xxTi DISSEKTATION. and kaemutan, "remembrance ;'' from rasa, "to taste/' kara- saan, "taste or feeling;" from duwur, "high," panduwur, "height;" from amuk, "to run a muck," pangamuk, "a muck ;" from buri, " behind," pamburi, " the rear ;" from ar&p, "before," pambarap, "the front," and also "first-born child ;" from gawa, " to bear or carry," panggawa, " a bearer or carrier," and also the title ofthe principal Javanese ministers of State ; from machan, " a tiger," pamachanan, " a tiger-house" or "place for keeping tigers;" from Sunda, "the Sunda people," Pasundan, "the country ofthe Sundas ;" from omah and griya, "a house," pomahan and pagriyana, "homestead or homestall;" from tilam, "to sleep," patilaman, "a sleeping-place;" from manusa, "a man," kamanusan, "mankind" or "human nature." When a radical ends withthe vowel i, the a ofthe affix an is turned into e, and when in u into o ; as from bopati, "a noble ofthe first order," bopaten or kabopaten, " the class of nobles ofthe first order;" from grami, "trade," gramen, "merchandise;" from chalatu, " to speak," clialaton, " speech." A nasal is some- times interposed for euphony; as from sae, "good" in the ceremonial language, saenan, " goodness or virtue." In Malay, the vowel which follows the prefix in p is always a, but in Javanese it is generally a, sometimes a, and occasionally i ; as from gawe, "to do," pagaweyan, "employment;" from bagi, ''to divide," pambagi, "division, portion, or share;" from tapung, "to join or unite," pitapung, "junction or union." With the initial prefix p, also, there are commutations of other consonants with nasals, andthe consonant is frequently placed before its vowel ; as from jurit, " war," prajurit, " a warrior or soldier;" from kara, "to do," prakara, "an afi'air;" and from tand'a, "to mark" or "a mark," pratand-a, "a token or sign." Besides these modes of forming abstract nouns, thei'e is another almost peculiar to the Javanese, for there are but very few examples of it in Malay. This consists in doubling the first syllable ofthe radical, which, however, if it terminate in the vowels a or u, these are turned into ^ ; as from bakal, the name of a class of small officers, babakal, the class or order of such small officers ; from bm-u, " to pursue or chase," buburon, "beasts ofthe chase or game;" from sata, "a wild beast,"
DISSERTATION. xxvii sdsaton, " wild beasts collectively ; " from sare, " to sleep," s^sarean, " a sleeping place -," from rapen, " to sing/^ rarapen, "singing, poetry, song;'^ from gawa, "to carry," gagawayan, "a burden;" from reka, "to think," narekan, "thought." All these different forms of abstract nouns have substantially the same import, and occasionally, indeed, two or more ofthem can be applied to the same radical. In these abstract nouns, the sense, in general, follows closely that ofthe word from which they are derived ; but occasionally there is a very considerable departure from it, andthe practice ofthelanguage alone determines the exact meaning. The practice of reduplication is even more frequent in Javanese than in Malay. It expresses reciprocity, frequenta- Eedupiica- ti^encss, extension, plurality, and intensity, although, *'''°sometimes, none ofthese qualities are found in its use. The following are some examples :—From tulung, " to assist," comes tulung-tinuluu, " to assist mutually," literally, " to assist and be assisted;" from bad-il, "to shoot or discharge a missile," bad-il-binad-il, " to shoot at one another," literally, " to shoot and be shot at ;" from duga, kera, and uda, " to think or consider," duga-duga, kera-kera, and uda-uda, "to ponder, to 'meditate;" from surak, "to shout," surak-surak, "to shout on" or "go on shouting;" from long, "a fire-rocket," longlongan, "fire-works;" from riris, "small rain," riris-riris, "a continual drizzle;" from balik, "to return or go back," balik-balik, "to return again;" from bunga, "glad," bunga-bunga, "very glad;" from alit, "little," alit-alit, "very little;" from alon, " slowly," alon-alon, " very slowly, gently ; " from ulu, " the head," ulu-ulu, " chieftains." Frequently, the reduplicated word is not traceable to its primitive, or appears itself to be a primi- tive; as etok-etok and api-api, "to feign;" ara-ara, "an open plain;" kochar-kachir, "scattered about;" rojok-rajek, "crushed to pieces;" long-linongan, "mutual slaughter." As the ceremonial languageof Java is the only one of its kind among thelanguages ofthe East, and consequently a subject of interest, Ceremonial I shall cndeavour to render some account of it. language, j^ jg Called by the Javanese krama or basa, both words in this case, meaning the "polite," in contradistinction to the
Allen and Greenough s New Latin Grammar (Dover Language Guides) J.H. Allen
Paperback. Pub Date :2006-02-10 Pages: 477 Language: English Publisher: Dover Publications A venerable resource for more than a century. Allen and Greenoughs New Latin Grammar is still regarded by students and teachers as the finest Latin reference grammar available. Concise. comprehensive. and well organized. it is unrivaled in depth and clarity. placing a wealth of advice on usage. vocabulary. diction. composition. and syntax within easy reach of Latin scholars at all levels.This sourcebooks three-part treatment starts with words and forms. covering parts of speech. declensions. and conjugations. The second part. syntax. explores cases. moods. and tenses. The concluding section offers information on archaic usages. Latin verse. and prose composition. among other subjects. Extensive appendixes feature a glossary of terms and indexes. Students of history. religion. and liter...
Language : English