viii DISSERTATION. the Archipelago,—theMalays and Javanese ; and, adopting this hypothesis, I shall proceed withthe inquiry, beginning with a sketch ofthese two nations andtheir languages. For convenience, and in order to avoid repetition, I use the word Malayan for whatever is common to these two people. According to the universal tradition oftheMalays, Sumatra is the parent country oftheir nation. This greatest islandofthe Archipelago, after Borneo, contains an area of history of 128,500 square miles. Its geological formation is ' theMalays. . ^. . • , ^, i -r, i partly primitive and partly volcanic, it has some very high mountains and some extensive plains among its hill ranges. Among these plains is that of Manangkabau on the Equator, the very focus oftheMalay nation. Next to Java, Sumatra is the most fertile ofthe great islands ofthe Archipelago, andtherefore the most likely to be a cradle of early civilisation. The Malays at present possess nearly one half the whole area ofthe island, including its coasts on the east and west side. The earliest notice which Europeans received ofthe existence oftheMalay nation, and it was a very meagre one, was given by Marco Polo on his return to Venice in 1295. It was not until 220 years later that they became really acquainted withthem. A hundred and thirty years before theMalays were seen by the Venetian traveller, or in the year 1160, took place the only recorded migration oftheMalays from Sumatra, that which formed the settlement of Singapore. We must not con- clude, from the comparative recentness of this event, or because theMalays, like the Hindus, have no history, that many earlier migrations had not taken place. When first actually seen by Europeans, they were traders and rovers over the Archipelago. They were the principal carriers ofthe clove and nutmeg from the most easterly to the most westerly ports ofthe Archipelago, —forming, in fact, the first link in that long and tedious chain of transport by which these much-valued commodities were, for nearly twenty centuries, conveyed to Greece and Rome. In the year 180 of Christ the clove and nutmeg were regular articles of import into the Roman Empire ; and it is highly probable that the trade was conducted then, in the same manner as when it was first observed by Europeans at its source. By
DISSERTATION. ix this kind of circumstantial evidence, then, we carry Malayan history back for near seventeen centuries ; but as the Hindus were probably consumers ofthe clove and nutmeg long before Greeks and Romans, Malayan history, in all likelihood, goes a great deal farther back than this. In Sumatra, theMalays, from the cradle ofthe nation, the interior plain of Manangkabau, pushed their conquests, or settle- ments, to their present extensive limits. From Sumatra they emigrated and formed colonies in theMalay Peninsula and in Borneo ; the first probably, andthe last certainly, occupied before them by rude tribes ofthe same race of men, who could offer no effectual resistance. In the remoter islands, or in those occupied by powerful and civilised nations, theMalays appear only as settlers, and not colonists, as Java, the principal islands ofthe Philippine Archipelago, Timur andthe Moluccas. The peninsula sometimes called Tanah Malayu, or the landoftheMalays, contains an area of above G0,000 square miles. The geological formation is primitive, rich in metalliferous ores, but generally poor in soil. "With the exception of a few dimi- nutive negro mountaineers, it is occupied either by Malays or by men ofthe same race ; for there exist in the interior several wild tribes, who, although not calHng themselves Malays, speak theMalaylanguage, and have the same physical form as theMalays. Whether these wild people be the original inhabitants ofthe peninsula before the invasion oftheMalays, and who have adopted the INIalay language, or Malays who rejected the Mahomedan religion, it is very difficult to say; but as their language contains many words that are not JNIalay, and as it is not likely that so extensive a country should be without any inhabitants when invaded by theMalays, except a few scattered negroes, the first supposition seems the more probable. Nearly the whole coast of Borneo is occupied by Malay colonies; but neither here, nor in the peninsula, can any one ofthe many states which occupy them, tell when, or how their forefathers first arrived. Some intelligent merchants ofthe state of Brunai, or Borneo Proper, informed me in 1825 that the present inha- bitants were, then, the twenty-ninth in descent from the original settlers from Manangkabau, and that when thev first settled
Allen and Greenough s New Latin Grammar (Dover Language Guides) J.H. Allen
Paperback. Pub Date :2006-02-10 Pages: 477 Language: English Publisher: Dover Publications A venerable resource for more than a century. Allen and Greenoughs New Latin Grammar is still regarded by students and teachers as the finest Latin reference grammar available. Concise. comprehensive. and well organized. it is unrivaled in depth and clarity. placing a wealth of advice on usage. vocabulary. diction. composition. and syntax within easy reach of Latin scholars at all levels.This sourcebooks three-part treatment starts with words and forms. covering parts of speech. declensions. and conjugations. The second part. syntax. explores cases. moods. and tenses. The concluding section offers information on archaic usages. Latin verse. and prose composition. among other subjects. Extensive appendixes feature a glossary of terms and indexes. Students of history. religion. and liter...
Language : English