Tunnel and shaft solutions brochure - Humes

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Tunnel and shaft solutions brochure - Humes

Tunnel and shaft solutions

Issue 2


Contents

Segmental tunnel linings 3

Applications 3

Product range 3

Features and benefits 3

Joint and connection details 4

Circle joints 4

Cross joints 5

Innovative features 6

Caulking grooves and sealing grooves 6

Grout socket assembly 6

Packings 6

Special rings 6

Tunnel construction methods 6

Segmental and one piece shafts 7

Applications 7

Features and benefits 8

Cost savings 8

Safer work environment 8

Minimal environmental impact 8

Innovative design 8

Product range 8

Construction methods 9

Caisson method 9

Underpin method 10

Combination of the caisson and

underpin methods

11

Typical ring configuration 12

One piece shafts 12

Segmental shafts 14

3-pin precast arches 19

Applications 19

Features and benefits 19

Product range 20

Arch system components 21

Box culverts 22

Applications 22

Features and benefits 22

Jacking pipes 23

The jacking technique (microtunnelling) 23

Benefits of pipe jacking 24

Technical 24

Safety 24

Economic 24

Environmental 24

Steel reinforced concrete pipes (SRCP) 25

Benefits of reinforced concrete jacking pipes 25

Fixed steel collar pipes 26

Loose steel collar pipes 31

Selection of jacking pipes 32

Vitrified clay pipes 35

Features and benefits 35

Product range 37

Connection to standard pipes and

access chambers

40

Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) 42

Applications 42

Features and benefits 42

Backfilling 43

Precast solutions 44

Contact information 45


2 Tunnel and shaft solutions


Segmental tunnel linings

Humes’ trapezoidal segments use the latest technology

to deliver a smooth bore, single pass tunnel, which can

withstand the increasing demands of modern tunnel

boring machines and poor ground conditions.

Applications

• Utility tunnels

• Traffic tunnels (road and rail)

• Water pipelines

• Desalination structures

• Escape tunnels

Product range

Humes produces segmental linings measuring

2 m to 5.3 m (internal) diameter. Other sizes may be

produced on request (refer to Table 1 below).

Table 1 – Segmental tunnel linings details

Internal

diameter

(m)

External

diameter

(m)

Maximum

segment width

(mm)

Minimum

segment width

(mm)

Weight per

segment

(kg)

Ring

weight

(tonnes)

Bolts per ring

No. x dia. x length

(mm)

2.07 2.43 1,010 990 520 3.10 12 x M16 x 295

2.44 2.80 1,007 993 600 3.60 12 x M16 x 355

2.85 3.21 1,007.5 992.5 700 4.19 12 x M16 x 365

2.90 3.26 1,005 995 710 4.27 12 x M16 x 365

3.00 3.35 1,210.5 1,189.5 856 5.13 12 x M16 x 365

3.35 3.71 1,010 1,000 820 4.89 12 x M16 x 400

3.38 3.84 1,083 1,051 1,200 6.80 12 x M20 x 490

3.84 4.24 1,015 985 1,040 6.20 12 x M20 x 410

5.30 5.80 1,522 1,478 2,090 16.67 12 x M20 x 440

Note:

These specifications and details may change, please contact Humes for confirmation.

Features and benefits

Humes offer segmental tunnel linings in partnership with Buchan Concrete Solutions Limited (UK).

• Cost effective installation.

- Non-ferrous self locking, self-aligning connectors

reduce internal bolt recesses.

- Segments are provided with a fast coarse thread

plastic grout socket assembly at the centroid for

lifting and grouting.

- Segments are designed to be machine handled with

a rotating arm erector.

• Three segment types for curved or straight

construction. Curved alignments are easily

accommodated by altering the ring orientation (refer

to Figure 6 on page 6).

• Single pass finish for permanent structures.

• The elimination of cruciform joints.

• The trapezoidal joint arrangement assists with a good

ring build and helps maintain the ring shape prior

to grouting.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 3

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Joint and connection details

Circle joints

A self-locking plastic connector provides a robust joint

fixing for tunnel linings.

The connector is manufactured from a high strength

durable plastic. It combines the advantages of a bolted

connection with the speed, economy and alignment

characteristics of a dowel.

The system has been developed in conjunction with

major tunnelling contractors and is suitable for use in

traditional open face shields or with the latest full face

tunnel boring machines.

The self-locking connector offers many benefits:

• The dowels allow a very fast ring erection sequence.

• They are designed to reduce lipping between segments.

Figure 1 – Circle joint detail

4 Tunnel and shaft solutions

High strength dowel

giving self alignment and

good shear connection

• The system is tolerant of a dirty environment and

allows for the initial misalignment of segments to

compensate for tapered joints and gaskets.

• Highly durable connection with no corrodible parts.

• The rigid dowel action of the coupler re-aligns the

segment and minimises the stepping of joints.

• Self-locking and self-aligning.

• No circle joint pockets to fill, thus reducing

finishing time.

• Suitable for use with all types of sealing systems,

including Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM)

compression gaskets and hydrophilic seals.

• Does not induce bursting forces in the concrete.

• Fully compatible with elastic compression gasket. The

elastic performance of the connection compliments

the behaviour of the gasket, which means that it can

be used with a stiff gasket and copes with varying

joint gap.

Movable plastic

anchors allow segment

to be located when

imperfectly aligned

Threaded screw

connection which

allows a push fit

Shield ram thrust


Figure 2 – Circle joint connector interaction

Load (KN)

25

22.5

20

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

Elevation on ring

5

2.5

Cross joints

1 No Plastic grout/Lifting socket

External diameter

Internal diameter

Water pressure

Cross joint connections are made by passing a curved

M16 threaded bolt through a pocket in each segment.

The bolts are made for grade 8.8 steel and have a

nominal ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 800 N/mm2 (or Mpa) and a nominal yield strength of 640 N/mm2 (or Mpa). The segments are cast with bolt hole recesses

designed to accommodate gel impregnated grommets.

All raw materials comply with current Australian

standards. Manufacturing is carried out in

accordance with the requirements of our quality

management system.

Gasket compression

30o 60o 1000 (Nominal)

30 o

30 o

60 o 15 o

Stiff EPDM gasket compression characteristic

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

A resultant joint gap of 1.5 mm @ equilibrium.

Gasket sealing performance remains unaffected.

Joint gap (mm)

Joint gap

Self-locking plastic connector extension characteristic

Self-locking

plastic

connector

extension

Figure 3 – Cross joint detail

Sealing groove

Inner face of typical segment Typical cross joint detail

Bituminous packing

to all longitudinal joints

Caulking groove

Figure 4 – Curved bolts used for cross joints

Buclock connectors

Typical circle joint detail

12 no. equally spaced

Radiused bolt

Sealing groove Curved bolt

Caulking groove

Tunnel and shaft solutions 5

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Right:

Attaching a grout

plug to a grout/

lifting socket

Innovative features

Caulking grooves and sealing grooves

All segments are cast with caulking grooves on the

circumferential and longitudinal sides. Sealing grooves

for either hydrophilic strip or elastomeric compression

gaskets can be incorporated at the time of casting.

Grout socket assembly

Each segment is fitted with a plastic grout socket

assembly which includes a non-return valve. The socket is

used to inject grout to permanently secure the rings.

Packings

Bituminous felt packing of 3 mm nominal thickness

should be used on all longitudinal joints and can be

supplied if required. Circumferential packings made from

3 mm bituminous felt or 3 mm or 6 mm timber can also

be supplied if required.

Special rings

The rings currently available have a taper across one

axis. Non standard tapers can be manufactured to the

purchaser’s specific requirements.

Tunnel construction methods

The rings consist of three different segment types.

Segments are supplied to the erector in a predetermined

sequence dependant upon the alignment required.

The ring orientation is altered by erecting segments in a

different order (refer to Figure 6).

6 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Rings in same orientation

for curved alignment

Figure 5 – Grout socket assembly

Grout/Lifting socket

Non-return valve

Figure 6 – Segment orientation for curved and

straight alignments

Rings in same orientation

for curved alignment

Rings in same orientation

for curved alignment

Rings rotated at 120o Rings rotated at 120° for

straight alignment

for straight alignment

Sealing washer

Threaded

grout

plug


Segmental and one piece shafts

Applications

Humes’ precast concrete shafts are an economical

and safe solution for permanent and temporary

underground structures. They are ideal for a variety of

applications including:

• ventilation shafts

• escape shafts

• launch and receival shafts for pipe jacking applications

• storage overflow and pump stations (sewerage)

• water harvesting and reuse.

The shaft system suits a variety of soil conditions, and

provides a soil and watertight solution.

Humes offer segmental shafts in partnership with Buchan Concrete

Solutions Limited (UK).

Tunnel and shaft solutions 7

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Features and benefits

Precast shafts provide installation contractors with a

number of significant benefits over traditional shaft

construction methods; greater installation efficiencies,

cost benefits, and a safer work environment. Humes

precast shafts also help to reduce the environmental

impact of construction.

Cost savings

• Installation time is significantly reduced as excavation

and ring placement can be on a continuous cycle.

• The precast concrete segments provide a one-pass

finished shaft, so no further concrete work is required

to finish the structure.

• There is no requirement for specialist labour and a

small team should be capable of managing the entire

installation process.

Safer work environment

Humes’ precast shafts enable contractors to provide a

safer environment for their workers:

• The majority of work can be carried out above ground

(caisson method).

• Overhead services hazards are minimised as no large

cranes are required.

• The system has a built-in safety barrier created by the

installation of the top ring.

Minimal environmental impact

An efficient design means shafts have minimal impact

on project sites and the surrounding environment:

• Noise and ground vibration are virtually eliminated as

no hammering is required.

• The excavation and site storage areas are minimal, as

the precast units are relatively compact at less than

2.5 m wide.

• Shaft installation does not require the use of water or

wet concrete (except for the base and collar).

8 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Innovative design

• The shaft can be installed accurately due to the

high degree of control over the rate and direction

of installation.

• No bracing is required due to its structurally efficient

circular shape. The shaft gains structural stability from

the surrounding soil so tie-backs or ring-beams are not

required to support the segments.

• Suited to a variety of soil conditions.

• Extensive diameter range with full range of

ancillary products.

• A soil and watertight solution.

• A unique external fixing is used to join the segments,

eliminating the need for specialist trades, like welders,

on site.

Product range

Humes is proud to announce the expansion of our range

of precast concrete shafts; we now offer the following

sizes in one piece and segmental shafts:

• 2.4 m one piece shaft

• 3 m one piece shaft

• 3.6 m one piece shaft

• 4.5 m segmental shaft

• 6 m segmental shaft

• 7.5 m segmental shaft

• 9 m segmental shaft

• 10.5 m segmental shaft

• 12.5 m segmental shaft

• 15 m segmental shaft

• Sizes up to 25 m are also available, please contact

Humes for availability.


Construction methods

There are three techniques available to install a precast

concrete segmental shaft. These are the caisson method,

underpin method and the last method is a combination

of the two. The design of caisson and underpin shafts

requires specialist skills and should be executed by a

designer experienced with these construction methods.

Caisson method

The caisson method is generally used in softer soils with

or without the presence of ground water. Caisson are

either installed as a ‘wet caisson’ where the water level

inside the caisson is slightly higher than the external

ground water level, or as a ‘dry caisson’ where the inside

of the caisson is open to the atmosphere. In the caisson

method, the precast concrete elements are erected at

the surface and are then lowered into the ground whilst

excavation progresses.

There are a number of common features unique

to Humes' caisson shaft systems which facilitate

installation. These are:

• In-situ cast concrete collars

These collars act as a guide ring to keep the caisson

shaft vertical and, in larger diameter shafts, resist the

force from the hydraulic jacks.

• Hydraulic jacks (gallows)

These are installed to both steer the shaft and to add

to the vertical force in addition to the self weight

of the shaft lining (generally not required for one

piece rings).

• Excavation should be slightly larger in diameter than

the precast concrete shaft

The annulus between the shaft and the excavated

ground should be filled with suitable fluid (usually

bentonite with additives as required to suit the ground

conditions) which acts both as a lubricant but also

supports the ground during installation.

• The bottom/choker ring is wider than the standard

ring and the same diameter as the excavation

The choker ring is designed to provide a seal diameter

between the shaft and excavated ground so that the

fluid in the annulus above the ring is retained. The

choker segments are also designed to bolt the steel

cutting edge to the shaft and connect the underpin

segment. Refer to combination method on page 11.

• A steel cutting edge underneath the

bottom/choker ring

The steel cutting edge literally cuts through the

ground. An additional function is that it acts

as a stiffener.

• All caisson units are provided with grout sockets

This allows the exterior annulus to be filled with a

cementitious grout at completion of the installation.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 9

Top:

Caisson method of

shaft installation

showing hydraulic

jacks (gallows)

Bottom:

Bottom/choker

ring with steel

cutting edge

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Top:

Underpin method

of shaft installation

Bottom:

Segment lifting

frame for underpin

method

Underpin method

The underpin method can be used in self supported soil

where caisson installation is not possible. In this method,

the precast concrete elements are progressively installed

at the base of the excavation. Segmental rings are built

and the annulus between their outside perimeter and

the excavated ground is immediately grouted.

The recommended installation procedure is as follows:

• Secure the first installed ring by casting a concrete

collar around it prior to excavating underneath

to construct the next ring. Shear connection may

be required.

• Always excavate, install and grout one ring at a time.

This reduces the risk of overloading the upper rings

which could pull down the whole ring build, due to

lack of ground friction.

• Excavation of the next ring below can commence once

the grout reaches it recommended strength.

• The underpin segments are designed to be installed

using a specialised handling/lifting frame. The

segment will be secured into the frame via the plastic

grout socket assembly. If you wish to hire a frame,

contact Humes for assistance.

10 Tunnel and shaft solutions


Combination of the caisson and

underpin methods

A combination of both methods can be used if the

soil condition varies. Installation commences with

the caisson method (using a special choker ring) and

then shifts to the underpin method when the hard

soil ground is reached.

A special choker/transition ring must be used to enable

the shift to the underpin construction method. The

choker/transition rings are wider than the standard

caisson rings allowing the connection of underpin rings

below this ring as required.

With some ground conditions it may be necessary or

cost effective to stop the caisson at a certain depth.

After grouting the exterior annulus, it may be possible

to remove the cutting edge and then continue the shaft

construction using the underpin method.

Figure 7 – Combination method details

Caisson rings

Choker ring

Underpin rings

Tie rod

Double eye bolt

Tunnel and shaft solutions 11

Right:

Combination

method of shaft

installation

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Typical ring configuration

One piece shafts

One piece caisson units are ideally suited for construction

of sewage pump station wet wells, access chambers for

large diameter pipelines and jacking launch or receival

shafts for small diameter microtunnelling. One piece

shafts can be supplied in a range of diameters but

standard sizes are as detailed in Table 2 below.

Table 2 – Standard one piece caisson units*

Nominal

diameter

(DN)

Internal

diameter

(mm)

External

diameter

(mm)

Height of

standard units

(mm)*

Mass of standard

units

(tonnes)

Number of tie

rod couplers

2,400 2,374 2,782 1,000 4.3 6

3,000 3,060 3,460 1,000 5.2 8

3,600 3,600 4,000 1,000 6.0 9

Note:

* Dimensions are subject to change. Contact Humes for confirmation.

Figure 8 – One piece shaft used in a pump station application

Vertical tie rod

12 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Cutting edge

Detail – Panelled ring with recesses


Joint and connection details

Horizontal joints between one piece caisson units are

sealed with both a hydrophilic rubber seal near the

external surface and a butyl mastic rubber seal near the

internal surface. For temporary installations, a single

butyl mastic seal is likely to be sufficient. In addition,

units come complete with a groove on the inside face

which allows caulking of the internal surface.

Horizontal joints between one piece caisson rings are

connected with vertical tie rods that are mainly provided

for temporary loads during installation. These rods are

normally made from galvanised steel. For permanent

installations, it is recommended that approximately half

of these rods and couplers be replaced with stainless

steel so that the hydrophilic seal is confined during the

life of the structure.

Special units

Special units include the following:

• Panelled rings which include recesses, are designed

to provide a shear connection between the precast

concrete shaft and an in-situ cast concrete plug,

installed to prevent flotation. Either single or multiple

panelled rings are particularly effective for wet

caissons where the connection plug will be cast prior

to de-watering.

• Rings with corrosion protection linings (either High

Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or Plastiline® - Polyvinyl

Chloride (PVC)) for added corrosion resistance.

• Soft eye rings are applied to small diameter

(DN600 or less) microtunnelling applications. Rings

can be provided with either reduced or no steel

reinforcement at pipe penetrations.

• Cover slabs incorporating openings and/or lids as

required. The joint and connection details for the

standard rings are included with these cover slabs.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 13

Left:

One piece shaft

Right:

Cover slab

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Segmental shafts

Where shaft diameters exceed the size of the one piece

ring '3.60 m ID', the segmental shaft system comes

into its own so that shafts of almost any diameter

can be constructed.

A ring consists of a series of ordinary segments which

have four edges that are perpendicular to each other

and two tapered segments (left and right) which have

one tapered end which allows for closing of the ring

by simply lowering the last (tapered right) segment

into position.

Number of segments per ring varies depending on the

shaft diameter (refer to Table 3 below).

Table 3 – Standard segmental shaft details

Internal

diameter

(m)

External

diameter

(m)

Height

(m)

Segments per ring

Ordinary Tapered

Mass per ring

(tonnes)

Mass per

segment

(kg)

4.50 4.90 1.00 5 2 7.36 1,050

6.00 6.45 1.00 7 2 10.78 1,200

7.50 7.95 1.00 8 2 13.37 1,340

9.00 9.50 1.00 12 2 17.80 1,270

10.50 11.00 1.00 12 2 25.40 1,820

12.50 13.15 1.00 14 2 32.80 2,050

15.00 15.75 1.00 16 2 44.50 2,500

Note:

Diameters up to 25 m are also available, contact Humes for availability.

14 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Figure 9 – Installing tapered segments to close the ring

Tapered left

segment

Tapered right

segment

Ordinary

segment


Joint and connection details

A unique external fixing is used to join the smooth

segmental shaft. The strong connection bolts together

the segments to form a ring. Subsequently, the rings

come together to form a shaft. The system retains

all the benefits of strength, flexibility and speed of

erection whilst providing the client with a safer shaft

construction system.

• Cross joints

Segments are connected across this joint using curved

bolts (refer to Figure 10 below) which are installed

from the outside for caisson installation and from the

inside for underpin installation (see photos).

Figure 10 – Curved bolts used for cross joints

Tunnel and shaft solutions 15

Top:

Curved bolt fitting -

caisson installation

Bottom:

Curved bolt

fitting - underpin

installation

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Top:

Tie rod

Bottom:

Adjusting the

double eye

bolt - underpin

installation

• Circle joints

Caisson segmental rings are connected using vertical

tie rods that extend through the full length of the

segments (refer to Figure 11 and 12).

Underpin segmental rings are connected using a

double eye bolt arrangement that allows the joint

to be tightened from inside the shaft (refer to

Figure 13 below).

All bolts used with segmental shaft construction are

made from galvanised steel and are only necessary

to support the shaft during the installation. Once

segmental shafts have been grouted into position the

bolts are redundant.

16 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Figure 11 – Jointing details (caisson segment)

Curved bolt hole recess

Conduit for tie rod

Figure 12 – Tie rod connection used for caisson

installations

Tie rods

Hexagonal couplers

Washer

Gel grommets

Tie rods

Grout socket

assembly

Figure 13 – Double eye bolt used for underpin

installations


Special units

Special rings and/or segments can also be supplied in

addition to the standard segmental shaft caisson rings:

• Panelled rings

Recesses can be included in both standard rings and

choker rings as required. As with the one piece caisson

rings these are intended to provide a shear connection

between an in-situ cast plug or base slab and the

segmental shaft. It is recommended that complete

panelled ring(s) are installed.

• Soft eye rings

Standard segments are reinforced with steel reinforcing

bars. It is possible to provide rings with some segments

manufactured using fibre reinforcement located at

pipes penetrations for microtunnelling applications. For

the caisson method, a complete ring of fibre reinforced

segments is not recommended.

Innovative features

• Grout socket assembly

Each segment and ring is fitted with a plastic grout

socket assembly which includes a non-return valve.

The assembly is used to introduce bentonite slurry

between the caisson ring and the soil, to lubricate and

reduce friction force while jacking rings into the ground.

The same socket is used to inject grout to permanently

secure the rings. For underpin installations the socket

is also used to secure the segment into the underpin

lifting frame (refer to page 10).

• Packing

Bituminous felt packing of 3 mm nominal thickness is

used on all longitudinal joints. The packing is designed

to prevent direct contact between concrete surfaces

as a result from compressed forces imposed by the

surrounding soil.

• Watertightness

All shaft segments are supplied with Ethylene Propylene

Diene Manomer (EPDM) gaskets fitted into purpose

designed grooves cast around the full circumference of

each segment. In addition, each segment is cast with

caulking grooves on the internal circumferential and

longitudinal sides to meet the specific requirements of

the sealing system. Refer to Figures 15 and 16 on the

following page.

Figure 14 – Grout socket assembly

Sealing washer

Grout/Lifting socket

Threaded grout plug

Non-return valve

Detail

Tunnel and shaft solutions 17

Top:

Panelled ring

Bottom:

Segment packing

and detail of

stacking spacer

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Right:

Ethylene Propylene

Diene Manomer

gasket placement

and detail

Figure 15 – Load deflection graph Load-deflection graph

Load (kN/m)

Load (kN/m)

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

30

TUNNEL SEGMENT GASKET TYPE JS1

5

10 mm offset

30

0

0 1 2 3

4

5 6 7 8 89 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Deflection (mm)

Figure 16 – Watertightness Water graphtightness

graph

10/05

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Trelleborg Bakker B.V. tel: +31 180 495 555, fax: +31 180 433 080

0 1 2 3 4 5

Gap (mm)

6 7 8 9 10

Pressure

Pressure

(bar)

(bar)

GAP

10/05 Trelleborg Bakker B.V. tel: +31 180 495 555, fax: +31 180 433 080

18 Tunnel and shaft solutions

26

10.25

6.5

7.5

6.5

Detail

Gap

10 mm

offset

26

30

10.25

6.5

7.5

6.5


3-pin precast arches

Humes' precast arch system is a high performance and

cost effective tunnel solution. A large range of custom

designed 3-pin arches have been developed which are

ideal for a variety of complex heavy loading criteria and

internal envelopes.

A wide range of 3-pin arches have been used for reclaim

tunnels in mining applications. They are designed to suit

coal and other mineral stockpiles up to 45 metres.

The 3-pin arch is a soil-structure interaction system

where the backfill of the specified zone contributes to

the load carrying capacity of the arch and becomes part

of the structure. Its optimised geometry and the unique

pinned joint allows it to bear and pass heavy load to

the foundation.

Applications

• Reclaim tunnels

• Conveyor tunnels

• Escape tunnels

• Underpasses

Features and benefits

• Designed to meet the mine’s designated design life

and can exceed 100 years.

• Delivered in segments to suit light cranes.

• Require minimal maintenance since:

- the combination of backfill and overfill protects the

arch element

- it has no exposed metal nor bolting system.

• Openings for ventilation, escape accesses and intake

valves can be easily accommodated.

• Grades and curved tunnels can be achieved using the

same type arch profile.

• A unique jointing system without any overlapping,

staggering, bolting or cast in-situ joints.

• Self supported during installation, does not require

scaffolding or support of backfill.

• Easy to clean and maintain as conveyor belts can be

attached to the internal soffit of the arch allowing

sufficient clearance for service vehicles to pass beneath.

• Fewer units are required for installation as most arch

units are 1.8 m to 2.5 m wide.

• Arches can be installed with minimum disruption to

conveyor operation.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 19

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Product range

Humes 3-pin arches are custom-made to suit specific

project requirements. They are designed to accommodate

the defined envelope, where the function of the tunnel

and loads are applied.

Humes in-house design team can assist in choosing

the most economical 3-pin arch profile (some standard

profiles are shown in Figure 17 below). We will conduct

both linear and non-linear 3D analysis to define

structure suitability, an example of this is shown in

Figure 18 below.

Figure 17 – 3-pin arch profiles

11,000

10,000

9,000

8,000

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

8,000

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

Figure 18 – 3D design analysis

20 Tunnel and shaft solutions

2,000

1,000

0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

8,000


Arch system components

A range of precast concrete products are usually provided

as part of the arch structure along with a selection of

retaining wall structures including:

• precast concrete feeder chambers to fit intake valves

• spandrel walls which run parallel to the arch, retaining

the backfill at each end of the tunnel. They are

designed to match the arch profile.

• wing walls which are placed at each end of the

spandrel wall to retain the backfill and support the

spandrel walls.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 21

Top:

Arch system with

spandrel wall and

wing walls

Middle:

Spandrel wall

Bottom:

Wing walls

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Top and bottom:

Construction

of a box culvert

mine portal

Opposite page:

Jacking pipe

Box culverts

Humes manufactures extra large span box culverts with

spans and leg heights up to 6 metres. For additional

strength, prestressed units and post-tensioning are

also available.

A complete precast base and crown unit can be supplied

for fast and easy installation. This will minimise the

need for cast in-situ concrete, especially for remote

mining sites.

Box culverts can also be jacked underneath railways and

roads or slid into a pre-excavated tunnel.

Applications

• Portal entries - provide safe ingress and egress for mine

and construction sites

• Conveyer tunnels

• Escape tunnels

• Railways and roads

• Drainage for haul roads

Features and benefits

• Designed to withstand explosion loads and impact

from rock that may fall from a cut face.

• Designed to take heavy mining vehicle loads.

• Blast doors can be fitted into units as required.

• Custom made to suit project specific envelopes.

• Easy to install, no backfilling or jointing of units is

required for structure stability.

• Can be installed to meet site grade condition.

• Conveyor belts are easily attached to the internal

surface of the crown.

22 Tunnel and shaft solutions


Jacking pipes

Humes leads the industry and develops world class

jacking pipes ideally suited for use with modern, closed

faced microtunnelling systems.

We provide a comprehensive range of both steel

reinforced concrete and vitrified clay jacking pipes. They

are available in a variety of sizes, classes and joint types

to suit various applications and installation methods.

Our jacking pipes are available in the following ranges;

Steel reinforced concrete pipe from DN300 to DN3600

and vitrified clay pipe from DN150 to DN1200.

Reinforced concrete pressure pipes are designed for the

combined effects of the external load and internal (in

service) pressure. Australian/New Zealand Standard

AS/NZS 4058:2007 Precast Concrete Pipes (Pressures

and Non-Pressure) gives a minimum requirement for

factory test pressure of 120% of working pressure in the

pipeline. STEINZEUG KERAMO vitrified clay jacking pipes

are manufactured and inspected in accordance with

European Standard EN 295.

The jacking technique

(microtunnelling)

Pipe jacking is a method of tunnel construction where

hydraulic jacks are used to thrust specially made pipes

through the ground behind a shield machine, from

launch shaft to receival shaft.

The term microtunnelling is also often used to describe

this method of pipe installation.

Pipe jacking is used to install conduits below ground for a

variety of applications including:

• sewerage pipelines

• stormwater pipelines

• road and rail culverts

• pressure pipelines

• as a sleeve pipe for other utility pipelines (water,

sewage, and electricity and communication cables)

• pipe replacement and relining

Tunnel and shaft solutions 23

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Benefits of pipe jacking

Technical

• Inherent strength of lining.

• Smooth internal finish giving good flow characteristics.

• No requirement for secondary lining.

• Considerably less joints than a segmental tunnel.

• Prevention of ground water ingress by use of pipes

with sealed flexible joints.

• Provision of invert channels in larger pipes to contain

the dry weather flow of a sewer in a combined system.

Safety

Pipe jacking is an inherently safer method than open

trench construction or when considering the risks

associated with deep, large section, open excavations:

• Major reduction in man-hours, opportunities for

accidents to occur are less with pipe jacking.

• In busy urban centres, trenchless operation

will not interfere with pedestrian and motor

traffic movements.

• There is significant reduction in the risk of injury as a

result of utility strikes and interface with the public.

• Less risk of settlement.

Figure 19 – Typical pipe jacking set up

Crane to

lower pipes

into position

24 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Launch shaft with hydraulic jacks

Jacking direction

Economic

• Less affected by weather condition

• Less risk of settlement

• Minimal surface disruption

• Minimal reinstatement

• Reduced requirement for utilities diversions in

urban areas

Environmental

There are substantial environmental benefits to be

gained by the use of pipe jacking techniques when

compared with the traditional open trench approach:

• Typically the trenchless method will reduce the

quantities of incoming and outgoing materials,

with a consequent reduction in tipping of spoil and

quarrying of imported stone fill. This in turn leads to

reduced vehicle movements and subsequently less

associated disruption.

• Minimal surface disruption and reinstatement.

• Trenchless will not harm existing vegetation.

• Noise, dirt and smell are minimised.

Source: An introduction to pipe jacking and microtunelling design

– Pipe Jacking Association UK

Detail – Intermediate jacking station

Trail pipe

Rubber

rings

Jacking direction

Standard pipe

Lubrication port

Working face with

jacking shield

Timber joint packer

Lead pipe (steel can)

Jacks

Thrust ring

Standard pipe

Intermediate jacking station

to assist longer drives Receival shaft


Steel reinforced concrete pipes

(SRCP)

Humes is Australia’s leading manufacturer of SRCP.

We have a wide range of diameters, lengths and

strengths available. Our SRCP has a proven track record

and can be custom designed for applications such as

drainage, sewage, water supply and irrigation.

A milestone was achieved when Humes' DN2100,

fixed steel collar pipes were jacked 1,030 m without

any intermediate shafts on the Northern Pipeline

Interconnector – Stage 2, SEQ (refer to our case study on

this project for further details).

Benefits of reinforced concrete jacking pipes

Optimal strength

Humes SRCP are manufactured and factory tested for

quality to AS/NZS 4058:2007 "Precast concrete pipes

(Pressure and Non-pressure)":

• A concrete pipe is a rigid pipe system that relies

mostly on the strength of the pipe and is only slightly

dependent on the strength derived from the soil

envelope. The inherent strength of concrete pipe can

compensate for site problems not designed for, such as

construction shortcomings and higher fill heights and

trench depths.

• Concrete pipes are less susceptible to damage

during construction, and maintain their shape by

not deflecting.

• All concrete pipe strengths are standardised

by AS/NZS 4058 “Precast Concrete Pipes”. Concrete

pipes are strength-tested by the manufacturer to proof

loads, or test loads, as nominated by the standard for

particular diameter and class.

• Steel reinforcement in concrete pipes adds

significantly to their inherent strength. The steel

reinforcement is shaped into cages by automatic cage

welding machines. The machines ensure that the

reinforcement cages are dimensionally correct and

have tight enginereed tolerances.

Durable

Humes SRCP has a number of concrete properties that

influence long service life. These properties are:

• Ultimate compressive strength: Humes SRCP

compressive strength is usually in the range of up

to 60 MPa and above. The strength of the pipe is

a result of the materials used in the concrete mix,

the mix design, manufacturing techniques and the

curing process.

• Low water absorption, below 4%, due to the density

and impermeability of the concrete used and

manufacturing process. AS/NZS 4058-2007 specifies

a maximum allowable absorption of 6% for all

concrete pipes.

• A low water/cement (W/C) ratio of below 0.35. The

W/C ratio is considered a trademark for durable

concrete pipe, particularly as high compressive

strength is related to this criterion.

• High alkalinity is controlled by cementitious content

maintained by a proper mix design, material properties

as well as the manufacturing and curing process.

• Concrete pipe aggregates, both coarse and fine, meet

the requirements of AS 2758. Aggregates are a key

element in producing quality concrete and in turn,

quality pipe.

Source: Concrete Pipe Facts, Concrete Pipe Association of

Australasia, www.cpaa.asn.au/concrete-pipe-facts.html

Tunnel and shaft solutions 25

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Fixed steel collar pipes

A wide robust range is available from DN300 to DN3000

inclusive. They are a custom designed reinforced concrete

jacking pipe incorporating a single wide jacking face

including timber packers, a secure steel collar cast

onto the pipe and a flexible watertight joint. All these

being essential for longer pipe jacks and unstable

ground conditions.

Applications

The fixed steel collar jacking pipes provides high axial

load transfer capacity and a flexible watertight joint. This

is the ideal jacking pipe for all stormwater, sewerage,

sleeve pipe and jacked low pressure pipeline applications.

Steel collar types

Humes offer two different types of fixed steel collars:

the S type which is fitted into pipes up to DN700 and the

J type fitted into remaining sizes (mainly from DN800 to

DN3000). The steel collar bands are fabricated to high

tolerances to ensure optimum joint performance.

Both steel collars include a water stop hydro-seal to

prevent ingress of water between the band and the

concrete pipe wall.

Elastomeric seal

The elastomeric seal is located with the corrugated

steel collar in the S type collar band, factory secured

internally to the steel socket band with adhesive. While,

in the J type the seal is retained within the accurately

formed recess on the pipe spigot.

Both unique designs will ensure that the elastomeric seal

remains in place in compression even if joint deflection

occurs. The joint integrity remains intact when subjected

to either internal or external hydraulic pressure.

A muck ring is fitted within the J type joint; limiting the

ingress of soil into the joint during jacking. The muck ring

will be compressed by the end of the steel collar.

Watertight joint – (External pressure testing)

Humes have undertaken external pressure testing of

deflected joints with external hydrostatic pressures up

to 400 kPa without visible leaks. On this basis, fixed

steel collar jacking pipes are rated for 250 kPa external

pressure for the joint deflections shown in Figures 22

and 23 on page 29. Humes can design pipes for higher

external pressure ratings if required.

Bentonite or grout injection fittings

Pipes can be supplied with or without threaded sockets

and plugs, which are cast into the pipe wall in locations

to meet the project specific requirements for grout and/

or lubrication injection.

Figure 20 – S type joint profile Figure 21 – J type joint profile

26 Tunnel and shaft solutions


Inert thermoplastic linings

Humes are able to supply the J type steel collar jacking

pipes complete with corrosion protection linings (either

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or Plastiline®- Polyvinyl

Chloride (PVC)) in accordance with Water Services

Association of Australia (WSAA) standard specification

WSA113. These linings are a proven method of concrete

protection against H S attack in trunk sewers.

2

Secondary sealing recess

All J type steel collar jacking pipes are supplied with a

recess on the internal pipe ends which allows for locating

a flexible sealant, applied internally after installation,

Table 4 – Features and benefits

Features Benefit to asset owner Benefit to contractor

Elastomeric seal Watertight joint

Prevents ingress or egress of water and soil

surrounding the pipes and allows pressure grouting

of the excavated annulus at the completion of

jacking (if required).

Steel collar fixed to

pipe with in-built

water stop

Corrugated collar

recess (S type)

Deep spigot groove

(J type)

Single wide

jacking face

Muck ring

(J type)

Collar material

The designer has many options for the grade of

steel to suit the intended design life in the installed

environment of the pipe. Generally, mild steel is

considered suitable for in-ground conditions and a

non-aggressive environment.

Permanent seal location

The seal remains in place throughout the design

life of the pipeline providing a long-term watertight

structure under external groundwater pressures or

ground movement.

Efficient construction

Long drives, lower construction costs and less

disturbance to above-ground activities.

Maintain watertight joint

After installation the muck ring protects the rubber

ring and the steel collar to maintain watertightness.

Internal joint recess Additional sealing options

The recess is shaped to allow retention of a flexible

sealant if secondary joint sealing is required.

if required by the project designer for isolation of the

joint from the pipeline environment (see Figure 21 on

page 26). The combination of mild steel collars with internal

joint gap sealant can provide a cost effective solution in

certain ground conditions.

Intermediate jacking stations

Humes have standard designs for intermediate jacking

stations and these include trail and lead pipes for all

diameters DN1000 to DN2000. The arrangement of these

pipes at the intermediate jacking station is shown in

Figure 19 on page 24.

Flexibility

Allows joint rotation without damage to the

pipe joint.

Watertight joint

Lubrication fluids are retained in the excavated

annulus without loss of fluid or pressure.

Secure system

Steel collar will remain watertight and secured

in place during jacking, even in variable

ground conditions.

Efficient jointing

Rapid pipe jointing ensures operational efficiency in

the jacking pit.

Restrained seal

Ensures that the seal remains in place during

jointing and jacking with external pressure from

groundwater or lubrication injection.

Long drives

The wide face on the pipe end enables transfer of

high jacking forces through the centerline of the

pipe wall enabling accurate steering and long drives.

Maintain watertight joint

Prevents ingress of soil into joint during jacking.

No spalling

Prevents spalling of inside concrete face if the packer

is displaced during jacking.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 27

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Optimal strength

Humes fixed collar jacking pipes, both with S and J type

collar, are designed with steel reinforcement placed for

optimal strength, which combined with the strength and

durability of Humes concrete pipes, provides an excellent

jacking pipe. Steel reinforced concrete jacking pipes are

capable of withstanding higher jacking loads.

The jacking load capacity of standard pipes for a range of

joint deflections is illustrated in Figures 22 and 23 on the

following page. Pipes with higher jacking loads and/or

joint deflections can be designed for specific projects.

28 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Jacking design and forces

The Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia (CPAA)

publication, Jacking Design Guidelines is a recommended

guide to calculate and define jacking forces. The guide

can be downloaded by visiting;

www.cpaa.asn.au/CPAA-Online-Shop.html

Jacking forces and lateral displacement off line and

level have to be recorded at regular intervals of jacking

distance (not exceeding 200 mm or every 90 seconds).

Ensure that jacking forces are maintained within the

limits specified in Figures 22 and 23 on the following

page. If circumstances cause a jacking force/deflection

combination outside of these limits, hold the jacking

operation and contact Humes for assistance.


Figure 22 – S type jacking pipes deflection curves

Maximum jacking force (tonnes)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80

DN300

DN350

DN400

Figure 23 – J type jacking pipes deflection curves

Maximum jacking force (tonnes)

2,500 2500

2,250 2250

2,000 2000

1,750 1750

Maximum Jacking Force (Tonnes)

1,500 1500

1,250 1250

1,000 1000

750

500

250

DN800 DN900 DN1000

Maximum joint deflection (degrees)

DN450

J Series Jacking Pipes

DN500

0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30

DN600

DN700

0

0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10

Maximum

Maximum

Joint

joint

Deection

deflection

(Degrees)

(degrees)

0

0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20

DN800 DN900 DN1000 DN1100 DN1200 DN1350 DN1500 DN1650 DN1800 DN2100 DN2400 DN2500

DN2700 DN3000

DN1100 DN1200 DN1350 DN1500

DN1650 DN1800 DN2100 DN2400 DN2500 DN2700 DN3000

1.20

Tunnel and shaft solutions 29

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Table 5 – Fixed steel collar pipes dimensions, mass, jacking loads and deflections

Nominal

diameter

Internal

diameter

'A'

(mm)

t

Pw

Pt

C

External

diameter

'B'

(mm)

Detail

Wall

thickness

'T'

(mm)

D

Effective

length

'L'

(mm)

Min.

joint

packer

'Pt/Pw'

(mm)

Length

'C'

(mm)

Steel

collar

ID

'D'

(mm)

Thickness

't'

(mm)

Pipe mass

(kg)

Max.

jacking

load

(tonnes)

300 300 430 65 2,400 3/40 50 412 1.5 500 100 S

350 350 480 65 2,400 3/40 50 462 1.5 550 115 S

400 400 540 70 2,400 3/40 50 522 1.5 660 135 S

450 450 606 78 2,400 3/40 50 588 1.5 725 165 S

500 500 672 86 2,400 3/40 50 654 1.5 1,000 225 S

600 600 774 87 2,400 6/60 80 752 2 1,190 240 S

700 700 876 88 2,400 6/60 80 854 2 1,380 280 S

800 800 1,000 100 2,360 12/65 120 989 4 1,800 500 J

900 900 1,110 105 2,360 12/70 120 1,099 4 2,100 500 J

1,000 1,000 1,220 110 2,360 12/75 120 1,209 4 2,400 515 J

1,100 1,100 1,332 116 2,360 12/80 120 1,321 4 2,800 565 J

1,200 1,200 1,450 125 2,360 12/90 120 1,439 4 3,300 650 J

1,350 1,350 1,626 138 2,320 16/90 160 1,611 6 4,000 755 J

1,500 1,500 1,800 150 2,320 16/100 160 1,785 6 4,800 840 J

1,600 1,600 1,940 170 2,985 16/110 160 1,911 8 7,500 1,020 J

1,650 1,650 1,974 162 2,320 16/110 160 1,959 6 5,700 925 J

1,800 1,800 2,150 175 2,320 16/125 160 2,135 6 6,700 1,050 J

2,100 2,100 2,500 200 2,985 16/160 160 2,481 8 12,050 1,440 J

2,400 2,374 2,783 204 2,985 16/175 175 2,759 10 12,950 1,485 J

2,500 2,500 3,000 250 2,985 16/195 175 2,977 10 16,650 2,000 J

2,700 2,636 3,096 230 2,985 16/175 175 3,073 10 16,150 1,900 J

3,000 2,972 3,472 250 2,985 16/195 175 3,449 10 19,700 2,220 J

30 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Swiftlift® anchors

L

T

A

B

Collar

type


Loose steel collar pipes

Humes offer two types of loose steel collar SRCP jacking

pipes, butt joint and in-wall joint. They are available from

DN300 to DN3000 (standard range DN300 to DN2100).

The steel collar is not attached to the pipe (cast with)

but rather is fitted onto the pipe before installation. The

collars can be supplied by either Humes or the contractor.

Butt joint pipes

Butt joint jacking pipes incorporate a single wide jacking

face. External recesses at each end of the pipe allow for a

rolled steel collar to be located between adjacent pipes,

providing the necessary shear connection (see Figure 24).

• Applications

Butt joint jacking pipes can provide a cost effective

solution for typically short length applications

where only limited flexibility is required and a soil or

watertight joint is not required. This pipe is also suited

to sleeve pipe applications for road and rail crossings

where the annulus between the utility pipeline and

conduit is to be filled with grout after installation.

Refer to Table 7 – Selection of jacking pipes (page 33),

which provides a summary of capabilities for each

of the different types of jacking pipes for different

requirements and applications.

In-wall joint pipes

In-wall joint jacking pipes are available from DN1200

to DN3600 (standard range DN1200 to DN2100). In-wall

joint jacking pipes incorporate a concrete socket formed

in the wall of the pipe, a rubber ring located on the pipe

spigot and timber packers on one or both joint faces

(see Figure 25).

• Applications

In-wall joint jacking pipes are an economical viable

alternative for typically short length applications

where a flexible watertight joint is required, however,

this type of joint can have limitations in jacking

load transfer. A J type pipe should be specified in

these situations.

Figure 24 – Butt joint profile Figure 25 – In-wall joint profile

Steel collar Steel collar

Tunnel and shaft solutions 31

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Table 6 – Loose steel collar pipe range

Nominal

diameter

Internal

diameter

Selection of jacking pipes

In-wall joint Butt joint

External

diameter

mm

Internal

diameter

The most basic requirements for all jacking pipes is

that they must be capable of supporting the excavation

(earth and traffic loads), transferring axial load, providing

a shear connection between adjacent pipes and joint

flexibility that allows for each pipe to follow the path

excavated in front of the shield.

External

diameter

DN300 280 362

DN375 363 445

DN475 438 534

DN525 518 616

DN600 586 698

DN675 653 781

DN750 730 864

DN825 790 946

DN900 875 1029

DN975 951 1,111

DN1050 1,026 1,194

DN1200 1,200 1,500 1,163 1,359

DN1350 1,324 1,524

DN1500 1,452 1,676

DN1650 1,596 1,842

DN1800 1,756 2,006

DN1950 1,920 2,220 1,930 2,198

DN2100 2,088 2,388 2,096 2,388

Notes:

1. Alternative internal diameters (and external diameters) may be available to suit project

specific requirements, contact Humes for assistance.

2. Standard range is equivalent to load class 4 pipes.

3. Contact Humes for in-wall joint pipes in this range.

32 Tunnel and shaft solutions

In addition, jacking pipes may need to prevent ingress of

surrounding soil, groundwater, lubricants or grouts and

provide a joint capable of withstanding internal pressure

in sewerage or pressure pipeline applications.

Jacking pipes must meet both the needs of the

contractor and asset owner who is usually represented

by the pipeline designer. Table 7 opposite provides a

summary of the capabilities of each of our types of

jacking pipes for different requirements and applications.


Table 7 – Selection of jacking pipes

Stakeholder

Jacking pipe

requirements or

application

Fixed steel collar Loose steel collar

S type J type Butt joint In-wall joint

Asset owner Standard size class DN300 – DN700 DN800 – DN3000 DN300 – D2100 DN1200 – DN2100

Asset

owners and

contractors

Extended diameter

range*

Incorporation of inert

thermoplastic lining

External grouting Suitable for short

lengths

Internal pressure test

capability (kPa)‡

Application of

internal secondary

sealants

DN800 Up to DN3600 DN2250 – DN3000 DN2250 – DN3600

N/A Available DN900 > Available

Ideally suited Not suitable Limited suitability†

90 150 § N/A 90

N/A Suitable Not suitable Limited suitability

Sewerage pipelines Limited suitability || Ideally suited Not suitable Suitable

Stormwater pipelines Ideally suited Ideally suited Limited suitability Suitable

Road and rail culverts Ideally suited Ideally suited Limited suitability Suitable

Sleeve pipe

applications

Length of jacked

pipeline (m)

External pressure test

capability §§

Ideally suited Ideally suited Limited suitability # Suitable

0 – 50†† < DN1000: 0 – 150

DN1000 – DN3000:

no limit‡‡

0 – 50** 0 – 50

90 250 N/A 90

Jacking force transfer Excellent Excellent Good Moderate

Intermediate jacking

stations pipes

N/A Available DN900 –

DN3000

To be provided by

contractor

Contractors Open face shields Suitable Suitable Suitable Suitable

Closed face pressure

shields

Lubrication along

length of pipeline

To be provided by

contractor

Ideally suited Ideally suited Not suitable Limited suitability

N/A Ideally suited Not suitable |||| Limited suitability

Notes:

* Refer to Humes for availability.

† Grout pressures need to be carefully monitored.

‡ Test to AS/NZS 4058: 2007.

§ Higher pressures are possible with certain diameters – refer to Humes for advice if higher pressures are required.

|| If corrosive sewage gases are expected consider using vitrified clay jacking pipes distributed by Humes.

# The butt joint jacking pipe is suitable for short length drives in certain soil conditions if the annulus between the concrete sleeve pipe and the product pipe is grouted.

This grout should also flow into the annulus between the sleeve pipe and the excavated ground.

†† Intermediate jacking stations are not available and length is mainly limited by installation equipment. Some pipe jacking contractors may be able to achieve longer

lengths of individual drives in certain soil conditions. Refer to jacking pipe contractor for advice for longer drives.

‡‡ The maximum length will be controlled by installation equipment rather than pipe capability.

** Lack of joint flexibility largely controls maximum length. This could be extended in certain soil conditions.

§§ There is no published test method for external joint testing of reinforced concrete pipes. External pressures due to lubrication or grouting can be well in excess of

ground water pressures.

|||| For lubrication to be effective, the annulus between the external diameter of the pipe and the excavated soil needs to be filled. The butt joint pipe may not provide an

effective sealed joint.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 33

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Load class

Jacking pipes, as opposed to pipes laid in open

excavations, are subjected to both jacking forces,

external earth loads and life loads (permanent loads)

and all of these have to be considered when specifying

the pipes.

The effect of the jacking force on the pipe barrel is

small on account of the high compressive strength of

the concrete. The joint, however, must be considered

because the joint cross-section is smaller, as a rule, than

that of the barrel and the jacking force is transferred

eccentrically across the joint.

The external earth load on the barrel is equal to or

smaller than the trench load on a pipe bedded in a

trench of same width as the excavation (i.e. the outside

diameter of the pipe plus a margin for over-excavation).

The jacking method of installation, therefore, is very

efficient from an external load point of view since the

external earth load is smaller than both trench and

embankment load on pipes of the same diameter under

the same height of fill.

As such a minimum Class 4 pipe is usually recommended

although in some short length drives a Class 3 may

be suitable. The Class 4 pipe to Australian Standard

AS/NZS 4058: 2007 has very similar strength

requirements to load classes specified for jacking pipes

in European and Japanese Standards.

AS/NZS 4058: 2007 outlines the technique for

determining the permanent vertical loads acting on

pipes installed using pipe jacking. The jacking pipe

is installed underground into undisturbed natural

ground where the soil’s natural cohesion contributes to

arching over the pipe. Where the calculation includes

the effects of arching due to soil cohesion extensive soil

investigations should be carried out to determine the

appropriate design soil properties.

The jacking installation results in a recommended

bedding factor between two and three that is used to

determine the minimum suitable pipe class required due

to permanent loads.

34 Tunnel and shaft solutions

The higher value is recommended when the annulus

between the pipe and ground is grouted. Grouting

of this annulus with a suitable cementitious grout is

recommended in most installations as any voids could

create a drainage path external to the pipeline which in

turn could lead to soil erosion, lowering of ground water

tables and, in aggressive soil conditions, an increased risk

of corrosion of pipe materials.

The axial loading from the pipe jacking is not directly

included in the selection of the pipe load class. Timber

packers are placed between the jacking faces of the

concrete pipes to avoid high stresses that could result

from direct concrete to concrete contact. The axial load

capacity of the concrete pipe is determined based on

the minimum pipe wall thickness, concrete strength,

properties of the timber packers and the deflections that

can be expected at pipe joints during installation.

The allowable jacking forces and associated maximum

joint deflections are calculated in accordance with

the Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia (CPAA)

publication, Jacking Design Guidelines.

Source: Jacking Design Guidelines, Concrete Pipe Association

of Australasia.

Jacking design and forces

The CPAA publication, Jacking Design Guidelines, is a

recommended guide to calculate and define jacking

forces. The guide can be downloaded by visiting;

www.cpaa.asn.au/CPAA-Online-Shop.html

Jacking force and lateral displacement off line and

level have to be recorded at regular intervals of jacking

distance (not exceeding 200 mm or every 90 seconds).

Ensure that jacking forces are maintained within the

specified limits. If circumstances cause a jacking force/

deflection combination outside of these limits, hold the

jacking operation and contact Humes for assistance.


Vitrified clay pipes

Humes vitrified clay jacking pipes are manufactured by

STEINZEUG-KERAMO (STEINZEUG Abwassersysteme

GmbH) and inspected in accordance with the European

standard for vitrified clay pipes, fittings and joints for

drains and sewers - EN 295.

Features and benefits

Watertightness

The joints are tested in accordance with EN 295, which

means that they are guaranteed to be watertight at

0.5 bar, including the angular deflections and radial

loads specified in the standard. They are also tested

in accordance with ZPWN 2951 and ATV A142, with

guaranteed watertightness at 2.4 bar. Watertightness

is also tested at an external pressure of 6 bar, which

provides a high level of security against penetration of

soil slurries and bentonite.

Corrosion resistance

Vitrified clay material is resistant to all types of chemicals

over the entire wall thickness. The resistance of the

vitrified clay material and seals is tested using chemicals,

including sulphuric acid at pH 0 and NaOH at pH 14, in

conformance with EN 295 and ZPWN 295.

High mechanical strength

Vitrified clay jacking pipes generally have greater wall

thicknesses than corresponding standard vitrified clay

sewer pipes, that results in high crown pressure ratings

and high resistance to ground and traffic loads.

Strength in the length direction is the most important

factor for jacking pipes, because they must withstand the

high jacking forces necessary to overcome the resistance

of the cutting face and the external pipe surface.

According to the EN 295 standard, the longitudinal

compressive strength of the surfaces that transfer the

force between pipe sections must be at least 75 N/mm².

STEINZEUG-KERAMO guarantees a value of at least

100 N/mm². That is higher than the values stated for

other types of current jacking material. It allows very

high jacking forces to be used, although this capability is

only partially utilised in practice. The glazed outer surface

of the pipe strongly reduces friction between the pipe

and the surrounding soil.

High abrasion resistance

Vitrified clay has high abrasion resistance, which

is equally true for the glaze and the rest of the

wall. Abrasion values encountered in the tests are

approximately 0.08 mm, which is much lower than

the typical abrasion values of 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm after

100,000 load cycles measured using the Darmstadt test

as specified in the EN 295 standard or the maximum

value of 0.25 mm in the ZPWN 295 standard. Abrasion

does not accelerate even with extended load cycles, such

as up to 400,000, in contrast to what is often suggested

in data sheets for competitive materials. The depth of

abrasion remains limited to 0.3 - 0.8 mm after 400,000

cycles. Compared with the large wall thicknesses of

vitrified clay jacking pipes, that represents a negligible

loss of wall thickness.

1. ZPWN 295 is an internal manufacturer standard of

STEINZEUG-KERAMO.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 35

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Right:

Vitrified clay jacking

pipe installation

Resistance to high-pressure cleaning

The requirement included in the ZPWN 295 standard

is met (resistance with regard to a standardised

maintenance cleaning test at 120 bar and a deblocking

test at 340 bar). Here again, vitrified clay scores

considerably better than many other types of material.

Temperature resistance

Pipes and seals are tested at up to 70 °C. Vitrified clay

pipes can tolerate even higher temperatures.

Long service life

After being properly installed, vitrified clay pipe requires

very little maintenance. As vitrified clay scores very

high with respect to all the requirements that must be

imposed on sewer pipes, vitrified clay pipes have very

long service lives. The important properties mentioned

above do not degrade over time. This is especially true

for jacking pipes, because they are structurally over

dimensioned for their subsequent use and optimally

bedded in the ground.

36 Tunnel and shaft solutions


Product range

The entire range of vitrified clay jacking pipes DN200 to

DN1200 are fitted with a stainless steel coupling which

has a high chrome and nickel content and a relatively

significant molybdenum content. This coupling is highly

resistant to corrosion in aggressive soils (acids, chlorides

and halogens).

Two different types of stainless steel couplings are used,

Type 1 and Type 2.

DN200 to DN300 with Type 1 stainless steel coupling

• The moulded elastomer seal is integrated into the ring.

• The packing ring, which transmits the jacking force is

made from elastomer for diameters up to DN300 and

forms a unit with the moulded sealing ring.

• Pipes are sawn at both ends to yield parallel end faces.

• The spigot ends are milled. The precision ground

spigots as for larger dimension jacking pipes permit a

safe internal working pressure of 2.4 bar.

• The sealing capabilities of the coupler due to its special

design not only guarantees joint integrity, but ensures

full protection from the ingress of matter during the

jacking process.

Figure 26 – Typical vitrified clay pipe jacking set up

DN400 to DN1200 with Type 2 stainless steel coupling

• The moulded rubber seal is integrated in a

milled groove.

• The packing ring, which transmits the jacking force,

is made from particle board and is prefitted to

the coupling.

• Pipes are sawn and milled at both ends to yield parallel

end faces.

• For diameters DN600 and above a clamping

(prestressing) ring is fitted at each spigot end. This ring

increases the permissible jacking force and provides

additional protection in case of poorly controlled

steering motions during jacking or when angular

deflections occur due to variations in soil conditions.

• Intermediate re-usable jacking stations can be used

with diameters of DN600 and above. This is advisable

for long jacking distances and when jacking forces

exceeding the specified limits are anticipated. The

intermediate jacking stations are coupled to the spigot

ends of the pipes and recovered in the receival pit or an

intermediate shaft.

The trenchless mode of construction

At the present time two remote steered methods

for the construction of underground sewers

are in use. These two methods are

described below in accordance with ATV

bentonite suspensions are used, special sand

removal equipment is used. The drive for the

cutting head and for the steering cylinders are

located in the jacking shield. In general this

Tunnel and shaft solutions 37

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Figure 27 – Joint profiles for DN200 to DN300 pipe with Type 1 coupling

Table 8 – Dimensions for DN200 to DN300 pipe with Type 1 coupling (refer Figure 27 above)

DN

Internal

Pipe

end

d 1

± 5 d 3 d M

200 199 244

250 250 322

300 299 374

+ 2

Pipe

dimensions Coupling

Pipe

body Length e d k

276

+ 0

l 1

± 1

mm

990 49

- 2 - 6 - 1

+ 0

360

+ 0 990

1,990

48

- 1 - 6 - 0

+ 0

406

+ 0 990

1,990

48

- 1 -10 - 0

+ 3

± 1

s k

± 0.2

Notes:

1. * Permissible jacking force for automatic recording and control, safety factors 2 and 1.6.

2. Compressive strength = 100 N/mm 2 .

3. Bending tensile strength = 14 N/mm 2 .

4. Supplied with wooden pressure transfer ring according to EN 312 P5.

5. The ground spigot ends (d 3 ) are trimmed ca. 2 x 2 mm.

38 Tunnel and shaft solutions

l 1

e

d 1

+ 3

+ 3

Detail

2

d 3 d M d k d zi

2

b k

± 1.5

s k

d z

± 1

b k

Pressure

transfer ring

d za

± 0.5

d z

d zi

± 0.5

Jacking direction

Max.

jacking

force*

Min.

crushing

load

Average

weight

kN kN/m kg/m

267.8 1.5 103 10 241 205 350 80 60

342.8 1.5 106 10 320 257 810 110 105

395.8 2.0 106 10 372 309 1,000 120 125


Figure 28 – Joint profiles for DN400 to DN1200 pipe with Type 2 coupling

Table 9 – Dimensions for DN400 to DN1200 pipe with Type 2 coupling (refer Figure 28 above)

DN

Bevel d m min. 45°

l 1

Internal

d 1 d 3

Pipe dimensions Coupling

Pipe

end Pipe body Length

+0

d M

400 400 + 6 528 556 + 0 984

- 6 - 12 1,984

-1

e

l 1

± 1

mm

e

± 2

d k

± 1

s k

± 0.2

b k

± 1

Pressure transfer

ring

d z

± 1

d za

± 1

d zi

± 1

Max.

jacking

force *

Min.

crushing

load

Average

weight

kN kN/m kg/m

65 536 3 130 16 518 413 2,350 160 240

500 498 + 7.5 632 661 + 0 1,984 65 640 3 130 16 624 513 3,000 140 295

- 7.5 - 15

600 599 + 9 723 766 + 0 1,981 70 731 3 143 19 713 615 3,100 120 350

- 9 - 18

700 695 + 12 827 870 + 0 1,981 70 837 4 143 19 816 715 3,300 140 434

- 12 - 24

800 792 + 12 921 970 + 0 1,981 70 931 4 143 19 911 823 3,700 128 507

- 12 - 24

1000 1,056 + 15 1,218 1,275 + 0 1,981 70 1,230 5 143 19 1,208 1,077 5,700 120 855

- 15 - 30

1200 1,249 + 18 1,408 1,475 + 0 1,981 80 1,422 6 163 19 1,397 1,277 6,400 114 990

- 18 - 36

Notes:

1. * Permissible jacking force for automatic recording and control, safety factors 2 and 1.6.

2. Compressive strength = 100 N/mm 2 .

3. Bending tensile strength = 14 N/mm 2 .

4. Supplied with wooden pressure transfer ring according to EN 312 P5.

5. The ground spigot ends (d 3 ) are trimmed ca. 2 x 2 mm.

6. For diameters DN600 and above a prestressing (clamping) ring is fitted at each spigot end.

d 1

Rubber seal

d 3 d M d k d za d zi

Prestressing ring 6

S k

b k

d z

Particle board

Max. d m on this side

Jacking direction

Tunnel and shaft solutions 39

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Right:

Milled end of

adaptor pipe and

socketed end of

standard pipe

Connection to standard pipes and

access chambers

Three different components are used to connect vitrified

clay jacking pipes to standard vitrified clay pipelines and

access chambers.

1. Adaptor pipe for DN200 to DN600 pipes

The adaptor pipe is used for connection of vitrified clay

jacking pipes to open trench vitrified clay pipes normal/

high strength class or access chambers. They consist of

1.0 m long jacking pipes with a coupling on one end and

the other end milled to the external diameter of the pipe

to which the adaptor is to be connected.

Figure 29 – Adaptor pipe for DN200 to DN600 pipes

b k

d z

Coupling type 1 or 2

d k d 1 d 3 d M

1,000 mm

vitrified clay jacking pipe to a vitrified clay so

eted pipe is provided by the use of an bush

to equal out the different diameters. Then, w

e = 180 mm

Table 10 – Dimensions for adaptor pipe for DN200 to DN600 pipes (refer Figure 29 above)

DN

Internal

d 1

Pipe end

(normal strength)

d 3

Pipe dimensions

+0

+0

d3 -1 -1

mm

Figure 30 – Connection of adaptor pipe to access chamber

Grinded on a length e = 180 mm

Pipe end

(high strength) Pipe body

d M

Length

(mm)

l1 ± 1

Average weight

(kg/piece)

250 250 +3 299 318 360 +0 1,000 105

-3 -6

300 299 +5 355 376 406 +0 1,000 125

-5 -10

400 400 +6 486 492 556 +0 1,000 240

-6 -12

500 498 +7.5 581 609 661 +0 1,000 295

-7.5 -15

600 601 +9 687 721 766 +0 1,000 305

-9 -18

40 Tunnel and shaft solutions

d 3

of the

jacking

pipe

d M

d 3 of the

standard vc

pipe (normal

or high

strength)

1,000 mm

Inspection chamber with vitrified clay invert

BKK ring

P ring


2. M-seal and bush ring

Another way of achieving the transition from a vitrified

clay jacking pipe to an open trench vitrified clay socketed

pipe of different external diameter is by using an M-seal

and bush ring.

The bush ring is used to equal out the outside diameters

of the two pipes. The M-seal is a metal banded flexible

coupling providing a watertight and reliable connection

between the jacking and trench pipes.

3. Short length pipes

Connection of vitrified clay jacking pipes to access

chambers can also be achieved using short length,

350 mm to 500 mm pipes. Three different types of short

length pipes are available to suit various applications and

installation methods.

Type A – One end sawn flat and the other with a

steel coupling.

Type B – Both ends are sawn flat.

Type C – One end sawn flat and one spigot end.

An M-seal and bush ring is used to connect these three

types together.

Figure 32 – Short length pipes

d k

b k

300 to 1399 x x x x x

Bush types according to outside diameter differences.

To combine with M seals.

21

Figure 31 – M-seal and bush ring

Jacking pipe

Sawn flat spigot

Type A Type B Type C

l 1

d 1

d M

l 1

d 1

85

190

M-seal

Standard vc pipe

Bush ring

d M d 1 d 2

l 1

e

Tunnel and shaft solutions 41

Left:

M-seal with

bush ring

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Top:

CMP on-site

manufacturing

Bottom:

CMP used in a

culvert application

Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP)

Humes Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) is a helically wound,

lock seamed corrugated metal pipe and is available in

pipe diameters up to 5.1 m, and wall thicknesses of

1.6 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm, 3 mm and 3.5 mm.

CMP is manufactured from Z600 galvanised grade 250

steel in two state-of-the-art profiles TR and TRS. Both

of these profiles have higher load bearing capacity

than similar corrugated sinusoidal profiles with TR

outperforming 68 x 13 and TRS outperforming both

125 x 25 and 75 x 25. It is designed in accordance with

Australian Standards AS 1761-1985 and AS 1762-1984

Helical Locked Seamed Corrugated Steel Pipe.

Applications

• Culverts under haul/temporary roads

• Mine and conveyor portals

• Safe access to mines and construction sites

• Escape tunnels

• Conduit casing

• Ventilation shafts and air flow columns

Features and benefits

• Large diameters and long lengths manufactured

economically on-site minimising freight cost.

• Large diameter pipes eliminate the high installation

cost of multi-plate structures.

• On-site manufacture accommodates order variations

and additions, and frees up haul roads on mine sites.

Humes’ unique profiles optimise load bearing capacity.

• Where pipes are to be joined, dedicated coupling

bands are supplied providing a secure fit.

Humes’ design team ensure customer’s requirements

are met.

• Large diameter culverts can be laid in live condition

(running streams).

• Installed CMP has high load bearing capacity.

42 Tunnel and shaft solutions

Figure 33 – CMP profiles

TR profile

TRS profile


Backfilling

CMP is a flexible pipe which replies on soil structure

interaction to maintain its structural stability.

Tables 11 and 12 below list the maximum cover for each

of the CMP profiles.

Table 11 – Maximum cover (m) for TR profile

Nominal

internal

diameter

(mm)

Wall thickness

(mm)

1.6 2.0 2.5 3.0

300 ++ ++ x x

375 ++ ++ x x

450 ++ ++ x x

600 ++ ++ ++ x

750 40.5 ++ ++ x

900 34.0 47.5 ++ x

1,050 29.0 40.5 ++ x

1,200 25.5 35.5 45.0 ++

1,350 22.5 31.5 40.0 49.0

1,500 20.5 28.5 36.0 44.5

1,650 18.5 26.0 33.0 40.0

1,800 16.5 23.5 30.0 37.0

1,950 * 20.5 27.0 34.0

2,100 * 18.5 24.0 30.0

2,250 * 16.5 21.5 27.0

2,400 * * 19.0 24.5

2,550 * * 17.0 22.0

2,700 * * * 19.5

2,850 * * * 17.0

3,000 * * * 15.5

Notes:

• Calculations are based on base material steel thickness,

ie without galvanising.

• For minimum cover requirements please contact Humes

for assistance.

• Soil density 19 kN/m 3 .

• * Denotes unsuitable due to flexibility factor greater than

0.250 mm/N.

• ++ Denotes height of fill greater than 50 m.

• x Denotes not practical for manufacture.

Table 12 – Maximum cover (m) for TRS profile

Nominal

internal

diameter

(mm)

Wall thickness

(mm)

1.6 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

900 x x x x x

1,050 x x x x x

1,200 x x x x x

1,350 x x x x x

1,500 x x x x x

1,650 x x x x x

1,800 x x x x x

1,950 16.5 21.5 27.5 33.0 38.5

2,100 15.5 20.0 25.5 30.5 36.0

2,250 14.5 18.5 23.5 28.5 33.5

2,400 13.5 17.5 22.0 26.5 31.5

2,550 12.5 16.5 20.5 25.0 29.5

2,700 12.0 15.5 19.5 23.5 28.0

2,850 11.0 14.5 18.5 22.5 26.5

3,000 10.0 13.5 17.5 21.5 25.0

3,300 * 11.5 15.5 18.5 22.0

3,600 * 10.0 13.5 16.0 19.5

3,900 * * 12.0 14.0 17.0

4,200 * * 8.0 11.0 14.5

4,500 * * * 9.5 12.5

4,800 * * * * 10.5

5,100 * * * * 9.5

Notes:

• Calculations are based on base material steel thickness,

ie without galvanising.

• For minimum cover requirements please contact Humes

for assistance.

• Soil density 19 kN/m 3 .

• * Denotes unsuitable due to flexibility factor greater than

0.250 mm/N.

• x Denotes not practical for manufacture.

Tunnel and shaft solutions 43

Tunnel and shaft solutions


Top:

Precast arches

Middle:

HumeDeck®

modular bridge

system

Bottom:

Headwall

Precast solutions

Tunnel and shaft

Access, pipe jacking and ventilation shafts

Segmental shafts

One piece shafts

Mine portals and reclaim tunnels

Precast arches

Box culverts

Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP)

Traffic and utility tunnels

Segmental tunnel linings

Steel reinforced concrete pipes – jacking

Vitrified clay pipes – jacking

Escape tunnels and shafts

Precast arches

Box culverts

Steel reinforced concrete pipes

Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP)

Stormwater

Sewage transfer and storage

Bridge and platform

Walling

Potable water supply

Irrigation supply

Traffic management

Cable and power management

Rail

Livestock management

44 Tunnel and shaft solutions


Contact information

National sales 1300 361 601

humes.com.au

info@humes.com.au

Head Office

18 Little Cribb St

Milton QLD 4064

Ph: (07) 3364 2800

Fax: (07) 3364 2963

Queensland

Brisbane/Gold Coast

Ph: (07) 3866 7100

Fax: (07) 3866 7101

Bundaberg

Ph: (07) 4152 2644

Fax: (07) 4152 5847

Rockhampton

Ph: (07) 4924 7900

Fax: (07) 4924 7901

Sunshine Coast

Ph: (07) 5472 9700

Fax: (07) 5472 9711

Toowoomba

Ph: (07) 4694 1420

Fax: (07) 4634 3874

Townsville

Ph: (07) 4758 6000

Fax: (07) 4758 6001

New South Wales

Canberra

Ph: (02) 6285 5309

Fax: (02) 6285 5334

Grafton

Ph: (02) 6644 7666

Fax: (02) 6644 7313

Kempsey

Ph: (02) 6562 6755

Fax: (02) 6562 4235

Lismore

Ph: (02) 6621 3684

Fax: (02) 6622 1342

Newcastle

Ph: (02) 4032 6800

Fax: (02) 4032 6822

Sydney

Ph: (02) 9832 5555

Fax: (02) 9625 5200

Tamworth

Ph: (02) 6763 7300

Fax: (02) 6763 7301

Victoria

Echuca

Ph: (03) 5480 2371

Fax: (03) 5482 3090

Melbourne

Ph: (03) 9360 3888

Fax: (03) 9360 3887

Tasmania

Launceston

Ph: (03) 6335 6300

Fax: (03) 6335 6330

South Australia

Adelaide

Ph: (08) 8168 4544

Fax: (08) 8168 4549

Western Australia

Gnangara

Ph: (08) 9302 8000

Fax: (08) 9309 1625

Perth

Ph: (08) 9351 6999

Fax: (08) 9351 6977

Northern Territory

Darwin

Ph: (08) 8984 1600

Fax: (08) 8984 1614


National sales 1300 361 601

humes.com.au

info@humes.com.au

A Division of Holcim Australia

This brochure supersedes all previous literature on this subject. As the specifications and details contained in this publication may change please

check with Humes Customer Service for confirmation of current issue. This document is provided for information only. Users are advised to

make their own determination as to the suitability of this information for their own specific circumstances. We accept no responsibility for any

loss or damage resulting from any person acting on this information. Humes is a registered business name and a registered trademark of Holcim

(Australia) Pty Ltd. Plastiline is a registered trademark of Holcim (Australia) Pty Ltd. STEINZEUG KERAMO is a registered trademark of STEINZEUG

Abwassersysteme GmbH. Swiftlift is a registered trademark of ITW Construction Products Australia Pty Ltd.

© August 2012 Holcim (Australia) Pty Ltd ABN 87 099 732 297

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