xviii DISSERTATION. This orthographic system is rather complex, but for its own purpose perfect : it has a character for every sound in thelanguage, and that character invariably expresses the same sound. It may be readily understood by supposing the vowel marks and supplemental consonants to be represented by Roman letters in small type, and placed in the position I have assigned to them. The Javanese letters are well formed, neat and distinct, not mere scratches like those of some other alphabets ofthe Archipelago. The alphabet is, indeed, in every respect the most perfect of any of those ofthe islands. It has, I think, all the appearance of an original character invented where it is now used. Although Hindu influence was far greater in Java than in any other part ofthe Archipelago, the Javanese has not adopted the aspirated consonants, nor, like some ruder alphabets, the metrical arrangement ofthe Dewanagri, and unless the mark for the aspirate, the dot representing the nasal ng, andthe mark of elision, I do not believe that it has borrowed any- thing from the latter. The following is the native character. PRIMARY CONSONANTS, anchrk dt svlp njT^ wi 03) '2/1 (Kn^nxi am qjj "ui mn^nji d- j y n m g b t- ng /Uji fi/^ oivi fmri \ fin nm rrn op rci^ SECONDARY CONSONANTS, anchk dt sv 1 p d' y j n m b t ^' (JD (^\ (s) (}i\ c 0^ (y VOWEL MARKS AS ANNEXED) TO THE LETTER K. ki ke ku ka kA ko o m\ ^f>tm fHT].
DISSERTATION. lix ABBREVIATIONS OF CONSONANTS AND THE ASPIRATE, WITH K. kar kr kang kah m (jffj [m r>6n^ NIBIERAL CHARACTERS. rm rn ran (f(3)^ mn ru^ rinn o The phonetic character ofthe Javanese much resembles that oftheMalay, but still there are considerable differences. The Phonetic accent, for the most part, as in Malay, is on the penultwavT-"^^^^^^®' and, with few exceptions, no two consonants nese. comc togcthcr, unless one ofthem be a liquid or a nasal. In Javanese the inherent vowel a is pronounced as o when it ends a word, as is done in theMalayofthe west coast of Sumatra. The Javanese, however, goes still further, for it gives the same sound to any preceding inherent vowels ofthe same word, provided, but not otherwise, that the terminal letter be also the inherent vowel. Thus the towns of Java, which theMalays pronounce Sala and Surabaya, are pronounced by the Javanese, Solo and Suroboyo, but Samarang is pronounced by a Javanese exactly as a Malay would do. The pronunciation ofthe Javanese is less soft than that ofthe jNIalay, and although the letters ofthe alphabet be identically the same, the recurrence of nasal sounds is much more frequent in it. To give an example, in theMalay Dictionary I find only fifteen words beginning withthe nasal ng, and twenty with n, while in a Javanese manu- script dictionarythere are 590 beginning withthe first ofthese letters, and 335 withthe last. Another difference affecting the pronunciation consists in there being in Javanese a larger proportion of words in which the liquids 1, r, w, and y, coalesce with other consonants than in Malay. The grammarofthe Javanese is formed on the same principle -as that oftheMalay, in so far as simplicity of structure, the
Allen and Greenough s New Latin Grammar (Dover Language Guides) J.H. Allen
Paperback. Pub Date :2006-02-10 Pages: 477 Language: English Publisher: Dover Publications A venerable resource for more than a century. Allen and Greenoughs New Latin Grammar is still regarded by students and teachers as the finest Latin reference grammar available. Concise. comprehensive. and well organized. it is unrivaled in depth and clarity. placing a wealth of advice on usage. vocabulary. diction. composition. and syntax within easy reach of Latin scholars at all levels.This sourcebooks three-part treatment starts with words and forms. covering parts of speech. declensions. and conjugations. The second part. syntax. explores cases. moods. and tenses. The concluding section offers information on archaic usages. Latin verse. and prose composition. among other subjects. Extensive appendixes feature a glossary of terms and indexes. Students of history. religion. and liter...
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