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A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

xxii DISSERTATION. The

xxii DISSERTATION. The Javanese verb has no inflexions to express time, mood, or voice, or to distinguish transitive from intransitive verbs, or the verb from any other part of speech. All this, as in Malay, is effected by prefixes, affixes, and auxiliaries. A radical word is specially determined as a verb not, as in Malay, by the prefix ma, but by the prefixed particle a, which, for euphony, has one of the nasals, m, ng, or il fre- quently interposed or substituted for the initial of the radical the particular nasal used depending on the initial letter of the radical.* The following are examples:—From kadaton, "a palace," akadaton, " to dwell in a palace ; " from padu, " a dis- pute," apadu, ''to dispute;" from eling, "remembrance," ange- ling, " to remember ; " from emut, also '' remembrance," angemut, " to remember ; " from laga, " war," anglaga, " to war;" from raja, "prosperous," angraja, "to prosper;" from tulis, "painting, writing, or delineation," anulis, "to paint, to delineate, or write ; " from chakal, " catching," ailakal, "to catch." The initial prefix a is, however, frequently elided; and thus we have ngrasa, "to taste," from rasa, " taste ; " masrah, " to surrender," from srah, " surrender ; malabu, "to enter," from labu, "within;" mangwetan, "to go eastward," from wetan, "the east;" mangulon, "to go west," from kulon, "the west;" manglor, "to go north," from lor, " the north ; " and mangidul, " to go south," from kidul, " the south." A casual observer is apt to fancy such words as these, which are only abbreviations, to correspond with the Malay verbs in ma. The difference is more perceptible when the radical words happen to be tlie same. From the pronoun of the first person, aku, for example, comes the Malay verb mangaku, which in Javanese is angaku, or abbreviated, ngaku, both meaning " to confess or ; admit " from stibrang, " across the water," comes the Malay verb manabrang, and the * The rule for the application of the nasals is very easy. Before radicals be- ginning with a vowel the nasal ng is used ; before radicals beginning with nasals no nasal is, of course, required, although a double nasal be used in writing. The labials p and w take m, the dentals d and t and the palatals d' and j take n ; the liquids 1, r, and y, take ng, the gutturals g and k also ng, and the palatal oh, with the sibilant n, or sometimes n. " ;

DISSERTATION. xxiii Javanese anabrangj or ii^brang, both signifying " to go across the water." But the simple radical alone is frequently used as a verb, without any prefix, and as such may be transitive or intransi- tive. Intransitives, either in this form or with the verbal prefix a, are made transitive by either of the three affixes ake, akan, or i ; the first belonging to the popular langvaage, the second to the ceremonial, and the last to either. When the affix i is applied to a radical, the nasal n is interposed, and when a radical ends in i, or in o, the first of these vowels is turned into e, and the last into o. Thus from the radical pad-ang, " clear,^' " from tiba, " to comes the verb amad-angi, " to make clear fall," anibani, " to cause to fall ; " from bachik, " good," in the popular language ambachiki, "to make good" or "to mend;" from sae, with the same meaning in the ceremonial language, saeni, " to make good " ; or " to mend " from mati, " to die," mateni, " to cause to die " or " to kill." The following are examples of the transitive verb, with the affixes ake and akan : —From kabat, " quick," angabatake, " to quicken or hasten " ; from panjang, " long," amanjangakan, " to lengthen " ; from balik, "to return," balikake, "to cause to return" or "to send back ; " from awak, " the body or person," angawakake, " to embody." When, however, either of these affixes follows a radical ending in a vowel, the consonant k is, for euphony, interposed,—as from pratela, "clear, obvious;" amratekakan, " to explain or illustrate ; " and from mirsa, " to see," amirsa- kakan, "to observe or note." A passive form is given to the Javanese verb in three several ways. It is given, as in Malay, by the prefixed inseparable particle di, of which the synonymes in the ceremonial language are dipun and den. Thus, from the radicals gawe and damal, " to make or do," come digawe and dipundamal, " to be made or done ; " from kon and ken, " to order or command," dikon and dipunken; from gabug and gitik, "to strike," digabug and digitik, " to be struck ; " from taleni, itself derived from tali, " a rope," and tangsuli, derived from the ceremonial word for a rope, ditaleni and dipuntangsuli, " to be tied or bound ; " from isin and wirang, " shame or aflFront," diisin and dipunwirang, " to ;

  • Page 2: Oa^i«^/Vii^j. ( .(fc
  • Page 7 and 8: GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY MALAY LANGUA
  • Page 9: THE BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT Si
  • Page 12 and 13: viii TREPACE. Mr. Marsdeiij my book
  • Page 15 and 16: A DISSERTATION AFFINITIES OF THE MA
  • Page 17 and 18: DISSERTATION. iii history refute th
  • Page 19 and 20: DISSERTATION. V the ideas which the
  • Page 21 and 22: DISSEETATION. vii they contain, jus
  • Page 23 and 24: DISSERTATION. ix this kind of circu
  • Page 25 and 26: DISSERTATION. xi fetta. Magellan ha
  • Page 27 and 28: DISSERTATION. xiii An examination o
  • Page 29 and 30: DISSERTATION. xv sabtu, "Saturday/'
  • Page 31 and 32: DISSEKTATION-. XvU inherent vowel.
  • Page 33 and 34: DISSERTATION. lix ABBREVIATIONS OF
  • Page 35: " the creator," literally, " he who
  • Page 39 and 40: DISSERTATION. xxv for the ordinary,
  • Page 41 and 42: DISSERTATION. xxvii sdsaton, " wild
  • Page 45 and 46: DISSERTATION. xxxi the permutation
  • Page 49 and 50: VULGAR. Tagal. Samarang. Madura. Ba
  • Page 51 and 52: DISSERTATION. xxxvii usually stated
  • Page 53 and 54: DISSERTATION. xxxix easily intellig
  • Page 55 and 56: DISSERTATION. xli letter of the alp
  • Page 57 and 58: DISSERTATION, xliii as Sumeru, the
  • Page 59 and 60: DTSSEKTATION. xlv the Archipelago t
  • Page 61 and 62: DISSEETATIOX. xlvii come along, and
  • Page 63 and 64: DISSERTATION. xlix had also settlem
  • Page 65: DISSERTATION. time ai'e sudah, tala
  • Page 69 and 70: DISSERTATION. sinjang, " cloth ; "
  • Page 71 and 72: DISSERTATION. Ivii The ordinal numb
  • Page 73 and 74: DISSEKTATION. Ijx It Avould be curi
  • Page 75 and 76: DISSERTATIOX, l^^i The only specime
  • Page 77 and 78: DISSERTATION. Ixiii for the aspirat
  • Page 79 and 80: DISSERTATION. Ixv case, which is fo
  • Page 81 and 82: DISSERTATION. Ixvii therefore, in o
  • Page 83 and 84: DISSERTATION. Ixix relation are not
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    DISSERTATION, Ixxiil rous. For the

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    MADURESE. Elan, Jaga, sans. Eutar.

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    DISSERTATION. hxvii words are forei

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    DISSERTATION. Ixxix three letters ^

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    " here ; ; ; DISSERTATION. Ixxxi "

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    DTSSERTATIOX. Ixxxiii themselves in

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    ^ DISSERTATION. hxxv advanced of th

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    — DISSERTATION, Ixxxvii vowel o,

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    BUGIS.

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    DISSERTATION. xci Bugis prouuuciati

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    DISSERTATION. xciii guages, the Sum

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    DISSERTATION. xcv Judging by these

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    DISSERTATION. xcvii much larger tha

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    ENGLISH. DISSEKTATION.

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    DISSERTATION. ci particles differ e

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    DISSERTATION. ciii considerable adv

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    DISSERTATION. CT voyages extended n

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    DISSEETATION. cvii each, and which

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    DISSERTATION, cix prefix one which

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    DISSERTATION. cxi for its genitive

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    DISSERTATION. cxiii inaralan ; plup

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    DISSERTATION. CXT Tagala or Bisaya,

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    DISSERTATION. cxvii The same corrup

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    cxx DISSERTATION. more in concrete

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    cxxii DISSERTATION. 25 of these wor

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    cxxiv

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    DISSERTATION. cxxvii western part o

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    DISSERTATIOX. c.Txix of his theory.

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    ; DISSERTATION. exxxi is coarse and

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    cxxxiv DISSERTATION. several words

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    cxxxvi DISSERTATION. but no observe

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    cxxxviii DISSERTATION. is formed by

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    cx\

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    DISSERTATION. cxli the changes prod

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    DISSERTATION. cxlv islands, or at l

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    DISSERTATION. cxlvii storm into the

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    in the Negro ; well-proportioned ;

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    DISSERTATION. cli of which it is h.

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    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION, cliii

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    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION.

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    DISSERTATION. clvii although, by vi

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    DISSERTATION. clix Polynesia. The p

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    DISSERTATION. clxi many miglit be c

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    DISSERTATION. clxiii- parts also of

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    DISSERTATION. ckv African Negro. Th

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    DISSERTATION. clxvii Proceeding eas

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    DISSERTATION. clxix On the authorit

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    « ^' -3 -^ . -^ .^ ^11 J a DISSERT

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    DISSERTATION. clxxiii The conclusio

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    DISSERTATION. clxxv and their conso

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    J DISSERTATION. clxxvii is to the s

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    DISSERTATION. clxxix eighteen verbs

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    DISSERTATION. clxxxi Boripar, and Y

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    DISSERTATION. clxx.\ui I proceed, t

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    clxx

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    cl>IxxxviH

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    DISSERTATION. cxci The names given

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    cxeiv DISSERTATION. of iron ordnanc

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    cxcvi DISSERTATION. The Malay and J

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    cxcviii DISSEETATION. prevalence of

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    cc DISSEKTATION. ENGLISH. MALAY. JA

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    DISSERTATION. coiii and "princess."

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    ccvi DISSEETATION. tliem, and that

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    ccviii DISSERTATION. name for the i

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    DISSERTATION. ccxiii not belong to

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    DISSERTATION. ccxv 'riie cultivated

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    DISSERTATION. cc.wii The influence

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    DISSERTATION. ccxix The first five

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    DISSERTATION". ccxxi Malayan, and a

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    DISSERTATION. ccxxiii Two languages

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    ENGLISH.

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    DISSERTATION. ccxxvii tlie Malayan,

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    DISSERTATION. barley (?), and the f

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    DISSERTATION, ccxxxiii Of this clas

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    ccxxxvi DISSERTATION. referring to

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    ccxxxviii

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    ccxl DISSERTATION. in 1000 of the w

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    ccxlii DISSERTATION. Pacific island

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    cexliv DISSERTATION. two synonymes

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    ccxl'vi DISSERTATION. west, and ext

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    ccxlvlii DISSERTATION. inhabitants.

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    ccl DISSERTATION. Thin, sleuder.

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    cclii DISSERTATION. less intermixtu

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    ccliv DISSERTATION. lying between t

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    cclvi BISSERTATIOX. that the migrat

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    cclvlii DISSERTATION. account, that

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    cclx DISSERTATION. immigration." *

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    cclxii DISSEETATION. " thousand," a

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    cclxiv DISSERTATION. au example of

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    cclxvi DISSEETATION. into Madagasca

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    cclxviii DISSERTATION. also, both t

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    cclxx DISSEETATION. " pepper fruit/

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    cclxxii DISSERTATION, expected, app

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    ccl.x DISSERTATION. Among the class

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    cclxxvi DISSERTATION. be added. In

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    cclxxvlii DISSERTATION. the assista

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    cclxxx DISSERTATION. by the arrival

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    cclxxxii DISSERTATION. ornamental m

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    cclxxxiv DISSERTATION. It may be ob

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    cclxxxvi DISSERTATION. termed provi

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    cclxxxviii DISSERTATION. and never

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    ccxc DISSERTATION. persons under Li

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    A GRAMMAR THE MALAY LANGUAGE. ORTHO

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    ORTHOGKAPHY. 3 distinct character f

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    OKTHOGEAPHY. 5 by Roman letters as

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    ab t PEONUNCIATION. 7 LETTERS OF TH

  • Page 315 and 316:

    PARTS OF SPEECH. 9 the k is elided

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    NOUN. 11- rang buiiga ini; tarlalu

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    NOUN. 13 balakang, balik, susor, si

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    NOUN. lo D^ri may be rendered in En

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    NOLTN. 17 Antara and the two next p

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    NOUN. 19 naga makutaiia dariprida p

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    ADJECTIVE. 21 chantik, molek ; her

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    NUMERALS. 23 the system of numerati

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    PRONOUNS. 25 are used only in addre

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    PEONOUNS. 27 To the personal pronou

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    VERB. 29 the summit of the island.

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    VERB. 31 Transitive Verb.—A trans

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    VERB. 33 suwaraiia, sapurti buhih p

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    VERB. 35 as to a radical, by the af

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    VERB. 37 and the nasal ng substitut

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    VEKB. 59 from labuh, to anchor, par

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    VEK13. 4L miuer, aud also, a diggin

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    VERB. 4.;} words of the language^ l

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    VERB. 45 saudarafia, utus-mangutus,

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    VERB. ^T not easy to understand. Ji

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    Sakutika barwayang, a^-ampun barkuk

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    VERB. 51 Saorftng p^rampiian mud'a

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    VERB. 53 affix kan may be the prepo

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    generally some reference to an ante

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    KEDUFLlCATIOiS\ 57 constant occurre

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    SYNTAX. 59 The object follows the v

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    PROSODY. 61 PROSODY. The Malay lang

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMAEKS. 63 consists

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Go speech ;

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. 67 Indian is

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    MlSCELLAiSEoUS REMARKS. 69 very cop

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    IDIOMS. 71 sister ; ayah and ayahan

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    HISTORY UF THE LANGUAGE. 73 the peo

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    DlALEGTSc 75 arisen^ more from the

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    LITER ATUKR. 77 author. All Malay l

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    LITERATURE. 79 like that of a rose

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    LITERATURE. 81 all drank, pledging

  • Page 389 and 390:

    LITERATURE. 83 examples, in additio

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