Views
5 years ago

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

xviii DISSERTATION. This

xviii DISSERTATION. This orthographic system is rather complex, but for its own purpose perfect : it has a character for every sound in the language, and that character invariably expresses the same sound. It may be readily understood by supposing the vowel marks and supplemental consonants to be represented by Roman letters in small type, and placed in the position I have assigned to them. The Javanese letters are well formed, neat and distinct, not mere scratches like those of some other alphabets of the Archipelago. The alphabet is, indeed, in every respect the most perfect of any of those of the islands. It has, I think, all the appearance of an original character invented where it is now used. Although Hindu influence was far greater in Java than in any other part of the Archipelago, the Javanese has not adopted the aspirated consonants, nor, like some ruder alphabets, the metrical arrangement of the Dewanagri, and unless the mark for the aspirate, the dot representing the nasal ng, and the mark of elision, I do not believe that it has borrowed any- thing from the latter. The following is the native character. PRIMARY CONSONANTS, anchrk dt svlp njT^ wi 03) '2/1 (Kn^nxi am qjj "ui mn^nji d- j y n m g b t- ng /Uji fi/^ oivi fmri \ fin nm rrn op rci^ SECONDARY CONSONANTS, anchk dt sv 1 p d' y j n m b t ^' (JD (^\ (s) (}i\ c 0^ (y VOWEL MARKS AS ANNEXED) TO THE LETTER K. ki ke ku ka kA ko o m\ ^f>tm fHT].

DISSERTATION. lix ABBREVIATIONS OF CONSONANTS AND THE ASPIRATE, WITH K. kar kr kang kah m (jffj [m r>6n^ NIBIERAL CHARACTERS. rm rn ran (f(3)^ mn ru^ rinn o The phonetic character of the Javanese much resembles that of the Malay, but still there are considerable differences. The Phonetic accent, for the most part, as in Malay, is on the penultwavT-"^^^^^^®' and, with few exceptions, no two consonants nese. comc togcthcr, unless one of them be a liquid or a nasal. In Javanese the inherent vowel a is pronounced as o when it ends a word, as is done in the Malay of the west coast of Sumatra. The Javanese, however, goes still further, for it gives the same sound to any preceding inherent vowels of the same word, provided, but not otherwise, that the terminal letter be also the inherent vowel. Thus the towns of Java, which the Malays pronounce Sala and Surabaya, are pronounced by the Javanese, Solo and Suroboyo, but Samarang is pronounced by a Javanese exactly as a Malay would do. The pronunciation of the Javanese is less soft than that of the jNIalay, and although the letters of the alphabet be identically the same, the recurrence of nasal sounds is much more frequent in it. To give an example, in the Malay Dictionary I find only fifteen words beginning with the nasal ng, and twenty with n, while in a Javanese manu- script dictionary there are 590 beginning with the first of these letters, and 335 with the last. Another difference affecting the pronunciation consists in there being in Javanese a larger proportion of words in which the liquids 1, r, w, and y, coalesce with other consonants than in Malay. The grammar of the Javanese is formed on the same principle -as that of the Malay, in so far as simplicity of structure, the

  • Page 2: Oa^i«^/Vii^j. ( .(fc
  • Page 7 and 8: GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY MALAY LANGUA
  • Page 9: THE BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT Si
  • Page 12 and 13: viii TREPACE. Mr. Marsdeiij my book
  • Page 15 and 16: A DISSERTATION AFFINITIES OF THE MA
  • Page 17 and 18: DISSERTATION. iii history refute th
  • Page 19 and 20: DISSERTATION. V the ideas which the
  • Page 21 and 22: DISSEETATION. vii they contain, jus
  • Page 23 and 24: DISSERTATION. ix this kind of circu
  • Page 25 and 26: DISSERTATION. xi fetta. Magellan ha
  • Page 27 and 28: DISSERTATION. xiii An examination o
  • Page 29 and 30: DISSERTATION. xv sabtu, "Saturday/'
  • Page 31: DISSEKTATION-. XvU inherent vowel.
  • Page 35 and 36: " the creator," literally, " he who
  • Page 37 and 38: DISSERTATION. xxiii Javanese anabra
  • Page 39 and 40: DISSERTATION. xxv for the ordinary,
  • Page 41 and 42: DISSERTATION. xxvii sdsaton, " wild
  • Page 45 and 46: DISSERTATION. xxxi the permutation
  • Page 49 and 50: VULGAR. Tagal. Samarang. Madura. Ba
  • Page 51 and 52: DISSERTATION. xxxvii usually stated
  • Page 53 and 54: DISSERTATION. xxxix easily intellig
  • Page 55 and 56: DISSERTATION. xli letter of the alp
  • Page 57 and 58: DISSERTATION, xliii as Sumeru, the
  • Page 59 and 60: DTSSEKTATION. xlv the Archipelago t
  • Page 61 and 62: DISSEETATIOX. xlvii come along, and
  • Page 63 and 64: DISSERTATION. xlix had also settlem
  • Page 65: DISSERTATION. time ai'e sudah, tala
  • Page 69 and 70: DISSERTATION. sinjang, " cloth ; "
  • Page 71 and 72: DISSERTATION. Ivii The ordinal numb
  • Page 73 and 74: DISSEKTATION. Ijx It Avould be curi
  • Page 75 and 76: DISSERTATIOX, l^^i The only specime
  • Page 77 and 78: DISSERTATION. Ixiii for the aspirat
  • Page 79 and 80: DISSERTATION. Ixv case, which is fo
  • Page 81 and 82: DISSERTATION. Ixvii therefore, in o
  • Page 83 and 84:

    DISSERTATION. Ixix relation are not

  • Page 85 and 86:

    DISSERTATION. Ixxi are in the follo

  • Page 87 and 88:

    DISSERTATION, Ixxiil rous. For the

  • Page 89 and 90:

    MADURESE. Elan, Jaga, sans. Eutar.

  • Page 91 and 92:

    DISSERTATION. hxvii words are forei

  • Page 93 and 94:

    DISSERTATION. Ixxix three letters ^

  • Page 95 and 96:

    " here ; ; ; DISSERTATION. Ixxxi "

  • Page 97 and 98:

    DTSSERTATIOX. Ixxxiii themselves in

  • Page 99 and 100:

    ^ DISSERTATION. hxxv advanced of th

  • Page 101 and 102:

    — DISSERTATION, Ixxxvii vowel o,

  • Page 103 and 104:

    BUGIS.

  • Page 105 and 106:

    DISSERTATION. xci Bugis prouuuciati

  • Page 107 and 108:

    DISSERTATION. xciii guages, the Sum

  • Page 109 and 110:

    DISSERTATION. xcv Judging by these

  • Page 111 and 112:

    DISSERTATION. xcvii much larger tha

  • Page 113 and 114:

    ENGLISH. DISSEKTATION.

  • Page 115 and 116:

    DISSERTATION. ci particles differ e

  • Page 117 and 118:

    DISSERTATION. ciii considerable adv

  • Page 119 and 120:

    DISSERTATION. CT voyages extended n

  • Page 121 and 122:

    DISSEETATION. cvii each, and which

  • Page 123 and 124:

    DISSERTATION, cix prefix one which

  • Page 125 and 126:

    DISSERTATION. cxi for its genitive

  • Page 127 and 128:

    DISSERTATION. cxiii inaralan ; plup

  • Page 129 and 130:

    DISSERTATION. CXT Tagala or Bisaya,

  • Page 131 and 132:

    DISSERTATION. cxvii The same corrup

  • Page 134 and 135:

    cxx DISSERTATION. more in concrete

  • Page 136 and 137:

    cxxii DISSERTATION. 25 of these wor

  • Page 138:

    cxxiv

  • Page 141 and 142:

    DISSERTATION. cxxvii western part o

  • Page 143 and 144:

    DISSERTATIOX. c.Txix of his theory.

  • Page 145 and 146:

    ; DISSERTATION. exxxi is coarse and

  • Page 148 and 149:

    cxxxiv DISSERTATION. several words

  • Page 150 and 151:

    cxxxvi DISSERTATION. but no observe

  • Page 152 and 153:

    cxxxviii DISSERTATION. is formed by

  • Page 154:

    cx\

  • Page 157 and 158:

    DISSERTATION. cxli the changes prod

  • Page 159 and 160:

    DISSERTATION. cxlv islands, or at l

  • Page 161 and 162:

    DISSERTATION. cxlvii storm into the

  • Page 163 and 164:

    in the Negro ; well-proportioned ;

  • Page 165 and 166:

    DISSERTATION. cli of which it is h.

  • Page 167 and 168:

    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION, cliii

  • Page 169 and 170:

    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION.

  • Page 171 and 172:

    DISSERTATION. clvii although, by vi

  • Page 173 and 174:

    DISSERTATION. clix Polynesia. The p

  • Page 175 and 176:

    DISSERTATION. clxi many miglit be c

  • Page 177 and 178:

    DISSERTATION. clxiii- parts also of

  • Page 179 and 180:

    DISSERTATION. ckv African Negro. Th

  • Page 181 and 182:

    DISSERTATION. clxvii Proceeding eas

  • Page 183 and 184:

    DISSERTATION. clxix On the authorit

  • Page 185 and 186:

    « ^' -3 -^ . -^ .^ ^11 J a DISSERT

  • Page 187 and 188:

    DISSERTATION. clxxiii The conclusio

  • Page 189 and 190:

    DISSERTATION. clxxv and their conso

  • Page 191 and 192:

    J DISSERTATION. clxxvii is to the s

  • Page 193 and 194:

    DISSERTATION. clxxix eighteen verbs

  • Page 195 and 196:

    DISSERTATION. clxxxi Boripar, and Y

  • Page 197 and 198:

    DISSERTATION. clxx.\ui I proceed, t

  • Page 200 and 201:

    clxx

  • Page 202:

    cl>IxxxviH

  • Page 205 and 206:

    DISSERTATION. cxci The names given

  • Page 208 and 209:

    cxeiv DISSERTATION. of iron ordnanc

  • Page 210 and 211:

    cxcvi DISSERTATION. The Malay and J

  • Page 212 and 213:

    cxcviii DISSEETATION. prevalence of

  • Page 214 and 215:

    cc DISSEKTATION. ENGLISH. MALAY. JA

  • Page 217:

    DISSERTATION. coiii and "princess."

  • Page 220 and 221:

    ccvi DISSEETATION. tliem, and that

  • Page 222:

    ccviii DISSERTATION. name for the i

  • Page 227 and 228:

    DISSERTATION. ccxiii not belong to

  • Page 229 and 230:

    DISSERTATION. ccxv 'riie cultivated

  • Page 231 and 232:

    DISSERTATION. cc.wii The influence

  • Page 233 and 234:

    DISSERTATION. ccxix The first five

  • Page 235 and 236:

    DISSERTATION". ccxxi Malayan, and a

  • Page 237 and 238:

    DISSERTATION. ccxxiii Two languages

  • Page 239 and 240:

    ENGLISH.

  • Page 241 and 242:

    DISSERTATION. ccxxvii tlie Malayan,

  • Page 244:

    DISSERTATION. barley (?), and the f

  • Page 247 and 248:

    DISSERTATION, ccxxxiii Of this clas

  • Page 250 and 251:

    ccxxxvi DISSERTATION. referring to

  • Page 252 and 253:

    ccxxxviii

  • Page 254 and 255:

    ccxl DISSERTATION. in 1000 of the w

  • Page 256 and 257:

    ccxlii DISSERTATION. Pacific island

  • Page 258 and 259:

    cexliv DISSERTATION. two synonymes

  • Page 260 and 261:

    ccxl'vi DISSERTATION. west, and ext

  • Page 262 and 263:

    ccxlvlii DISSERTATION. inhabitants.

  • Page 264 and 265:

    ccl DISSERTATION. Thin, sleuder.

  • Page 266 and 267:

    cclii DISSERTATION. less intermixtu

  • Page 268 and 269:

    ccliv DISSERTATION. lying between t

  • Page 270 and 271:

    cclvi BISSERTATIOX. that the migrat

  • Page 272 and 273:

    cclvlii DISSERTATION. account, that

  • Page 274 and 275:

    cclx DISSERTATION. immigration." *

  • Page 276 and 277:

    cclxii DISSEETATION. " thousand," a

  • Page 278 and 279:

    cclxiv DISSERTATION. au example of

  • Page 280 and 281:

    cclxvi DISSEETATION. into Madagasca

  • Page 282 and 283:

    cclxviii DISSERTATION. also, both t

  • Page 284 and 285:

    cclxx DISSEETATION. " pepper fruit/

  • Page 286 and 287:

    cclxxii DISSERTATION, expected, app

  • Page 288 and 289:

    ccl.x DISSERTATION. Among the class

  • Page 290 and 291:

    cclxxvi DISSERTATION. be added. In

  • Page 292 and 293:

    cclxxvlii DISSERTATION. the assista

  • Page 294 and 295:

    cclxxx DISSERTATION. by the arrival

  • Page 296 and 297:

    cclxxxii DISSERTATION. ornamental m

  • Page 298 and 299:

    cclxxxiv DISSERTATION. It may be ob

  • Page 300 and 301:

    cclxxxvi DISSERTATION. termed provi

  • Page 302 and 303:

    cclxxxviii DISSERTATION. and never

  • Page 304 and 305:

    ccxc DISSERTATION. persons under Li

  • Page 307 and 308:

    A GRAMMAR THE MALAY LANGUAGE. ORTHO

  • Page 309 and 310:

    ORTHOGKAPHY. 3 distinct character f

  • Page 311 and 312:

    OKTHOGEAPHY. 5 by Roman letters as

  • Page 313 and 314:

    ab t PEONUNCIATION. 7 LETTERS OF TH

  • Page 315 and 316:

    PARTS OF SPEECH. 9 the k is elided

  • Page 317 and 318:

    NOUN. 11- rang buiiga ini; tarlalu

  • Page 319 and 320:

    NOUN. 13 balakang, balik, susor, si

  • Page 321 and 322:

    NOUN. lo D^ri may be rendered in En

  • Page 323 and 324:

    NOLTN. 17 Antara and the two next p

  • Page 325 and 326:

    NOUN. 19 naga makutaiia dariprida p

  • Page 327 and 328:

    ADJECTIVE. 21 chantik, molek ; her

  • Page 329 and 330:

    NUMERALS. 23 the system of numerati

  • Page 331 and 332:

    PRONOUNS. 25 are used only in addre

  • Page 333 and 334:

    PEONOUNS. 27 To the personal pronou

  • Page 335 and 336:

    VERB. 29 the summit of the island.

  • Page 337 and 338:

    VERB. 31 Transitive Verb.—A trans

  • Page 339 and 340:

    VERB. 33 suwaraiia, sapurti buhih p

  • Page 341 and 342:

    VERB. 35 as to a radical, by the af

  • Page 343 and 344:

    VERB. 37 and the nasal ng substitut

  • Page 345 and 346:

    VEKB. 59 from labuh, to anchor, par

  • Page 347 and 348:

    VEK13. 4L miuer, aud also, a diggin

  • Page 349 and 350:

    VERB. 4.;} words of the language^ l

  • Page 351 and 352:

    VERB. 45 saudarafia, utus-mangutus,

  • Page 353 and 354:

    VERB. ^T not easy to understand. Ji

  • Page 355 and 356:

    Sakutika barwayang, a^-ampun barkuk

  • Page 357 and 358:

    VERB. 51 Saorftng p^rampiian mud'a

  • Page 359 and 360:

    VERB. 53 affix kan may be the prepo

  • Page 361 and 362:

    generally some reference to an ante

  • Page 363 and 364:

    KEDUFLlCATIOiS\ 57 constant occurre

  • Page 365 and 366:

    SYNTAX. 59 The object follows the v

  • Page 367 and 368:

    PROSODY. 61 PROSODY. The Malay lang

  • Page 369 and 370:

    MISCELLANEOUS REMAEKS. 63 consists

  • Page 371 and 372:

    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Go speech ;

  • Page 373 and 374:

    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. 67 Indian is

  • Page 375 and 376:

    MlSCELLAiSEoUS REMARKS. 69 very cop

  • Page 377 and 378:

    IDIOMS. 71 sister ; ayah and ayahan

  • Page 379 and 380:

    HISTORY UF THE LANGUAGE. 73 the peo

  • Page 381 and 382:

    DlALEGTSc 75 arisen^ more from the

  • Page 383 and 384:

    LITER ATUKR. 77 author. All Malay l

  • Page 385 and 386:

    LITERATURE. 79 like that of a rose

  • Page 387 and 388:

    LITERATURE. 81 all drank, pledging

  • Page 389 and 390:

    LITERATURE. 83 examples, in additio

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language - Wallace-online.org
A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...
Collins Malay Dictionary - RunMob
A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language ... - Wallace Online
A dictionary of the Malay tongue, as spoken in the ... - Sabrizain.org
Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.pdf
Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics - Developers
A grammar of the Malayan language, with an introduction and praxis..
A grammar of the Spanish language - National Library of Scotland
A grammar of the Welsh language : based on the most approved ...
Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Chinese French German ...
A concise and simplified grammar of the Spanish language
Practice Makes Perfect: Complete Italian Grammar, Premium Second Edition (NTC Foreign Language)
A new pocket dictionary of the English and Swedish languages
Dictionary of languages - RITELL
A dictionary of the Manks language, with the corresponding words or ...
An English-Welsh pronouncing dictionary, with preliminary ...
A dictionary of the Gaelic language, in two parts, I. Gaelic and ...
A dictionary of the Gaelic language, in two parts, I. Gaelic and ...
A dictionary of the Asante and Fante language called Tshi (Chwee ...
Generating Control Languages with Abstract Categorial Grammars
The Dictionary & Grammar of Hiri Motu - LANGUAGE ...
The Alternative Malay Dictionary - The Alternative Dictionaries
language, dictionaries, grammars, et. al.: sixteenth through the ...
BUDDHIST HYBRID SANSKRIT GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY
Malay and Javanese Loanwords in Malagasy ... - Sabrizain.org
Incomplete Draft Grammar Sketch for NSF IOWA Dictionary Project ...