Report on the Textiles from Burgos Cathedral - Middelalder Centret

Report on the Textiles from Burgos Cathedral - Middelalder Centret

Report on the Textiles from Burgos Cathedral - Middelalder Centret


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Tekstiler på <strong>Middelalder</strong>centret - rapportserie<br />

<str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Textiles</strong><br />

<strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong> Ca<strong>the</strong>dral<br />

in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al, Palacio Real<br />

Madrid, Spain<br />

Camilla Luise Dahl<br />

Marianne Vedeler<br />

C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero<br />

<strong>Middelalder</strong>centret 2008

<strong>Textiles</strong> <strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong> Ca<strong>the</strong>dral<br />

in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al, Palacio Real<br />

Madrid, Spain<br />

<strong>Textiles</strong> excavated at <strong>Burgos</strong>, now in <strong>the</strong> Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al, Madrid. Top left, inv. no. 653742, bottom<br />

left, close-up of inv. no. 653745 and right inv. no. 653742 and 651983.<br />

The cloister church in M<strong>on</strong>asterio de Santa María la Real de las Huelgas in <strong>Burgos</strong>, Spain had been<br />

burial site for members of <strong>the</strong> royality and nobility in Spain in <strong>the</strong> Middle Ages. Named Kings and<br />

Queens had been buried here in <strong>the</strong> 12th to <strong>the</strong> 14th century. In 1946 several of <strong>the</strong> coffins in <strong>the</strong><br />

M<strong>on</strong>asterio was examined by Spanish archeaolgist Manuel Gomez-Moreno, <strong>the</strong> excavated textiles which<br />

counted silk covers, blankets, headwear, footwear and dresses were transported to <strong>the</strong> Nati<strong>on</strong>al Museum<br />

in Spain, Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al in Madrid. Unfortunately many items taken <strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> coffins has not been<br />

well documented in 1946, except for <strong>the</strong> garments and textiles discovered in <strong>the</strong> royal graves, many<br />

discovered items are of no l<strong>on</strong>ger known c<strong>on</strong>text as it has not been documented which coffins <strong>the</strong>y were<br />

taken <strong>from</strong>.<br />

The textiles has since been re-examined and re-c<strong>on</strong>served, now with documentati<strong>on</strong>, inventory<br />

number and descripti<strong>on</strong> of each piece held at <strong>the</strong> Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al.

In september 2006 a selecti<strong>on</strong> of pieces of<br />

what has been described as head- and neckwear,<br />

excavated in <strong>Burgos</strong>, were examined for textile<br />

analysis and fur<strong>the</strong>r descripti<strong>on</strong> for a project<br />

<strong>on</strong> medieval headwear at <strong>the</strong> Medieval Centre,<br />

Denmark. The examinati<strong>on</strong> was carried out<br />

by dr. art. Marianne Vedeler, Museum of<br />

Cultural History, University of Oslo and mag.<br />

Camilla Luise Dahl, The Medieval Centre,<br />

Nykøbing, Denmark toge<strong>the</strong>r with Dr. C<strong>on</strong>cha<br />

Herrero Carretero, head of <strong>the</strong> Department of<br />

C<strong>on</strong>servati<strong>on</strong>, Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al.<br />

The examinati<strong>on</strong> included 11 silk pieces,<br />

inventory numbers: (00653737), (00653742),<br />

(00653745), (00653753), (00653754),<br />

(00653737), (00651970), (00651981), (00651982),<br />

(00651983), (00651984), (00651985).<br />

In 1995 <strong>the</strong>se textiles were re-c<strong>on</strong>served at<br />

<strong>the</strong> Department for C<strong>on</strong>servati<strong>on</strong> at Patrim<strong>on</strong>io<br />

Naci<strong>on</strong>al by dr. C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />

The textiles are each documented by inventory<br />

number, material, place of origin and possible age.<br />

The textiles were all very well preserved,<br />

<strong>on</strong>ly in places where <strong>the</strong> textiles had been in direct<br />

c<strong>on</strong>tact with <strong>the</strong> decaying flesh of <strong>the</strong> corpses, <strong>the</strong><br />

fine silk had rotten away. Human tissue still in<br />

<strong>the</strong> textiles left brown stains <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> examinati<strong>on</strong><br />

gloves.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> project at The Medieval Centre,<br />

Nykøbing we needed textile analysis of tread<br />

count, tread thickness and weaving which was<br />

carried out by Marianne Vedeler as well as<br />

descripti<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> methods used for creating <strong>the</strong><br />

unusual frilled edges <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> textiles, which was<br />

examined by Camilla Luise Dahl.<br />

Documentati<strong>on</strong> for Inv. no. 651982

Examinati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Textiles</strong> <strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong> in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io<br />

Naci<strong>on</strong>al, Palacio Real, Madrid.

Examinati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Textiles</strong> <strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong> in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io<br />

Naci<strong>on</strong>al, Palacio Real, Madrid.

<str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Textiles</strong> in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al,<br />

Palacio Real:<br />

Textile Analysis<br />

From textile studies in Palacio Real, Madrid, 4-6.9.2006<br />

Marianne Vedeler, Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo<br />

On September 4-6th, 2006, a simple tecniqual<br />

analysis of silk bands with frilled edges was<br />

undertaken by Marianne Vedeler, under supervisi<strong>on</strong><br />

of c<strong>on</strong>servator C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero. Camilla<br />

Luise Dahl and myself were shown 11 textiles <strong>from</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>astery Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas in<br />

<strong>Burgos</strong>. The bands have most likely been used for<br />

head dressing, and sec<strong>on</strong>darily as part of <strong>the</strong> burial<br />

costume. The bands are primarily made of silk,<br />

some of <strong>the</strong>m with elements of metalwork. Four of<br />

<strong>the</strong> presented textiles where examined in regard to<br />

textile analysis by me: No 653742, No 653737, No<br />

651983 and No 651981.<br />

No 653742<br />

From unidentified grave in <strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>astery Santa<br />

María la Real de Huelgas, <strong>Burgos</strong>.<br />

Material: Silk<br />

1<br />

A band with frilled edges. Length: 267 cm, width:<br />

13 cm. Edges with thicker warp in 1, 5-1, 6 cm<br />

width <strong>from</strong> each selvedge. The textile is pleated in<br />

both sides. A ribb<strong>on</strong> is sewn to <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> bands<br />

selvages. The ribb<strong>on</strong> is also pleated, but here <strong>the</strong><br />

pleating is tighter than in <strong>the</strong> primary band. The<br />

ribb<strong>on</strong> is probably pleated separately form <strong>the</strong> main<br />

band.<br />

There are five stripes in red, brown and white in <strong>on</strong>e<br />

end of <strong>the</strong> band.<br />

Fig. 1<br />

Central part of <strong>the</strong> band:<br />

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 36-38/24-<br />

26 threads pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of<br />

<strong>the</strong> threads are approximately 0, 1-0, 2 mm in both<br />

thread systems.<br />

Fig. 2<br />

Fig. 1<br />

No 653742. A band with<br />

frilled edges. Length: 267<br />

cm, width: 13 cm. Edges<br />

with thicker warp in 1,<br />

5-1, 6 cm width <strong>from</strong> each<br />

selvedge.<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />


Edges and selvages:<br />

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 35/24-26<br />

threads pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of <strong>the</strong><br />

threads of <strong>the</strong> warp is approximately 0, 3 mm, and<br />

a lot thicker than in <strong>the</strong> central part of <strong>the</strong> band. The<br />

area with thicker warp threads is approximately 1,<br />

6-1, 8 cm in with in both sides of <strong>the</strong> band, starting<br />

at <strong>the</strong> simple selvages. The weft threads in this area<br />

are <strong>the</strong> same as in <strong>the</strong> central part, 0, 1-0, 2 mm<br />

thick.<br />

These edges are pleated, but <strong>the</strong>re are no traces<br />

of needle holes or threads used for ruffles. The<br />

upper end of each fold is relatively sharp, and<br />

approximately 0, 4 cm deep <strong>from</strong> bottom to top.<br />

Fig. 3<br />

Ribb<strong>on</strong>:<br />

A golden silk ribb<strong>on</strong> is sewn to <strong>the</strong> band al<strong>on</strong>g<br />

2<br />

Fig. 2<br />

No 653742<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />

Vedeler.<br />

Fig. 3<br />

No 653742. Edge<br />

with thicker warp<br />

1, 5-1, 6 cm wide.<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />

Vedeler.<br />

<strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> selvages of <strong>the</strong> band, making a sec<strong>on</strong>d<br />

frilled edge. Only a few stitches are preserved. The<br />

ribb<strong>on</strong> is 1, 5-1, 6 cm. wide and made in tabby. It<br />

has a simple selvedge in each side, and is made with<br />

double warp threads and single threads in <strong>the</strong> weft.<br />

There are 19/19-20 threads pr cm in warp and weft.<br />

The thickness of <strong>the</strong> threads is 0, 2-0, 3 mm in both<br />

warp and weft, but with double threads in <strong>the</strong> warp.<br />

The ribb<strong>on</strong> is pleated with 0, 5 cm deep folds. The<br />

folds in <strong>the</strong> ribb<strong>on</strong> are set about twice as tight as in<br />

<strong>the</strong> main band. There are no traces of needle holes<br />

or threads used for ruffles.<br />

Fig. 4<br />

Stripes used for decorati<strong>on</strong>:<br />

I <strong>on</strong>e end of <strong>the</strong> band, <strong>the</strong>re are 5 decorative stripes<br />

made of weft threads and embroidered threads in<br />

c<strong>on</strong>trasting colors. The stripes are made in two

groups, with three stripes and two stripes in each<br />

group. The group with two stripes is located in <strong>the</strong><br />

far end of <strong>the</strong> band, and this end is fragmented.<br />

There is a clear possibility that this group originally<br />

c<strong>on</strong>sisted of three stripes.<br />

All stripes are made in <strong>the</strong> same colors, white,<br />

brown and red.<br />

C<strong>on</strong>structi<strong>on</strong> of stripe 1:<br />

1 brown weft thread, 1 white weft thread, 1 brown<br />

weft thread, 4 white weft threads. Al<strong>on</strong>g this white<br />

central part of <strong>the</strong> stripe, 4 threads in red color<br />

are sewn in with simple running stitches. The red<br />

threads form rectangles in <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> stripe.<br />

These rectangles are 0, 5-0, 6 cm l<strong>on</strong>g and 0, 4-0,<br />

5 cm wide. In <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r end of <strong>the</strong> stripe, <strong>the</strong>re is 1<br />

brown weft thread, 1 white weft thread and 1 brown<br />

weft thread. All <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r stripes are made in <strong>the</strong><br />

same way.<br />

Between <strong>the</strong> tree inner stripes <strong>the</strong>re is a distance<br />

of approximately 1, 8 cm. At <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong>se tree<br />

stripes <strong>the</strong>re is a 3, 5 cm wide break before <strong>the</strong> last<br />

two stripes separated by 2, 2 cm. The thickness of<br />

3<br />

threads in <strong>the</strong> stripes is:<br />

Red: 0, 9-1 mm<br />

Brown: 0, 6-0, 7 cm<br />

White: 0, 2-0, 3 mm<br />

Fig. 5<br />

Fig. 4<br />

No 653742. Selvedge<br />

and additi<strong>on</strong>al band<br />

each 1, 5-1, 6 cm<br />

wide.<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />

Vedeler<br />

Fig. 5<br />

No 653742. Decorative<br />

coloured stripes:<br />

width: 0,4-0,5 cm.<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />

Vedeler<br />

No 653737<br />

From unidentified grave in <strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>astery Santa<br />

María la Real de Huelgas, <strong>Burgos</strong>.<br />

Material: Silk. There is a possibility that o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

materials could have been used in <strong>the</strong> decorati<strong>on</strong>.<br />

A fragmented band in golden silk, with stripes<br />

in c<strong>on</strong>trasting colors. The largest fragment is<br />

approximately 90 cm l<strong>on</strong>g and 15 cm. wide. The<br />

fragment is decorated with 7 groups of stripes, each<br />

group c<strong>on</strong>sisting of 3 stripes.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> centre (between each group of stripes), <strong>the</strong>re<br />

is a 9, 5 cm wide field in tabby silk of gauze-quality.<br />

On both sides of this field, thicker warp threads are<br />

used in a 1, 7 cm wide area, reaching <strong>the</strong> selvages<br />

<strong>on</strong> both sides. Both l<strong>on</strong>g sides are pleated.<br />

A ribb<strong>on</strong>, 1, 3-1, 4 cm wide, is sewn to <strong>the</strong> silk band

Fig. 6<br />

No 653737. The largest fragment is approximately 90 cm l<strong>on</strong>g and 15 cm. wide. The fragment is decorated with 7<br />

groups of stripes, each group c<strong>on</strong>sisting of 3 stripes. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.<br />

4<br />

Fig. 7<br />

No 653737. Selvedges<br />

made with thicker<br />

warp threads: width:<br />

1, 7 cm. The central<br />

piece is of fine silk<br />

gauze. Foto: Marianne<br />


Fig. 8<br />

No 653737. An additi<strong>on</strong>al ribb<strong>on</strong>, 1, 3-1, 4 cm wide, is sewn to <strong>the</strong> silk band al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> selvedges. Foto: Marianne<br />

Vedeler.<br />

al<strong>on</strong>g both selvedges. Ribb<strong>on</strong> and seams are well<br />

preserved. The ribb<strong>on</strong> is also pleated, but <strong>the</strong> folds<br />

are set twice as narrow as in <strong>the</strong> main band. As in<br />

653742, <strong>the</strong> ribb<strong>on</strong> has probably been pleated in a<br />

process separated <strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> pleating process <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

main band.<br />

Fig. 6<br />

Central part:<br />

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 39/36<br />

threads pr. Cm in warp and weft. The thickness of <strong>the</strong><br />

threads is c. 0, 1-0, 2 mm in both thread systems.<br />

Fig. 7<br />

Edges:<br />

Golden silk made in tabby, z/z-spun, with 35/26<br />

threads pr.cm in warp and weft. The thickness of<br />

<strong>the</strong> threads in <strong>the</strong> warp is approximately 0, 5 mm<br />

in this area, and <strong>the</strong>reby much thicker than in <strong>the</strong><br />

central part of <strong>the</strong> band. The weft threads are of <strong>the</strong><br />

same type as in <strong>the</strong> central parts. These are pleated<br />

with sharp folds approximately 0, 4- 0, 5 cm deep<br />

<strong>from</strong> bottom to top.<br />

5<br />

Fig. 8<br />

Ribb<strong>on</strong>:<br />

Al<strong>on</strong>g each side of <strong>the</strong> main band, <strong>the</strong>re is a ribb<strong>on</strong><br />

sewn to <strong>the</strong> main textile with simple running<br />

stitches. A z-spun thread in golden silk has been<br />

used to fix <strong>the</strong> ribb<strong>on</strong> to <strong>the</strong> main band. The ribb<strong>on</strong> is<br />

approximately 1, 3 cm wide in <strong>on</strong>e side and 1, 5<br />

cm wide in <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong> band. A silk thread<br />

is running through <strong>the</strong> ribb<strong>on</strong>, holding <strong>the</strong> pleated<br />

folds toge<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

The ribb<strong>on</strong> is made with double warp threads and<br />

single threads in <strong>the</strong> weft. All threads are z-spun.<br />

There are 27 double warp threads and 19 single weft<br />

threads pr. cm.<br />

The thickness of each thread is ca 0, 3 mm in both<br />

warp and weft.<br />

Fig. 9<br />

Decorative stripes:<br />

Stripes made of weft threads and embroidered threads<br />

in c<strong>on</strong>trasting colors are used for decorati<strong>on</strong>. The<br />

largest fragment is decorated with 7 groups of such

stripes, each group c<strong>on</strong>sisting of 3 stripes in blue,<br />

white, red and yellow, in various combinati<strong>on</strong>s.<br />

Pattern of three stripes:<br />

Stripe 1: 1 shuttling with two blue threads, 1 yellow<br />

weft thread, <strong>the</strong>n 4 white weft threads. In this white<br />

centre of <strong>the</strong> stripe, <strong>the</strong>re are sewn 4 red threads by<br />

using simple running stitches. The red threads are<br />

forming rectangles <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> white background, 0, 5-<br />

0, 6 cm l<strong>on</strong>g and 0, 4- 0, 5 cm wide. Then follows 1<br />

shuttling with 2 blue threads, 1 yellow weft thread<br />

and at <strong>the</strong> end 1 shuttling with double blue weft<br />

thread.<br />

There is a distance of 2 cm between this stripe and<br />

<strong>the</strong> next.<br />

Stripe 2: 1 red weft thread, 2 white weft threads,<br />

1 shuttling with <strong>on</strong>e red and <strong>on</strong>e yellow thread,<br />

6<br />

Fig. 9<br />

No 653737. Additi<strong>on</strong>al<br />

ribb<strong>on</strong>, 1, 3-1,<br />

4 cm wide. Foto:<br />

Marianne Vedeler.<br />

Fig. 10<br />

No 653737. Foto:<br />

Marianne Vedeler.<br />

and <strong>the</strong>n 2 yellow weft threads. Into this yellow<br />

centre of <strong>the</strong> stripe, <strong>the</strong>re are sewn 4 blue threads<br />

by using simple running stitches. The blue threads<br />

are forming rectangles <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> yellow background,<br />

0, 5 cm l<strong>on</strong>g and 0, 4 cm wide. Then <strong>the</strong>re is 2 red<br />

weft threads, 2 white weft threads and at <strong>the</strong> end of<br />

<strong>the</strong> stripe 1 red weft thread. Then <strong>the</strong>re is a break of<br />

approximately 2 cm.<br />

Stripe 3: 1 shuttling with two blue threads, 1 yellow<br />

weft thread, 1 shuttling with two blue and <strong>on</strong>e<br />

white thread toge<strong>the</strong>r. Then 3 white weft threads.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> white centre of <strong>the</strong> stripe, <strong>the</strong>re are sewn 4<br />

red threads by using simple running stitches. The<br />

red threads are forming rectangles <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> white<br />

background, 0, 5 cm l<strong>on</strong>g and 0, 4- 0, 5 cm wide.<br />

Then <strong>the</strong>re is 1 shuttling with two blue threads, 1

yellow weft thread and 1 shuttling with two blue<br />

threads. Then <strong>the</strong>re is a 5 cm wide break before <strong>the</strong><br />

next pattern of stripes. This pattern c<strong>on</strong>sists of 3<br />

stripes with a different combinati<strong>on</strong> of colors. The<br />

first stripe is yellow/blue in <strong>the</strong> centre, <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong>re is<br />

a red/white centered stripe, and at <strong>the</strong> end <strong>the</strong>re is a<br />

Yellow/blue stripe again. The third set of stripes has<br />

<strong>the</strong> same combinati<strong>on</strong> of colors as <strong>the</strong> first.<br />

Fig. 10<br />

No 651983<br />

From unidentified grave in <strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>astery Santa<br />

María la Real de Huelgas, <strong>Burgos</strong>.<br />

Material: silk.<br />

Band with frilled edges. Length: 147 cm, with: 18<br />

cm. The bands color is today dull brownish yellow.<br />

There is a l<strong>on</strong>gitudinal crease in <strong>the</strong> middle. The<br />

band is in gauze-quality, with edges made with<br />

thicker warp threads ca 0, 8-1 cm. in width <strong>from</strong><br />

each selvedge. The edges are pleated. There is no<br />

ribb<strong>on</strong> sewn al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> selvages of this band, and it<br />

is not decorated.<br />

Fig. 11<br />

7<br />

Fig. 11<br />

No 651983.<br />

Band with<br />

frilled edges.<br />

Length: 147<br />

cm, with: 18<br />

cm. Foto: Marianne<br />

Vedeler.<br />

Central part of <strong>the</strong> band:<br />

Silk woven in tabby, z/z-spun, with 29-32/34 threads<br />

pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of <strong>the</strong> threads<br />

is 0, 1-0, and 2 mm in both weaving directi<strong>on</strong>s.<br />

Fig. 12<br />

Edges: Silk woven in tabby, with double warp<br />

threads and single weft threads. There are 24 double<br />

warp threads and 34 single weft threads pr. cm. The<br />

thickness of <strong>the</strong> threads is 0, 1-0, 2 mm in both<br />

weaving directi<strong>on</strong>s. The edges are pleated with sharp<br />

fold, 0, 4 cm deep <strong>from</strong> bottom to top. There are<br />

needle holes in <strong>the</strong> top of each fold, approximately<br />

0, 4 cm <strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> selvedge. The distance between<br />

<strong>the</strong> holes is 0, 5-0, 6 cm.<br />

Fig. 13<br />

No 651981<br />

From unidentified grave in <strong>the</strong> m<strong>on</strong>astery Santa<br />

María la Real de Huelgas, <strong>Burgos</strong>.<br />

Material: silk.<br />

Simple golden silk band with a red stripe al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e<br />

selvedge. Made in z/z-spun tabby. Length: c. 140<br />

cm, width: c. 11 cm. There is a l<strong>on</strong>gitudinal fold

Fig. 12<br />

No 651983. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.<br />

8<br />

Fig. 13<br />

No 651983. Edges<br />

made with thicker<br />

warp threads c.<br />

0, 8-1 cm. in width.<br />

There are needle<br />

holes in <strong>the</strong> top of<br />

each fold, approximately<br />

0, 4 cm<br />

<strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> selvedge.<br />

The distance between<br />

<strong>the</strong> holes is<br />

0, 5-0, 6 cm. Foto:<br />

Marianne Vedeler.

in <strong>the</strong> middle. The band is in gauze-quality, with<br />

double warp threads al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>on</strong>e selvedge.<br />

Fig. 14<br />

Central part:<br />

Silk woven in tabby, hard z/z-spun, 30/29-30<br />

threads pr cm in warp and weft. The thickness of <strong>the</strong><br />

threads is approximately 0, 1 mm in both weaving<br />

directi<strong>on</strong>s.<br />

Fig. 15<br />

Edges:<br />

In <strong>on</strong>e selvedge, <strong>the</strong>re is a streng<strong>the</strong>ning made of<br />

3 thicker z/z-spun warp threads. The thickness of<br />

<strong>the</strong>se threads is approximately 0, 5 mm. al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong><br />

o<strong>the</strong>r edge, <strong>the</strong>re is a stripe made of red, double<br />

warp threads 0, 6 cm in <strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> selvedge. The red<br />

edge is frilled.<br />

Fig. 16-17<br />

Fig. 14<br />

No 651981. Length: c. 140 cm, width: c. 11 cm. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.<br />


Fig. 15<br />

No 651981. Foto: Marianne Vedeler.<br />


11<br />

Fig. 16 & 17<br />

No 651981. Foto:<br />

Marianne Vedeler.

<str<strong>on</strong>g>Report</str<strong>on</strong>g> <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Textiles</strong> in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Nati<strong>on</strong>al,<br />

Palacio Real<br />

Notes <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> Visual Appearance of <strong>the</strong> Frilled <strong>Textiles</strong> <strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong><br />

and <strong>the</strong> Methods of C<strong>on</strong>structing Frilled Edges.<br />

From textile studies in Palacio Real, Madrid, 4-6.9.2006<br />

Camilla Luise Dahl, The Medieval Centre, Nykøbing<br />

The collecti<strong>on</strong> of clo<strong>the</strong>s and textiles excavated<br />

<strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong> Ca<strong>the</strong>dral, now in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io<br />

Naci<strong>on</strong>al: Palacio Real in Madrid, includes a group<br />

of fragmented strips of silk cloth excavated <strong>from</strong><br />

<strong>Burgos</strong> Ca<strong>the</strong>dral. 1 The fragments varies in size<br />

<strong>from</strong> just a quarter of a meter to up to six metres in<br />

length.<br />

Only a few of <strong>the</strong> fragments share obvious<br />

similarities in visual appearance and most of <strong>the</strong>m<br />

creates <strong>the</strong> overall percepti<strong>on</strong> of a variety of styles in<br />

appearance and technique. The l<strong>on</strong>g pieces have all<br />

formed part of women’s headwear. All of <strong>the</strong>m are<br />

made of varying lengths of narrow strips of fabric<br />

and <strong>the</strong>y were used to wrap around chin, neck and<br />

head. Due to <strong>the</strong> lack of method when <strong>the</strong> textiles<br />

were excavated in <strong>the</strong> mid-20th century, <strong>on</strong>ly a<br />

few of <strong>the</strong> pieces can now be linked to a specific<br />

grave. N<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> extant samples in <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong><br />

have intact endings, <strong>the</strong> actual length of <strong>the</strong> pieces<br />

is <strong>the</strong>refore unknown.<br />

Some of <strong>the</strong> pieces are plain whites, o<strong>the</strong>rs have<br />

colourful stripes woven into <strong>the</strong>m at <strong>the</strong> endings<br />

varying <strong>from</strong> many rows of multicoloured stripes to<br />

just a few stripes of a single colour. The width of <strong>the</strong><br />

pieces various <strong>from</strong> 10 to 15 cm, some wider than<br />

20 cm has been folded al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> length of <strong>the</strong> fabric<br />

1 Manuel Gomez-Moreno: El Panteón Real de<br />

las Huelgas de <strong>Burgos</strong>. Madrid, 1946, C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero<br />

Carretero: Museo de Telas Medievales. M<strong>on</strong>asterio de<br />

Santa María la Real de Huelgas. Madrid, 1988, C<strong>on</strong>cha<br />

Herrero Carretero: El Museo de Telas Medievales de<br />

Santa María la Real de Huelgas. Colecci<strong>on</strong>es textiles de<br />

Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al. In: Vestduras Ricas, Madrid, 2005.<br />

In september 2006 <strong>the</strong> textiles were examined by C<strong>on</strong>cha<br />

Herrero Carretero, Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Nati<strong>on</strong>al, Marianne Vedeler,<br />

Oldsakssamlingen, Oslo and Camilla Luise Dahl, The<br />

Medieval Centre for The Medieval Centre, Nykøbing,<br />

Denmark.<br />

12<br />

Fig. 1<br />

Inv. No 00653742 in full length. Photograph: Marianne<br />


Fig. 2<br />

Inv. No 00653742 and<br />

00651983. Photograph:<br />

C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />

to make a double band of half that width. N<strong>on</strong>e of<br />

<strong>the</strong> fragments can be characterized as veils but are<br />

instead various types of head- and chinbands.<br />

All of <strong>the</strong> examined pieces are made of silk but in<br />

different quality, thickness of thread, density and<br />

tightness. All pieces have various types of ruffled<br />

and pleated edges.<br />

Fig. 1-2<br />

The pieces may overall be grouped as four different<br />

types according to shape and style of <strong>the</strong> frilled<br />

edges:<br />

Type 1: L<strong>on</strong>g narrow pleats al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> selvedges<br />

This type is characterized by rows of l<strong>on</strong>g, narrow<br />

pleats formed as part of <strong>the</strong> fabric. The pleats are<br />

neatly made an very even in appearance. Most have<br />

sharp, folded pleats c. 4-5mm deep. The width of<br />

<strong>the</strong> selvedges with this type of pleats is c. 1,5 to 2<br />

cm with a midsecti<strong>on</strong> of about 10-12 cm.<br />

Type 2: Overall pleated surface of fabric<br />

This type of textiles has <strong>the</strong> overall appearance of<br />

13<br />

having been pleated in small, sharps pleats (knife<br />

pleats) <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> entire width of <strong>the</strong> fabric and not just<br />

al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> selvedges.<br />

Type 3: Sharp pleats <strong>on</strong> additi<strong>on</strong>al bands<br />

This type has additi<strong>on</strong>al pleated bands sewn to <strong>the</strong><br />

edge of <strong>the</strong> fabric. These bands are thicker and<br />

more coarse than <strong>the</strong> fabrics <strong>the</strong>y aresewn to. The<br />

aditi<strong>on</strong>al bands are c. 2 cm in width.<br />

The bands are folded in sharp, crisp pleats forming<br />

a zigzag-shaped appearance.<br />

Group 4: Small ruffles<br />

This type has small, rounded ruffles al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong><br />

selvedges formed as part of <strong>the</strong> fabric. In this group<br />

<strong>the</strong> ruffles are tiny and appears as a narrow edge of<br />

frills. The width of <strong>the</strong> ruffles edges are no more<br />

than 5-7mm with a midsecti<strong>on</strong> of c. 10-12cm.<br />

Some of <strong>the</strong> fragments of this type have<br />

characteristics of more than <strong>on</strong>e type, for instance<br />

two of <strong>the</strong> fragments had features of both Type 1<br />

and 3. In some cases it was difficult to determine if<br />

some of <strong>the</strong> pieces of Type 1 were actually Type 2 as

Fig. 3a-b<br />

Inv. no. 00653745 and Inv.no. 00653753: Photograph:<br />

C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4<br />

(00653745) X (X?) - -<br />

(00653753) - - - -<br />

(00653742) X (X?) X -<br />

(00653737) X X X -<br />

(00651983) X - - -<br />

(00651985) - - - X<br />

(00651982) X - - -<br />

(00651981) - - - X<br />

(00653754) X X - -<br />

(00651970) X X X -<br />

(00651984) X X - -<br />

Table 1<br />

The examined pieces grouped according to type.<br />

some pieces could have traces of<br />

having been entirely pleated and<br />

not just at <strong>the</strong> edges, although now<br />

in a shape that made it impossible<br />

to see clearly.<br />

Two fragments were small<br />

pieces with coloured stripes and<br />

very fragmented silks, <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>e<br />

fragment (00653745) <strong>the</strong> frills<br />

were too fragmented to determine<br />

typewise (possibly Type 1 & 2)<br />

<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> frills were not<br />

visible (00653753).<br />

Fig. 3<br />

One piece, a headband discovered<br />

<strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> tomb of Queen Elenor,<br />

was under c<strong>on</strong>servati<strong>on</strong> and could not be examined<br />

during <strong>the</strong> visite. In all 11 numbers were available<br />

for examinati<strong>on</strong>. Ano<strong>the</strong>r 20 numbers of similar<br />

textiles are in <strong>the</strong> collecti<strong>on</strong> in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Real but<br />

was not examined <strong>on</strong> this visite.<br />

Examples of Type 1<br />

Examples of Type 1 are <strong>the</strong> numbers 00653745,<br />

00653742, 00653737, 00651983, 00651984<br />

00651982, 00653754 and are by far <strong>the</strong> most wellrepresented<br />

type am<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> textiles. (Table I)<br />

The numbers 00653745, 00653742, 00653737<br />

and 00653754 are combined with features <strong>from</strong><br />

15<br />

Fig. 4<br />

Inv. No. 00653742. Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero<br />


<strong>on</strong>e or two of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r types. For no 00653745<br />

and 00653742 <strong>the</strong> combinati<strong>on</strong> with Type 2 is<br />

uncertain.<br />

The numbers 00653742 and 00653737 are<br />

combined with both Type 2 and 3. <strong>the</strong>se two textiles<br />

are very similar in style, quality and weave, yet no<br />

00653737 has more decorate stripes.<br />

The numbers 00651982 and 00651983 are not<br />

combined with any o<strong>the</strong>r types. The two pieces are<br />

very similar, both with small pierced holes through<br />

16<br />

Fig. 5<br />

Inv. No 00651982.<br />

P h o t o g r a p h :<br />

C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero<br />

Carretero.<br />

Fig. 6<br />

Inv. no. 00651984.<br />

P h o t o g r a p h :<br />

Marianne Vedeler.<br />

<strong>the</strong> pleats at <strong>the</strong> edges. One fragment has three blue<br />

stripes, <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r is plain without decorati<strong>on</strong>. Both<br />

<strong>the</strong>se numbers have less difference between <strong>the</strong><br />

pleated edges and <strong>the</strong> midsecti<strong>on</strong> than any of <strong>the</strong><br />

o<strong>the</strong>r pieces.<br />

Fig. 4 , 5, 6.

Examples of Type 2<br />

Examples of Type 2 are <strong>the</strong> numbers (00653737),<br />

(00653754), (00651970) and (00651984).possibly<br />

<strong>the</strong> numbers (00653745) and (00653742) have<br />

had a similar structure. possibly this structure is<br />

achievedby various means, in some pieces <strong>the</strong> overall<br />

Fig. 7c-d<br />

Fragment of Inv.. no. 00653737. Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha<br />

Herrero Carretero.<br />

17<br />

Fig. 7a-b<br />

Inv. no. 00653754. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler

Fig. 10<br />

Inv. No 00653737. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.<br />

18<br />

Fig. 8<br />

Inv. No. 00651984.<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />

Vedeler.<br />

Fig. 9<br />

00653742. Photograph:<br />

C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero<br />


Fig. 11a-b<br />

Inv. No 00653737. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler &<br />

C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />

pleated surface is clearly due to an aftertreatment –<br />

<strong>the</strong> fabric being neatly folded into sharp, tiny pleats.<br />

In o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>the</strong> result may have been achieved by <strong>the</strong><br />

spinning of <strong>the</strong> thread, in this case with a high twist<br />

in <strong>the</strong> yarn resulting in a crepe-like surface. This<br />

feature must have been combined with pleating <strong>the</strong><br />

fabric afterwards. Some of <strong>the</strong> fragments are very<br />

creased and wrinkled and it is difficult to determine<br />

which fragments have had a pleated surface and<br />

which are just creased due to <strong>the</strong> tightness of <strong>the</strong><br />

spinning of <strong>the</strong> yarn (crepe-effect).<br />

Fig. 7, 8, 9.<br />

Examples of Type 3<br />

Three of <strong>the</strong> numbers in <strong>the</strong> examined group had<br />

19<br />

additi<strong>on</strong>al pleated bands sewn to <strong>the</strong> edge, <strong>the</strong>se<br />

are <strong>the</strong> numbers (00653742), (00653737) and<br />

(00651970). The Type 3 textiles are all combined<br />

with <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r Types. In all three examined<br />

pieces <strong>the</strong> additi<strong>on</strong>al edges are sewn to pieces with<br />

pleated edges, forming two rows of pleats. All<br />

three pieces also appear to have an overall pleated<br />

surface.<br />

Fig. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.<br />

Examples of Type 4<br />

Only two of <strong>the</strong> examined textiles bel<strong>on</strong>ged to<br />

Type 4 , <strong>the</strong>se are <strong>the</strong> numbers (00651981) and<br />

(00651985).<br />

These two textiles are very different in appearance<br />

but are clearly c<strong>on</strong>structed <strong>the</strong> same way. No.

20<br />

Fig. 12 a-b<br />

Inv. nr. 00653742.<br />

Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha<br />

Herrero Carretero.

Fig. 12c<br />

Inv. no. 00653742. Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />

Fig. 13<br />

Inv. no. 00653737. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.<br />


Fig. 14 a-b<br />

Inv. no. 651970. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.<br />


(00651981) has frills al<strong>on</strong>gside <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> edges,<br />

no. (00651985) frills <strong>on</strong> both selvedges. On no.<br />

(00651981) <strong>the</strong> frilled edge is red, <strong>on</strong> (00651985)<br />

<strong>the</strong> edges are white like <strong>the</strong> midsecti<strong>on</strong>.<br />

Fig. 15-16<br />

The c<strong>on</strong>structi<strong>on</strong> of <strong>the</strong> frilled<br />

edges<br />

All <strong>the</strong> fragments have different threadcounts in<br />

midsecti<strong>on</strong> and at <strong>the</strong> selvedges. Most with thicker<br />

threads as well as double warp threads. 2 On two<br />

fragments (00651981 & 00651985) <strong>the</strong> selvedges<br />

are made with thick, double warpthreads and thinner<br />

single warp threads in <strong>the</strong> midsecti<strong>on</strong> creating a<br />

bulky, wavy edge. Fragment 00651981 has frills <strong>on</strong><br />

<strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> sides, <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r side is woven with<br />

three thick warp thread to form an edge. Fragment<br />

no 00651985 has frills <strong>on</strong> both selvedges.<br />

Most of <strong>the</strong> fragments had thicker and more warp<br />

2 See report, textile analysis by Marianne Vedeler.<br />

23<br />

Fig. 15a-b<br />

Inv. No 00651985. Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero<br />

Catterero.<br />

threads at <strong>the</strong> sides to form <strong>the</strong> basis for <strong>the</strong> frilled<br />

edgees whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>se were woven or pleated <strong>on</strong> to<br />

<strong>the</strong> edge. A few of <strong>the</strong> pieces, however, had almost<br />

no difference in thread thickness in midsecti<strong>on</strong> and<br />

al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> edges. This is for instance <strong>the</strong> case with<br />

<strong>the</strong> numbers (00651982) and (00651983). 3

Fig. 15 c-d<br />

Inv. no. 00651981. Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />


Fig. 16 ab<br />

Inv. No 00651985. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.<br />


Fig. 16 c<br />

Inv. no. 00651985. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.<br />

Fig. 16d<br />

Inv. no. 00651985. Photograph: Marianne Vedeler.<br />


Most of <strong>the</strong> pieces have a crêpe-like structure in<br />

<strong>the</strong> weave of <strong>the</strong> midsecti<strong>on</strong> caused by a hard spun<br />

thread. The yarns used for <strong>the</strong> selvedges are less<br />

hard spun. This creates a natural tightness of <strong>the</strong><br />

midsecti<strong>on</strong> while <strong>the</strong> selvedges appears wider and<br />

looser. This feature would be even more pr<strong>on</strong>ounced<br />

if <strong>the</strong> woven silks were after treated with for instance<br />

hot water which would leave <strong>the</strong> hard spun threads<br />

to tighten more than <strong>the</strong> threads in <strong>the</strong> sides.<br />

On a few of <strong>the</strong> fragments <strong>the</strong>re were clear<br />

indicati<strong>on</strong>s of piercing holes at <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong><br />

selvedges. (For instance 00651983) This must be<br />

due to a thread being pulled through <strong>the</strong> edges<br />

helping to form <strong>the</strong> pleats and keep <strong>the</strong>m toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

much like modern carthridge pleating. It is not clear<br />

if a pleating thread was pulled through <strong>the</strong> textile<br />

while weaving, in order to keep <strong>the</strong> edges in place<br />

while weaving it or if this was made solely as an<br />

after treatment, where <strong>the</strong> fabric would be pulled<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r and treated with for example hot water to<br />

fix <strong>the</strong> pleats permanently.<br />

Fig. 17-18<br />

A group of textiles have additi<strong>on</strong>al crimped bands<br />

sewn to <strong>the</strong> edges of <strong>the</strong> bands. These additi<strong>on</strong>al<br />

edges are made solely by pleating <strong>the</strong> bands after<br />

weaving and does not need any specific method<br />

of weaving. The pleating isself is a simple zigzagpleats<br />

of folded fabric held toge<strong>the</strong>r with a thread<br />

pulled through <strong>the</strong> fabric. In <strong>on</strong>e fragment a piece<br />

of pulling thread could still be seen. (00653737).<br />

Some pieces had no visible signs of piercing holes<br />

but had narrow pleats similar to those with piercing<br />

holes,(e.g. 00653742). This piece had a gauzelike,<br />

crêpe midsecti<strong>on</strong> and shiny, smooth and thick<br />

edges. In this fabric a combinati<strong>on</strong> of weaving and<br />

after-treatment had taken place. Like most of <strong>the</strong><br />

textiles <strong>the</strong> edges are slightly looser and wider than<br />

<strong>the</strong> midsecti<strong>on</strong> due to <strong>the</strong> difference in number of<br />

threads and <strong>the</strong> thread thickness. The tiny sharp<br />

pleats, instead, was formed in <strong>the</strong> after-treatment.<br />

As <strong>the</strong> pleats are made with sharp folds and do not<br />

27<br />

appear irregular and uneven in shape; each pleat is<br />

folded with precisi<strong>on</strong> of c. 0,4 cm deep.<br />

One fragment with a similar type midsecti<strong>on</strong> and<br />

selvedges had traces of a slightly different kind of<br />

after-treatment as <strong>the</strong> whole surface of <strong>the</strong> fabric had<br />

an overall impressi<strong>on</strong> of being pleated <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> width<br />

of <strong>the</strong> fabric. (00653754). There are no traces of<br />

piercing holes in this fragment which cannot simply<br />

have disappeared, possibly it was made with an even<br />

simpler technique of folding <strong>the</strong> fabric backwards<br />

and forward <strong>on</strong> itself, and treated to make <strong>the</strong> pleats<br />

remain in place.<br />

N<strong>on</strong>e <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> pieces in <strong>the</strong> viewed group were made<br />

of linen, but Gomez-Moreno who was leading <strong>the</strong><br />

excavati<strong>on</strong> in 1946 menti<strong>on</strong>s a few fragments of<br />

linen made in <strong>the</strong> same way as <strong>the</strong> silks. 4 Such<br />

methods are usually just semi-permanent and if<br />

worn often <strong>the</strong>y would require maintenance and repleating<br />

regularly.<br />

Two of <strong>the</strong> pieces in <strong>the</strong> examined group have woven<br />

frills with no traces of after-treatment, which may,<br />

however, have taken place <strong>on</strong> a sec<strong>on</strong>dary level,<br />

perhaps while making <strong>the</strong>m. The numbers 00651981<br />

and 00651985 were very different <strong>from</strong> <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

fragments in <strong>the</strong> group. These two fragments have<br />

soft, frilled edges that must have been formed as<br />

part of <strong>the</strong> weaving. The frilled part is formed partly<br />

by <strong>the</strong> warp threads of <strong>the</strong> selvedges being thicker<br />

than <strong>the</strong> threads in <strong>the</strong> midsecti<strong>on</strong>.<br />

Most of <strong>the</strong> pieces are l<strong>on</strong>g narrow bands with frills<br />

al<strong>on</strong>g both selvedges. Only <strong>on</strong>e of <strong>the</strong> examined<br />

pieces had frills <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>on</strong>e selvedge (00651981).<br />

Some of <strong>the</strong> silk bands must have been worn with<br />

it’s full width wrapped around head and chin, but a<br />

couple of <strong>the</strong> bands were folded at <strong>the</strong> middle <strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

length of <strong>the</strong> fabric, forming two rows of frills <strong>on</strong><br />

<strong>on</strong>e side of <strong>the</strong> band. Three numbers clearly had this<br />

feature: 00651982, 00651983 and 00651985, but it<br />

is also possible that more of <strong>the</strong> textiles have been<br />

worn this way.<br />

The frilled textiles <strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong> clearly share<br />

similarities with c<strong>on</strong>temporary Spanish images<br />

of frilled headwear. 5 Different styles of frilled<br />

3 See report, textile analysis by Marianne Vedeler.<br />

4 Manuel Gomez-Moreno: El Panteón Real de las Huelgas de <strong>Burgos</strong>. Madrid, 1946, p. 76.<br />

5 Ruth Mathilda Anders<strong>on</strong>: Pleated Headdresses of Castilla and León, 12 th and 13 th centuries. Notes Hispanic. The<br />

Hispanic Society of America, vol. II, 1942. New York, 1942, pp. 51-80 , Joaquin Yarza Luaces (ed): Vestiduras Ricas. El M<strong>on</strong>asterio<br />

de las Huelgas y su época 1170-1340. Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Nati<strong>on</strong>al, Madrid, 2005.

28<br />

Fig. 17 a-b<br />

Inv. no. 00651982.<br />

Photograph: Marianne<br />

Vedeler & C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero<br />


Fig. 18 a-b<br />

and Inv. no. 00651983.<br />

Photograph: C<strong>on</strong>cha<br />

Herrero Carretero<br />


30<br />

Fig. 19<br />

Carved woman’s<br />

head <strong>from</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong><br />

Ca<strong>the</strong>dral, Spain, 13th<br />

century.<br />

The chinband has<br />

an over-all pleated<br />

surface like some of<br />

<strong>the</strong> preserved bands. A<br />

band with frilled edges<br />

of unknown length<br />

has also been folded<br />

around an understructure<br />

leaving <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>the</strong><br />

frilled edges visible<br />

which form a zig-zag<br />

pattern.<br />

Fig. 20<br />

Detail of sculpture of a<br />

queen, <strong>Burgos</strong> Ca<strong>the</strong>dral,<br />

13th century.<br />

The chinband is folded<br />

<strong>on</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle lengthwise<br />

so that <strong>the</strong> frills<br />

al<strong>on</strong>g <strong>the</strong> edges meets<br />

where <strong>the</strong>y frame<br />

<strong>the</strong> face. The band is<br />

ei<strong>the</strong>r a band with a<br />

single edge of frills<br />

folded twice around<br />

<strong>the</strong> chin, or a band<br />

folded lengthwise <strong>on</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> midle and folded<br />

around <strong>the</strong> chin <strong>on</strong>ce.

headwear can be found in most parts of Europe in<br />

13th and 14th century. 6 Some of which, at least <strong>the</strong><br />

early styles of <strong>the</strong> 13th and early 14th century, may<br />

have been made with <strong>the</strong> same methods as used for<br />

<strong>the</strong> frilled headwear <strong>from</strong> 13th century <strong>Burgos</strong>.<br />

Fig. 19-20<br />

The exact placement and arrangement of <strong>the</strong> headwear<br />

in situ is in far most cases no l<strong>on</strong>ger known, as this<br />

was not documented during excavati<strong>on</strong>. However,<br />

most of <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>g, narrow strips of cloth were merely<br />

wrapped around <strong>the</strong> crown of <strong>the</strong> head covering <strong>the</strong><br />

forehead or around <strong>the</strong> chin and cheeks framing <strong>the</strong><br />

face. Some of <strong>the</strong> pieces were apparently folded<br />

around an understructure. Gomez-Moreno notes<br />

that <strong>the</strong>re was an understructure (hat) of animal<br />

skin or parchment lined with linen <strong>on</strong> which <strong>the</strong><br />

lengthwise folded frilled band had been wrapped<br />

around several times and pinned <strong>on</strong>, found in <strong>on</strong>e<br />

of <strong>the</strong> graves (Queen Ele<strong>on</strong>or’s) 7 , however, no<br />

such was seen at <strong>the</strong> visite in Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al.<br />

A few pins <strong>from</strong> Queen Eleanor´s grave are now<br />

kept at <strong>the</strong> Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al in Madrid. 8 The<br />

characteristic headwear known as Toque/Toca in<br />

13th century Spain would need a tall understructure<br />

<strong>on</strong> which <strong>the</strong> l<strong>on</strong>g streamers of silk or linen would<br />

be folded around layer after layer leaving <strong>on</strong>ly <strong>the</strong><br />

frills visible. 9 Much like <strong>the</strong> appearance of <strong>the</strong> extant<br />

pieces when folded toge<strong>the</strong>r (Fig. 18b)<br />

Although <strong>the</strong> <strong>Burgos</strong>-textiles appear as to be<br />

more or less <strong>the</strong> same in regard to style and type,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> overall method of c<strong>on</strong>structing frilled<br />

edges are basically <strong>the</strong> same (thicker edges <strong>on</strong> a<br />

thinner midsecti<strong>on</strong>), <strong>the</strong> chosen samples shows<br />

great variati<strong>on</strong> in details. Technical details such as<br />

colours, thread thickness and thread quality various<br />

31<br />

<strong>from</strong> piece to piece. The four main types that <strong>the</strong><br />

textiles could be grouped into in terms of technical<br />

c<strong>on</strong>structi<strong>on</strong> and visual appearance, shows that<br />

many different methods, <strong>from</strong> simple crimping to<br />

complicated weaves or combinati<strong>on</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> two,<br />

could be used to create textiles with basically <strong>the</strong><br />

same look and appearance.<br />

6 A. Gardner: Hair and head-dress 1050-1600. The Journal of <strong>the</strong> British Archaeological Associati<strong>on</strong>, Third Series,<br />

Vol. XIII, 1950. L<strong>on</strong>d<strong>on</strong>, 1950, pp. 4-13, E. Grönke & E.Weinlich: Mode aus Modeln. Kruseler- und andre T<strong>on</strong>figuren des 14.<br />

Bis 16. Jahrhunderts aus dem Germanischen Nati<strong>on</strong>al Museum und andren Sammlungen. Verlag des Germanischen Nati<strong>on</strong>almuseum,<br />

Nürnberg, 1998; A. Liebreich: Der Kruseler im 15. Jahrhundert. Zeitschrift für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde.<br />

1. Band der neuen Folge, Jahrgang 1923-1925. p. 218 – 223, C. L. Dahl: Kruseler og Krusedug, Herolden, årg. 9, nr.<br />

2, 2005, pp. 14-19, S. M. Newt<strong>on</strong>, Stella Mary & M. M. Giza: Frilled Edges. Textile History, vol. 14: 2, 1983. The Pasold Research<br />

Fund. Leeds, 1983, pp. 141-152, O. Rady, Ottilie: Der Kruseler. Zeitschrift für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde.<br />

1. bd, Neuen Folge, Hft. 5. Jahr. 1923-25, p. 131-136, C. Tilghman: Giovanna Cenami’s Veil: A Neglected Detail. Medieval<br />

Clothing and <strong>Textiles</strong>, vol. I, 2005. (Eds.) R. Ne<strong>the</strong>rt<strong>on</strong> & G. R. Owen-Crocker. Woodbridge, 2005, p. 155-172.<br />

7 Manuel Gomez-Moreno: El Panteón Real de las Huelgas de <strong>Burgos</strong>. Madrid, 1946, 27-28.<br />

8 Informati<strong>on</strong> given by C<strong>on</strong>cha Herrero Carretero.<br />

9 Ruth Mathilda Anders<strong>on</strong>: Pleated Headdresses of Castilla and León, 12 th and 13 th centuries. Notes Hispanic. The<br />

Hispanic Society of America, vol. II, 1942. New York, 1942, p. 67, Amalia Descalzo: El vestido entre 1170 y 1340 en el Panteón<br />

Real de las Huelgas. In Vestiduras Ricas. Patrim<strong>on</strong>io Naci<strong>on</strong>al, Madrid, 2005, 117-118..

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