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TROUBLED WATERS - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

TROUBLED WATERS - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Information regarding

Information regarding the adherence to the ban on using the cold harpoon (Article III, paragraph 6) and abstinence from the use of the electric lance must, in addition, be taken in good faith, since this is also not supplied by independently verified sources. There are no regulatory requirements for ‘avoiding excitement, pain or suffering’ in the ICRW, as there are no maximum pursuit times, no limit on the number of weapons or bullets that can be deployed on one animal, no upper limit on the acceptable time to death, no specific requirement for the rate of instantaneous kills and indeed, in many hunts, there is no upper limit on the number of animals that can be struck and lost (Anon 2003a). The only binding requirements on contracting governments consist of those listed in Table 1. Conclusion When assessing the welfare potential of whale killing methods using accepted principles of humane slaughter, it is clear that current whaling operations have a low welfare potential, and are therefore likely to cause severe pain and suffering in the hunted animal. Emerging international law governing the commercial slaughter of livestock animals has evolved over the past quarter century or more and gained much momentum in the last five years. This emerging customary law may eventually become as binding upon countries as the ICRW itself. Current national and regional legislation imposes standards to avoid pain and suffering during slaughter. The development of standards for the slaughter of livestock has shown that improvements in welfare are most likely where strict enforcement exists. Such standards and mechanisms for enforcement are currently not available for modern whaling practices. However, even if such mechanisms were put in place, due to the nature of whaling operations and the potential for poor welfare, it is considered unlikely that the slaughter of whales for commercial or aboriginal subsistence purposes would be able to comply with the standards now expected for the slaughter of livestock species. References Anon 1980. Report of the Workshop on Humane Killing Techniques for Whales. International Whaling Commission Report IWC/33/15. Anon 2003a. Welfare implications for ‘struck and lost’ cetaceans. Submitted by the UK to the IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. Berlin, Germany June 7-9, 2003. IWC/55/WK21. Anon 2003b. Evaluation of current methods used to kill whales in relation to species taken. Submitted by the UK to the IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. Berlin, Germany June 7-9, 2003. IWC/55/WK20. Appleby, 1991. Do Hens Suffer In Battery Cages? The Athene Trust: Petersfield, UK. Broom, D.M. 2001. Evolution of pain. In: Pain: its nature and management in man and animals. Eds: Soulsby, Lord E.J.L. and Morton, D. Roy. Soc. Med. Int. Cong. Symp. Ser., 246, 17-25. Butterworth, A., Sadler, L., Knowles, T.G. and Kestin, S.C. 2003. Evaluating Possible Indicators of Insensibility and Death in Cetacea. Submitted to the 2003 IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. IWC/55/WK4. Chairman’s Report 1978. Report of the International Whaling Commission 29: 32. Chairman’s Report 1979. Report of the International Whaling Commission 30: 36-37. A COMPARISON BETWEEN SLAUGHTERHOUSES AND METHODS USED DURING WHALING 101

102 A REVIEW OF THE WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF MODERN WHALING ACTIVITIES CIWF Trust, 2002. Farm Assurance Schemes: Can we trust them? Compassion In World Farming Trust: Petersfield, UK. Dawkins, 1980. Animal Suffering. London, Chapman and Hall. Druce C. and Lymbery P.J. 2001. Outlawed in Europe: Farm Animal Welfare – 30 Years of Progress in Europe. Animal Rights International. Washington. EU, 1993. Council Directive 93/199/EC of 22 December 1993 on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing. The Council of the European Union. Brussels, Belgium. FAWC 2003. Report on the Welfare of Farmed Animals at Slaughter or Killing. Part 1: Red Meat Animals. Farm Animal Welfare Council, June 2003. London: United Kingdom. Gregory, N.G. & Lowe, T.E. 1999. Expectations and Legal Requirements for Stunning and Slaughter in Slaughterhouses. Submitted to the 1999 IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Mehtods.IWC/51/WK1. Iggo, A. 1984. Pain in Animals. Hume Memorial Lecture. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, UK. Ishikawa H. 2002. Report on Whale Killing Methods in the 2001/2002 JARPA. Submitted by Japan to the 2002 Working Group on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. IWC/54/WKM&AWI 11. Kestin, S.C. 1995. Welfare Aspects of the Commercial Slaughter of Whales. Animal Welfare, 4: 11-27. UFAW: Potters Bar, UK. Knudsen S.K. and Øen E.O. 2003. Blast-induced neurotrauma in whales. Neuroscience Research 46:377-386. Maas B. 2003. The potential stress effects of whaling operations and the welfare implications for hunted cetaceans. Submitted to the IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. Berlin, Germany. June 7-9 2003. IWC/55/WK19. MAFF 1995. The Welfare of Animals (Slaughter or Killing) Regulations 1995. Statutory Instrument 1995 No. 731. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, London, UK. Stachowitsch M. and Brakes P. 2003. Review of secondary killing methods employed for whales hunted under special permit, commercial and aboriginal subsistence whaling. Submitted by Austria and co-sponsored by New Zealand to the IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. Berlin, Germany. June 7-9, 2003. IWC/55/WK22. Tansey, G. & D’Silva, J. 1999. The Meat Business: Devouring a Hungry Planet. Earthscan: London, UK. van Liere D. W. 2003. Sea and weather conditions in an area V region in the Southern Ocean Sanctuary with special reference to whale killing methods. Submitted by the Netherlands to the IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods. Berlin, Germany. June 7-9 2003. IWC/55/WK3. Wotton, S. 2001. Principles and Methods of Humane Slaughter. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Animal Feeds and Veterinary Drugs Congress. Metro Manila, Philippines, May 30-June 2 2001. WSPA 2003. Race to the Top Animal Welfare Module Briefing Paper. World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) on www.racetothetop.org Footnotes 1 An exception is made for religious purposes, although even then a specified procedure is required (Gregory and Lowe 1999). 2 Resolution NO. XIV, Animal Welfare Mandate of the OIE May 2002. 3 IWC/55/WK12 – Times to death in the Greenlandic minke and fin whale hunt in 2002.

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