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SMITHSONIAN

CONTRIBUTIONS

to

ASTROPHYSICS

O

Smithsonian Institution

Astrophysical Observatory

Volume 10, Number 2

5,000- and 10,000-Year

Star Catalogs

by Gerald S. Hawkins

and Shoshana K. Rosen thai

Washington, D.C.


Smithsonian

Contributions to Astrophysics

VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2

5,000- AND 10,000-YEAR

STAR CATALOGS

by GERALD S. HAWKINS and SHOSHANA K. ROSENTHAL

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

Washington, D.C.

1967


Publications of the Astrophysical Observatory

This series, Smithsonian Contribution* to Astrophysics, was inaugurated

in 1956 to provide a proper communication for the results of research conducted

at the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution.

Its purpose is the "increase and diffusion of knowledge" in the field of astrophysics,

with particular emphasis on problems of the sun, the earth, and the

solar system. Its pages are open to a limited number of papers by other

investigators with whom we have common interests.

Another series, Annuls of the Astrophysical Observatory, was started in

1900 by the Observatory's first director, Samuel P. Langley, and was published

about every 10 years. These quarto volumes, some of which are itill

available, record the history of the Observatory's researches and activities.

The last volume (vol. 7) appeared in 1954.

Many technical papers and volumes emanating from the Astrophysical

Observatory have appeared in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

Among these are Smithsonian Physical Tables, Smithsonian Meteorological

Tables, and World Weather Records.

Additional information concerning these publications may be secured from

the Smithsonian Press, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Cambridge, Mass.

FBKD L. WHIPPLB, Director,

Astrophysical Observatory,

Smithsonian Institution.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 35 cents


5,000- and 10,000-Year Star Catalogs

Gerald S. Hawkins 1 and Shoshana K. Rosenthal 2

5,000-year star catalog

For various aspects of the history of science it

is useful to have the positions of stars at various

dates in history and prehistory.' These positions

are affected by the precession of the earth's

axis and by the proper motion of the stars.

Corrections can be applied to the present

positions to obtain the star coordinates at any

other time. In this catalog star positions are

given at intervals of 100 years for the period

-2500 to +2500 (2501 B.C. to 2500 A.D.) for

stars with visual magnitude brighter than

+ 2.99 (table 2).

Star positions and proper motion have been

taken from the Fourth Fundamental Catalogue

(FK4) published by the Astronomischen

Rechen-Instituts, Heidelberg, and printed by

G. Braun, Karlsruhe, 1963. When the position

of a star was not available in the FK4

catalog, the quantities were obtained from the

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star

Catalog, Smithsonian publication 4652. The

stars are listed in order of increasing right

ascension for the equinox of 1950 A.D. A list

of star names is also given in table 1.

The effects of precession were allowed for,

using the equations given in the Smithsonian

Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog. A

derivation of these equations is given in the

explanatory supplement to the American

Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, 1961.

These equations give the right ascension and

declination of a star at any required date.

The coordinates are with reference to the pole

and vernal equinox of the particular date.

The effects of proper motion were computed

following the equations given in the FK4 cata-

1 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass., and

Boston University, Boston, Mass.

! Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.

log. Only first-order terms were used for all

stars except for the few stars listed in the FK4

catalog for which the effects of foreshortening

are known.

The stars are identified in the catalog by

the standard abbreviations for the constellations

and by the Greek letter. An identification

number is given for each star. The

number is either the designation of the FK4

catalog or the number in the Smithsonian

Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog. If

the latter numeration is used, it is indicated

with an asterisk. The visual magnitude of

the star is given in parentheses.

Errors in the positions given in this 5000-year

catalog will be introduced by uncertainties in

the precessional constants and proper-motion

values. The precessional correction does not

take account of nutation and other periodic

changes, but these periodic changes will probably

be less than 1 minute of arc. The uncertainties

in the determinations of proper motion

will introduce errors, but even in the worst

examples in the measurements of the FK4

catalog, the errors will not amount to more

than 1 minute of arc in 4000 years. The values

given in this catalog should, therefore, be

reliable to within ±0.02°.

10,000-year star catalog

This catalog is an extension of the star positions

given in the 5,000-year star catalog. The

star positions have been obtained from the

FK4 catalog and the Smithsonian Astrophysical

Observatory Star Catalog.

The stars are identified in the catalog by the

standard abbreviations for the constellations

and by the Greek letter. An identification

number is given for each star. The number

is either the designation of the FK4 catalog

141


142

or the number in the Smithsonian Astrophysical

Observatory Star Catalog. If the latter

numeration is used, it is indicated with an

asterisk. The visual magnitude of the star

is given in parentheses.

Precession and proper-motion corrections

have been applied over the time interval of

this catalog, following the methods outlined

in the preceding catalog. The maximum

errors expected in the 5,000-year catalog were

±0.02°. This catalog covers a larger time

span, and the uncertainties are therefore greater.

It is estimated that the maximum errors are

of the order ±0.5°.

Star coordinates are given at 500-year

intervals in table 3, where the right ascension

and declination are referred to the vernal

equinox of the particular date. An identifica-

SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO A8TR0PHYSIC8

tion list of star names is given in table 1. The

period covered is —10,000 to 0 (10,001 to 1

B.C.).

References

FRICKE, W., and Koprr, A.

1963. Fourth Fundamental Catalogue. Verdff.

Astron. Rechen-Inst. Heidelberg, no. 10.

NAUTICAL ALMANAC

1961. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical

Ephcmerifl and the American

Ephemcria and Nautical Almanac.

Nautical Almanac Offices of the United

Kingdom and the United States of

America.

STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERV-

ATORY

1966. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Star Catalog. Smithsonian Institution,

Washington, DC.


Achernar

Acrab

Acrux

Adhara

Al Na'ir

Alcaid

Aldcbaran

Alderamin

Algeiba

Algol

Alhcim

Alioth

Almach

Alnilam

AlniUik

Alphard

Alphecca

AlphtTutz

AlUiir

Aludra

Ankaa

Autaren

ArctuniH

Arncb

Atria

Avior

Bellatrix

Betelgeusc

Canopus

Capella (9)

Caph

Castor

Cih

Deneb

Denebola

Diphda

Dubhe

Dzuba

El Nath

P^ltanin

Enif

Fomalhaut

Gacrux

Gienah

Star Catalog

Number

Alpha Eri

Beta Sco

Alpha Cru

Epeilon CMa

Alpha Gru

Eta UMa

Alpha Tau

Alpha Cep

Gamma Leo

Beta Per

Gamma Gem

Epsilon UMa

Gamma And

Epeilon Ori

Zcta Ori

Alpha Hya

Alpha CrB

Alpha And

Alpha Aql

Eta CMa

Alpha Phe

Alpha Sco

Alpha Boo

Alpha Lep

Alpha TrA

Epeilon Car

Gamma Ori

Alpha Ori

Alpha Car

Alpha Aur

Beta Cas

Alpha Gem

Gamma Cas

Alpha Cyg

Beta Leo

Beta Cet

Alpha UMa

Delta Sco

Beta Tau

Gamma Dra

Epsilon Peg

Alpha PsA

Gamma Cru

Epsilon Cyg

5,000- AND 10,000-YEAR STAR CATALOGS 143

TABLE 1.—A list of star names

54 *

597

462

268

829

509

168

803

81298 *

111

251

483

73

210

132444 *

354

578 1

745

283

12

616

526

207

625

315

201

224

245

193 2

287

32

777

444

22

417

594

202

676

815

867

468

780

•From Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog.

Gienah

Hadar

Ham :d

Izar

Kaus Australia

Kochab

Markab

Menkalinan

Menkar

Menkent

Merak

Miaplacidus

Mimosa

Mira

Mirach

Mirfak

Mirzam

Mintaka

Mizar

Muhlifain

Naos

Nunki

Peacock

Phecda

Polaris

Pollux

Procyon

Ras-Alhague

Regulus

Rigel

Rigil Kent

Sabik

Sadir

Saiph

Scheat

Schedar

Scutulum

Shaula

Sirius

Spica

Suhail

Vega

Wezen

Zosma

Star Catalog

Number

Gamma Crv

Beta Cen

Alpha Ari

Epsilon Boo

Epsilon Sgr

Beta UMi

Alpha Peg

Beta Aur

Alpha Cet

Theta Cen

Beta UMa

Beta Car

Beta Cru

Omicron Cet

Beta And

Alpha Per

Beta CMa

Delta Ori

Zeta UMa

Gamma Cen

Zeta Pup

Alpha Sgr

Alpha Pav

Gamma UMa

Alpha UMi

Beta Gem

Alpha CMi

Alpha Oph

Alpha Leo

Beta Ori

Alpha Cen

Eta Oph

Gamma Cyg

Kappa Ori

Beta Peg

Alpha Cas

Iota Car

Lambda Sco

Alpha CMa

Alpha Vir

Lambda Vel

Alpha Lyr

Delta CMa

Delta Leo

457

518

74

83500

689

550

871

227

107

537

416

348

481

129825

42

120

243

206

497

223603

306

728

764

447

907

295

291

656

380

194

538

160332

765

220

870

21

351

652

257

498

345

699

273

422


144

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5,000- AND 10,000-YEAR STAR CATALOGS 145

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5,000- AND 10,000-YEAR STAR CATALOGS 147

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5,000- AND 10,000-YEAR STAR CATALOGS 151

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5.000- AND 10,000-YEAR STAR CATALOGS 155

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