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Himlerville: Hungarian Cooperative Mining in Kentucky - The Filson ...

Himlerville: Hungarian Cooperative Mining in Kentucky - The Filson ...

Himlerville: Hungarian Cooperative Mining in Kentucky - The Filson

THE FILSON CLUB HISTORY QUARTERLY VOL. 66 OCTOBER 1992 NO. 4 HIMLERVILLE : HUNGARIAN COOPERATIVE MINING IN KENTUCKY DOUG CANTRELL Much has been written about American immigration and Appalachian coal mining. With the exception of a few articles by Magaret Ripley Wolfe, Constantine Bellissary, and Rose Fields, however, scholars have yet to link the two topics.I Yet despite the oversight, immigration was an important part of the Appalachian coal industry. Coal mining in southern Appalachia developed about the same time as millions of southern and eastern European immigrants entered the United States in search of industrial employment. Between 1880 and 1930 thousands of new immigrants settled in the coalfields of Alabama, Virginia, DOUG CANTRELL, M.A., teaches history at the Elizabethlown Community College. 1 The following articles by Margaret Ripley Wolfe, "Aliens in Southern Appalachia, 1900-1920: The Italian Experience in Wise County, Virginia," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 87 (1979): 455-72; "Aliens in Appalachia: The Construction of the Cllnchfield Railroad and the Italian Experience," in Emmet M. Essin, 111 ed., Appalachia: Family Traditions in Transition (Johnson City, Tenn.: East Tennessee State University Press, 1975); "Aliens in Southern Appalachia: Catholics in Coal Camps," Appalachian Heritage6 (1978): 42-56: and "Putting Them in Their Places: Industrial Housing in Southern Appalachia, 1900-1930," Appalachian Heritage 7 (1979): 27-36, discuss, to a limited degree, the new immigration in the southern coalfields. A recent article on the subject is Doug Cantrell, "Immigrants and Community in Harlan County, 1910-1930," Register o/ the Kentucky Hist6rical Society 86 (1988): 119-41. An article by Constantine G, Belissary, "Tennessee and Immigration, 1865-1880/' Tennessee Historical Quarterly 7 (1948): 229-48, relates the efforts of Tennessee to attract immigrants. An early article on the subject is by Rose C. Fields, "What 1 Found in Lynch, Kentucky," Success, March 1926, pp. 58-61, 114-19. Brief passages dealing with new immigrants in Appalachia are found in Ronald D. Eller, Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers (Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1983) and Harry.M. Caudill, Night Comes to the Cumberlands (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1963). In general, literature on the new immigration into the southern coalfields is limited. The Filson Club History Quarterly Vol. 66, No. 4, October 1992 513

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