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A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

XX DISSERTATION.

XX DISSERTATION. expression of relation in nouus by prepositions and not by cases, ^'^^ ^^® formation of the verb by the application of an- ^jjnesp, grammar. ^excd particlcs, are concerned. The noun is devoid of inflexions to express gender or number, and, with the exception of a possessive, also of case. A possessive or genitive, much like the English genitive in 's, is formed for the ordinary language by the affix ne, for the ceremonial by the affix ipun, and for the language of poetry by iia or ira. The fol- lowing are examples, observing that the particle ne, for euphony, becomes ing and ning, according to the final letter of the governed and the initial of the governing noun :—Putrane raja, "the king's son;" wohing kayu tal, "the fruit of the Tal palm;'' krising satriya, "the warrior's dagger;" rasaning uyah, " the taste of salt ; " gadahanipun handara, " the lord's property;" chakranipun Krisna, "the discus of Krishna;" polahipun tiyang, " a man's conduct ; " astaila Sita minda gandewa kalih, "the arms of Sita were as two bows;" ilang kamanusanira Sri Nalendra lir batara Wisnu, "the human form of the monarch disappeared as if he were the god Vishnu." With respect to gender, the order of nature is preserved, and sex never ascribed to what has none. When gender has to be expressed, adjectives implying it are used ; wadon and ostri, or "female," for the feminine, and lauang, driya, kakung, and jalar, for the masculine. But there are not, as in Malay, adjectives to distinguish gender in man and the lower animals. The noun is neither singular nor plural, but either. It is restricted to the singular by the numeral one, and made plural by an adjective signifying plurality. As in Malay, there is a kind of collective plural formed by reduplication; as from bopati, "a noble," bopati-bopati, "nobles." There are articles in Javanese, although of more limited application than in the modern European languages. The numeral sa, "one," inseparably prefixed is equi- valent to the EngHsh indefinite article a, or the French un, as sagriya, " a house." The definite article is represented by the relative pronoun, which, for the popular language, is kang or sing, and for the language of ceremony, ingkang. These stand before the noun, as in the following examples :—Kang murba, '

" the creator," literally, " he who is first ; DISSEKTATION. xxi " ingkang nawala, " the letter." The following is the commencement of a genuine letter in the pohte dialect, and affords two instances of the definite article :—Ingkang taklim kula rayi sampeyan pun tumanggung Samung Galing katur ingkang raka mas ngabai Wira Prana : " The respectful compliments of your servant, the younger brother, the tumanggung Samung Galing, submitted to the elder brother, Mas Ngabai Wira Prana." The adjective undergoes no change. In position, it follows the noun, and is not otherwise distinguished. A comparative degree, expressing increase, decrease, or equality, is formed by adverbs with prepositions. The adverbs are luwih, manah, maning, malih, " more," for the comparison by increase, and kurang, or kirang, in the ceremonial language, for the comparison by decrease ; the prepositions for both being, t&ka and sangking, " from." The comparison by equality has no adverb, and is expressed by the prepositions karo and kalih, "with," the first belonging to the popular, and the last to the ceremonial language. The Javanese personal pronouns are numerous ; there being not fewer than twenty of the first person, and twelve of the &&J second. Some of them belong to the popular language, Pronoun. some to , the ^ ceremonial, -, and some to i the ancient. About four of each are common to the Malay and Javanese. The origin of some of them is ob\ious. Kawula, abbreviated kula, for example, means " slave or servant," as well as "I," or "we ; sampeyan, a pronoun of the second person, means " the feet ; and another pronoun, of the same person, jaugandika, is taken from the recondite language, and composed of two words, meaning " the feet," and " to command " or " order." Consi- dering the numerous pronouns of the first and second person, it is remarkable that the Javanese has none at all of the third. D"ewe, in the ordinary language, and piyambak in the polite, meaning " self," are, however, occasionally awkward substitutes for it. The adjective pronouns are only some of the personal pronouns used as adjectives by being placed after or annexed to the noun. The Javanese pronouns are without gender, number, or case. "

  • Page 2: Oa^i«^/Vii^j. ( .(fc
  • Page 7 and 8: GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY MALAY LANGUA
  • Page 9: THE BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT Si
  • Page 12 and 13: viii TREPACE. Mr. Marsdeiij my book
  • Page 15 and 16: A DISSERTATION AFFINITIES OF THE MA
  • Page 17 and 18: DISSERTATION. iii history refute th
  • Page 19 and 20: DISSERTATION. V the ideas which the
  • Page 21 and 22: DISSEETATION. vii they contain, jus
  • Page 23 and 24: DISSERTATION. ix this kind of circu
  • Page 25 and 26: DISSERTATION. xi fetta. Magellan ha
  • Page 27 and 28: DISSERTATION. xiii An examination o
  • Page 29 and 30: DISSERTATION. xv sabtu, "Saturday/'
  • Page 31 and 32: DISSEKTATION-. XvU inherent vowel.
  • Page 33: DISSERTATION. lix ABBREVIATIONS OF
  • Page 37 and 38: DISSERTATION. xxiii Javanese anabra
  • Page 39 and 40: DISSERTATION. xxv for the ordinary,
  • Page 41 and 42: DISSERTATION. xxvii sdsaton, " wild
  • Page 45 and 46: DISSERTATION. xxxi the permutation
  • Page 49 and 50: VULGAR. Tagal. Samarang. Madura. Ba
  • Page 51 and 52: DISSERTATION. xxxvii usually stated
  • Page 53 and 54: DISSERTATION. xxxix easily intellig
  • Page 55 and 56: DISSERTATION. xli letter of the alp
  • Page 57 and 58: DISSERTATION, xliii as Sumeru, the
  • Page 59 and 60: DTSSEKTATION. xlv the Archipelago t
  • Page 61 and 62: DISSEETATIOX. xlvii come along, and
  • Page 63 and 64: DISSERTATION. xlix had also settlem
  • Page 65: DISSERTATION. time ai'e sudah, tala
  • Page 69 and 70: DISSERTATION. sinjang, " cloth ; "
  • Page 71 and 72: DISSERTATION. Ivii The ordinal numb
  • Page 73 and 74: DISSEKTATION. Ijx It Avould be curi
  • Page 75 and 76: DISSERTATIOX, l^^i The only specime
  • Page 77 and 78: DISSERTATION. Ixiii for the aspirat
  • Page 79 and 80: DISSERTATION. Ixv case, which is fo
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  • Page 83 and 84: DISSERTATION. Ixix relation are not
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    DISSERTATION. Ixxi are in the follo

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    DISSERTATION, Ixxiil rous. For the

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    MADURESE. Elan, Jaga, sans. Eutar.

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    DISSERTATION. hxvii words are forei

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    DISSERTATION. Ixxix three letters ^

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    " here ; ; ; DISSERTATION. Ixxxi "

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    DTSSERTATIOX. Ixxxiii themselves in

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    ^ DISSERTATION. hxxv advanced of th

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    — DISSERTATION, Ixxxvii vowel o,

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    BUGIS.

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    DISSERTATION. xci Bugis prouuuciati

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    DISSERTATION. xciii guages, the Sum

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    DISSERTATION. xcv Judging by these

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    DISSERTATION. xcvii much larger tha

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    ENGLISH. DISSEKTATION.

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    DISSERTATION. ci particles differ e

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    DISSERTATION. ciii considerable adv

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    DISSERTATION. CT voyages extended n

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    DISSEETATION. cvii each, and which

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    DISSERTATION, cix prefix one which

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    DISSERTATION. cxi for its genitive

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    DISSERTATION. cxiii inaralan ; plup

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    DISSERTATION. CXT Tagala or Bisaya,

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    DISSERTATION. cxvii The same corrup

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    cxx DISSERTATION. more in concrete

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    cxxii DISSERTATION. 25 of these wor

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    cxxiv

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    DISSERTATION. cxxvii western part o

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    DISSERTATIOX. c.Txix of his theory.

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    ; DISSERTATION. exxxi is coarse and

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    cxxxiv DISSERTATION. several words

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    cxxxvi DISSERTATION. but no observe

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    cxxxviii DISSERTATION. is formed by

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    cx\

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    DISSERTATION. cxli the changes prod

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    DISSERTATION. cxlv islands, or at l

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    DISSERTATION. cxlvii storm into the

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    in the Negro ; well-proportioned ;

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    DISSERTATION. cli of which it is h.

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    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION, cliii

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    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION.

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    DISSERTATION. clvii although, by vi

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    DISSERTATION. clix Polynesia. The p

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    DISSERTATION. clxi many miglit be c

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    DISSERTATION. clxiii- parts also of

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    DISSERTATION. ckv African Negro. Th

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    DISSERTATION. clxvii Proceeding eas

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    DISSERTATION. clxix On the authorit

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    « ^' -3 -^ . -^ .^ ^11 J a DISSERT

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    DISSERTATION. clxxiii The conclusio

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    DISSERTATION. clxxv and their conso

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    J DISSERTATION. clxxvii is to the s

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    DISSERTATION. clxxix eighteen verbs

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    DISSERTATION. clxxxi Boripar, and Y

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    DISSERTATION. clxx.\ui I proceed, t

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    clxx

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    cl>IxxxviH

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    DISSERTATION. cxci The names given

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    cxeiv DISSERTATION. of iron ordnanc

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    cxcvi DISSERTATION. The Malay and J

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    cxcviii DISSEETATION. prevalence of

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    cc DISSEKTATION. ENGLISH. MALAY. JA

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    DISSERTATION. coiii and "princess."

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    ccvi DISSEETATION. tliem, and that

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    ccviii DISSERTATION. name for the i

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    DISSERTATION. ccxiii not belong to

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    DISSERTATION. ccxv 'riie cultivated

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    DISSERTATION. cc.wii The influence

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    DISSERTATION. ccxix The first five

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    DISSERTATION". ccxxi Malayan, and a

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    DISSERTATION. ccxxiii Two languages

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    ENGLISH.

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    DISSERTATION. ccxxvii tlie Malayan,

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    DISSERTATION. barley (?), and the f

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    DISSERTATION, ccxxxiii Of this clas

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    ccxxxvi DISSERTATION. referring to

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    ccxxxviii

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    ccxl DISSERTATION. in 1000 of the w

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    ccxlii DISSERTATION. Pacific island

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    cexliv DISSERTATION. two synonymes

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    ccxl'vi DISSERTATION. west, and ext

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    ccxlvlii DISSERTATION. inhabitants.

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    ccl DISSERTATION. Thin, sleuder.

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    cclii DISSERTATION. less intermixtu

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    ccliv DISSERTATION. lying between t

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    cclvi BISSERTATIOX. that the migrat

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    cclvlii DISSERTATION. account, that

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    cclx DISSERTATION. immigration." *

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    cclxii DISSEETATION. " thousand," a

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    cclxiv DISSERTATION. au example of

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    cclxvi DISSEETATION. into Madagasca

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    cclxviii DISSERTATION. also, both t

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    cclxx DISSEETATION. " pepper fruit/

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    cclxxii DISSERTATION, expected, app

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    ccl.x DISSERTATION. Among the class

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    cclxxvi DISSERTATION. be added. In

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    cclxxvlii DISSERTATION. the assista

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    cclxxx DISSERTATION. by the arrival

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    cclxxxii DISSERTATION. ornamental m

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    cclxxxiv DISSERTATION. It may be ob

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    cclxxxvi DISSERTATION. termed provi

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    cclxxxviii DISSERTATION. and never

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    ccxc DISSERTATION. persons under Li

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    A GRAMMAR THE MALAY LANGUAGE. ORTHO

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    ORTHOGKAPHY. 3 distinct character f

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    OKTHOGEAPHY. 5 by Roman letters as

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    ab t PEONUNCIATION. 7 LETTERS OF TH

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    PARTS OF SPEECH. 9 the k is elided

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    NOUN. 11- rang buiiga ini; tarlalu

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    NOUN. 13 balakang, balik, susor, si

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    NOUN. lo D^ri may be rendered in En

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    NOLTN. 17 Antara and the two next p

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    NOUN. 19 naga makutaiia dariprida p

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    ADJECTIVE. 21 chantik, molek ; her

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    NUMERALS. 23 the system of numerati

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    PRONOUNS. 25 are used only in addre

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    PEONOUNS. 27 To the personal pronou

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    VERB. 29 the summit of the island.

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    VERB. 31 Transitive Verb.—A trans

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    VERB. 33 suwaraiia, sapurti buhih p

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    VERB. 35 as to a radical, by the af

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    VERB. 37 and the nasal ng substitut

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    VEKB. 59 from labuh, to anchor, par

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    VEK13. 4L miuer, aud also, a diggin

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    VERB. 4.;} words of the language^ l

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    VERB. 45 saudarafia, utus-mangutus,

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    VERB. ^T not easy to understand. Ji

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    Sakutika barwayang, a^-ampun barkuk

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    VERB. 51 Saorftng p^rampiian mud'a

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    VERB. 53 affix kan may be the prepo

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    generally some reference to an ante

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    KEDUFLlCATIOiS\ 57 constant occurre

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    SYNTAX. 59 The object follows the v

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    PROSODY. 61 PROSODY. The Malay lang

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMAEKS. 63 consists

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Go speech ;

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. 67 Indian is

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    MlSCELLAiSEoUS REMARKS. 69 very cop

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    IDIOMS. 71 sister ; ayah and ayahan

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    HISTORY UF THE LANGUAGE. 73 the peo

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    DlALEGTSc 75 arisen^ more from the

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    LITER ATUKR. 77 author. All Malay l

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    LITERATURE. 79 like that of a rose

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    LITERATURE. 81 all drank, pledging

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    LITERATURE. 83 examples, in additio

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