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Rewriting history - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

Rewriting history - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

Rewriting history - eTheses Repository - University of

REWRITING HISTORY: EXPLORING THE INDIVIDUALITY OF SHAKESPEARE’S HISTORY PLAYS by PETER ROBERT ORFORD A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY The Shakespeare Institute The University of Birmingham January 2006

  • Page 2 and 3: University of Birmingham Research A
  • Page 4 and 5: Dedication Derick W. Orford In life
  • Page 6 and 7: Contents Abstract i. Dedication ii.
  • Page 8 and 9: Introduction: Rewriting the Histori
  • Page 10 and 11: passable, that still leaves six who
  • Page 12 and 13: The question of conclusion is a mat
  • Page 14 and 15: confines of the play and contemplat
  • Page 16 and 17: immanent validity’. 12 By tracing
  • Page 18 and 19: the whole.’ 15 The Henry VI plays
  • Page 20 and 21: maintained an individual presence i
  • Page 22 and 23: Given that chapter two focuses on t
  • Page 24 and 25: Part One: Making the Cycle - 17 -
  • Page 26 and 27: and dramatic works of the era prese
  • Page 28 and 29: as regularly presented in isolation
  • Page 30 and 31: first appearance in the play being
  • Page 32 and 33: drama about Falstaff; if the latter
  • Page 34 and 35: In this extract Richard makes direc
  • Page 36 and 37: to the text to remove external refe
  • Page 38 and 39: evidence exists to show that the hi
  • Page 40 and 41: defining exemplars’, which has le
  • Page 42 and 43: Part of Henry the Fourth. Little wo
  • Page 44 and 45: The capacity of the printed word as
  • Page 46 and 47: suggested that the role of the knig
  • Page 48 and 49: efore and beyond the play.’ 37 In
  • Page 50 and 51: These scenes, which now make the fi
  • Page 52 and 53:

    Furthermore, as Shakespeare was rei

  • Page 54 and 55:

    histories. 51 This was a time when

  • Page 56 and 57:

    ultimately it was at this period in

  • Page 58 and 59:

    British state, the most perfect sys

  • Page 60 and 61:

    All the personages in them are dist

  • Page 62 and 63:

    Pollard himself identified another

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Of the old epic type of the English

  • Page 66 and 67:

    that there was a unifying theme in

  • Page 68 and 69:

    These separate images are but state

  • Page 70 and 71:

    For Campbell, the link between play

  • Page 72 and 73:

    moving’ (p. 73), he made an obvio

  • Page 74 and 75:

    ‘the sins committed during the re

  • Page 76 and 77:

    and Brecht’s ideas would prove to

  • Page 78 and 79:

    the Yorkist accession.’ 93 Riggs

  • Page 80 and 81:

    Are the Henry VI plays (and so by i

  • Page 82 and 83:

    and that closure in the history pla

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Though the plays presented order, G

  • Page 86 and 87:

    What does it mean to think of Shake

  • Page 88 and 89:

    fundamental assumptions of the past

  • Page 90 and 91:

    Chapter Two: Theatre Histories (or:

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Richard II, in which the House of L

  • Page 94 and 95:

    unusually large repertoire, as each

  • Page 96 and 97:

    the story of Henry IV Part Two.’

  • Page 98 and 99:

    infant might, with decorum, under t

  • Page 100 and 101:

    It would be grand to look forward t

  • Page 102 and 103:

    However, as with the pre-twentieth

  • Page 104 and 105:

    The focus on proper setting and aut

  • Page 106 and 107:

    three to two, a concession that non

  • Page 108 and 109:

    having noted that ‘the time-space

  • Page 110 and 111:

    Memory’ in one headline, a hyperb

  • Page 112 and 113:

    Richard II became a chapter in whic

  • Page 114 and 115:

    planned out. The 1951 production wa

  • Page 116 and 117:

    The risk, and success of Quayle’s

  • Page 118 and 119:

    delivered’, the architecture prov

  • Page 120 and 121:

    series. 73 The cycle was no longer

  • Page 122 and 123:

    that he became a self-contained, ci

  • Page 124 and 125:

    In his focus on Henry IV McMillin n

  • Page 126 and 127:

    that ‘The presentation of these p

  • Page 128 and 129:

    more, one critic noting that ‘The

  • Page 130 and 131:

    Trevor Nunn, keen to emphasise how

  • Page 132 and 133:

    The ramshackle, improvised quality

  • Page 134 and 135:

    might be expected, the tone of this

  • Page 136 and 137:

    This cycle of plays was last staged

  • Page 138 and 139:

    awl and they are clearly early work

  • Page 140 and 141:

    against which it was viewed unfavou

  • Page 142 and 143:

    satisfied those ‘who have waited

  • Page 144 and 145:

    history it would be perverse not to

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Given the pattern of cycles as a ce

  • Page 148 and 149:

    multiple directions of the second t

  • Page 150 and 151:

    ecalled how Noble ‘laughed and as

  • Page 152 and 153:

    cycles of the mid-twentieth century

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Part Two: Breaking the Cycle - 147

  • Page 156 and 157:

    To begin with the earliest of the p

  • Page 158 and 159:

    that they present. The play’s dep

  • Page 160 and 161:

    and scenes from the time in which t

  • Page 162 and 163:

    two, Benson’s cycle did little to

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Richard, his relationship with the

  • Page 166 and 167:

    [Shakespeare] had developed charact

  • Page 168 and 169:

    eadings marked the play ‘as the s

  • Page 170 and 171:

    The post-cycle Henry must relive th

  • Page 172 and 173:

    unknown actor be trusted with the l

  • Page 174 and 175:

    into the overall conception of doub

  • Page 176 and 177:

    After this reference by Gaunt, the

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Stage productions of Richard II sho

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Depending upon the scale of the ser

  • Page 182 and 183:

    ut when we look at the speech in th

  • Page 184 and 185:

    this summer throne/Which oft our st

  • Page 186 and 187:

    however, there appears to have been

  • Page 188 and 189:

    dreaded queen. 65 The most remarkab

  • Page 190 and 191:

    achieved this presents a case study

  • Page 192 and 193:

    almost an inconvenience to both act

  • Page 194 and 195:

    The most common, and drastic, appro

  • Page 196 and 197:

    consequences. In Henry VI Part Two,

  • Page 198 and 199:

    unwarranted significance on the sce

  • Page 200 and 201:

    Henry VI becoming the pawn of jealo

  • Page 202 and 203:

    The two scenes that deal with the M

  • Page 204 and 205:

    of those in command who ‘whilst a

  • Page 206 and 207:

    The idea of York as king is conspic

  • Page 208 and 209:

    Obviously the demigod described her

  • Page 210 and 211:

    commercial for the second part’.

  • Page 212 and 213:

    him by the inn called ‘The Castle

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Ronald Knowles discusses G. K Hunte

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Humphrey’s death/Against the sens

  • Page 218 and 219:

    York’s absence from England at th

  • Page 220 and 221:

    The True Tragedy of Richard Duke of

  • Page 222 and 223:

    play ‘with a bang. It either need

  • Page 224 and 225:

    whilst Margaret Ingram believed tha

  • Page 226 and 227:

    Margaret also benefited from an ind

  • Page 228 and 229:

    When Bernard Hill played York for t

  • Page 230 and 231:

    close. Following his brother’s wo

  • Page 232 and 233:

    There is some hope in the continued

  • Page 234 and 235:

    Chapter Five ‘Two Stars Keep Not

  • Page 236 and 237:

    Henry IV Part One to Henry IV Part

  • Page 238 and 239:

    Each of the reformations is a ritua

  • Page 240 and 241:

    The Henry IV plays were performed a

  • Page 242 and 243:

    ut that ‘The true hero of the who

  • Page 244 and 245:

    played a loveable rascal living in

  • Page 246 and 247:

    The effect that Falstaff’s notori

  • Page 248 and 249:

    The common name of the two sons is

  • Page 250 and 251:

    defeats Hotspur, he will throw off

  • Page 252 and 253:

    When the apprentice Rafe is hauled

  • Page 254 and 255:

    But these changes did not bode well

  • Page 256 and 257:

    Furthermore as a mere marker on the

  • Page 258 and 259:

    Bogdanov’s decision, along with h

  • Page 260 and 261:

    Shaaber argues that the scene’s

  • Page 262 and 263:

    undetermined to what extent this wa

  • Page 264 and 265:

    There has been a contrast in critic

  • Page 266 and 267:

    attempt to distort any of the chara

  • Page 268 and 269:

    If this is an invitation to the aud

  • Page 270 and 271:

    suggest a reading interspersed with

  • Page 272 and 273:

    is only when we, not Hal, concede t

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Epilogue ‘Other’ Histories: Bey

  • Page 276 and 277:

    Folio, but which have subsequently

  • Page 278 and 279:

    Tragedy on the ancient Plan.’ 5 I

  • Page 280 and 281:

    the reign of Henry ‘out of regard

  • Page 282 and 283:

    The connection of the plays to othe

  • Page 284 and 285:

    ‘The only satisfactory evidence u

  • Page 286 and 287:

    profoundness and clarity of purpose

  • Page 288 and 289:

    cannot compete with the historical

  • Page 290 and 291:

    opposition to the ideals of kingshi

  • Page 292 and 293:

    might seem to offer a continuation

  • Page 294 and 295:

    Whilst authorship of the play was b

  • Page 296 and 297:

    intimately than with any known Eliz

  • Page 298 and 299:

    and both Edward III and the full te

  • Page 300 and 301:

    of reviews focused on the potential

  • Page 302 and 303:

    are not, is less encouraging. To fu

  • Page 304 and 305:

    continuity of casting. It appears t

  • Page 306 and 307:

    criticism’, feeling himself that

  • Page 308 and 309:

    them in a cycle assumed to have bee

  • Page 310 and 311:

    audience see first? Again, these tw

  • Page 312 and 313:

    history cycle, and this effect need

  • Page 314 and 315:

    No, no, I am but shadow of myself.

  • Page 316 and 317:

    Appendices - 309 -

  • Page 318 and 319:

    Appendix 2. Table 2 Scene Part One

  • Page 320 and 321:

    Henry V - King Henry V, ed. by J. H

  • Page 322 and 323:

    Bogdanov, Michael and Michael Penni

  • Page 324 and 325:

    Everitt, E. B., and R. L. Armstrong

  • Page 326 and 327:

    ---—— ‘“This England”: Sh

  • Page 328 and 329:

    Piesse, A. J., ‘King John: Changi

  • Page 330 and 331:

    Tate, Nahum, The History of King Ri

  • Page 332 and 333:

    The Sportsman, 11 March 1901 Stratf

  • Page 334 and 335:

    Irving Wardle, The Times, 15 July 1

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