Report on the Textiles from Burgos Cathedral - Middelalder Centret

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Report on the Textiles from Burgos Cathedral - Middelalder Centret

Tekstiler på Middelaldercentret - rapportserie

ong>Reportong> on the Textiles

from Burgos Cathedral

in Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real

Madrid, Spain

Camilla Luise Dahl

Marianne Vedeler

Concha Herrero Carretero

Middelaldercentret 2008


Textiles from Burgos Cathedral

in Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real

Madrid, Spain

Textiles excavated at Burgos, now in the Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid. Top left, inv. no. 653742, bottom

left, close-up of inv. no. 653745 and right inv. no. 653742 and 651983.

The cloister church in Monasterio de Santa María la Real de las Huelgas in Burgos, Spain had been

burial site for members of the royality and nobility in Spain in the Middle Ages. Named Kings and

Queens had been buried here in the 12th to the 14th century. In 1946 several of the coffins in the

Monasterio was examined by Spanish archeaolgist Manuel Gomez-Moreno, the excavated textiles which

counted silk covers, blankets, headwear, footwear and dresses were transported to the National Museum

in Spain, Patrimonio Nacional in Madrid. Unfortunately many items taken from the coffins has not been

well documented in 1946, except for the garments and textiles discovered in the royal graves, many

discovered items are of no longer known context as it has not been documented which coffins they were

taken from.

The textiles has since been re-examined and re-conserved, now with documentation, inventory

number and description of each piece held at the Patrimonio Nacional.


In september 2006 a selection of pieces of

what has been described as head- and neckwear,

excavated in Burgos, were examined for textile

analysis and further description for a project

on medieval headwear at the Medieval Centre,

Denmark. The examination was carried out

by dr. art. Marianne Vedeler, Museum of

Cultural History, University of Oslo and mag.

Camilla Luise Dahl, The Medieval Centre,

Nykøbing, Denmark together with Dr. Concha

Herrero Carretero, head of the Department of

Conservation, Patrimonio Nacional.

The examination included 11 silk pieces,

inventory numbers: (00653737), (00653742),

(00653745), (00653753), (00653754),

(00653737), (00651970), (00651981), (00651982),

(00651983), (00651984), (00651985).

In 1995 these textiles were re-conserved at

the Department for Conservation at Patrimonio

Nacional by dr. Concha Herrero Carretero.

The textiles are each documented by inventory

number, material, place of origin and possible age.

The textiles were all very well preserved,

only in places where the textiles had been in direct

contact with the decaying flesh of the corpses, the

fine silk had rotten away. Human tissue still in

the textiles left brown stains on the examination

gloves.

For the project at The Medieval Centre,

Nykøbing we needed textile analysis of tread

count, tread thickness and weaving which was

carried out by Marianne Vedeler as well as

description of the methods used for creating the

unusual frilled edges on the textiles, which was

examined by Camilla Luise Dahl.

Documentation for Inv. no. 651982


Examination of the Textiles from Burgos in Patrimonio

Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid.


Examination of the Textiles from Burgos in Patrimonio

Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid.


ong>Reportong> on the Textiles in Patrimonio Nacional,

Palacio Real:

Textile Analysis

From textile studies in Palacio Real, Madrid, 4-6.9.2006

Marianne Vedeler, Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo

On September 4-6th, 2006, a simple tecniqual

analysis of silk bands with frilled edges was

undertaken by Marianne Vedeler, under supervision

of conservator Concha Herrero Carretero. Camilla

Luise Dahl and myself were shown 11 textiles from

the monastery Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas in

Burgos. The bands have most likely been used for

head dressing, and secondarily as part of the burial

costume. The bands are primarily made of silk,

some of them with elements of metalwork. Four of

the presented textiles where examined in regard to

textile analysis by me: No 653742, No 653737, No

651983 and No 651981.

No 653742

From unidentified grave in the monastery Santa

María la Real de Huelgas, Burgos.

Material: Silk

1

A band with frilled edges. Length: 267 cm, width:

13 cm. Edges with thicker warp in 1, 5-1, 6 cm

width from each selvedge. The textile is pleated in

both sides. A ribbon is sewn to one of the bands

selvages. The ribbon is also pleated, but here the

pleating is tighter than in the primary band. The

ribbon is probably pleated separately form the main

band.

There are five stripes in red, brown and white in one

end of the band.

Fig. 1

Central part of the band:

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 36-38/24-

26 threads pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of

the threads are approximately 0, 1-0, 2 mm in both

thread systems.

Fig. 2

Fig. 1

No 653742. A band with

frilled edges. Length: 267

cm, width: 13 cm. Edges

with thicker warp in 1,

5-1, 6 cm width from each

selvedge.

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler.


Edges and selvages:

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 35/24-26

threads pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of the

threads of the warp is approximately 0, 3 mm, and

a lot thicker than in the central part of the band. The

area with thicker warp threads is approximately 1,

6-1, 8 cm in with in both sides of the band, starting

at the simple selvages. The weft threads in this area

are the same as in the central part, 0, 1-0, 2 mm

thick.

These edges are pleated, but there are no traces

of needle holes or threads used for ruffles. The

upper end of each fold is relatively sharp, and

approximately 0, 4 cm deep from bottom to top.

Fig. 3

Ribbon:

A golden silk ribbon is sewn to the band along

2

Fig. 2

No 653742

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler.

Fig. 3

No 653742. Edge

with thicker warp

1, 5-1, 6 cm wide.

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler.

one of the selvages of the band, making a second

frilled edge. Only a few stitches are preserved. The

ribbon is 1, 5-1, 6 cm. wide and made in tabby. It

has a simple selvedge in each side, and is made with

double warp threads and single threads in the weft.

There are 19/19-20 threads pr cm in warp and weft.

The thickness of the threads is 0, 2-0, 3 mm in both

warp and weft, but with double threads in the warp.

The ribbon is pleated with 0, 5 cm deep folds. The

folds in the ribbon are set about twice as tight as in

the main band. There are no traces of needle holes

or threads used for ruffles.

Fig. 4

Stripes used for decoration:

I one end of the band, there are 5 decorative stripes

made of weft threads and embroidered threads in

contrasting colors. The stripes are made in two


groups, with three stripes and two stripes in each

group. The group with two stripes is located in the

far end of the band, and this end is fragmented.

There is a clear possibility that this group originally

consisted of three stripes.

All stripes are made in the same colors, white,

brown and red.

Construction of stripe 1:

1 brown weft thread, 1 white weft thread, 1 brown

weft thread, 4 white weft threads. Along this white

central part of the stripe, 4 threads in red color

are sewn in with simple running stitches. The red

threads form rectangles in the centre of the stripe.

These rectangles are 0, 5-0, 6 cm long and 0, 4-0,

5 cm wide. In the other end of the stripe, there is 1

brown weft thread, 1 white weft thread and 1 brown

weft thread. All the other stripes are made in the

same way.

Between the tree inner stripes there is a distance

of approximately 1, 8 cm. At the end of these tree

stripes there is a 3, 5 cm wide break before the last

two stripes separated by 2, 2 cm. The thickness of

3

threads in the stripes is:

Red: 0, 9-1 mm

Brown: 0, 6-0, 7 cm

White: 0, 2-0, 3 mm

Fig. 5

Fig. 4

No 653742. Selvedge

and additional band

each 1, 5-1, 6 cm

wide.

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler

Fig. 5

No 653742. Decorative

coloured stripes:

width: 0,4-0,5 cm.

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler

No 653737

From unidentified grave in the monastery Santa

María la Real de Huelgas, Burgos.

Material: Silk. There is a possibility that other

materials could have been used in the decoration.

A fragmented band in golden silk, with stripes

in contrasting colors. The largest fragment is

approximately 90 cm long and 15 cm. wide. The

fragment is decorated with 7 groups of stripes, each

group consisting of 3 stripes.

In the centre (between each group of stripes), there

is a 9, 5 cm wide field in tabby silk of gauze-quality.

On both sides of this field, thicker warp threads are

used in a 1, 7 cm wide area, reaching the selvages

on both sides. Both long sides are pleated.

A ribbon, 1, 3-1, 4 cm wide, is sewn to the silk band


Fig. 6

No 653737. The largest fragment is approximately 90 cm long and 15 cm. wide. The fragment is decorated with 7

groups of stripes, each group consisting of 3 stripes. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.

4

Fig. 7

No 653737. Selvedges

made with thicker

warp threads: width:

1, 7 cm. The central

piece is of fine silk

gauze. Foto: Marianne

Vedeler.


Fig. 8

No 653737. An additional ribbon, 1, 3-1, 4 cm wide, is sewn to the silk band along the selvedges. Foto: Marianne

Vedeler.

along both selvedges. Ribbon and seams are well

preserved. The ribbon is also pleated, but the folds

are set twice as narrow as in the main band. As in

653742, the ribbon has probably been pleated in a

process separated from the pleating process on the

main band.

Fig. 6

Central part:

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 39/36

threads pr. Cm in warp and weft. The thickness of the

threads is c. 0, 1-0, 2 mm in both thread systems.

Fig. 7

Edges:

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 35/26

threads pr.cm in warp and weft. The thickness of

the threads in the warp is approximately 0, 5 mm

in this area, and thereby much thicker than in the

central part of the band. The weft threads are of the

same type as in the central parts. These are pleated

with sharp folds approximately 0, 4- 0, 5 cm deep

from bottom to top.

5

Fig. 8

Ribbon:

Along each side of the main band, there is a ribbon

sewn to the main textile with simple running

stitches. A z-spun thread in golden silk has been

used to fix the ribbon to the main band. The ribbon is

approximately 1, 3 cm wide in one side and 1, 5

cm wide in the other side of the band. A silk thread

is running through the ribbon, holding the pleated

folds together.

The ribbon is made with double warp threads and

single threads in the weft. All threads are z-spun.

There are 27 double warp threads and 19 single weft

threads pr. cm.

The thickness of each thread is ca 0, 3 mm in both

warp and weft.

Fig. 9

Decorative stripes:

Stripes made of weft threads and embroidered threads

in contrasting colors are used for decoration. The

largest fragment is decorated with 7 groups of such


stripes, each group consisting of 3 stripes in blue,

white, red and yellow, in various combinations.

Pattern of three stripes:

Stripe 1: 1 shuttling with two blue threads, 1 yellow

weft thread, then 4 white weft threads. In this white

centre of the stripe, there are sewn 4 red threads by

using simple running stitches. The red threads are

forming rectangles on the white background, 0, 5-

0, 6 cm long and 0, 4- 0, 5 cm wide. Then follows 1

shuttling with 2 blue threads, 1 yellow weft thread

and at the end 1 shuttling with double blue weft

thread.

There is a distance of 2 cm between this stripe and

the next.

Stripe 2: 1 red weft thread, 2 white weft threads,

1 shuttling with one red and one yellow thread,

6

Fig. 9

No 653737. Additional

ribbon, 1, 3-1,

4 cm wide. Foto:

Marianne Vedeler.

Fig. 10

No 653737. Foto:

Marianne Vedeler.

and then 2 yellow weft threads. Into this yellow

centre of the stripe, there are sewn 4 blue threads

by using simple running stitches. The blue threads

are forming rectangles on the yellow background,

0, 5 cm long and 0, 4 cm wide. Then there is 2 red

weft threads, 2 white weft threads and at the end of

the stripe 1 red weft thread. Then there is a break of

approximately 2 cm.

Stripe 3: 1 shuttling with two blue threads, 1 yellow

weft thread, 1 shuttling with two blue and one

white thread together. Then 3 white weft threads.

In the white centre of the stripe, there are sewn 4

red threads by using simple running stitches. The

red threads are forming rectangles on the white

background, 0, 5 cm long and 0, 4- 0, 5 cm wide.

Then there is 1 shuttling with two blue threads, 1


yellow weft thread and 1 shuttling with two blue

threads. Then there is a 5 cm wide break before the

next pattern of stripes. This pattern consists of 3

stripes with a different combination of colors. The

first stripe is yellow/blue in the centre, then there is

a red/white centered stripe, and at the end there is a

Yellow/blue stripe again. The third set of stripes has

the same combination of colors as the first.

Fig. 10

No 651983

From unidentified grave in the monastery Santa

María la Real de Huelgas, Burgos.

Material: silk.

Band with frilled edges. Length: 147 cm, with: 18

cm. The bands color is today dull brownish yellow.

There is a longitudinal crease in the middle. The

band is in gauze-quality, with edges made with

thicker warp threads ca 0, 8-1 cm. in width from

each selvedge. The edges are pleated. There is no

ribbon sewn along the selvages of this band, and it

is not decorated.

Fig. 11

7

Fig. 11

No 651983.

Band with

frilled edges.

Length: 147

cm, with: 18

cm. Foto: Marianne

Vedeler.

Central part of the band:

Silk woven in tabby, z/z-spun, with 29-32/34 threads

pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of the threads

is 0, 1-0, and 2 mm in both weaving directions.

Fig. 12

Edges: Silk woven in tabby, with double warp

threads and single weft threads. There are 24 double

warp threads and 34 single weft threads pr. cm. The

thickness of the threads is 0, 1-0, 2 mm in both

weaving directions. The edges are pleated with sharp

fold, 0, 4 cm deep from bottom to top. There are

needle holes in the top of each fold, approximately

0, 4 cm from the selvedge. The distance between

the holes is 0, 5-0, 6 cm.

Fig. 13

No 651981

From unidentified grave in the monastery Santa

María la Real de Huelgas, Burgos.

Material: silk.

Simple golden silk band with a red stripe along one

selvedge. Made in z/z-spun tabby. Length: c. 140

cm, width: c. 11 cm. There is a longitudinal fold


Fig. 12

No 651983. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.

8

Fig. 13

No 651983. Edges

made with thicker

warp threads c.

0, 8-1 cm. in width.

There are needle

holes in the top of

each fold, approximately

0, 4 cm

from the selvedge.

The distance between

the holes is

0, 5-0, 6 cm. Foto:

Marianne Vedeler.


in the middle. The band is in gauze-quality, with

double warp threads along one selvedge.

Fig. 14

Central part:

Silk woven in tabby, hard z/z-spun, 30/29-30

threads pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of the

threads is approximately 0, 1 mm in both weaving

directions.

Fig. 15

Edges:

In one selvedge, there is a strengthening made of

3 thicker z/z-spun warp threads. The thickness of

these threads is approximately 0, 5 mm. along the

other edge, there is a stripe made of red, double

warp threads 0, 6 cm in from the selvedge. The red

edge is frilled.

Fig. 16-17

Fig. 14

No 651981. Length: c. 140 cm, width: c. 11 cm. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.

9


Fig. 15

No 651981. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.

10


11

Fig. 16 & 17

No 651981. Foto:

Marianne Vedeler.


ong>Reportong> on the Textiles in Patrimonio National,

Palacio Real

Notes on the Visual Appearance of the Frilled Textiles from Burgos

and the Methods of Constructing Frilled Edges.

From textile studies in Palacio Real, Madrid, 4-6.9.2006

Camilla Luise Dahl, The Medieval Centre, Nykøbing

The collection of clothes and textiles excavated

from Burgos Cathedral, now in Patrimonio

Nacional: Palacio Real in Madrid, includes a group

of fragmented strips of silk cloth excavated from

Burgos Cathedral. 1 The fragments varies in size

from just a quarter of a meter to up to six metres in

length.

Only a few of the fragments share obvious

similarities in visual appearance and most of them

creates the overall perception of a variety of styles in

appearance and technique. The long pieces have all

formed part of women’s headwear. All of them are

made of varying lengths of narrow strips of fabric

and they were used to wrap around chin, neck and

head. Due to the lack of method when the textiles

were excavated in the mid-20th century, only a

few of the pieces can now be linked to a specific

grave. Non of the extant samples in the collection

have intact endings, the actual length of the pieces

is therefore unknown.

Some of the pieces are plain whites, others have

colourful stripes woven into them at the endings

varying from many rows of multicoloured stripes to

just a few stripes of a single colour. The width of the

pieces various from 10 to 15 cm, some wider than

20 cm has been folded along the length of the fabric

1 Manuel Gomez-Moreno: El Panteón Real de

las Huelgas de Burgos. Madrid, 1946, Concha Herrero

Carretero: Museo de Telas Medievales. Monasterio de

Santa María la Real de Huelgas. Madrid, 1988, Concha

Herrero Carretero: El Museo de Telas Medievales de

Santa María la Real de Huelgas. Colecciones textiles de

Patrimonio Nacional. In: Vestduras Ricas, Madrid, 2005.

In september 2006 the textiles were examined by Concha

Herrero Carretero, Patrimonio National, Marianne Vedeler,

Oldsakssamlingen, Oslo and Camilla Luise Dahl, The

Medieval Centre for The Medieval Centre, Nykøbing,

Denmark.

12

Fig. 1

Inv. No 00653742 in full length. Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler.


Fig. 2

Inv. No 00653742 and

00651983. Photograph:

Concha Herrero Carretero.

to make a double band of half that width. None of

the fragments can be characterized as veils but are

instead various types of head- and chinbands.

All of the examined pieces are made of silk but in

different quality, thickness of thread, density and

tightness. All pieces have various types of ruffled

and pleated edges.

Fig. 1-2

The pieces may overall be grouped as four different

types according to shape and style of the frilled

edges:

Type 1: Long narrow pleats along the selvedges

This type is characterized by rows of long, narrow

pleats formed as part of the fabric. The pleats are

neatly made an very even in appearance. Most have

sharp, folded pleats c. 4-5mm deep. The width of

the selvedges with this type of pleats is c. 1,5 to 2

cm with a midsection of about 10-12 cm.

Type 2: Overall pleated surface of fabric

This type of textiles has the overall appearance of

13

having been pleated in small, sharps pleats (knife

pleats) on the entire width of the fabric and not just

along the selvedges.

Type 3: Sharp pleats on additional bands

This type has additional pleated bands sewn to the

edge of the fabric. These bands are thicker and

more coarse than the fabrics they aresewn to. The

aditional bands are c. 2 cm in width.

The bands are folded in sharp, crisp pleats forming

a zigzag-shaped appearance.

Group 4: Small ruffles

This type has small, rounded ruffles along the

selvedges formed as part of the fabric. In this group

the ruffles are tiny and appears as a narrow edge of

frills. The width of the ruffles edges are no more

than 5-7mm with a midsection of c. 10-12cm.

Some of the fragments of this type have

characteristics of more than one type, for instance

two of the fragments had features of both Type 1

and 3. In some cases it was difficult to determine if

some of the pieces of Type 1 were actually Type 2 as


Fig. 3a-b

Inv. no. 00653745 and Inv.no. 00653753: Photograph:

Concha Herrero Carretero.

14


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4

(00653745) X (X?) - -

(00653753) - - - -

(00653742) X (X?) X -

(00653737) X X X -

(00651983) X - - -

(00651985) - - - X

(00651982) X - - -

(00651981) - - - X

(00653754) X X - -

(00651970) X X X -

(00651984) X X - -

Table 1

The examined pieces grouped according to type.

some pieces could have traces of

having been entirely pleated and

not just at the edges, although now

in a shape that made it impossible

to see clearly.

Two fragments were small

pieces with coloured stripes and

very fragmented silks, on one

fragment (00653745) the frills

were too fragmented to determine

typewise (possibly Type 1 & 2)

on the other the frills were not

visible (00653753).

Fig. 3

One piece, a headband discovered

from the tomb of Queen Elenor,

was under conservation and could not be examined

during the visite. In all 11 numbers were available

for examination. Another 20 numbers of similar

textiles are in the collection in Patrimonio Real but

was not examined on this visite.

Examples of Type 1

Examples of Type 1 are the numbers 00653745,

00653742, 00653737, 00651983, 00651984

00651982, 00653754 and are by far the most wellrepresented

type among the textiles. (Table I)

The numbers 00653745, 00653742, 00653737

and 00653754 are combined with features from

15

Fig. 4

Inv. No. 00653742. Photograph: Concha Herrero

Carretero.


one or two of the other types. For no 00653745

and 00653742 the combination with Type 2 is

uncertain.

The numbers 00653742 and 00653737 are

combined with both Type 2 and 3. these two textiles

are very similar in style, quality and weave, yet no

00653737 has more decorate stripes.

The numbers 00651982 and 00651983 are not

combined with any other types. The two pieces are

very similar, both with small pierced holes through

16

Fig. 5

Inv. No 00651982.

P h o t o g r a p h :

Concha Herrero

Carretero.

Fig. 6

Inv. no. 00651984.

P h o t o g r a p h :

Marianne Vedeler.

the pleats at the edges. One fragment has three blue

stripes, the other is plain without decoration. Both

these numbers have less difference between the

pleated edges and the midsection than any of the

other pieces.

Fig. 4 , 5, 6.


Examples of Type 2

Examples of Type 2 are the numbers (00653737),

(00653754), (00651970) and (00651984).possibly

the numbers (00653745) and (00653742) have

had a similar structure. possibly this structure is

achievedby various means, in some pieces the overall

Fig. 7c-d

Fragment of Inv.. no. 00653737. Photograph: Concha

Herrero Carretero.

17

Fig. 7a-b

Inv. no. 00653754. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler


Fig. 10

Inv. No 00653737. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.

18

Fig. 8

Inv. No. 00651984.

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler.

Fig. 9

00653742. Photograph:

Concha Herrero

Carretero.


Fig. 11a-b

Inv. No 00653737. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler &

Concha Herrero Carretero.

pleated surface is clearly due to an aftertreatment –

the fabric being neatly folded into sharp, tiny pleats.

In others the result may have been achieved by the

spinning of the thread, in this case with a high twist

in the yarn resulting in a crepe-like surface. This

feature must have been combined with pleating the

fabric afterwards. Some of the fragments are very

creased and wrinkled and it is difficult to determine

which fragments have had a pleated surface and

which are just creased due to the tightness of the

spinning of the yarn (crepe-effect).

Fig. 7, 8, 9.

Examples of Type 3

Three of the numbers in the examined group had

19

additional pleated bands sewn to the edge, these

are the numbers (00653742), (00653737) and

(00651970). The Type 3 textiles are all combined

with one of the other Types. In all three examined

pieces the additional edges are sewn to pieces with

pleated edges, forming two rows of pleats. All

three pieces also appear to have an overall pleated

surface.

Fig. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.

Examples of Type 4

Only two of the examined textiles belonged to

Type 4 , these are the numbers (00651981) and

(00651985).

These two textiles are very different in appearance

but are clearly constructed the same way. No.


20

Fig. 12 a-b

Inv. nr. 00653742.

Photograph: Concha

Herrero Carretero.


Fig. 12c

Inv. no. 00653742. Photograph: Concha Herrero Carretero.

Fig. 13

Inv. no. 00653737. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.

21


Fig. 14 a-b

Inv. no. 651970. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.

22


(00651981) has frills alongside one of the edges,

no. (00651985) frills on both selvedges. On no.

(00651981) the frilled edge is red, on (00651985)

the edges are white like the midsection.

Fig. 15-16

The construction of the frilled

edges

All the fragments have different threadcounts in

midsection and at the selvedges. Most with thicker

threads as well as double warp threads. 2 On two

fragments (00651981 & 00651985) the selvedges

are made with thick, double warpthreads and thinner

single warp threads in the midsection creating a

bulky, wavy edge. Fragment 00651981 has frills on

only one of the sides, the other side is woven with

three thick warp thread to form an edge. Fragment

no 00651985 has frills on both selvedges.

Most of the fragments had thicker and more warp

2 See report, textile analysis by Marianne Vedeler.

23

Fig. 15a-b

Inv. No 00651985. Photograph: Concha Herrero

Catterero.

threads at the sides to form the basis for the frilled

edgees whether these were woven or pleated on to

the edge. A few of the pieces, however, had almost

no difference in thread thickness in midsection and

along the edges. This is for instance the case with

the numbers (00651982) and (00651983). 3


Fig. 15 c-d

Inv. no. 00651981. Photograph: Concha Herrero Carretero.

24


Fig. 16 ab

Inv. No 00651985. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.

25


Fig. 16 c

Inv. no. 00651985. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.

Fig. 16d

Inv. no. 00651985. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.

26


Most of the pieces have a crêpe-like structure in

the weave of the midsection caused by a hard spun

thread. The yarns used for the selvedges are less

hard spun. This creates a natural tightness of the

midsection while the selvedges appears wider and

looser. This feature would be even more pronounced

if the woven silks were after treated with for instance

hot water which would leave the hard spun threads

to tighten more than the threads in the sides.

On a few of the fragments there were clear

indications of piercing holes at the edge of the

selvedges. (For instance 00651983) This must be

due to a thread being pulled through the edges

helping to form the pleats and keep them together

much like modern carthridge pleating. It is not clear

if a pleating thread was pulled through the textile

while weaving, in order to keep the edges in place

while weaving it or if this was made solely as an

after treatment, where the fabric would be pulled

together and treated with for example hot water to

fix the pleats permanently.

Fig. 17-18

A group of textiles have additional crimped bands

sewn to the edges of the bands. These additional

edges are made solely by pleating the bands after

weaving and does not need any specific method

of weaving. The pleating isself is a simple zigzagpleats

of folded fabric held together with a thread

pulled through the fabric. In one fragment a piece

of pulling thread could still be seen. (00653737).

Some pieces had no visible signs of piercing holes

but had narrow pleats similar to those with piercing

holes,(e.g. 00653742). This piece had a gauzelike,

crêpe midsection and shiny, smooth and thick

edges. In this fabric a combination of weaving and

after-treatment had taken place. Like most of the

textiles the edges are slightly looser and wider than

the midsection due to the difference in number of

threads and the thread thickness. The tiny sharp

pleats, instead, was formed in the after-treatment.

As the pleats are made with sharp folds and do not

27

appear irregular and uneven in shape; each pleat is

folded with precision of c. 0,4 cm deep.

One fragment with a similar type midsection and

selvedges had traces of a slightly different kind of

after-treatment as the whole surface of the fabric had

an overall impression of being pleated on the width

of the fabric. (00653754). There are no traces of

piercing holes in this fragment which cannot simply

have disappeared, possibly it was made with an even

simpler technique of folding the fabric backwards

and forward on itself, and treated to make the pleats

remain in place.

None on the pieces in the viewed group were made

of linen, but Gomez-Moreno who was leading the

excavation in 1946 mentions a few fragments of

linen made in the same way as the silks. 4 Such

methods are usually just semi-permanent and if

worn often they would require maintenance and repleating

regularly.

Two of the pieces in the examined group have woven

frills with no traces of after-treatment, which may,

however, have taken place on a secondary level,

perhaps while making them. The numbers 00651981

and 00651985 were very different from the other

fragments in the group. These two fragments have

soft, frilled edges that must have been formed as

part of the weaving. The frilled part is formed partly

by the warp threads of the selvedges being thicker

than the threads in the midsection.

Most of the pieces are long narrow bands with frills

along both selvedges. Only one of the examined

pieces had frills on only one selvedge (00651981).

Some of the silk bands must have been worn with

it’s full width wrapped around head and chin, but a

couple of the bands were folded at the middle on the

length of the fabric, forming two rows of frills on

one side of the band. Three numbers clearly had this

feature: 00651982, 00651983 and 00651985, but it

is also possible that more of the textiles have been

worn this way.

The frilled textiles from Burgos clearly share

similarities with contemporary Spanish images

of frilled headwear. 5 Different styles of frilled

3 See report, textile analysis by Marianne Vedeler.

4 Manuel Gomez-Moreno: El Panteón Real de las Huelgas de Burgos. Madrid, 1946, p. 76.

5 Ruth Mathilda Anderson: Pleated Headdresses of Castilla and León, 12 th and 13 th centuries. Notes Hispanic. The

Hispanic Society of America, vol. II, 1942. New York, 1942, pp. 51-80 , Joaquin Yarza Luaces (ed): Vestiduras Ricas. El Monasterio

de las Huelgas y su época 1170-1340. Patrimonio National, Madrid, 2005.


28

Fig. 17 a-b

Inv. no. 00651982.

Photograph: Marianne

Vedeler & Concha Herrero

Carretero.


Fig. 18 a-b

and Inv. no. 00651983.

Photograph: Concha

Herrero Carretero

29


30

Fig. 19

Carved woman’s

head from Burgos

Cathedral, Spain, 13th

century.

The chinband has

an over-all pleated

surface like some of

the preserved bands. A

band with frilled edges

of unknown length

has also been folded

around an understructure

leaving only the

frilled edges visible

which form a zig-zag

pattern.

Fig. 20

Detail of sculpture of a

queen, Burgos Cathedral,

13th century.

The chinband is folded

on the middle lengthwise

so that the frills

along the edges meets

where they frame

the face. The band is

either a band with a

single edge of frills

folded twice around

the chin, or a band

folded lengthwise on

the midle and folded

around the chin once.


headwear can be found in most parts of Europe in

13th and 14th century. 6 Some of which, at least the

early styles of the 13th and early 14th century, may

have been made with the same methods as used for

the frilled headwear from 13th century Burgos.

Fig. 19-20

The exact placement and arrangement of the headwear

in situ is in far most cases no longer known, as this

was not documented during excavation. However,

most of the long, narrow strips of cloth were merely

wrapped around the crown of the head covering the

forehead or around the chin and cheeks framing the

face. Some of the pieces were apparently folded

around an understructure. Gomez-Moreno notes

that there was an understructure (hat) of animal

skin or parchment lined with linen on which the

lengthwise folded frilled band had been wrapped

around several times and pinned on, found in one

of the graves (Queen Eleonor’s) 7 , however, no

such was seen at the visite in Patrimonio Nacional.

A few pins from Queen Eleanor´s grave are now

kept at the Patrimonio Nacional in Madrid. 8 The

characteristic headwear known as Toque/Toca in

13th century Spain would need a tall understructure

on which the long streamers of silk or linen would

be folded around layer after layer leaving only the

frills visible. 9 Much like the appearance of the extant

pieces when folded together (Fig. 18b)

Although the Burgos-textiles appear as to be

more or less the same in regard to style and type,

and the overall method of constructing frilled

edges are basically the same (thicker edges on a

thinner midsection), the chosen samples shows

great variation in details. Technical details such as

colours, thread thickness and thread quality various

31

from piece to piece. The four main types that the

textiles could be grouped into in terms of technical

construction and visual appearance, shows that

many different methods, from simple crimping to

complicated weaves or combinations of the two,

could be used to create textiles with basically the

same look and appearance.

6 A. Gardner: Hair and head-dress 1050-1600. The Journal of the British Archaeological Association, Third Series,

Vol. XIII, 1950. London, 1950, pp. 4-13, E. Grönke & E.Weinlich: Mode aus Modeln. Kruseler- und andre Tonfiguren des 14.

Bis 16. Jahrhunderts aus dem Germanischen National Museum und andren Sammlungen. Verlag des Germanischen Nationalmuseum,

Nürnberg, 1998; A. Liebreich: Der Kruseler im 15. Jahrhundert. Zeitschrift für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde.

1. Band der neuen Folge, Jahrgang 1923-1925. p. 218 – 223, C. L. Dahl: Kruseler og Krusedug, Herolden, årg. 9, nr.

2, 2005, pp. 14-19, S. M. Newton, Stella Mary & M. M. Giza: Frilled Edges. Textile History, vol. 14: 2, 1983. The Pasold Research

Fund. Leeds, 1983, pp. 141-152, O. Rady, Ottilie: Der Kruseler. Zeitschrift für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde.

1. bd, Neuen Folge, Hft. 5. Jahr. 1923-25, p. 131-136, C. Tilghman: Giovanna Cenami’s Veil: A Neglected Detail. Medieval

Clothing and Textiles, vol. I, 2005. (Eds.) R. Netherton & G. R. Owen-Crocker. Woodbridge, 2005, p. 155-172.

7 Manuel Gomez-Moreno: El Panteón Real de las Huelgas de Burgos. Madrid, 1946, 27-28.

8 Information given by Concha Herrero Carretero.

9 Ruth Mathilda Anderson: Pleated Headdresses of Castilla and León, 12 th and 13 th centuries. Notes Hispanic. The

Hispanic Society of America, vol. II, 1942. New York, 1942, p. 67, Amalia Descalzo: El vestido entre 1170 y 1340 en el Panteón

Real de las Huelgas. In Vestiduras Ricas. Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 2005, 117-118..

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