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No Butts:

Smoking-Related Litter

ENCAMS Research Report

March 2008


No Butts: Smoking-Related Litter

No Butts: Smoking-Related Litter

Written by Dr. Fiona Campbell

This book was first published in 2008 by Environmental Campaigns

Copyright © 2008 Environmental Campaigns Limited (ENCAMS)

No part of this book may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without prior permission in

writing from the publisher. Permission will normally be given free of charge to charitable and other

non-profit making organisations.

ENCAMS is a registered charity No. 1071737

ENCAMS, Elizabeth House, The Pier, Wigan, WN3 4EX

ISBN 978-1-904860-09-9

Designed by Vivid

Printed on recycled paper

Contents

Executive Summary 5

1. Introduction 6

2. Methodology 8

3. Smoking Behaviour 9

4. Disposing of Smoking-Related Litter 10

5. Are Smoking-Related Materials Litter? 11

6. How to Prevent Smoking-Related Litter 12

7. Non-Smokers 14

8. Conclusions 15

9. Next Steps 16

10. References 18

3


Executive Summary

Smoking-related litter is a pervasive problem.

Cigarette butts, matches and discarded, empty packets

are the most littered item in the country. They also have

a detrimental effect on water quality and wildlife, and

carelessly discarded cigarettes are the biggest source of

fires in the UK.

The aim of the research described in this report was to

understand smokers’ attitudes towards the litter they

dropped. It was also used to devise and test campaign

messages. Key findings are summarised below:

Smoking-related littering was neither a mechanical nor an inevitable act. It was influenced

by where smokers were, whether there were others looking and if there was anywhere to

put cigarette butts. The presence of other people sometimes put smokers off from littering,

mainly due to guilt and the fear of being fined. Smokers were also less likely to litter in their

own neighbourhoods, workplaces and gardens, and did not like disposing of cigarette butts

inside their cars.

• A major factor behind smokers dropping cigarette ends was their tendency to regard butts as

different from other types of litter. The reasons for this included the (incorrect) belief that

they were biodegradable and easily displaced; disposing of them in bins could be hazardous;

and carrying them was difficult because they were unclean and odorous.

No consensus about the best overall campaign message emerged but some key points

were uncovered.

• Making smokers feel guilty about dropping butts should be avoided as they already feel

guilty enough about smoking;

• Environmental messages had little impact because they were perceived to be too remote;

• Fining could be a deterrent but serious doubts existed about its practicality;

• Messages emphasising cigarette butts were litter too were positively received;

• Visual images could be important so long as they were relevant;

• Messages that are patronising, insulting or antagonistic should be avoided;

• Messages pointing out that smoking-related litter is no different from other types of litter

should be encouraged.

• The majority of non-smokers did not like to see smokers dropping butts but had never pointed

out this behaviour to the smokers they had witnessed doing it.

The results described in this report were used to undertake a series of smoking related litter

campaigns between February 2006 and September 2007. ENCAMS ran these campaigns in

partnership with a total of 27 different local authorities and they resulted in up to a 35% reduction

in smoking related litter in monitored sites.

4 5


1. Introduction

1.1 What is Smoking-Related Litter?

Cigarettes are shredded tobacco leaves packed into paper tubes. After tobacco leaves have

been dried and cut to make cigarettes, they are treated with chemicals and a range of different

ingredients added. The purpose of these chemicals and additives is to modify the flavour of a

cigarette, to ensure that it remains lit and to increase the delivery of nicotine.

In total, tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 different chemicals, many of which are toxic,

mutagenic and carcinogenic. The purpose of the filter found at the end of most cigarettes is to

trap some of these chemicals and other particulate components of smoke. Contrary

to popular belief, cigarette filters are not made from cotton but are composed of tightly packed,

thin fibres of the plastic, cellulose acetate.

Once a cigarette has been smoked it will be disposed of. If this cannot be done safely or

conveniently it will be dropped on the ground. Cigarette butts are the biggest component

of smoking-related litter. There are, however, other types of smoking-related litter including

matches, empty packets and their associated packaging that are dropped on the street every

day by smokers.

In the UK, 22% of the population smoke (23% of men and 21% of women) 1 . Overall prevalence

of smoking has fallen from 28% in 1998 to 24% in 2005. This followed a period of little change

between 1982 and 1990; before which the percentage of people who smoked fell substantially

from 45% in 1974 to 35% in 1982.

1.2 Is Smoking-Related Litter a Problem?

In a recent survey of over 10,000 sites including a range of different land uses, ENCAMS found

smoking-related litter present at 78% of these 2 . There are very few land uses unaffected by

smoking-related litter, although it is particularly common in shopping districts – both primary

(99%) and secondary (98%). This makes smokers materials the most littered item and while

the percentage of the population who smoke has fallen since 1998, smoking-related litter has

remained relatively constant over the past four years. Furthermore, since the implementation of a

new law on 1st July 2007 to make virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces in England

smokefree there has been a significant increase in smoking-related litter 3 . Eighty-five percent of

local authorities have noticed an increase, and the number of sites affected and the number of

butts found of the ground have also increased.

Sites Affected by Smoking-Related Litter

Primary retail/

commercial

Secondary retail/

commercial

Industry etc.

High density

housing

Low density

social housing

Main roads

Transport etc.

Low density

private housing

Other highways

Rural roads

Parks and

open spaces

Watersides

0

43

48

10 20 30 40 50

% sites

60 70 80 90 100

60

75

79

84

83

86

87

90

99

98

Although many smokers believe it is

acceptable to litter cigarette butts because

they are biodegradable, this is incorrect.

Many estimates exist as to how long it takes

a cigarette butt to break down into its raw

ingredients and be absorbed back into the

environment 4 . It may be anywhere between 18

months and 500 years. Some claims suggest

that they never degrade. This means that

carelessly discarded cigarettes are persistent.

They are also the biggest source of fires in

the UK 5 and were a contributory factor in two

of Britain’s worst disasters - Bradford City

Football fire in 1985 where 40 people died and

the King’s Cross Underground station fire in

1987 where 31 people died.

Smoking-related litter is not only found on

land but also in water where it can have

a detrimental effect on water quality and

wildlife. Cigarette butts dropped on streets

and pavements may be washed into drains

by rain, where they are carried to streams,

rivers and beaches. The filters in butts contain

toxic chemicals that have been removed

from cigarette smoke. Under laboratory

conditions, these chemicals have been shown

to contaminate water supplies when they are

leached from butts 6 . Cigarette butts may also

be mistaken for food and ingested by fish,

birds, whales and other marine creatures 7 .

Once this has happened, they can interfere

with the animal’s normal foraging behaviour

and, in some cases, even lead to death.

1.3 ENCAMS Work

In 2005, ENCAMS was asked by Defra to

develop a package of support that would

enable local authorities to deal with smokingrelated

litter. This included a knowledge bank

(a CD-Rom containing information about

smoking-related litter); seminars; and

campaigns. The first campaign took place in

February 2006; the second in June 2007, a

third in September 2007 three months after

implementation of legislation to make virtually

all enclosed public places and workplaces in

England smoke-free.

To inform these campaigns and other work,

ENCAMS undertook a piece of market

research to understand smokers’ attitudes

towards the litter they dropped. The market

research was also used to devise and test

campaign messages.

1.4 What is the Purpose of this Report?

The purpose of this report is to provide an

overview of the research, which involved

both smokers and non-smokers, and

demonstrate how this research was used to

run an anti-litter campaign.

1.5 Who is this Report For?

The report is likely to be of interest to local

authorities who want to undertake action to

deal with the problem of smoking-related litter

as the findings presented here can be used to

inform their approach.

Participants quotes are verbatim and do not

necessarily reflect the views of ENCAMS.

Furthermore, since this research was carried

out in 2005 it mentions, but does not

demonstrate the effect of legislation introduced

on July 1st 2007 to make virtually all enclosed

public places and workplaces in England

smoke free. This is the subject of another

research report 3 .

6 7

% people

Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking-Related Litter in England

40

30

20

10

0 0

1978

1982

1986

1990

1994

1998

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

% sites

Cigarette smoking

Smoking-related litter


2. Methodology

The research was

undertaken in three stages.

2.1 Stage 1

Stage 1 consisted of four focus groups, lasting

approximately 90 minutes each. A range of

different ages and socioeconomic groups 8

were represented and all participants were

regular smokers who admitted to habitual or

occasional smoking-related littering.

The discussion guide used for these groups

covered existing smoking behaviour;

spontaneous solutions to smoking-related

littering; and prompted solutions.

2.2 Stage 2

Stage 2 involved six focus groups. Participants

were recruited according to criteria adapted

during Stage 1, while the stimulus cards

depicting campaign messages and the

discussion guide were based on those used

during Stage 1.

2.3 Stage 3

Finally, 1,524 non-smokers aged 16

and over were interviewed over the

telephone about their attitudes towards

smoking-related littering.

3. Smoking Behaviour

This section is about people’s smoking behaviour:

when they smoke, how often they smoke and how smoking

is affected by the presence of others.

Smokers admitted that they modified their

smoking behaviour according to where they

were and who they were with. Many people

smoked more when they were in the company

of friends or on a night out, especially if

drinking alcohol.

“Some weeks 20, sometimes up to 60,

depends how social my week is.”

Female 21 – 40, Manchester

“As soon as I have a drink in my hand

I want a cigarette, because the two

go together.”

Female 41 – 65, Manchester

At work smoking also provided the opportunity

to socialise with other smokers and to take

a break.

“Half the time you say yes to go for a

ciggie just to get out of the office.”

Male, 41 – 65, Slough

People smoked less too, especially at home.

This was because they lived with nonsmokers,

or they were concerned about the

smell and dirt created by cigarettes, or the

effects of passive smoking.

“I smoke quite a bit but I don’t smoke in

the house... I’m more conscious of nonsmokers

coming in... I smoke in

the garden.”

Male, 21 – 40, Slough

Women, but not men, were less likely to

smoke outdoors, often citing feelings of

embarrassment as the reason for not

doing this.

“I don’t walk along with a cigarette,

I remember my mum saying that’s

common.”

Female, 21 – 40, Slough

Smokers, especially women, felt stigmatised

for smoking. They were very conscious of

non-smokers and moderated their behaviour

around them by smoking less, not smoking at

all, or smoking out of doors.

“On holiday I was the only smoker, I felt

like a leper it was terrible.”

Male, 41 -65, Slough

“You’re a lot more concerned about

people around you that don’t smoke.

You wouldn’t dream of doing it in

someone’s house.”

Female, 21 – 40, Manchester

8 9


4. Disposing of Smoking-Related Litter

Section 4 is about how smokers dispose of their litter and

their reasons for doing so.

Several of the older female participants

insisted that they never dropped smokingrelated

litter. For the remainder, what they did

with their cigarette butts depended on whether

anyone was looking; if there was anywhere

to put their butts; and where they were. Each

factor is considered in more detail below.

Most participants said that they checked

to see if anyone was looking before they

dropped a cigarette butt. In some cases, this

was because they felt guilty. In others, it was

because they were aware that they could be

fined if caught.

“On the train station platform, if the

man is going around sweeping up the

dog ends then I’m really conscious of it,

I try not to drop it. If he’s not around I

don’t think of it as litter then. I just flick it

on the track.”

Male, 41 – 65, Slough

“It’s who is around, I saw a documentary

on the television, there was a guy going

around a ward fining people £50. I just

got a bit wary.”

Male, 21 – 40, Slough

Smokers said that if a bin wasn’t available they

would drop their cigarette butt on the ground.

However, many did not go out of their way to

find a bin, and even if there was one readily

available, there were concerns about using it

since lighted butts could cause fires and often

bins were messy to use.

“If you’re walking about you do see quite

a lot of bins don’t you. If ashtray bins

were as frequent as the bins, it would

stop you from flicking it.”

Male, 21 – 40, Manchester

“You get ash all around the edge and

if you put your finger in you get ash all

over your hand, it’s a bit horrible.”

Male, 21 – 40, Manchester

People felt better if they could find a drain to

flick a cigarette butt down rather than drop it

on the street. They were also more conscious

of littering butts in their own neighbourhood

and workplace. If they smoked in their garden,

for example, they didn’t throw their cigarette

butt on the ground. The same was true for the

area immediately outside their workplace and

also inside their cars.

“Because it’s my workplace I do put it in

the ashtray bin. If I was on the street

I wouldn’t.”

Female, 21 – 40, Slough

“New cars cost money, you put a

cigarette out in them the ashtray

is ruined.”

Male, 21 – 40, Slough

5. Are Smoking-Related Materials Litter?

This section explores smokers’ views about the materials

they dropped and whether they regarded them as litter.

Smokers who admitted to dropping butts

acknowledged that it was, technically,

littering. However, they claimed that they did

not drop other types of litter such as that

arising from food.

“People will point out that there’s a crisp

packet on the floor, I’ve never known

anyone to point out a cigarette butt. I

think it’s socially accepted.”

Male, 21 – 40, Slough

Women tended to feel guiltier than men about

dropping cigarette butts. Some even went so

far as to say it was more acceptable for men

to drop butts than it was for women.

“I know my mum would kill me [if she

saw me dropping butts] – she’d kill me if

she knew I smoked.”

Female, 21 – 40, Manchester

Even though smokers admitted that cigarette

butts were technically litter, they felt that

they differed in several important respects

from other types of litter. First, cigarette ends

were small and insignificant. This meant

that dropping them was easy and likely to

have little effect. However, smokers did

acknowledge that en masse butts

became unsightly.

“At first you think they’re so small you

don’t notice them. But now you see more

people outside offices with a pile of them.

It’s beginning to really annoy me, so

now it’s become more like litter. If you

see more than one it’s litter I think.”

Female, 21 – 40, Manchester

Second, butts were perceived to be

biodegradable and easily displaced. This

meant that smokers did not worry overly about

dropping them as they would soon disappear.

Third, the special properties of cigarette

butts meant that smokers were reluctant to

put them in a bin – the contents could catch

fire – and didn’t want to carry them on their

person – they were dirty and smelly.

“I wouldn’t use a bin, you’d be worried

about what was in them, they could

catch fire.”

Female, 21 – 40, Slough

“You can’t put it out and put it in your

pocket... it’s hot... the smell... it’s dirty.”

Male, 21 – 40, Slough

Other reasons given for dropping cigarette

butts included: there were not enough bins

(especially dedicated smoking bins); the

streets were already littered; and dropping

butts was not as bad as dropping

chewing gum.

10 11


6. How to Prevent Smoking-Related Litter

Section 6 describes smokers’

reactions to different

campaign messages in order

to recommend the best

overall approach.

6.1 Campaign Messages

6.1.1 Dirty

Just because I

smoke doesn’t

mean I’m dirty

Participants, especially women, reacted

strongly to messages about smokers who

dropped butts being dirty. At best most people

found this message confusing as it seemed to

equate smoking-related littering with smoking

per se. At worst people were insulted by it.

“I’d really take umbrage over that.”

Female, 21 – 40, Slough

“It sounds like a campaign for smokers

saying don’t hate me because I smoke.”

Male, 21 – 40, Slough

6.1.2 Cigarette Butts are Litter too

Cigarette

butts are litter,

dropping

cigarette butts

is littering

- no different to

other littering

If you drop

cigarette ends,

the opposite

sex will think

you’re dirty and

unattractive

Those couple

of cigarette

ends that you

drop each day

is the same as

emptying your

car ashtray

onto the

roadside every

week

Imagine filling

the Albert Hall

with cigarette

ends: that’s a

typical day

for Britain’s

smokers

Discarded

cigarette ends,

boxes and

matches make

our streets

look unsightly

and dirty. If

every smokers

dropped one

cigarette a

week in the

UK, our streets

would be

knee deep in

624 million

cigarette ends

within a year

Messages that reinforced the fact that

cigarette butts are litter were well-received,

especially if they evoked a visual image. Alone,

however, these messages were not felt to be

strong enough and needed to be backed up

with other information, such as about fining.

“Best one so far...they are saying litter is

litter whichever way you look at it.”

Male, 41 – 65, Slough

“That’s good...putting a size...allows you

to visualise it.”

Female, 21 – 40, Slough

6.1.3 Positive Reinforcement

Some smokers are really nice

people - they’re the ones who put

cigarette ends in the bin

Do the responsible thing: fully

extinguish your cigarette end then

put it in the bin

Considerate smokers don’t litter;

thank you for putting your cigarette

end in the bin

Messages that praised smokers for doing

the right thing were appreciated for being

polite and direct. However, they could easily

become patronising.

“Yes, that’s good. It’s polite, isn’t it?.”

Female, 21 – 40, Slough

6.1.4 Children and the Environment

Young children and animals

sometimes try and eat cigarette

ends, which can be dangerous

Wind and rain carry cigarette ends

to the water supply where toxic

chemicals leak out contaminating

water and marine life

Cigarette filters are made of

cellulose acetate and plastic fibres

and they take decades

to biodegrade

Environmental messages were regarded as

ineffective. They were too remote and abstract

to have an effect on a smoker’s behaviour. In

addition, many smokers did not believe the

arguments advanced in these messages, or

felt that there were worse pollutants

than cigarettes.

“I just think that’s ridiculous...babies

crawling around in the middle of

Altrincham picking up ciggies.”

Female, 41 – 65, Manchester

“That’s just scientific babble to me.”

Male, 21 – 40, Manchester

6.1.5 A Message that’s different from

the Rest

Lots of people are asking you to

stop smoking, but we are asking

you to put your cigarette in the bin

or ashtray

Smokers appreciated a campaign message

that stood out from all the other messages

that were aimed at them. It could, however,

be seen as nagging.

“It’s quite nice, they’re almost on your

side... normally it’s all for you to stop,

stop, stop, that’s saying you’re going to

do but you can just do it like this. I think

it’s quite refreshing in a way. It’s not all

or nothing.”

Female, 21 – 40, Manchester

12 13

6.1.6 Fines

If you are caught dropping a

cigarette end, box or even a match

you could be fined £50 on the spot

Messages about fining evoked mixed feelings.

Participants felt that it could be a deterrent,

but were dubious as to whether fines would

be enforced. In addition, many smokers

felt that it could result in them becoming

victimised, although for some it was the only

thing that would stop them dropping litter.

“I think it’s discriminating against

smokers, people spit out chewing gum

on the street... that’s the other big thing

at the moment...are you going to leave

them out?”

Female, 41 – 65, Manchester

6.1.7 Best Overall Approach

There was no consensus about the best

overall campaign message. However, there

were several important findings. First, smokers

should not be made to feel anymore guilty

about dropping butts than they already feel

about smoking. Campaigns that have tried to

do this have failed. Second, messages that

give environmental reasons why smokers

should not drop butts had little impact.

Third, fining could be a deterrent to smokers

dropping butts but they were sceptical

about its practicality and thought it might

lead to discrimination. Fourth, reinforcing the

message that cigarette butts were litter was

positively received, as were appeals to reason

and consideration. Finally, visual images were

important but needed to be relevant.


Strongly

agree

Slightly

agree

Neither

/ nor

Slightly

disagree

Strongly

disagree

7. Non-Smokers

Section 7 deals with the attitudes of non-smokers towards

smoking-related litter. In order to achieve a representative

sample of non-smokers, 1,524 people were interviewed.

Of these people, seven in ten did not smoke. Women were

proportionately more likely to be non-smokers than men

(75% vs 71%) as were people from social class AB and C1

(78% and 77%) than C2 D E (70%, 67%, 67%).

Smoking Behaviour

73%

27% Yes

Of the non-smokers, the majority agreed that they did not like to see people throwing cigarette

butts on the ground or out of their car window. Those who strongly agreed were more likely to be

female (75% vs 66%), social grade AB and 35 and above. However, the majority of people had

never pointed out to a smoker that they had dropped a butt, although 10% had done so in the

past week and the same amount had done so more than a year ago. Those who had never done

it were more likely to be 65 and above. Those who’d done it in the past week were more likely to

be younger (16 – 24) social grade C2 and live in the North.

I Object to People Throwing Cigarette

Ends on the Floor / Out of a Car Window

5

5

9

11

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

% respondents

71

Q2. Agree or disagree?

Base = 1,105

No

Q1. Do you smoke cigarettes

regularly? Base = 1,524

How Recently Have You Pointed Out

to a Smoker they have Dropped their

Cigarette End?

In the

last week

In the

last month

In the

last 6 months

In the

last year

Longer

ago

Never

3

6

5

9

10

0 10 20 30 40

Q3. How Recently?

Base = 1,105

% respondents

50 60 70

67

8. Conclusions

Smokers materials are

the most littered item and

following implementation

of smokefree legislation on

1st July 2007 the problem

has become significantly

worse. The challenge is to

convince smokers not to

drop their cigarette butts

and other associated litter

but to dispose of them safely

in bins or personal ashtrays

instead. The purpose of the

research described in this

report was to devise and test

campaign messages that

would convince smokers

to change their littering

behaviour.

The results are positive in that littering

by smokers is not an inevitable act but

susceptible to influence by external factors.

Smokers are less likely to litter is someone

else is watching them, if they are in the

presence of non-smokers, or if they are in

their own home or workplace. They are more

likely to litter if a suitable bin is not available

but will not, however, go far out of their way

to find one.

While it may be possible to influence littering

by smokers there are significant barriers to

overcome in getting people to dispose of

smoking related litter correctly, especially

cigarette butts. This is because smokers

do not regard cigarette butts as being the

same as other types of litter. They incorrectly

believe that they are biodegradable and think

they are small and insignificant. In addition,

cigarette butts possess certain properties

that make them difficult to dispose of – they

pose a fire hazard – and carry to a bin – they

are unclean and odorous.

No overall consensus was reached as to

the best campaign message that could be

used. There were, however, some general

principles uncovered. It is important not to

make smokers feel more guilty than they

already do about smoking. Messages that

are patronising, insulting or antagonistic

should be avoided. As should environmental

messages that are unlikely to result in

behaviour change because they are

perceived to be too abstract and remote.

Rather it would be more effective to promote

the message that cigarette butts are litter

too and too enforce this message through

the use of appropriate visual imagery. Finally,

while the threat of being fined is a suitable

deterrent smokers did have doubts about

its practicality.

14 15


9. Next Steps

Using the market research described in this report ENCAMS

undertook three smoking-related litter campaigns.

Campaigns ran between February 2006 and September

2007 and are described in more detail below together with

the outcomes they achieved.

9.1 February / March 2006

During February and March 2006, ENCAMS

ran a two-week outdoor advertising campaign

targeted at smokers encouraging them to

dispose of their cigarette litter responsibly.

The posters also promoted the giveaway of

free pocket ashtrays at ASDA. The images

appeared on bus shelter sites, billboards,

phone kiosks, railway station sites and

bus rears.

The campaign was run in partnership with ten

local authorities: Barnsley, Bolton, Blackpool,

Bristol, Cambridge, Charnwood Enfield,

Leeds, Sheffield, and Tonbridge and Malling.

In return for increased advertising in these

areas, the local authorities agreed to

encourage the use of personal ashtrays,

increase enforcement, increase cigarette bin

provision, run local public relations and media

campaigns, and work with local businesses.

In addition to this they also carried out

monitoring of hotspot areas.

The campaign was supported by 14 bin

manufacturers and four pocket ashtray

manufacturers, details of which were listed

on ENCAMS website. Organisations were

asked to sign up to the campaign and provide

appropriate disposal facilities for their staff

and visitors.

The campaign resulted in:

• 35% reduction in cigarette litter in key

locations throughout the country;

• excellent national and regional media

coverage;

• the distribution of 250,000 pocket ashtrays

at the cigarette kiosks of ASDA stores

nationally;

• a further 6,400 were distributed by

ENCAMS to local authorities and members

of the public;

• 380 dedicated cigarette bins were

purchased by local authorities;

• 13,000 A3 posters distributed to

businesses and local authorities;

• 212 fixed penalty notices were issued for

smoking litter offences by key authorities in

the two week period of the campaign;

• 40% of the people questioned had seen

the cigarette litter posters and 52% stated

the posters would be likely to change their

behaviour in the future.

9.2 June 2007

A two-week advertising campaign ran from

the beginning of June 2007 targeting smokers

to dispose of their cigarette ends responsibly.

The campaign used a distinctive ‘No Butts

– stub it, bin it!’ message and promoted the

portable ashtray ‘Ashcan’ – the first portable

ashtray to be widely retailed in England

throughout Tesco stores.

The advertising appeared on bus shelters,

billboards, telephone boxes, lamp post

banners in Tesco car parks, and washroom

posters to get the message across to smokers

when they were most likely to discard their

cigarettes inappropriately.

The campaign was run in partnership with

12 local authorities: Birmingham, Bristol,

Colchester, Camden, Cambridge, Cornwall,

Leeds, Manchester, Milton Keynes, Stoke-on-

Trent, Wigan and Wirral.

16 17

It resulted in:

• 33% reduction in cigarette litter in key

locations monitored throughout England;

• £1.6m of media coverage;

• 225,000 Ashcans distributed via Tesco

and other routes and 25,000 other portable

ashtrays distributed (Stubbi, Butts Out,

Boodi Bin);

• 292 dedicated cigarette bins installed in

partner council areas;

• 26,000 A3 posters distributed to the public

and businesses;

• 26 fixed penalty notices issues by partner

councils in two week period;

• 35,000 beer mats carrying the message

distributed;

• 40% awareness of advertising and 52%

likely to change behaviour from attitude

and awareness study;

• 43% awareness of portable ashtrays

compared with 24% in 2006.

9.3 September / October 2007

A five week outdoor advertising campaign

ran from mid-September to mid-October

encouraging smokers to dispose of their

cigarette ends responsibly. The campaign

advertising used the same four creative visuals

employed during the June 2007 campaign and

was run in exactly the same way.

Partnerships were formed with ten local

authorities: Bournemouth, Darlington,

Islington, York, Stockport, Poole, West

Sussex, Stockport, Telford and Wrekin, and

Trafford. It resulted in:

• 23% reduction in cigarette litter in key

locations monitored throughout England;

• £1.2m of media advertising equivalent;

• 60 fixed penalty notices issued during the

campaign period;

• 587 dedicated cigarette bins sold and

26,685 portable ashtrays distributed;

• 4,405 posters and 565 window vinyls

displayed;

• 3,830 beer mats distributed;

• 43% awareness of the advertising and

52% likely to change their behaviour;

• 47% aware of portable ashtrays (compared

with 24% in 2006).


10. References

1. Smoking and Drinking Among Adults 2005. General Household Survey 2005.

Office for National Statistics 2006.

2. LEQSE 2006/07. ENCAMS. 2008.

3. Assessment of the Ban on Smoking in Public Places. 2007. ENCAMS.

4. http://www.buttsout.co.uk/

5. Fire Statistics. 2003. ODPM.

6. Cigarette Butts as Litter – Toxic as Well as Ugly. Kathleen M. Register.

Bulletin of the American Littoral Society, Volume 25, Number 2, August 2000.

7. http://www.adoptabeach.org.uk/

8. Social Grade is the socio-economic classification used by the market research and

marketing industries, most often in the analysis of spending habits and consumer attitudes.

18 19


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