Views
5 years ago

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

ii — DISSERTATION.

ii — DISSERTATION. insular, and, with the exception of the islands of New Zealand, monsoons, or trade winds, prevail through every part of it. To this, I have no doubt, is mainly to be attributed the wide dis- semination of language now the sul)ject of inquiry, and which, among rude nations, were impossible on a continent without periodical winds. The generally adopted explanation of this wide dissemination of language amounts to this, that the many existing tongues were originally one language, through time and dis- adopted taucc Split iuto many dialects, and that all the people speaking these supposed dialects are of one and the same race. But as this hypothesis could not well be main- tained in the face of an existing negro population, the negroes and theii- languages are specially excepted, on the eri'oneous supposition that no words of the common tongue exist in their languages. This hypothesis originated with the German naturalist, Forster, who accompanied Captain Cooke in his second voyage, and it has been adopted by many distinguished philologists, but especially by INIr. Marsden and Baron William Humboldt. It was, in a modified form, my own opinion, in a less mature state of my acquaintance with the subject ; but I am now satisfied that it is wholly groundless.* Some of the objections to this hypothesis, exclusive of the palpable one of the existence of Malayan words in all the negro languages, are obvious. It supposes, for example, that ' Refutation . ° ° . ^ ^ .\ . ^ ' of the language and race are identical, taking it, oi course, for granted, that men are born with peculiar languages as they are with peculiar complexions; and that both are equally unchangeable. Many well known events of authentic * " We likewise find a very remarkable similarity between several words of the fair tribe of islanders in the South Sea, and some of the Malays. But it would be highly inconclusive, from the similarity of a few words, to infer that these islanders were descended from the Malays " "I am, therefore, rather inclined to suppose that all these dialects preserve several words of a more ancient langiiage, which was more universal, and was gi'adually divided into many languages, now remark- ably different. The words, therefore, of the language of the South Sea isles, which are similar to others in the Malay tongue, prove clearly, in my opinion, that the South Sea isles were originally peopled from the Indian, or Asiatic Northern isles and that those lying more to the westward received their first inhabitants from the neighbourhood of New Guinea." Ohsenatims.—Voyage round tlie World, by John Reynold Forster; London, 1778. ;

DISSERTATION. iii history refute this notion. Thus, the half-dozen languages spoken in ancient Italy were all, in time, absorbed by one of them. The languages spoken in Britain twenty centuries ago have been nearly supplanted by a German tongue. Several millions of negroes in the New World, whose parent tongues were African, have exchanged them for English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese. For the languages spoken in ancient France and Spain, a language of Italian origin has been almost wholly substituted. Although language often affords valuable historical e^idence, it would only lead to error to consider it as invariably identical with race. It is quite certain, that within the proper Indian Archipelago, or islands extending from Sumatra to the western shores of New Guinea, and respecting which our information is most complete, no languages exist derived from a common stock, and standing to each other in the relation of sisterhood, as Italian, Spanish, and French, do to each other ; or as Gaelic does to Irish ; or Armorican to Welsh, or Scotch to English. The only dialects that exist are of the Malay and Javanese languages, but they consist of little more than differences in pronunciation, or the more or less frequent use of a few words. In the Polynesian islands alone, real dialects of a common tongue do exist; but here, as will be afterwards shown, the number of Avords common to such dialects, and to the languages of the Archipelago, is so trifling, that it refutes at once the notion of a common origin. Another insuperable argument against the theory of one original tongue is found in the nature of many of the words of the imagined derivative dialects. These abound in terms very widely diffused, indicating an advanced state of society ; as for example, an useful system of numeration, terms connected with agriculture, navigation, the useful arts, and even with letters. Tlie people that had such a language must necessarily have been in a tolerably advanced state of civilisation, in such a one for example as we find the principal nations of Sumatra, Java, and Celebes to be in, at the present day ; and many of the tribes which the theory supposes to be derived from it, not only did not maintain the civilisation of the parent nation, but have even fallen into the condition of mere savages ; a result b 2

  • Page 2: Oa^i«^/Vii^j. ( .(fc
  • Page 7 and 8: GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY MALAY LANGUA
  • Page 9: THE BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT Si
  • Page 12 and 13: viii TREPACE. Mr. Marsdeiij my book
  • Page 15: A DISSERTATION AFFINITIES OF THE MA
  • Page 19 and 20: DISSERTATION. V the ideas which the
  • Page 21 and 22: DISSEETATION. vii they contain, jus
  • Page 23 and 24: DISSERTATION. ix this kind of circu
  • Page 25 and 26: DISSERTATION. xi fetta. Magellan ha
  • Page 27 and 28: DISSERTATION. xiii An examination o
  • Page 29 and 30: DISSERTATION. xv sabtu, "Saturday/'
  • Page 31 and 32: DISSEKTATION-. XvU inherent vowel.
  • Page 33 and 34: DISSERTATION. lix ABBREVIATIONS OF
  • Page 35 and 36: " the creator," literally, " he who
  • Page 37 and 38: DISSERTATION. xxiii Javanese anabra
  • Page 39 and 40: DISSERTATION. xxv for the ordinary,
  • Page 41 and 42: DISSERTATION. xxvii sdsaton, " wild
  • Page 45 and 46: DISSERTATION. xxxi the permutation
  • Page 49 and 50: VULGAR. Tagal. Samarang. Madura. Ba
  • Page 51 and 52: DISSERTATION. xxxvii usually stated
  • Page 53 and 54: DISSERTATION. xxxix easily intellig
  • Page 55 and 56: DISSERTATION. xli letter of the alp
  • Page 57 and 58: DISSERTATION, xliii as Sumeru, the
  • Page 59 and 60: DTSSEKTATION. xlv the Archipelago t
  • Page 61 and 62: DISSEETATIOX. xlvii come along, and
  • Page 63 and 64: DISSERTATION. xlix had also settlem
  • Page 65: DISSERTATION. time ai'e sudah, tala
  • Page 69 and 70:

    DISSERTATION. sinjang, " cloth ; "

  • Page 71 and 72:

    DISSERTATION. Ivii The ordinal numb

  • Page 73 and 74:

    DISSEKTATION. Ijx It Avould be curi

  • Page 75 and 76:

    DISSERTATIOX, l^^i The only specime

  • Page 77 and 78:

    DISSERTATION. Ixiii for the aspirat

  • Page 79 and 80:

    DISSERTATION. Ixv case, which is fo

  • Page 81 and 82:

    DISSERTATION. Ixvii therefore, in o

  • Page 83 and 84:

    DISSERTATION. Ixix relation are not

  • Page 85 and 86:

    DISSERTATION. Ixxi are in the follo

  • Page 87 and 88:

    DISSERTATION, Ixxiil rous. For the

  • Page 89 and 90:

    MADURESE. Elan, Jaga, sans. Eutar.

  • Page 91 and 92:

    DISSERTATION. hxvii words are forei

  • Page 93 and 94:

    DISSERTATION. Ixxix three letters ^

  • Page 95 and 96:

    " here ; ; ; DISSERTATION. Ixxxi "

  • Page 97 and 98:

    DTSSERTATIOX. Ixxxiii themselves in

  • Page 99 and 100:

    ^ DISSERTATION. hxxv advanced of th

  • Page 101 and 102:

    — DISSERTATION, Ixxxvii vowel o,

  • Page 103 and 104:

    BUGIS.

  • Page 105 and 106:

    DISSERTATION. xci Bugis prouuuciati

  • Page 107 and 108:

    DISSERTATION. xciii guages, the Sum

  • Page 109 and 110:

    DISSERTATION. xcv Judging by these

  • Page 111 and 112:

    DISSERTATION. xcvii much larger tha

  • Page 113 and 114:

    ENGLISH. DISSEKTATION.

  • Page 115 and 116:

    DISSERTATION. ci particles differ e

  • Page 117 and 118:

    DISSERTATION. ciii considerable adv

  • Page 119 and 120:

    DISSERTATION. CT voyages extended n

  • Page 121 and 122:

    DISSEETATION. cvii each, and which

  • Page 123 and 124:

    DISSERTATION, cix prefix one which

  • Page 125 and 126:

    DISSERTATION. cxi for its genitive

  • Page 127 and 128:

    DISSERTATION. cxiii inaralan ; plup

  • Page 129 and 130:

    DISSERTATION. CXT Tagala or Bisaya,

  • Page 131 and 132:

    DISSERTATION. cxvii The same corrup

  • Page 134 and 135:

    cxx DISSERTATION. more in concrete

  • Page 136 and 137:

    cxxii DISSERTATION. 25 of these wor

  • Page 138:

    cxxiv

  • Page 141 and 142:

    DISSERTATION. cxxvii western part o

  • Page 143 and 144:

    DISSERTATIOX. c.Txix of his theory.

  • Page 145 and 146:

    ; DISSERTATION. exxxi is coarse and

  • Page 148 and 149:

    cxxxiv DISSERTATION. several words

  • Page 150 and 151:

    cxxxvi DISSERTATION. but no observe

  • Page 152 and 153:

    cxxxviii DISSERTATION. is formed by

  • Page 154:

    cx\

  • Page 157 and 158:

    DISSERTATION. cxli the changes prod

  • Page 159 and 160:

    DISSERTATION. cxlv islands, or at l

  • Page 161 and 162:

    DISSERTATION. cxlvii storm into the

  • Page 163 and 164:

    in the Negro ; well-proportioned ;

  • Page 165 and 166:

    DISSERTATION. cli of which it is h.

  • Page 167 and 168:

    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION, cliii

  • Page 169 and 170:

    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION.

  • Page 171 and 172:

    DISSERTATION. clvii although, by vi

  • Page 173 and 174:

    DISSERTATION. clix Polynesia. The p

  • Page 175 and 176:

    DISSERTATION. clxi many miglit be c

  • Page 177 and 178:

    DISSERTATION. clxiii- parts also of

  • Page 179 and 180:

    DISSERTATION. ckv African Negro. Th

  • Page 181 and 182:

    DISSERTATION. clxvii Proceeding eas

  • Page 183 and 184:

    DISSERTATION. clxix On the authorit

  • Page 185 and 186:

    « ^' -3 -^ . -^ .^ ^11 J a DISSERT

  • Page 187 and 188:

    DISSERTATION. clxxiii The conclusio

  • Page 189 and 190:

    DISSERTATION. clxxv and their conso

  • Page 191 and 192:

    J DISSERTATION. clxxvii is to the s

  • Page 193 and 194:

    DISSERTATION. clxxix eighteen verbs

  • Page 195 and 196:

    DISSERTATION. clxxxi Boripar, and Y

  • Page 197 and 198:

    DISSERTATION. clxx.\ui I proceed, t

  • Page 200 and 201:

    clxx

  • Page 202:

    cl>IxxxviH

  • Page 205 and 206:

    DISSERTATION. cxci The names given

  • Page 208 and 209:

    cxeiv DISSERTATION. of iron ordnanc

  • Page 210 and 211:

    cxcvi DISSERTATION. The Malay and J

  • Page 212 and 213:

    cxcviii DISSEETATION. prevalence of

  • Page 214 and 215:

    cc DISSEKTATION. ENGLISH. MALAY. JA

  • Page 217:

    DISSERTATION. coiii and "princess."

  • Page 220 and 221:

    ccvi DISSEETATION. tliem, and that

  • Page 222:

    ccviii DISSERTATION. name for the i

  • Page 227 and 228:

    DISSERTATION. ccxiii not belong to

  • Page 229 and 230:

    DISSERTATION. ccxv 'riie cultivated

  • Page 231 and 232:

    DISSERTATION. cc.wii The influence

  • Page 233 and 234:

    DISSERTATION. ccxix The first five

  • Page 235 and 236:

    DISSERTATION". ccxxi Malayan, and a

  • Page 237 and 238:

    DISSERTATION. ccxxiii Two languages

  • Page 239 and 240:

    ENGLISH.

  • Page 241 and 242:

    DISSERTATION. ccxxvii tlie Malayan,

  • Page 244:

    DISSERTATION. barley (?), and the f

  • Page 247 and 248:

    DISSERTATION, ccxxxiii Of this clas

  • Page 250 and 251:

    ccxxxvi DISSERTATION. referring to

  • Page 252 and 253:

    ccxxxviii

  • Page 254 and 255:

    ccxl DISSERTATION. in 1000 of the w

  • Page 256 and 257:

    ccxlii DISSERTATION. Pacific island

  • Page 258 and 259:

    cexliv DISSERTATION. two synonymes

  • Page 260 and 261:

    ccxl'vi DISSERTATION. west, and ext

  • Page 262 and 263:

    ccxlvlii DISSERTATION. inhabitants.

  • Page 264 and 265:

    ccl DISSERTATION. Thin, sleuder.

  • Page 266 and 267:

    cclii DISSERTATION. less intermixtu

  • Page 268 and 269:

    ccliv DISSERTATION. lying between t

  • Page 270 and 271:

    cclvi BISSERTATIOX. that the migrat

  • Page 272 and 273:

    cclvlii DISSERTATION. account, that

  • Page 274 and 275:

    cclx DISSERTATION. immigration." *

  • Page 276 and 277:

    cclxii DISSEETATION. " thousand," a

  • Page 278 and 279:

    cclxiv DISSERTATION. au example of

  • Page 280 and 281:

    cclxvi DISSEETATION. into Madagasca

  • Page 282 and 283:

    cclxviii DISSERTATION. also, both t

  • Page 284 and 285:

    cclxx DISSEETATION. " pepper fruit/

  • Page 286 and 287:

    cclxxii DISSERTATION, expected, app

  • Page 288 and 289:

    ccl.x DISSERTATION. Among the class

  • Page 290 and 291:

    cclxxvi DISSERTATION. be added. In

  • Page 292 and 293:

    cclxxvlii DISSERTATION. the assista

  • Page 294 and 295:

    cclxxx DISSERTATION. by the arrival

  • Page 296 and 297:

    cclxxxii DISSERTATION. ornamental m

  • Page 298 and 299:

    cclxxxiv DISSERTATION. It may be ob

  • Page 300 and 301:

    cclxxxvi DISSERTATION. termed provi

  • Page 302 and 303:

    cclxxxviii DISSERTATION. and never

  • Page 304 and 305:

    ccxc DISSERTATION. persons under Li

  • Page 307 and 308:

    A GRAMMAR THE MALAY LANGUAGE. ORTHO

  • Page 309 and 310:

    ORTHOGKAPHY. 3 distinct character f

  • Page 311 and 312:

    OKTHOGEAPHY. 5 by Roman letters as

  • Page 313 and 314:

    ab t PEONUNCIATION. 7 LETTERS OF TH

  • Page 315 and 316:

    PARTS OF SPEECH. 9 the k is elided

  • Page 317 and 318:

    NOUN. 11- rang buiiga ini; tarlalu

  • Page 319 and 320:

    NOUN. 13 balakang, balik, susor, si

  • Page 321 and 322:

    NOUN. lo D^ri may be rendered in En

  • Page 323 and 324:

    NOLTN. 17 Antara and the two next p

  • Page 325 and 326:

    NOUN. 19 naga makutaiia dariprida p

  • Page 327 and 328:

    ADJECTIVE. 21 chantik, molek ; her

  • Page 329 and 330:

    NUMERALS. 23 the system of numerati

  • Page 331 and 332:

    PRONOUNS. 25 are used only in addre

  • Page 333 and 334:

    PEONOUNS. 27 To the personal pronou

  • Page 335 and 336:

    VERB. 29 the summit of the island.

  • Page 337 and 338:

    VERB. 31 Transitive Verb.—A trans

  • Page 339 and 340:

    VERB. 33 suwaraiia, sapurti buhih p

  • Page 341 and 342:

    VERB. 35 as to a radical, by the af

  • Page 343 and 344:

    VERB. 37 and the nasal ng substitut

  • Page 345 and 346:

    VEKB. 59 from labuh, to anchor, par

  • Page 347 and 348:

    VEK13. 4L miuer, aud also, a diggin

  • Page 349 and 350:

    VERB. 4.;} words of the language^ l

  • Page 351 and 352:

    VERB. 45 saudarafia, utus-mangutus,

  • Page 353 and 354:

    VERB. ^T not easy to understand. Ji

  • Page 355 and 356:

    Sakutika barwayang, a^-ampun barkuk

  • Page 357 and 358:

    VERB. 51 Saorftng p^rampiian mud'a

  • Page 359 and 360:

    VERB. 53 affix kan may be the prepo

  • Page 361 and 362:

    generally some reference to an ante

  • Page 363 and 364:

    KEDUFLlCATIOiS\ 57 constant occurre

  • Page 365 and 366:

    SYNTAX. 59 The object follows the v

  • Page 367 and 368:

    PROSODY. 61 PROSODY. The Malay lang

  • Page 369 and 370:

    MISCELLANEOUS REMAEKS. 63 consists

  • Page 371 and 372:

    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Go speech ;

  • Page 373 and 374:

    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. 67 Indian is

  • Page 375 and 376:

    MlSCELLAiSEoUS REMARKS. 69 very cop

  • Page 377 and 378:

    IDIOMS. 71 sister ; ayah and ayahan

  • Page 379 and 380:

    HISTORY UF THE LANGUAGE. 73 the peo

  • Page 381 and 382:

    DlALEGTSc 75 arisen^ more from the

  • Page 383 and 384:

    LITER ATUKR. 77 author. All Malay l

  • Page 385 and 386:

    LITERATURE. 79 like that of a rose

  • Page 387 and 388:

    LITERATURE. 81 all drank, pledging

  • Page 389 and 390:

    LITERATURE. 83 examples, in additio

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language - Wallace-online.org
A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...
A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language ... - Wallace Online
Collins Malay Dictionary - RunMob
A dictionary of the Malay tongue, as spoken in the ... - Sabrizain.org
A grammar of the Malayan language, with an introduction and praxis..
Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.pdf
Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics - Developers
A new pocket dictionary of the English and Swedish languages
A concise and simplified grammar of the Spanish language
Dictionary of languages - RITELL
A dictionary of the Manks language, with the corresponding words or ...
An English-Welsh pronouncing dictionary, with preliminary ...
A grammar of the Welsh language : based on the most approved ...
A grammar of the Spanish language - National Library of Scotland
A dictionary of the Gaelic language, in two parts, I. Gaelic and ...
Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Chinese French German ...
A dictionary of the Gaelic language, in two parts, I. Gaelic and ...
A dictionary of the Asante and Fante language called Tshi (Chwee ...
PDF The American Sign Language Handshape Dictionary | Download file
Generating Control Languages with Abstract Categorial Grammars
[+][PDF] TOP TREND American Sign Language Green Books, A Teacher s Resource Text on Grammar and Culture (The Original Green Books) [FREE]
Read Online Allen and Greenough s New Latin Grammar (Dover Language Guides) Review
[+][PDF] TOP TREND American Sign Language Green Books, A Teacher s Resource Text on Grammar and Culture (The Original Green Books) [PDF]
The Dictionary & Grammar of Hiri Motu - LANGUAGE ...
The Alternative Malay Dictionary - The Alternative Dictionaries
language, dictionaries, grammars, et. al.: sixteenth through the ...
BUDDHIST HYBRID SANSKRIT GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY