xvi DISSERTATION. must be supposed a good and impartial judge, was certainly of this opinion, for he alludes, in his epistle to Sir Godfrey Webster, to the Embassadors from Bantam, who, in his time, had visited England, in the following couplet : — " Flat faces, such as would disgrace a screen, Such as in Bantam's embassy were seen." The Javanese language extends over the eastern and central parts of Java, an islandof 40,000 square miles in extent, and by far the most fertile ofthe Archipelago, containing neseian- at present 10,000,000 of inhabitants. There may be said to be three Javanese languages,—the popular, the polite (which is a kind of factitious dialect of it), and an ancient tongue, found only in old books and ancient inscriptions. The modern and popular language, as well as the polite dialect, is written in a peculiar character, of which the substan- tive letters amount to twenty. All these are consonants. Alphabet. . *' except the letter a, which the Javanese count along withthem as a substantive letter. These twenty characters are represented by the following Roman letters : — a, b, ch, d, d', g, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, n, p, r, s, t, t", w, y. Their powers are the same as those of native sounds oftheMalay alphabet, andtherefore it is unnecessary to describe them. The Javanese vowels are six in number,—viz., a, a, e, i, o, u, which correspond withthe native Malay vowels. The vowel a, as already stated, is considered a substantive letter; but the rest as mere orthographic marks, as their Javanese name, Sandangan, which signifies "dress" or "clothing," implies. The mark for a is placed over the consonant ; that for i, over and to the right of it ; and that for u, under it ; while o has a double mark, part being before and part after the substantive letter. The marks for the other vowels are applied to the vowel a, as if it had been a consonant ; and according as these are used, it becomes a, e, i, o, or u. It is never used either alone or withthe marks ofthe other vowels applied to it, except as an initial. As a vowel is inherent in every consonant, it follows that the Javanese substantive letters are, in reality, syllables. This produces the necessity of a contrivance to elide the terminal '
DISSEKTATION-. XvU inherent vowel. At the end of a word the elision is effected by a peculiar orthographic mark, but in the middle of one, by supple- mental substantive letters corresponding in number withtheir primitives, andthe presence of which indicates that no vowel intervenes. Their name, pasangan, which means " fellows" or "companions," points at their character. Three ofthese supplemental characters are written in a line withtheir primitives, viz., a, p, and s,—the rest under them. All ofthem are more or less different in form from the primitive letters, except g, r, and ng, which undergo no change. When the liquids 1, w, and y, in a supplemental form follow a primitive character they coalesce with it, and r, when it coalesces with another consonant, has a peculiar character. It has a second when it ends a syllable preceded by a vowel, and a third which implies that the vowel a precedes it. A dot placed over a con- sonant represents the nasal ng ending a syllable. The use of double consonants, or rather of a repetition ofthe same con- sonant in another form, is very frequent in Javanese, for it seldom happens that a medial syllable begins with a vowel, and I think, in no case, except with a. The aspirate h has a peculiar character, and, like the vowels, is considered only an ortho- graphic mark. It always follows a vowel expressed or under- stood, and may be medial or final, but never begins a word or syllable. Besides the characters now named, there are others of occa- sional use. There are eight characters called great letters, viz., n, ch, k, t, s, p, ii, g, and b, andofthese, k, t, and p have their secondary or supplemental characters. These are not used like European capitals, to begin sentences and proper names, but as a mark of respect in writing particular names and titles, sometimes, however, capriciously, in substitution ofthe ordinary letters. There are also characters to represent the two syllables la and ra, which are of very frequent occurrence in Javanese. Finally, characters have been invented, consisting of modifi- cations ofthe native letters to represent five initial vowels for Arabic words, and four to represent peculiar Arabian consonants. These are, however, but rarely used, and are usually represented by the cognate letters ofthe native alphabet. —
Allen and Greenough s New Latin Grammar (Dover Language Guides) J.H. Allen
Paperback. Pub Date :2006-02-10 Pages: 477 Language: English Publisher: Dover Publications A venerable resource for more than a century. Allen and Greenoughs New Latin Grammar is still regarded by students and teachers as the finest Latin reference grammar available. Concise. comprehensive. and well organized. it is unrivaled in depth and clarity. placing a wealth of advice on usage. vocabulary. diction. composition. and syntax within easy reach of Latin scholars at all levels.This sourcebooks three-part treatment starts with words and forms. covering parts of speech. declensions. and conjugations. The second part. syntax. explores cases. moods. and tenses. The concluding section offers information on archaic usages. Latin verse. and prose composition. among other subjects. Extensive appendixes feature a glossary of terms and indexes. Students of history. religion. and liter...
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