General Hosts - University of Florida

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General Hosts - University of Florida

General Hosts

•Annona Annona, , Annona spp. spp

•Avocado, Avocado, Persea americana

•Banana, Banana, Musa spp. spp

•Cacao, Cacao, Theobroma cacao

•Carambola

Carambola, , Averrhoa carambola

•Lychee Lychee (aka litchi), Litchi chinensis

•Mango, Mango, Mangifera indica

•Passion Passion fruit, Passiflora spp. spp

•Pitahaya Pitahaya, , Hylocereus undatus

General Diseases

•Fusarium Fusarium-induced -induced (primarily wilts)

•Stramenopile

Stramenopile-induced -induced (Phytophthora

( Phytophthora & Pythium)

Pythium


General Hosts

•Annona Annona, , Annona spp. spp

•Avocado, Avocado, Persea americana

•Banana, Banana, Musa spp. spp

•Cacao, Cacao, Theobroma cacao

•Carambola

Carambola, , Averrhoa carambola

•Lychee Lychee (aka litchi), Litchi chinensis

•Mango, Mango, Mangifera indica

•Passion Passion fruit, Passiflora spp. spp

•Pitahaya Pitahaya, , Hylocereus undatus

General Diseases

•Fusarium Fusarium-induced -induced (primarily wilts)

•Stramenopile

Stramenopile-induced -induced (Phytophthora

( Phytophthora & Pythium)

Pythium


Anthracnose


Anthracnose

•Most Most important and difficult disease

to manage in humid productions

areas


Anthracnose

•Most Most important and difficult disease

to manage in humid productions

areas

•Previous Previous work focused primarily on

fungicide screening (IR-4)


Anthracnose

•Most Most important and difficult disease

to manage in humid productions

areas

•Previous Previous work focused primarily on

fungicide screening (IR-4)

•Current Current future work examines

resistance among extant

genotypes/cultivars


1

(0-1%)

2

(2–5%)

3

(6–10%)

4

(11–49%)

5

(50-100%)


Anthracnose

•Most Most important and difficult disease

to manage in humid productions

areas

•Previous Previous work focused primarily on

fungicide screening (IR-4)

•Current Current future work examines

resistance among extant

genotypes/cultivars

•Future: Future: Inheritance of resistance,

selection of tolerant hybrids?


Susceptibility of fruit of different mango

cultivars to anthracnose

Cultivar Reaction Parent 1* Parent 2*

Carrie MR Julie nk

Early Gold MR Haden nk

Edward MR Haden nk

Florigon MR Haden nk

Glenn MR Haden nk

Haden S Mulgoba Turpentine

Irwin HS Lippens Haden

Keitt MR Brooks nk

Kent HS Haden Brooks

Lippens S Haden nk

Palmer S Haden nk

Ruby S Haden nk

Sensation S/HS Haden Brooks

T. Atkins MR Haden nk

Van Dyke MR Haden nk

Zill S Haden Bombay

*Schnell et al. 2006. JASHS 113:214-224.


Anthracnose tolerance of mango

parents and their progeny

# progeny cvs/category

cvs/category

Parental cultivars* Rxn HS S/MS MR Total

Haden S 5 4 6 15

Julie S 1 1

Kensington MR 1 1

Kent HS 1 1

Lippens S 2 2

Mulgoba HS 1 1

Totals: 7 7 7 21

*Schnell et al. 2006. JASHS 113:214-224.


Viruel et al. 2005. Mol. Breed. 15:383–393


Sensation

Keitt

Irwin

Lippens

Kent

Van Dyke

Haden

Langra

T. Atkins

Edward

Kensington

Glenn

Zill

Moderately resistant

Susceptible/highly susceptible


Malformation


Fusarium mangiferae

Fusarium sterilihyphosum


100

73

100

96

84

84

100

56

51

87

68

99

72

71

0.01 substitutions/site

93

100

100

F. napiforme

F. ramigenum

F. pseudoanthophilum

F. brevicatenulatum

F. pseudonygamai

F. verticillioides MP-A

F. lactis

F. thapsinum MP-F

F. nygamai MP-G

F. denticulatum

F. pseudocircinatum

100

F. phyllophilum

F. xylarioides

F. udum

F. acutatum

F. dlaminii

100

86

F. globosum

F. proliferatum MP-D

F. fujikuroi MP-C

99 F. sp. (NRRL26794, Cymbidium sp., Japan)

F. fractiflexum

100

F. concentricum

F. sp. (NRRL25303, Oryza sativa, Japan)

F. sp. (NRRL25309, Triticum aestivum, Japan)

99 F. mangiferae

F. sp. (NRRL26427, Rain forest soil, Papau-New Guinea)

F. sacchari MP-B

F. succisae

F. anthophilum

F. bulbicola

F. circinatum MP-H

F. sp. (NRRL29124, Bidens pilosa, Florida)

F. subglutinans MP-E

F. sp. (NRRL25622, Zea mays, South Africa)

F. bactridioides

98

F. sterilihyphosum

F. sp. (NRRL25807, Forest soil, Australia)

F. sp. (NRRL25195, Wood, Venezuela)

F. sp. (NRRL25346, Ipomoea batatas, Peru)

F. sp. (NRRL26757, Ornamental reed, South Africa)

F. begoniae

F. sp. (NRRL25204, Palm, Venezuela)

F. guttiforme

F. oxysporum

F. inflexum

Clade 1

Clade 2

Clade 3


PCR

detection

and

identification

of Fusarium

mangiferae


PCR amplification of DNA

from Fusarium spp. spp.

with 61-

2F/R primers (70C)

MPs of

G fujikuroi----- fujikuroi-----

F. mangifeae


Ongoing work focuses on:

•Assessing resistance in mango to

different populations of the

pathogen


Ongoing work focuses on:

•Assessing resistance in mango to

different populations of the

pathogen

•Investigating pathogen

populations in the Americas


Ongoing work focuses on:

•Assessing resistance in mango to

different populations of the

pathogen

•Investigating pathogen

populations in the Americas

•Developing detection protocols


Mango decline


Causal agents are diverse

Ascomycetes and coelomycetes

Alternaria alternata

Botryospaeria dothidea / Fusicoccum

aesculi

Botryospaeria rhodina / Diplodia

theobromae

Fusicoccum mangiferum

Glomerella cingulata / Colletotrichum

gloeosporioides

Phomopsis spp.

spp


Flower + panicle mortality

Blossom blight

Colletotrichum

gloeosporiodes


Flower + panicle mortality

Blossom blight

Colletotrichum

gloeosporiodes


Flower + panicle mortality

Blossom blight

Colletotrichum

gloeosporiodes


…in in South Africa, Fusicoccum

parvum (Dothiorella

( Dothiorella mangiferae)

mangiferae

and F. aesculi (D. ( D. dominicana)

dominicana

cause these symptoms


Stem-end Rots

•Severe Severe post-harvest

diseases

•Diverse Diverse symptoms and

causal agents…

agents


Botryosphaeria

rhodina / Diplodia

(synonyms:

Lasiodiplodia;

Lasiodiplodia

Botryodiplodia)

Botryodiplodia

theobromae


Botryosphaeria

dothidea /

Fusicoccum aesculi

Fusicoccum mangiferum

Synonyms: Dothiorella

mangiferae; Hendersonia

creberrima; Hendersonula

toruloidea; Natrassia

mangiferae


Phomopsis

mangiferae

Cytosphaera

mangiferae


General Hosts

•Annona Annona, , Annona spp. spp

•Avocado, Avocado, Persea americana

•Banana, Banana, Musa spp. spp

•Cacao, Cacao, Theobroma cacao

•Carambola

Carambola, , Averrhoa carambola

•Lychee Lychee (aka litchi), Litchi chinensis

•Mango, Mango, Mangifera indica

•Passion Passion fruit, Passiflora spp. spp

•Pitahaya Pitahaya, , Hylocereus undatus

General Diseases

•Fusarium Fusarium-induced -induced (primarily wilts)

•Stramenopile

Stramenopile-induced -induced (Phytophthora

( Phytophthora & Pythium)

Pythium


Pythium vexans

Carambola

Phytophthora

nicotianae

Atemoya


Phytophthora cinnamomi

Avocado


Development of Phytophthora root rot-resistant

avocado rootstocks

RANDY C. PLOETZ (1), Raymond J. Schnell (2) and Jody L. Haynes (1).

(1) University of Florida, Homestead, FL; (2) USDA-ARS, Miami, FL.

Abstract. Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is the most important

disease of avocado, Persea amer icana. To develop root rot-resistant rootstock s, we screened openpollinated

pr ogeny from the National Germplasm Repo sitory for avocado in Miami (NGR). 2,355

seedlings from 51 accessions were examined in potting mix infested with P. cinnam om i. Most

seedl ings devel oped severe root rot, but tol erance was obser ved among progeny of some accessions

(families). Seedlings of the West Indian (WI) race, P. americana var. am erica na, and hybrids

between it and the Guatemalan (G) race, P. americana var. guatemalensis, were more tolerant

tha n those with ot he r ba ckgr oun ds (P


National Avocado

Germplasm Repository,

USDA-ARS, Miami

•Established Established 1906

•Well Well over 200 genetically

and racially diverse

accessions


•Most Most seedlings developed

severe root rot (means < 97%

root necrosis)


•Most Most seedlings developed

severe root rot (means < 97%

root necrosis)

•Tolerance Tolerance observed in

some families (seedlings

from certain accessions)


•West West Indian and West Indian x

Guatemalan hybrids more

tolerant (P


Conclusions: Open- Open-

pollinated seedlings

•PRR PRR tolerance identified


Conclusions: Open- Open-

pollinated seedlings

•PRR PRR tolerance identified

•Clear Clear potential for

rootstock development with

half- and full-sib families

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