eeding birdsiniraq: importantnewdiscoveries 12 Sandgrouse 33 (2011) KORSH ARARAT, OMAR FADHIL, RF PORTER & MUDHAFAR SALIM NatureIraq surveys 2005–2010 discovered or confirmed 50 newbreeding species for Iraq, bringing the total number of breeding species for the country to 190. This paper summarises the findings for the 50 and puts them into their regional context. Probable breeding species, which number 19, are also listed. intRoDuction Iraq (Figure 1) is located in the southeastern corner of the Western Palearctic biogeographical region, sensu BWP, between 29–38°N and 39–49°E. It covers a land area of 438 320 km², with a Gulf coastline of some 58 km into which flow the major rivers of the Tigris and Euphrates. Much of Iraq experiences a desert climate though it is semi-arid or subhumid in the north and northeast. Iraqi Kurdistan (Dohuk, Erbil, Kirkuk and Sulaimani provinces) contains many upland areas, the highest mountains of which border Iran and Turkey. The southern marshes lie in the flood plain of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in the provinces of Missan, Basrah, Thi Qar, Qadissiya and Wasit and include the Huwaiza, Al-Hammar, Central and Dalmaj marshes In 2005 the newly created conservation NGO NatureIraq (NI) commenced a programme of surveys to identify Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) inIraq. Since then over 220 sites have been visited throughout the country in summer and winter and valuable data has been gathered for site assessments, the aim being to identify priority sites for figure 1. Location of the provinces, rivers and southern marshes of Iraq.