Shum Laka rock shelter late Holocene deposits: from stone to metal ...

panafprehistory.org

Shum Laka rock shelter late Holocene deposits: from stone to metal ...

Aspects of African Archaeology

Shum Laka rock shelter late Holocene deposits: from

stone to metal (North Western Cameroon)

PHILIPPE LAVACHERY

Introduction

This paper deals with the transition from the Final Late Stone Age (LSA) to the Iron Age at Shum

Laka rockshelter from a technological and typological point of view. Some time ago it was proposed

to call this transition the "Stone to Metal" Period (SMP), implying that it is still very poorly

understood in West and Central Africa (McIntosh and McIntosh 1988; Maret 1994, this volume).

The Holocene deposits at Shum Laka are by far the richest archaeological layers of the site.

Two members can be distinguished:

• the ochre ash layer, dated between 9000 and 6000 BP, which yielded a LSA assemblage.

• the grey ash layer, dated from 4000 BP to historical times, which yielded "Stone to Metal"

and Iron Age assemblages.

The ochre ash layer

The study of the archaeological material of the ochre ash layer is preliminary. The sample

analyzed, coming from two test squares, is small (2117 artifacts) and all results presented here

should be considered with caution.

The ochre ash layer yielded a lithic industry without pottery. To the same occupation phase are

ascribed three burials (Maret, this volume).

As in the underlying deposits (Cornelissen, this volume), four locally available raw materials

were used, mainly quartz (59%) and basalt/welded tuffs (36%). To a lesser extent various silicates

(calcedony, jasper, chert, de vitrified lava, breccia and obsidian) (3%) were also flaked. Sandstone is

present (2%) (Table 1).

Regardless of the raw material most of the industry is composed of unmodified waste (more

than 99%). Only four unspecialized quartz cores were identified. One can hardly speak of a toolkit:

it consists of one large retouched basalt flake and one scraper re-flaked on a polished basalt fragment.

The Holocene Final LSA of the ochre ash layer can at best be characterized as an un standardized

industry. It is quite similar to the Pleistocene LSA except for basalt and welded tuffs becoming

more common. Further analyses will tell whether it may indicate the onset of an evolution towards

macrolithism.


266 Philippe Lavachery

Table 1 Lithic material from the Holocene deposits.

Lavers Ochre ash

BASALTrrUFF 752

Unmodified waste

Cores

750

Chips and chunks 699

Flakes 51

Blade cores

1 platform cores

> = 2 platform cores

Formless cores

Proto-biconical cores

Disc@id cores

Casual cores

Modified pieces 1

Shaped tools 1

Waisted axes

Bifacial core tools

Frag. bifacial core tools

Core scrapers

Bifacial flake tools

Unifacial flake tools

Microliths

Flakes scrapers 1

Backed flakes

Backed blades

Points

QUARTZ 1.248

Unmodified waste 1.242

Chips and chunks 1.202

Flakes 42

Cores 4

1 platform cores 1

> = 2 platforms cores

Bipolar cores

Formless cores

Proto-biconical cores

Biconical cores

Discoid cores

Casual cores 3

Modified pieces

Shaped tools

Core scrapers

Flake scrapers

Microliths

SILICA 73

Unmodified waste 73

Chips and chunks 61

Flakes 12

Cores

1 platform cores

> = 2 platforms cores

Bipolar cores

Formless cores

Proto-biconical cores

Biconical cores

Discoid cores

Casual cores

Modified pieces

Shaped tools

Core scrapers

Flake scrapers

Microliths

SANDSTONE 44

Unmodified waste 44

Chips and chunks 44

Modified eces

wer grindstones

TOTAL 2.117

Lower srrev ash UDDer srrav ash

20.610 9.729

20.427 9.678

17.625 8.073

2.802 1.605

31 15

1 1

4 1

6 4

1

2

7 2

10 7

64 19

88 17

4 1

13

26 7

2

7

6

4 4

11

5 2

4 2

5 2

10.232 6.914

10.159 6.855

9.818 6.430

341 425

68 55

6 6

7 2

1 1

9 2

8 3

2 1

1 1

34 39

1

4 4

1 1

1 1

2 2

2.690 2.934

2.620 2.888

2.043 2.203

577 685

50 33

17 8

11 4

1 3

5 7

2

2

3 5

9 6

10 6

10

1

2

8 6

115 2

115

115

2

2

33.647

19.579


Shum Laka rock shelter late Holocene deposits: from stone to metal (North Western Cameroon) 267

The grey ash layer

The actual shift from microlithism to macrolithism occurred between 6000 and 4000 BP. Unfortunately

a chronological gap of some 2000 years between the ochre and grey ash layer occupations

prevents us from understanding exactly how it took place. At the base of the grey ash a macrolithic

industry with pottery appears.

Three occupation phases were identified:

• the "Stone to Metal" Period (SMP), located at the base of the layer, is dated from 4000 to 3000

BP. It yielded an abundant lithic industry and some pottery. Four burials are associated to that

occupation phase (Maret, this volume).

• the Early Iron Age (EIA), situated in the middle part of the grey ash, is dated between 2000

and 1300 B , P. The assemblage is composed of lithic material, some iron objects and pottery.

• the Late Iron Age (LIA) lies in the upper part of the grey ash and is dated from 900 BP to

recent times. It yielded lithic material and pottery.

These phases are clearly stratified on top of one another in certain areas of the site and radiocarbon

dates are in the right stratigraphical order (Moyersons, this volume). It is quite surprising,

however, that the stone industry should survive into the Late Iron Age. The distribution of the lithic

material is quite homogeneous throughout the whole layer up to the surface without any obvious

typological evolution. This phenomenon is understandable if we study in some detail the postdepositional

processes which left traces in the archaeological evidence. It is important to remember

that the ash, of which the ancient surface was higher than today at the back of the shelter, was

certainly truncated by erosion several times between 2000 BP and 1000 BP and that very little

sedimentation took place afterwards (Moeyersons, this volume). All deposits younger than 2000

BP, thus post-dating the erosion phase, may then be deeply reworked. Only the base of the grey ash

layer is certainly.in situ.

The SMP occupation phase

The sample studied here (33647 artifacts) comes out of fourteen squares where the SMP occupation

phase is well identified. Four raw materials were used: basalt and welded tuffs are now predominant

(6 1 %), followed by quartz (3 1 %) and silica (8 %). Regardless of the raw material most artifacts

(more than 97%) are unmodified waste (Table 1).

Cores represent between 0.2 and 1.8% of the debitage. Most of them are flake-cores and display

non-specialized flaking techniques but some basalt blade-cores (Fig. 2.5) were also identified.

Blade production is thus attested and 6% of basalt/tuff flakes are blades (LIW?2). Most of them

have parallel dorsal ridges and parallel or convergent sides but some basalt/tuff flakes and blades

display a triangular flaking pattern resulting in a triangular shape reminiscent of Levallois points.

Basalt blades and points are the product of a carefully prepared flaking process, contrary to the

rest of the flake population. Are those triangle flakes the result of a specialized manufacturing

process distinct from the blade technology? It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the

concept of the Levallois technique but it is probable that points may result from blade technology

rather than Levallois technique sensu stricto. Both flake types share many technological features

(such as proportions, shape, striking platform preparation) and there is an obvious morphological

continuity between blades and points (Fig.2: 1-4).

The SMP toolkit is largely composed of basalt and welded tuff heavy duty tools. Tools represent

0.4% of the basalt/tuff industry. Half of them are core tools which are mainly bifacially trimmed.

Some are typical waisted "axes" (Fig. 1 : 1 ,2) which are sometimes partially polished (Fig. 1 :5), some


268 Philippe Lavachery

Figure 1 Stone to Metal Period lithic material.

o 1 2cm

-==


Shum !..aka rock shelter late Holocene deposits: from stone to metal (North Western Cameroon) 269

Figure 2 Stone to Metal Period lithic material and pottery.

6

7

cm

I

aWP"

9

10

o 1 2cm

-=

11

12


270 Philippe Lavachery

other examples look like crude hand-axes, core-axes, foliates (Fig. I :3,4,6) and even chopping tools.

Flake tools are mostly scrapers and retouched blades or triangular points (Fig.2: 11,12). Quartz and

silica tools are much less common (0.04 and 0.4% of the industry). Most of them are small backed

silica flakes of which some are microlithic (Fig.2:.6-9). Microlithism seems to be a survival of a

LSA tradition but it now concerns only 10% of the toolkit. It is interesting to note that a good part of

the macrolithic component of the SMP toolkit is typical of what was usually attributed to supposedly

much older Middle Stone Age industries in West and Central Africa: i.e. rough bifacial tools,

core-axes and "Levallois" points.

A preliminary analysis has been carried out on SMP pottery. All sherds, which were found

clustered in a very small area, belong to the bottom of the same pot. Its very thick base is flattened

and the clay is rather coarse. Unfortunately nothing is known about its decoration (Fig.2: 10).

The early and late Iron Age occupation phases

In the middle part of the grey ash layer early Iron Age artifacts make their appearance.

One fragment of an iron bracelet and one iron finger ring were found in 1982 (Asombang

1988). In the same levels, pottery, now much more common and much finer, is decorated with

impressions of elaborate carved wooden roulettes (Fig.3: 1,2,5,6), incisions and grooves.

The upper part of the layer yielded late Iron Age pottery decorated with impressions of knotted

strip roulette, twisted string roulette, simpler carved wooden roulettes (Fig.3:.3,4), incisions and

grooves.

The lithic industry associated with the early and late Iron Age assemblages (19579 artefacts)

shows both similarities and differences with the lower SMP assemblage:

• on the one hand the types of large tools, cores, blades and points remain similar aithough they

become extremely rare in the two Iron Age horizons.

• on the other hand a completely ground adze with a polished cutting edge (Fig.3.7), very

different from the SMP core tools, was found in a recent layer overlying the SMP levels.

• the proportion of broken and re-flaked stone artifacts is higher in the Iron Age levels than in

the SMP levels.

• artifacts become increasingly smaller from bottom to top of the grey ash layer.

Spatial patterning and interpretation of the stratigraphy

The refits of pottery sherds allowed me to understand the spatial relationship between the three

occupation phases in the grey ash layer and their dynamics. Refits revealed that a fair amount of

disturbance took place throughout the whole shelter in the middle and upper parts of the grey ash.

These disturbances were probably the result of both erosion and anthropic occupation. The lower

part of the layer, however, is not disturbed since the SMP pottery sherds were found clustered.

Moreover, no sherd refits link the SMP and Iron Age levels. EIA sherds, on the contrary, are found

in both the middle and upper parts of the grey ash while LIA sherds are systematically limited to the

upper part of the layer. Since we have seen that the ancient surface which was higher than today at

the back of the shelter was truncated by erosion between 2000 and 1000 BP, the presence of EIA

sherds at the actual surface is not a surprise. But can the same be said about the stone industry? Does

it belong to the iron age levels or is its association with the iron age also a result of a post-depositional

process?


Shum Laka rock sh elter late H o I ocene d eposits' F..

. Jlom stone t o metal (lI.T

Figure 3 Early and L ate Iron A ge pottery and ground adze.

Horth 117

'

rrestern C ameroon)

6

2

271


272 Philippe Lavachery

A cluster of large SMP basalt artefacts and small rocks was found in the lower part of the grey

ash. The same cluster surfaces at the back of the shelter where it is found mixed with iron age

material. In order to explain this clustering of large pieces an analysis of the spatial patterning of the

stone artifacts according to their size was conducted. This revealed a regular increase of the propor­

tion of small artifacts from the back to the entrance of the shelter. Most likely erosion evacuated not

only sediments but also a good part of the smallest artifacts from the back to the entrance. Thus the

small artifacts found in the sediments younger than 2000 BP, post-dating the beginning of the ero­

sion phase and associated with iron age pottery, would therefore be older material coming from the

eroded top of the SMP levels. This explains why lithic artifacts of the iron age deposits are smaller

than those of the SMP deposits which are still in situ. The cluster of large artifacts in the lower part

of the grey ash results from the accumulation of large pieces on the erosion surface when the fines

and the small objects were washed away.

The people of the early Iron Age certainly still used stone tools occasionally. The few large

SMP type artefacts discovered in the Iron Age levels could have been intentionally picked up by

them from the SMP cluster surfacing at the back of the shelter. Their use as raw material and/or

expedient tools would explain the higher proportion of broken and re-flaked artifacts in the Iron

Age levels. Unfortunately, due to this combination of natural and human disturbances an Iron Age

stone industry cannot be singled out anymore.

Conclusion: cultural changes in West and Central Africa through Late Holocene

times

The study of the Holocene deposits of the site of Shum Laka is a very good reminder of the danger

of interpreting the significance of non-stratified assemblages in West and Central Africa. Firstly it

shows that it is only by identifying site formation processes that one is able to assertain the cultural

value of archaeological assemblages. This is possible only in stratified sites. Secondly it shows that

typology can be seriously misleading in the absence of stratigraphic context and radiocarbon dates.

The macrolithic component of the SMP industry of Shum Laka displays many characteristics of a

Middle Stone Age industry but it is clearly Holocene.

The appearance of pottery and polished macrolithic stone tools on the old LSA substrate be­

tween 5500 and 2500 BP is widespread in West and Central Africa. The proportion of microliths

surviving in those new assemblages, however, seems to be very variable. The oldest sites, dated

around 5500 and 5000 BP, are all rockshelters situated between the Cameroonian Grassfields and

Ghana. Among them are Abeke (Maret et al. 1987) in north-western Cameroon, Iwo Eleru (Shaw

and Daniels 1984) and Afikpo (Hartle 1980) in Nigeria and Bosumpra (Shaw 1944; Smith 1975) in

Ghana. That area, corresponding to the region where indigenous African yarn was first domesti­

cated (Harlan 1992), seems to be the sub-Saharan cradle of the phenomenon. Although we do not

know if early SMP populations actually cultivated yam, they already intensively exploited Elaeis

and were still hunters. Before 3500 BP comparable assemblages had reached all West Africa, such

as Shum Laka (Maret et al. 1987) and Mbi Crater (Asombang 1995) in north-western Cameroon,

Rim (Andah 1978) in Burkina Faso and Yengema (Coon 1968) in Sierra Leone.

From 3500 to 2500 BP the process enters a new phase. In West Africa Saharan influence may

be seen in pottery and stone arrow heads. The populations lived permanently in villages built on

mounds or in rock shelters as is the case for the Kintampo Complex sites in Ghana (Flight 1976;

Stahl 1985, 1993; Kense 1993) and the Borno mounds in the Lake Tchad region (Connah 1981;

Breunig et al. 1993). In Central Africa most of the first SMP assemblages are found in open-air sites

consisting of groups of large pits which are remnants of villages. Examples are Obobogo (Maret

1990) in southern Cameroon, Okala (Clist 1989,1995) in Gabon and Sakuzi (Maret 1990) in Lower

Zaire. Most of these sites, although indicating increased sedentism, semi-domestication of Elaeis


Shum Laka rock shelter late Holocene deposits: from stone to metal (North Western Cameroon) 273

and animal husbandry, hardly yield any lithic artifacts at all. Therefore it is highly probable that the

final SMP popUlations were already metal users. And indeed, around 2500 BP iron smelting tech­

nology is attestedjn the Nok Culture of Nigeria (Fagg 1968) and in Gabon (Clist 1989, 1995).

It must be stressed that since LSA, SMP and even EIA sites are sometimes contemporaneous in

the area considered, these terms should refer to techno-complexes and not to actual chronological

phases. The transition from the aceramic LSA to the Iron Age, implying technological, economical

and social changes, was certainly a very progressive and complicated process.

In this regard Shum Laka rock shelter may contribute substantially to the understanding of how

and when the transition from the LSA to the Iron Age first took place. The cultural sequence shows

that macrolithism, a few surviving microliths and ceramic are diagnostic features of the early SMP

in the Grassfields area.

Acknowledgments

The research was made possible by grants from the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research,

the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, the Royal Museum of Central Africa and the University of Brussels.

We would like to thank the authorities of Cameroon for research clearances and the Fon of Bafochu­

Mbu for letting us conduct excavations at Shum Laka. We are indebted to the numerous people who

assisted us in the field and provided logistical support. We would also like to thank Dr. W. Van Neer

for the bone identifications, Dr. 1. Maley for the pollen analysis, Mr. H. Doutrelepont for the char­

coal identifications, Ms. 1. Ribot for the study of the human remains and Ms. Y. Pacquay for the

drawings.

References

Andah, B.W. 1978. Excavations at Rim, Upper Volta. West African Journal of Archaeology 8: 75-138.

Asombang, R.N. 1988. Bamenda in prehistory: the evidence from Fiye Nkwi, Mbi Crater and

Shum Laka rockshelters. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.

Asombang R.N. 1995 Archaeology, history and culture change in Cameroon. In Savannization

Processes in Tropical Africa II (ed. H. Kadomura): pp. 5-20. Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Breunig, P., Garba, A., Gronenborn, D., Van Neer, W. and Wendt, P. 1993. Report on excavations

at Gajiganna, Borno State, Northeast Nigeria. Nyame Akuma 40: 30-41.

Clist, B. 1989. Archaeology in Gabon 1986-1988. African Archaeological Review 7: 59-95.

Clist, B. 1995. Gabon: 100.000 Ans d'Histoire. Libreville: Sepia.

Connah, G. 1981. Three Thousand Years in Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coon, C.S. 1968. Yengema Cave Report. Philadelphia: The University Museum.

Fagg, B. 1968. The Nok Culture: excavations at Taruga. The West African Journal of Archaeology

1: 27-30.

Flight, C. 1976. The Kintampo Culture and its place in the economic prehistory of West Africa. In

Origins of African Plant Domestication (eds. 1.R. Harlan, lM J. de Wet and A.B.L. Stemler):

pp. 211-22. The Hague.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Indigeneous African Agriculture. In The Origins of Agriculture: an

international perspective (eds. C.W. Cowan and PJ. Watson), pp. 59-70, Washington:

Smithonian Institution Press.

Hartle, D.D. 1980. Archaeology east of the Niger: a review of cultural-historical developments.

In West African Culture Dynamics: archaeological and historical perspectives (eds. B. Swartz

and R.E. Dummett): pp. 195-203. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.


274 Philippe Lavachery

Kense, F.J. 1993. The Neolithic-Early Iron Age interface: the·northern Ghana evidence. In The

Archaeology of Africa: food, metals and towns (eds. T. Shaw, P. 'Sinclair, B. Andah and A.

Okpoko): pp.170-3. London: Routledge.

Maret, P.de 1990. Le "neolithique" et l'Age du Fer Ancien dans Ie Sud-Ouest de l'Afrique

Centrale. In Paysages Quaternaires de l'Afrique Centrale Atlantique (eds R. Lanfranchi et D.

Schwartz), pp. 447-57, Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.

Maret, P.de 1994. Pits, pots and the far west stream. in press.

Maret, P.de, Clist, B. et Van Neer, W. 1987 Resultats des premieres fouilles dans les abris de

Shum Laka et d'Abeke au Nord-Ouest du Cameroun. Lj4nthropologie 91(2): 559-84.

McIntosh, S.K. and McIntosh, R.J. 1988. From stone to metal: new perspectives on the later

prehistory of West Africa. Journal of World Prehistory 2(1): 89-133.

Shaw, T. 1944. Report on excavations carried out in the cave known as Bosumpra at Abetifi,

K wahu, Gold Coast Colony. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 10: 1-67.

Shaw, T. and Daniels, S.G.H. 1984. Excavations at Iwo Eleru, Ondo State, Nigeria. West African

Journal of Archaeology 14: 1-269.

Smith, A.B. 1975 Radiocarbon dates from Bosumpra Cave. Proceedings of the Prehistoric

Society 41: 179-82.

Stahl, A. 1985. Reinvestigation of Kintampo 6 rock shelter, Ghana: implications for the nature of

culture change. African Archaeological Review 3: 117-50.

Stahl, A. 1993. Intensification in the West African Late Stone Age: a view from central Ghana. In

The Archaeology of Africa: food, metals and towns (eds. T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah and A.

Okpoko): pp. 261-73. London: Routledge.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines