alternative fertilizer placement methods for conservation tillage

soils.wisc.edu

alternative fertilizer placement methods for conservation tillage

FERTILITY PLACEMENT FOR

CONSERVATION TILLAGE

SYSTEMS

DICK WOLKOWSKI

DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE

UW-MADISON


WHY CONSERVATION TILLAGE

LABOR SAVINGS

TIME MANAGEMENT

EQUIPMENT/FUEL COSTS

SOIL PRODUCTIVITY

WATER QUALITY


SOIL CONSERVATION IS A SOCIETAL

CONCERN

DEGRADATION OF THE RESOURCE

• FERTILITY

• ORGANIC MATTER

• TILTH

WATER QUALITY

• SEDIMENT

• NUTRIENTS

PROGRAM COST

• EXPENSIVE TO MANAGE

• CHEAPER TO PREVENT


FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN

CONSERVATION TILLAGE

HOW MUCH – WHAT – WHERE -

WHEN

NUTRIENT STRATIFICATION

MANURE AND FERTILIZER ?

COMPACTION CONSIDERATIONS

EQUIPMENT AND PLACEMENT


SOIL TEST TO DETERMINE

NUTRIENT NEED

SAMPLING DEPTH VARIES

• MULCH TILLAGE: 3/4 DEPTH OF TILLAGE

• NO-TILL; STRIP-TILL: 6-7”

• INCLUDE 0-2” SAMPLE FOR pH

ONCE IN THE ROTATION OR EVERY 3-4

YEARS

NUMBER OF SAMPLES/FIELD VARIES

• MINIMUM 10 CORES/SAMPLE


K STRATIFICATION AFTER 3

YEARS IN TILLAGE SYSTEM

0 50 100 150

WOLKOWSKI, 2000

SOIL TEST K (ppm)

NO-TILL

CHISEL

0 to 2

2 to 4

4 to 6

6 to 8


BANDING vs. BROADCAST

BANDING MORE EFFICIENT

• LESS FIXATION BY SOIL

• “PRECISION PLACEMENT”

• REDUCED RISK FOR LOSS

• POSITIONALLY AVAILABLE

• SLOW EARLY PLANT METABOLISM

BROADCAST TO CORRECT LOW TESTS

• SOME TILLAGE MAY BE NEEDED

VOLATILIZATION LOSS FROM UREA

CONTAINING MATERIALS


WHAT ABOUT SEED-PLACEMENT

WISCONSIN SOILS TYPICALLY RESPOND

TO ROW-APPLIED FERTILIZER

MANY SOILS TEST IN THE HIGH RANGE

TIME NEEDED TO FILL HOPPERS REDUCES

PLANTING EFFICIENCY

SOME SUGGEST HIGHER AVAILABILITY FOR

SEED-PLACED MATERIALS


YIELD (bu/a)

INFLUENCE OF RATE AND TYPE OF

SEED-PLACED FERTILIZER

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

10 34 0 7 21 7 9 18 9

GELDERMAN et al., 1995

lb P 2O 5/a

0

12.5

25

50


YIELD (bu/a)

INFLUENCE OF RATE AND PLACEMENT OF

UREA FERTILIZER ON A SILT LOAM SOIL

200

190

180

170

160

WOLKOWSKI, 1999

NO STARTER = 179 bu/a

ALL: 10 lb/a P 20 5 AND K 20

SEED 2 x 2

N (lb/a)

0

7.5

15

30


RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE

SEED-PLACED INJURY

LIMIT TO 10 lb N + K 2O/a

AVOID HIGH SALT CARRIERS

NO UREA, UAN, ATS

USE CAUTION ON SANDY OR DRY SOILS

AVOID USE ON SALT-SENSITIVE CROPS


WILL MANURE CONFLICT WITH

FERTILIZER AND TILLAGE MANAGEMENT

MANURE LAGOON MIXING

USDA-DFRC, 2001


CONSERVATION TILLAGE AND

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING

NMP WILL ALLOCATE MANURE TO

MORE FIELDS ON A FARM

SOME MAY BE DIRECTED TOWARD

SLOPING LAND

ROTATIONS AND TILLAGE MAY NOT

BE ADAPTABLE TO MANURING

CREDIT THE MANURE NUTRIENTS


MANURE INCORPORATION TOOLS:

USDA-DFRC FIELD DAY, AUGUST, 2001

NARROW POINT INJECTOR

ROLLING TINE COVERAGE

RELATIVELY AGGRESSIVE

SMOOTH SEEDBED


MANURE INCORPORATION TOOLS:

USDA-DFRC FIELD DAY, AUGUST, 2001

SWEEP INJECTOR

ROUGHER SURFACE, MORE

RESIDUE

WATCH YOUR STEP!!


NEED FOR ROW-PLACED

FERTILIZER ON MANURED LAND

SILAGE YIELD (t DM/a)

4.5

4

3.5

MOTAVALLI et al., 1993

3

YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3

WITHOUT

WITH


MANAGE SOIL COMPACTION

SOIL COMPACTION REDUCES YIELD

LIMIT UNNECESSARY TRAFFIC,

AVOID OPERATIONS ON WET SOILS,

LIGHTEN LOADS

POTASSIUM MANAGEMENT IS

IMPORTANT

SUBSOILING IS NOT A QUICK FIX


RESPONSE OF CORN TO ROW-APPLIED

K, OSHKOSH WIS.,(3 yr. avg.)

YIELD RESPONSE (bu/a)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

OPTIMUM

V. HIGH

45 lb K 2O/a; 2 x 2 PLACEMENT

< 5 t 19 t


STRIP TILLAGE OPTIONS

- FALL vs. SPRING

- SHALLOW vs. DEEP

- LIQUID vs. DRY


THREE MAJOR CATEGORIES AFFECT

FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

ROW OR RESIDUE CLEARING

• REMOVE RESIDUE

• FINGER COULTERS, BRUSHES, SWEEPS

STRIP TILLAGE (SHALLOW: < 6 in.)

• MOVE RESIDUE, SEEDBED PREP., ROW

FERTILIZER

• FLUTED COULTERS, DISCS

STRIP TILLAGE (DEEP: > 6 in.)

• DISRUPT COMPACTION, DEEP-PLACE FERTILIZER

• KNIVES

• SOME WITH COULTERS TO MOVE RESIDUE OR

CREATE MINI-RIDGES


ROW CLEARING

BANDED PLACEMENT WITH

SEED OR 2 x 2 AT PLANTING


g/plant

MAIN EFFECT OF ROW FERTILIZER ON

CORN GROWTH, ARLINGTON, 1994-1996

40

35

30

25

20

15

NPK STARTER

1994 1995 1996

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN AT 12 LEAF STAGE

NONE

FS

FI

2x2


YIELD (bu/a)

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND

ROW FERTILIZER, ARLINGTON, 1994-1996

180

170

160

150

140

NPK STARTER

FZ SZ CH NT

NONE

FS

FZ

2x2


INTERACTION BETWEEN STARTER

FERTILIZER AND ROW CLEANERS

YIELD (bu/a)

170

165

160

155

150

NP STARTER

WITHOUT WITH

ROW CLEANER

VETSCH AND RANDALL, 2000 (MN)

NONE

STARTER


DEEP BANDED PLACEMENT IN

THE FALL WITH STRIP TILLAGE


PRELIMINARY UW RESEARCH:

DEEP STRIP TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER

ARLINGTON, 2001

CORN/SOYBEAN ROTATION AND

CONTINUOUS CORN

NO-TILL, FALL CHISEL, FALL STRIP

BROADCAST, 2 x 2, FALL DEEP PLACED


YIELD (bu/a)

SOYBEAN RESPONSE TO TILLAGE AND

FERTILIZATION, ARLINGTON, 2001

65

60

55

50

45

SOYBEAN AFTER CORN

CHISEL NO-TILL STRIP

FERTILIZER: 200 lb/a 0-23-30

NONE

BDCT

DEEP


YIELD (bu/a)

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

CORN RESPONSE TO TILLAGE AND

FERTILIZATION, ARLINGTON, 2001

CONTINUOUS CORN

FERTILIZER: 200 lb/a 0-23-30

CHISEL NO-TILL STRIP

NONE

2 X 2

DEEP


YIELD (bu/a)

210

200

190

180

CORN RESPONSE TO TILLAGE AND

FERTILIZATION, ARLINGTON, 2001

FIRST-YEAR CORN AFTER SOYBEAN

FERTILIZER: 200 lb/a 0-23-30

CHISEL NO-TILL STRIP

NONE

2 X 2

DEEP


YIELD (bu/a)

180

170

160

150

140

CORN RESPONSE TO TILLAGE AND K

FERTILIZATION, KIRKTON, IN

- = NO STARTER; + = STARTER

NT - NT + ZT - ZT + MB- MB+

VYN AND JANOVICEK, 2001 (3 yr. avg.)

FALL K 2O (lb/a)

0

38

76


YIELD (bu/a)

NO-TILL CORN RESPONSE TO P

AND K PLACEMENT (IA)

160

150

140

130

MALLARINO, 1998

15 SITE YEARS

P STUDY K STUDY

NONE

BDCT

2X2

DEEP+

DEEP-


SUMMARY

SOIL TEST TO DETERMINE NEED

CONSIDER THE SEED PLACEMENT RISKS

AVOID SOIL COMPACTION

CREDIT MANURE

BANDED PLACEMENT MORE EFFICIENT

• RESPONSE POTENTIAL GREATER IN NO-TILL

• USE A COMPLETE MATERIAL

• 10-20-20 MINIMUM

• SOME EVIDENCE FOR DEEP K PLACEMENT

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines