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TROUBLED WATERS - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

TROUBLED WATERS - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

categories of whaling:

categories of whaling: commercial, special permit (or ‘scientific’) and aboriginal subsistence whaling. Since most animals are unable to communicate the extent of their pain or suffering, this has necessitated the development of several methods for evaluating animal welfare. These methods include measuring motor reflexes, neuroendocrine responses and monitoring changes in behaviour. Pain is also often accompanied by increased heart rate and blood pressure changes. In the last decade behavioural changes have been used extensively in the assessment of pain in animals (Otto 1997). Therefore it is not inappropriate to apply an evaluation of potential pain and suffering to the methods employed to pursue, capture and kill whales during whaling operations (chapter 9). It is intended that this text will provide a definitive guide to the many issues relating to the welfare of cetaceans during hunting operations. The main focus will be on the hunting of larger whales, but for completeness and comparative purposes consideration will also be given to ‘small cetaceans’ (chapter 7). The aim of the review is to illustrate, using contemporary scientific, legal and ethical principles, the true scale of the welfare problems associated with whaling activities in the 21st Century. References Anon 1980. Report of the Workshop on Humane Killing Techniques. International Whaling Commission Report. IWC/33/15. Bond, J. 1753. An account of a machine for killing of whales. Philosophical Transactions 47: 429-435. Butterworth, A., Sadler, L., Knowles, T.G. and Kestin S.C. 2003. Evaluating possible indicators of insensibility and death in cetacea. IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods. IWC/55/WK4. Golovlev, I.F. 1984. Some information on the application of a hot grenade harpoon to kill minke whales by the Soviet Antarctic whaling fleet ‘Soviet Ukraine’ during 1982/83 and 1983/84 whaling seasons. Proceedings of the International Whaling Commission IWC/TC/36/HK8. Harrison, R. 1988. History of Whaling. In: Whales Dolphins and Porpoises. Eds. R. Harrison and M.M. Bryden. Intercontinental Publishing Corporation Limited. Hoydal, K. 1986. Data on the long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melaene in Faroe waters, and an attempt to use the 274 years’ time series of catches to assess the state of the stock. Paper SC/38/SM7 presented to the 1986 IWC Scientific Committee, p.16. Johnsen, A.O. 1940. The shell harpoon. Norsk Hvalfangst-Tidende 29(9): 222-241. Johnsen, A.O. 1947. Norwegian patents relating to whaling and the whaling industry. A statistical and historical analysis. A.W. Brøggers Boktrykkeri A/S, Oslo. Kano, H. and Hasui, S. 1980. Progress of Research, Development and Experiments on Humane Methods of Catching Whales During 1979/80 and Research Programme for 1980/81. Report from the Japanese Whaling Association, p.42. Kirkwood, J.K., Sainsbury, A.W. and Bennett, P.M. 1994. The welfare of free-living animals: methods of assessment. Animal Welfare Journal 3(4): 257-27. Knudsen, S.K. and Øen, E.O. 2003. Blast-induced neurotrauma in whales. Neuroscience Research 46: 377-386. Mitchell, E., Reeves, R.R. and Evely, A. 1986. Bibliography of Whale Killing Techniques. Report of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 7. A BACKGROUND TO WHALING 11

12 A REVIEW OF THE WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF MODERN WHALING ACTIVITIES Otto, K. 1997. Animal Pain Behaviour. DTW Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 104(2): 46-48. Sanderson, I.T. 1956. Follow the Whale. Little, Brown and Company, Boston. Øen, E.O. 1983. Killing times of minke whales in the Norwegian coastal whaling in 1981 and 1982 seasons. Norsisk Veterinaer Medicin 35(7-9): 314-318. Øen, E.O. 1995. A Norwegian penthrite grenade for minke whales: development, model description and results of hunting trials with Norwegian prototypes and a modified Japanese penthrite grenade in 1983. In Killing Methods for Minke and Bowhead Whales. E.O. Øen, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, Oslo, Norway. Submitted by Norway to the 1995 IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods and Associated Welfare Issues. IWC/47/WK8. Øen, E.O. 1999. Improvements in hunting and Killing Methods for Minke Whales in Norway. Submitted by the Government of Norway to the 1999 IWC Workshop on Whale Killing Methods. IWC/51/WK11. Footnotes 1 Black powder is a mechanical mixture of sulphur, saltpetre and charcoal (Øen 1995). 2 Article III, paragraph 6, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling 1946. 3 Knudsen and Øen (2003) noted that an oblique shot to one minke causes a detonation in region B (between the rear of the brain and the pectoral flippers) in the muscle tissue, with an exit wound in front of one of the pectoral flippers. Despite being closer to the brain than other detonations, this blast did not cause skull fracture (except of the ear bones), as some energy may have been lost to the water. 4 The Faroe Islands is the only exception, providing some details on the methods used, but no regular data on time to death. 5 Article III, paragraphs 10d and 10e of the ICRW. 6 Relaxation of lower jaw or no flipper movement or sinking without active movement (Anon 1980).

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