux Woodsheen

13.1.43 Preserve Wood

13.1.44 Velti 1-2-3

13.1.45 Timbercare Satin Finish

13.1.46 Timbercare Preservative

13.1.47 Timbercare Gloss Finish

13.1.48 SX70

13.1.49 Uvitec Varnish

13.1.50 Flexarb Joinery Gloss

13.1.51 Flexarb Timber Coating

13.1.52 Flexarb Timber Coating + Uvitec

13.1.53 Microporous Gloss

13.1.54 Dulux Weathershield

13.1.55 Timbadecor 4 Timbatop

13.1.56 Impra-Elan

13.1.57 Impra-Colour

13.1.58 Wood Paint Matt

13.1.59 Wood Paint Sheen

13.1.60 Wood Stain Natural

13.1.61 Wood Stain Sheen

13.1.62 Wood Stain Hardwood

13.1.63 Wood Paint Gloss

© C.C.S.

Dulux Trade Group

Spencer (Aberdeen) PLC

Glasurit Beck Ltd

Menders Paints Ltd

Sovereign Chemical Industries Ltd

Donald MacPherson & Co Ltd

Dulux Trade Group

Carsons Hadfield

Glen Products

it

Berger Decorative Paints

Autumn 1986


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738) 27921

SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS

13.1 Timber Protection

Timber Preservatives - Copper Chrome Arsenate Autumn 1986

Hickson's Timber Products Ltd Tel 0977 556565 Tanalith C.

CASTLEFORD Yorkshire WF10 2JT

Rentokil Ltd Tel 0342 833022 Celcure A, Treatim CCA.

Felcourt EAST GRINSTEAD Sussex RH19 23Y

Timber Preservatives- Organic Solvent

Blundell-Permoglaze Ltd

Sculcoates Lane HULL HU5 1RU

Catomance Ltd Tel 07073 24373

88/96 Bridge Road East WELWYN GARDEN CITY

Hertfordshire PL7 13W

Cuprinol Ltd Tel 0373 65151

Adderwell House FR0ME Somerset BA11 1NL

Feb (Great Britain) Ltd Tel 061 794 7411

Albany House Swinton Hall Road SWINT0N

Manchester M27 IDT

Hickson's Timber Products Ltd

CASTLEFORD Yorkshire WF10 2JT

LTD Building Products

Church Road Litherland LIVERPOOL L21 8NX

Tel 0482 492241 Permoglaze, Timbafilme.

Tel 0977 556565

Fosroc Ltd Tel 06284 6644

Timber Treatments Division Fieldhouse Lane

MARL0W Buckinghamshire SL7 1LS

RD (Chemicals & Wood Processes) Ltd Tel 041 954 8021

300 Bearsden Road GLASGOW G13 1EP

Rentokil Ltd Tel 0342 833022

Felcourt EAST GRINSTEAD Sussex RH19 2JY

Sadolin (UK) Ltd Tel 0480 50041

Tower Close St Peter's Industrial Park

HUNTINGDON Cambridgeshire PE18 7DR

Sikkens UK Ltd Tel 0235 815141

Sikkens House Station Road DIDC0T Oxon 0X11 7NQ

Solignum Ltd Tel 0322 526966

Thames Road Crayford DARTF0RD Kent DAI 4QJ

Sovereign Chemical Industries Ltd Tel 0229 25045

BARROW-IN-FURNESS Cunbria LA14 4QU

Tenneco Organics Ltd Tel 0272 823611

Rockingham Works AV0NM0UTH Bristol BS11 0YT

Wykamol Ltd

Tingewick Road BUCKINGHAM MK18 IAN

Exterior Stain Finishes

A T Woodfinishes Ltd Tel 031 337 2187

42 Saughton Crescent EDINBURGH EH12 5SH

Berger Decorative Paints Tel 0272 836110

Petherton Road Hengrove BRISTOL BS99 7JA

Cuprinol Ltd

Adderwell FR0ME Somerset BA11 1NL

Carson Hadfield

MITCHAM Surrey CR4 3YQ

Donald MacPherson & Co Ltd Tel 061 764 6030

Trade Division Radcliffe Road BURY

Lancashire BL9 9NB

Mystoc.

Various Cuprinol products.

Febwood.

Vacsol.

Arborsan.

Various Protim products.

Woodseal, Celpruf.

Various Rentokil products.

Sadovac.

Sikkens.

Soljoin, Solignum.

Sovereign.

Timbrene.

Dispar, Statox.

Valtti wood protection.

Berger Cuprinol paints and stains.

Tel 0373 65151 Berger Cuprinol paints and stains.

Tel 01 648 3422 Timbadecor and Timbatop.

Flexarb Timber Coatings, Transparent Wood

Finish, Opaque Wood Finish.


(13.1 Continued)

Dulux Trade Group Tel 0753 34225

ICI Paints Division Wexham Road SLOUGH SL2 5DS

Fosroc Ltd Tel 06284 6644

Fieldhouse Lane MARLOW Buckinghamshire SL7 1LS

Glasurit Beck Ltd Tel 0402 790332

Slinfold HORSHAM West Sussex RH13 7SH

Glen Products Tel 0562 884541

Glencoe Woodland Avenue Hagley Nr STOURBRIDGE

West Midlands DY8 2XQ

Joseph Mason Paints (Scotland) Ltd Tel 0592 51041/2

Randolph Industrial Estate KIRKCALDY Fife

Jotun Decorative Coatings Ltd Tel 0234 219792/3

16 Alston Drive Bradwell Abbey

MILTON KEYNES MK13 9HA

Kay-Metzeler Ltd Tel 0625 73366

Wood Preservative Division Bollington

MACCLESFIELD Cheshire SK10 533

Manders Paints Ltd Tel 0902 711511

P0 Box 9 Mander House WOLVERHAMPTON WV1 3NA

Monzie 3oinery Ltd

Monzie CRIEFF Perthshire PH7 4HE

Sadolin (UK) Ltd Tel 0480 50041

Tower Close St Peter's Industrial Park

HUNTINGDON Cambridgeshire PE18 7DR

Sikkens (UK) Ltd Tel 0235 815141

Didcot Industrial Estate Station Road DIDC0T

Oxfordshire 0X11 7NQ

Solignum Ltd Tel 0322 526966

Thames Road Crayford DARTF0RD Kent DAI 4Q3

Sovereign Chemical Industries Ltd Tel 0229 25045

BARROW-IN-FURNESS Cumbria CA14 4QU

Spencer (Aberdeen) pic

Froghall Terrace ABERDEEN AB2 3JN

T & R Williamson Ltd

RIP0N North Yorkshire

Tel 0224 636677

Tel 0765 2525

W W Hill, Son & Wallace Ltd Tel 061 832 4276

Elton Street Broughton Bridge SALF0RD M7 9TL

© C.C.S.

Dulux Timbercolour, Dulux Woodsheen,

Dulux Weathershield.

Bondex.

Lasutect HL & DSL, Venti 1-2-3.

Impra-Elan, Impra-Color.

Masopar.

Benar, Oxan, Demidekk.

Xyladecor, Consolan-S.

Timbercare wood finishes.

Tel 0764 2740 Butinox, Dekkbeis.

Classic, Extra, Focus.

Cetol HLS, Cetol THB, Cetol Filter 7.

Architectural Solignum, Timbertone.

3X70.

Preserva Wood.

Spurseel.

Granyte 20-20

Autumn 1986


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

14.4

SHEET

PARK CHEF CHARCOAL BARBECUE 1:100

©C.C S 579


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

14.5

CAMP COOKING BENCH ccs Design scale 1:10

©c.c s 11.79

INFORMATION

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738)27921

INFORMATION

SHEET

14.6

BARBECUE — Converted oil drum c.c.s. Design Scales as marked

©c.c.s. 1179


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

FOOTBRIDGE -Timber (ex railway sleeper stringer) C.C.S.Design Scales as marked

©C.C.S.10:83

INFORMATION 16.1

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

GENERAL NOTES ON DESIGN FOR ACCESS TO

THE COUNTRYSIDE BY DISABLED PEOPLE

'Provision for all'

In general, an attempt should be made to cater for

all people, avoiding 'special' provisions for people

with disabilities wherever possible However, in

some instances — toilets, for example — special

facilities must, of course, be provided

By following this principle, misguided attempts to

provide facilities of too ambitious a nature in the

countryside for people with disabilities can be

avoided The countryside cannot be manipulated to

accommodate them to the extent in which the built

environment can; not only would it be impractical

and impossibly costly to do so on a wide scale, but

it is unlikely to be desired by the majority of those

with disabilities.

Information based on "Designing for the Disabled" by Selwyn Goldsmith,

RIBA Publications, 1976

©c.c s

INFORMATION

SHEET

17.1

Simple detailing related to popular sites with car

parking and toilet facilities will provide, at modest

cost, most of what is required by the majority of

people with disabilities when visiting the

countryside; most importantly, the provision will not

appear 'special' and may not even be noticed

except by people who have a disability. The types of

consideration and detail required can be

summarised as follows:—

I. If possible choose level sites.

2 Ramps and steps should be provided where

changes of level cannot be avoided See

Information Sheets 17.3 and 6 14/15/16/19.

3 Handrails should be capable of being gripped

by weak and stiff hands, and be weight

bearing. See Information Sheet 17.4

4 Unobstructed paths should have a

guide-rail/fence/tapping rail or some other

means of defining the route See Information

Sheet 17.4

5. Ground surfaces should be non-slip and firm.

See Information Sheet 17.6

6. Advice should be sought and followed on

specialised provisions such as Braille

Information Boards from the local Association

for the Blind

7. All toilets should have a disabled persons

compartment. See Information Sheet 17.8.

8. Furniture should be so designed as to

accommodate wheelchair users and other

people with disabilities. See Information Sheet

17.9

9. Barriers, such as kissing gates should,

preferably, be avoided, but where necessary

be designed to accommodate wheelchair

users. See Information Sheet 4 8.13.

10. Stiles should not have more thar, one upright

so that the walker with a stiff knee-joint can

swing over without difficulty. A hand-hold is a

great help See Information Sheet 4 9.12.

II. Treads to stiles and steps should be of a

generous proportion. See Information Sheet

4.9 12.

12 Provide reserved car parking spaces See

Information Sheet 17.2.

13. Install displays or direction signs at low level

so that wheelchair-bound people and children

— as well as the able-bodied — can read

them with ease.

14. Type size no smaller than 38 mm (1 J") will aid

legibility for those with impaired vision.

15. Access routes with physical restrictions on

either side (boardwalks, bridges, footpaths

etc.) more than a few metres in length should

be wide enough to allow the passage of a

wheelchair in one direction and a walker in

the other. See Information Sheet 17 9.

16 Remember that disability can take many forms

and vary in degree — joint stiffness,

amputation, paraplegia, deafness, blindness,

muscular weakness, respiratory and cardiac

impairment and so on


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

CAR PARKING FOR THE DISABLED

In car parks used by the general public provision

should be made for disabled drivers and cars

carrying disabled passengers.

Special spaces, located at the end of a row of

parking bays, leaving one side clear for access by

the disabled need not be wider than standard bays

for general purposes.

The parking surface must be firm, smooth and level,

suitable finishes being:

brush finished concrete

Tarmacadam

paving slabs

interlocking paviors

rough, or porous, brick

(hot engineering)

See Information Sheet

Gravel, turf and concretereinforced

grass are not suitable.

Specially reserved places should be signposted.

See Information Sheet 17.7

Where adjacent spaces are reserved for disabled

people, an access area may be marked on the

ground to indicate that cars should be parked to

either side.

INFORMATION

SHEET

Information based on "Designing for the Disabled" by Selwyn Goldsmith,

RIBA Publications, 1976.

©c.c.s.

In Britain the standard parking bay width is

approximately 2.400m wide.

17.2

To allow for assisted wheelchair users the preferred

width of special spaces for disabled drivers is

3.600m wide, minimum 3.200m wide. (See plan

below).

To allow for ambulant disabled people the preferred

width of parking spaces is 3.00m, minimum 2.800m.

3.000m will, in practice, just allow wheelchair

manoeuvring.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

RAMPS AND GRADIENTS

General: For wheelchairs users access to facilities

must be level or ramped

A level or ramped access is also advantageous to

elderly people and mothers with prams.

In many situations able-bodied and ambulant

handicapped can more easily, safely and

comfortably manage steps rather than ramps: in wet

or icy conditions ramps can be more dangerous

than steps

Handrails should be provided for ramps with a total

rise of 600mm, at a height of 1 000m above ramp

level.

Where the gradient is 1:20 or less, no handrail need

be provided.

Kerbs:

A kerb should be provided to the exposed side of

any ramp, not less than 75mm high or 50mm where

there is a handrail.

Finishes:

All ramps must have non-slip surfaces. A textured

finish with coarse aggregate not finer than 10mm is

recommended Asphalt should be roughened

Concrete must not be polished, and the surface

treated with carborundum to prevent slipping when

wet.

For further details see I S 17.6

Even though the ideal specification for ramps may

not be possible to achieve in some places, still

provide a ramp — even though it is steep — and

some wheelchair users will negotiate it with

assistance

INFORMATION

SHEET

Recommended ramp gradients:

Length of ramp

ambulant disabled

independant

wheelchair users

wheelchair pushed

by attendant

electric wheelchairs

All users,

preferred max

gradient

Information based on "Designing for the Disabled" by Selwyn Goldsmith,

RIBA Publications, 1976.

cc.c s

17.3

up to over

3 0 3.0-6.0 6.0m

1:9 1:12 1:12

1:10 1:16 1:20

1:9 1:12 1:20

1:16 1:16 1:20

1:8 1:12 1:12

Dimensional data:

Preferred minimum width 1,500m.

For short ramps minimum width 1,200m.

In long ramps a rest platform should be provided for

every 10.0m of ramp or each 0 800m of vertical rise.

The length of rest platforms should be not less than

1 800m


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

RAMP CONSTRUCTION for wheelchair users

©CCS

INFORMATION 17.3.1

SHEET

Scales as marked


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

CIRCULATION SPACE: AMBULANT DISABLED PEOPLE

General: Although stick users can negotiate a

passage width of 800mm (2' 8") this is not

recommended, and a minimum passage width of

900mm (3' 0") should be observed.

In practice all stick users, crutch users and people

with walking aids can be accommodated by a

passage width of 1,000m (3' 3").

Circulation space requirements for ambulant

disabled people.

( 0-75O ^

Single walking stick

0.900

Tripod walking aids

Information based on "Designing for the Disabled" by Selwyn Goldsmith,

RIBA Publications, 1976.

©CCS

INFORMATION 17.5.1

SHEET

0. 950

Shoulder crutches


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH1 3EW

Perth (0738)27921

CIRCULATION SPACE: WHEELCHAIRS

Standard wheelchairs may be up to 675mm wide

(2' 3") The recommended clearance between a

wheelchair and its surroundings should be no less

than 50mm (2") Therefore the minimum space for

the passage of wheelchairs is 775mm (2' 7"),

although in practice 800mm (2' 8") is used.

STRAIGHT LINE MOVEMENT

Wheelchair

with attendant

PASSING SPACE

1.800

Self-propelled

wheelchair

Two wheelchairs

with attendant

Two self-propelled

wheelchairs

Information based on "Designing for the Disabled" by Selwyn

Goldsmith, RIBA Publications, 1976

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

17.5.2

The diagrams give the recommended dimensions for the

movement of wheelchairs in relation to other users of

circulation space, and their requirements for

manoeuvring.

Space for wheelchair

turn through 180°

Planning rule for

unobstructed space

for wheelchair

turning

Wheelchair turn

through 90° in

circulation route


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

0 Perth (0738)27921

CIRCULATION SPACE: WHEELCHAIRS

Wheelchair manoeuvres through a door or gateway

from a passage or restricted pathway: examples of

preferred conditions.

Spatial requirement

to turn a wheelchair

through an opening

ec.c.s

INFORMATION 17.5.3

SHEET

Information based on "Designing for the Disabled" by Selwyn Goldsmith,

RIBA Publications, 1976.


17.6

INFORMATION

SHEET

FOOTPATH SURFACES for ambulant disabled people & wheelchair users

Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

tt Perth (0738)27921

General: The primary requirement is for a firm, evenly graded non-slip surface for pedestrian users, in

preference to a perfectly smooth surface that might be preferred by wheelchair users. However, pleasure can

be derived from the occasional opportunity for ambulant disabled people to walk on firm natural surfaces

such as well maintained grass. Unsealed gravel surfaces should be avoided.

Suitable Surfaces:

1. Tarmacadam and similar — so-called 'flexible surfaces' should be in accordance with B.S. 4987:1973

which includes specifications for aggregates (coarse and fine), filler and binder. Also included is data on

the proper manufacture and laying of bitumen surfaces.

2. Concrete — the Cement and Concrete Association publish detailed advice covering all aspects of

cement, aggregates, sub-grades, base, form-setting, spreading, compacting, finishing and curing.

Suitable finishes include 'exposed aggregate' and 'brush finished'.

3. Unit paving — this includes:—

Pre-cast concrete slabs

Natural stone flags

Brick, porous — not engineering brick

Clay tiles

Granite setts (providing they have flat upper faces)

Precast interlocking paviours

4. Timber decking — slats at right angles to direction of travel

Unsuitable surfaces:

Gravel

Sand

Rough grass

Concrete reinforced grass surfaces

Steel mesh gratings

Engineering brick

Slip-resistant finishes — there are a number of proprietary products on the market which can reduce the slip

hazard.

1. Patented rubber treaded flags — Shap Granite Co Ltd, Shap.

2. Non-slip epoxy or bauxite grit floor coating for internal or external surfaces — Tretol Ltd, London.

3. Self-adhesive non-slip strips — 3M Company Ltd.

Timber board-walks, and footbridge decking may be made slip resistant by coating with hot bitumen

emulsion onto which is sprinkled clean sharp sand.

©c.cs.


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

©c.cs

INFORMATION

17.6.1

SHEET

FOOTPATH CONSTRUCTION for ambulant disabled people & wheelchair users


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738) 27921

WORD AND LINE SPACING

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

18.8


Countryside Commission for Scotlsnd

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

SIGN LAYOUT Notes for guidance 1

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION 18.9

SHEET


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

0 Perth (0738) 27921

SIGN LAYOUT Notes for guidance 2

Odia etia

Odia etiam sunt

luptam propter

atque ut odia

etiam sunt luptam

propter.

Odia etiam sunt

luptam propter

atque ut odia

etiam sunt luptam

propter.

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

Odia etiam sunt

lumptam propter

atque ut odia

etiam sunt luptam

propter. Atque ut

odia etiam sunt

luptam propter at

ut odia

Odia etiam sunt

luptam propter

atque ut odia etia

sunt luptam

propter.Atque ut

odia etiam sunt lu

propter atque

WOODLAND

ESTATES

FOOTBRIDGE

HILL TRAIL

Please keep to the paths

HIGH FIRE RISK AREA

18.10


Countryside Commission for Scotland

Battleby Redgorton Perth PH13EW

Perth (0738)27921

VIEWPOINT INDICATOR FIXING TECHNIQUE c.c.s.Design

©c.c.s.

INFORMATION

SHEET

18.11

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