Islamic Calendar The Islamic calendar is based on the movement and observation of the moon. The Islamic year contains 12 months, none of which can exceed 30 days. Each month starts when the lunar crescent is first seen after a new moon. Because 12 lunar months multiplied by 29.53 days equals 354.36 days, the Islamic calendar will always be approximately 11 days shorter than the Western, or Gregorian, calendar. For example, 1 Muharram, the first day of Islamic year 1434 (known in the West by the Latin term Anno Hegirae, or A.H.), fell on 15 November 2012; in A.H. 1435, 1 Muharram falls on 5 November 2013. Because of lunar observation and differences in time zones, the observance of Islamic holidays may vary from region to region.Islamic and Jewish holidays begin the evening preceding the date shown unless stated otherwise. Spelling of Arabic Names and Terms While there is no universally accepted transliteration of Arabic names and terms, this edition of the Counterterrorism Calendar adheres to a transliteration system that is generally used throughout the US Government. In this system, the letters “u” and “a” are preferred over “o” and “e.” For example, the name of the al-Qa‘ida operative who was detained on 1 March 2003 is Khalid Shaykh Muhammad, not Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. We have retained, however, the spellings used on the Rewards for Justice and FBI Most Wanted Terrorists Web pages; these are designed for easy recognition and therefore do not always conform to these rules. Map Boundaries Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative. The information in this calendar is valid as of 28 September 2012. This publication contains only information in the public domain that has been verified and disseminated by US Government sources. In the conduct of intelligence activities, the Intelligence Community (IC) recognizes that it must protect fully the legal rights of all US persons, including freedoms, civil liberties, and privacy rights guaranteed by Federal law. The IC is not authorized to collect, retain, or disseminate information about US persons solely based on Constitutionally protected activities such as First Amendment speech, and may not do so based solely on race, religion, or other protected classification. All individuals in this calendar are included only because of information linking them to international terrorism. Individuals identified as charged or indicted with criminal wrongdoing are entitled to a presumption of innocence in the US court system, unless and until such time as they are deemed guilty through the judicial process.
Foreign Terrorist Organizations Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. FTO designations play a critical role in our fight against terrorism and are an effective means of curtailing support for terrorist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism business. For updated FTO lists, visit www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm To view fact sheets on all FTOs, visit www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011/195553.htm#AQ Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB) Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Al-Shabaab Ansar al-Islam (AAI) Asbat al-Ansar Aum Shinrikyo (AUM) Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Communist Party of the Philippines/New People’s Army (CPP/NPA) Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group) HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) Haqqani Network Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B) Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) Hizballah (Party of God) Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed) Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI) Jemaah Anshorut Tauhid (JAT) Kahane Chai (KACH) Kata’ib Hizballah (KH) Kongra-Gel (KGK, formerly Kurdistan Worker’s Party, PKK, KADEK) Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous) Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (GICM) National Liberation Army (ELN) Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ) Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC) Al-Qa‘ida in Iraq (AQI) Al-Qa‘ida (AQ) Al-Qa‘ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) Al-Qa‘ida in the Islamic Maghreb (formerly GSPC) Real IRA (RIRA) Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17N) Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C) Revolutionary Struggle (RS) Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) Harakat-ul Jihad Islami (HUJI) Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Jundallah Army of Islam (AOI) Indian Mujahidin (IM)