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eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eTheses Repository - University of

University of Birmingham Research Archive e-theses repository This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder. 2 nd of 2 files Part 2: Chapters 3 to 7, Bibliography ECONOMIC REFORM AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN EASTERN EUROPE A Comparison of the Czechoslovak and Hungarian Experiences by Judith R. Batt Ph.D. Thesis Centre for Russian and East European Studies University of Birmingham 1986

  • Page 2 and 3: PART TWO THE POLITICS OF REFORM IN
  • Page 4 and 5: 77 The Czech provinces were, furthe
  • Page 6 and 7: 79 the secession of Slovak, German
  • Page 8 and 9: 81 their way to offend national sen
  • Page 10 and 11: 83 Communist Parties moved into the
  • Page 12 and 13: 85 Smallholders Party 57.03 Social
  • Page 14 and 15: 87 of May 1948 were conducted on th
  • Page 16 and 17: 89 directives by the Planning Offic
  • Page 18 and 19: 91 on the heavy__ engineering__sect
  • Page 20 and 21: 93 technocrats and their replacemen
  • Page 22 and 23: 95 had been nine blue collar worker
  • Page 24 and 25: 97 the majority of those convicted
  • Page 26 and 27: 99 attributes lumped together with
  • Page 28 and 29: 101 The sheer scale of repression l
  • Page 30 and 31: 103 charm, and particularly those w
  • Page 32 and 33: 105 Section C; From the 'New Course
  • Page 34 and 35: 107 But there was an important chin
  • Page 36 and 37: 109 Novotny and Zapotocky were not
  • Page 38 and 39: Ill revolutionary tradition, or of
  • Page 40 and 41: 113 Wage rises were directed specif
  • Page 42 and 43: 115 time, with Khrushchev's defeat
  • Page 44 and 45: 117 established defining the firm's
  • Page 46 and 47: 119 was proclaimed to have reached
  • Page 48 and 49: 121 and in the authority structure
  • Page 50 and 51: 123 also in economic terms, since a
  • Page 52 and 53:

    125 Course 1 not as a reversal of t

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    127 the reformers was to be that it

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    129 there was also that irreversibl

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    131 power had been fully consolidat

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    133 with a competent collective far

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    135 process of 'rethinking on a num

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    137 ideological commitment by pragm

  • Page 66 and 67:

    139 1825-1945, Princeton, New Jerse

  • Page 68 and 69:

    141 45. R Selucky, Economic Reforms

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    143 84. Mend and Ourednik, 'Jak to.

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    145 130. On the Soviet industrialis

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    147 CHAPTER FOUR THE DECISION TO RE

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    149 Section A; Economic difficultie

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    151 envisaged, in the plan would ha

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    153 plan for 1964-1970, in which it

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    155 circumstances, as an immediate

  • Page 84 and 85:

    157 had reached a new and more comp

  • Page 86 and 87:

    159 In particular, a reversal of th

  • Page 88 and 89:

    161 obtain fodder. About 40 per cen

  • Page 90 and 91:

    163 'hard budget constraint 1 in th

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    165 consolidation of the Kadcir lea

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    167 past. Slansky, the major victim

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    169 soon became apparent in the cou

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    171 they were temperamentally bolde

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    173 Barak, was Lubomir Strougal, al

  • Page 102 and 103:

    in June and July 1964. 97 175 Anoth

  • Page 104 and 105:

    177 insubstantial part in the foste

  • Page 106 and 107:

    179 Party, Kadar intended that this

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    181 In the eleven-man Politburo, on

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    183 Moscow, the Kadar regime began

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    185 removed from the Politburo for

  • Page 114 and 115:

    187 impact of 1956 on the intellige

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    189 Section C; The decision to refo

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    191 Toman indicated, concluding wit

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    193 difficulties even further exten

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    195 of reform, their commitment was

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    197 far-reaching proposals for inst

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    199 difficulties and questions of d

  • Page 128 and 129:

    201 minimal political will was pres

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    203 all planning (although there we

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    205 the May 1963 Central Committee

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    207 criticism getting out of hand w

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    209 the preparation and execution o

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    211 therefore, should not shrink fr

  • Page 140 and 141:

    University of Economics: 213 The de

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    215 17. Statisticka rocenka CSSR 19

  • Page 144 and 145:

    217 58. Berend and R^nki, op cit U9

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    219 92. This group published a prel

  • Page 148 and 149:

    221 124. ibid, Appendix 2, p 335 an

  • Page 150 and 151:

    166. ibid. 223 167. Sik 'O pravde v

  • Page 152 and 153:

    225 194. Sik inHospodarske noviny,

  • Page 154 and 155:

    227 231. A Magyar__Szocialista Munk

  • Page 156 and 157:

    229 management, incorporating eleme

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    231 Section A; The plan, the market

  • Page 160 and 161:

    233 establishment of economics as a

  • Page 162 and 163:

    235 development of indirect instrum

  • Page 164 and 165:

    237 over-centralisation is a cohere

  • Page 166 and 167:

    239 broader diffusion of economic u

  • Page 168 and 169:

    241 encouraging signs of political

  • Page 170 and 171:

    243 regardless of the existence or

  • Page 172 and 173:

    245 The question of power cannot be

  • Page 174 and 175:

    247 set freely according to the mar

  • Page 176 and 177:

    249 Kbzgazdasagi_szerole in 1963 un

  • Page 178 and 179:

    251 means, limited only by the fram

  • Page 180 and 181:

    253 Section B: Sociology, social in

  • Page 182 and 183:

    255 important social and political

  • Page 184 and 185:

    257 society. These 'limitations' we

  • Page 186 and 187:

    259 ownership. But, given the conte

  • Page 188 and 189:

    261 cannot pretend any more that th

  • Page 190 and 191:

    263 final outcome only, resulting f

  • Page 192 and 193:

    265 society, and, further, to the p

  • Page 194 and 195:

    267 'ideological' or 'scientific' t

  • Page 196 and 197:

    269 revolution 1 and the structure

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    271 to its own specific laws of com

  • Page 200 and 201:

    273 apparatus directing all aspects

  • Page 202 and 203:

    275 Now, the formulation of the rol

  • Page 204 and 205:

    277 The arguments of leading Party

  • Page 206 and 207:

    279 political system to complement

  • Page 208 and 209:

    281 of gravity. Just as there is on

  • Page 210 and 211:

    283 reassertion of 'those retrograd

  • Page 212 and 213:

    285 intellecutals are in a unique p

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Section A 287 REFERENCES 1. L Szamu

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    289 Liska's Concept of entrepreneur

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    291 68. Hegedus, 'Optimisation and

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    293 102. R Nyers f 'Social and poli

  • Page 222 and 223:

    295 CHAPTER SIX ECONOMIC REFORM AND

  • Page 224 and 225:

    297 revolutionary demands for 'demo

  • Page 226 and 227:

    299 achieved in the Czechoslovak ec

  • Page 228 and 229:

    Section A; The Novotny Regime 301 R

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    303 terror as forces to be reckoned

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    305 Union under Khrushchev and Brez

  • Page 234 and 235:

    307 early years of establishing soc

  • Page 236 and 237:

    309 in the power structure, providi

  • Page 238 and 239:

    311 The sociologist Machonin found

  • Page 240 and 241:

    313 The researcher pointed out that

  • Page 242 and 243:

    315 Rude" pravo reported in 1966 th

  • Page 244 and 245:

    317 reduced in number through merge

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    319 branch investments - an anti-in

  • Page 248 and 249:

    321 subsidies and variable tax rate

  • Page 250 and 251:

    323 the market would lead to huge d

  • Page 252 and 253:

    325 reflection of the general polit

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    where 327 directive management appe

  • Page 256 and 257:

    329 9 8 profits, backed by the thre

  • Page 258 and 259:

    331 Section C_; The politicisation

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    333 the aim of explaining the princ

  • Page 262 and 263:

    335 a very powerful hypothesis, and

  • Page 264 and 265:

    337 This kind of talk, however just

  • Page 266 and 267:

    339 defining feature of its 'social

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    341 Little guidance on this crucial

  • Page 270 and 271:

    343 Central Committee which was to

  • Page 272 and 273:

    345 advocated a conscious policy of

  • Page 274 and 275:

    347 Novotny is reported to have ren

  • Page 276 and 277:

    349 youth. Such proposals, he sugge

  • Page 278 and 279:

    351 Section_Dj Economic reform in t

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    353 sporadically assumed a central

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    355 economy in early 1968 sustained

  • Page 284 and 285:

    357 particularly in the media, whic

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    359 which enables society to find t

  • Page 288 and 289:

    361 Managers and leading workers of

  • Page 290 and 291:

    363 the problem of to whom managers

  • Page 292 and 293:

    365 But economists rose to the chal

  • Page 294 and 295:

    367 downgraded to the equivalent of

  • Page 296 and 297:

    369 diverting the stated intentions

  • Page 298 and 299:

    371 interests, raising fears for th

  • Page 300 and 301:

    373 role 1 had been usurped by the

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    375 In 1967, a trade surplus had bu

  • Page 304 and 305:

    377 the management and from outside

  • Page 306 and 307:

    379 by taking on formal positions:

  • Page 308 and 309:

    plenum: 381 Justified criticism of

  • Page 310 and 311:

    383 To a certain extent, these meas

  • Page 312 and 313:

    385 internal obstacles to change ex

  • Page 314 and 315:

    387 class support and providing the

  • Page 316 and 317:

    389 single most stable political fo

  • Page 318 and 319:

    Section A 391 REFERENCES 1. See the

  • Page 320 and 321:

    393 35. F StejSkal, 'Soucasne ukoly

  • Page 322 and 323:

    71. ibid. 395 72. R Kocanda, 'Dusle

  • Page 324 and 325:

    397 i n XIII_Sjezd Komunisticke str

  • Page 326 and 327:

    399 156. See D HaraSik, Writers Aga

  • Page 328 and 329:

    401 191. See O Turek, ' Jak dal v n

  • Page 330 and 331:

    403 229. See Pravda, op cit (Soviet

  • Page 332 and 333:

    405 272. Skilling, op cit, pp 835-6

  • Page 334 and 335:

    407 evaluating the achievements of

  • Page 336 and 337:

    409 at the middle and lower levels

  • Page 338 and 339:

    411 and reintegrating them, the reg

  • Page 340 and 341:

    413 already accumulated a certain e

  • Page 342 and 343:

    415 were required to mark their pre

  • Page 344 and 345:

    417 would take on new significance,

  • Page 346 and 347:

    419 Therefore the Communist Party w

  • Page 348 and 349:

    421 of a united vanguard with a coh

  • Page 350 and 351:

    423 economic reform, and which is t

  • Page 352 and 353:

    enterprise sphere. 425 Enterprises

  • Page 354 and 355:

    427 government's 'temporary' conces

  • Page 356 and 357:

    429 attempt to deal with these prob

  • Page 358 and 359:

    431 provided strong reasons for a c

  • Page 360 and 361:

    in their branch. 433 The central fa

  • Page 362 and 363:

    435 under the old system, but no le

  • Page 364 and 365:

    437 or appreciated in Hungary at th

  • Page 366 and 367:

    439 rather than as a result of a po

  • Page 368 and 369:

    441 organisational hierarchy and th

  • Page 370 and 371:

    443 Section___Cj ___Social Reaction

  • Page 372 and 373:

    445 pressures to compromise, must b

  • Page 374 and 375:

    447 measures introduced in the name

  • Page 376 and 377:

    449 salaries by maintaining excessi

  • Page 378 and 379:

    451 unbearable mass pressure from t

  • Page 380 and 381:

    453 price level, and this was never

  • Page 382 and 383:

    455 wages, incomes and consumption

  • Page 384 and 385:

    457 lower working incomes, were als

  • Page 386 and 387:

    459 By the spring of 1972, it was r

  • Page 388 and 389:

    462 (iv)_Interests in the recentral

  • Page 390 and 391:

    464 becoming dominated by the more

  • Page 392 and 393:

    466 over-emphasised, at the expense

  • Page 394 and 395:

    468 Trade Unions began to provide a

  • Page 396 and 397:

    470 wage-setting. They were too awa

  • Page 398 and 399:

    472 structual obstacles lay, HǤt

  • Page 400 and 401:

    474 ideological and economic appara

  • Page 402 and 403:

    476 secure governmental concessions

  • Page 404 and 405:

    478 experts in fields such as archi

  • Page 406 and 407:

    480 REFERENCES !• I Friss, 'Ten y

  • Page 408 and 409:

    482 30. See B Sulyok, 'Major financ

  • Page 410 and 411:

    484 pressure group' RFER, 8.3.1973

  • Page 412 and 413:

    486 also A Bb'hro and L Pal 'Politi

  • Page 414 and 415:

    488 139. See J Balogh 'The trade un

  • Page 416 and 417:

    490 CONCLUSION Economic reform has

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    492 economy has taken on a new sens

  • Page 420 and 421:

    494 centralistic-directive model ha

  • Page 422 and 423:

    496 the 'half-way 1 model of a plan

  • Page 424 and 425:

    498 of both material self-interest

  • Page 426 and 427:

    500 uncertainty for all the politic

  • Page 428 and 429:

    502 system, and is the central mech

  • Page 430 and 431:

    504 information on social interests

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    506 disadvantageous long-term effec

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    508 the Soviet Union. The outcome o

  • Page 436 and 437:

    510 BIBLIOGRAPHY (i) General, theor

  • Page 438 and 439:

    Edition) 512 R.Dahl Polyarchy New H

  • Page 440 and 441:

    F.A.Hayek(ed) F.A.Hayek F.A.Hayek F

  • Page 442 and 443:

    516 A.Nove The_Economics of_Feasibl

  • Page 444 and 445:

    K.Bartosek M.BernaSek J.Bloomfield

  • Page 446 and 447:

    G.Golan G.Golan J.Goldraann J.Goldm

  • Page 448 and 449:

    522 XII (1964), no 3 Komunisticka-

  • Page 450 and 451:

    M.Lakatos M.Lakatos J.Lenart E.Ldbl

  • Page 452 and 453:

    P.Orban A.Ort, M.Had, K.Kratky 526

  • Page 454 and 455:

    P.Rutland I.Sedivy R.Selucky R.Selu

  • Page 456 and 457:

    H.G.Skilling H.G. Skilling H.G.Skil

  • Page 458 and 459:

    E.Taborsky E.Taborsky E.Taborsky P.

  • Page 460 and 461:

    Gy.Acz

  • Page 462 and 463:

    I.Berend and Gy.Ranki I.Berend I.Be

  • Page 464 and 465:

    538 A.Hegediis 'Optimizalas es Hura

  • Page 466 and 467:

    S.Kiss J.Kornai J.Kornai J.Kornai J

  • Page 468 and 469:

    542 G.P

  • Page 470 and 471:

    L.Szamuely L.Szamuely B.Szasz K.Szi

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