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Gasoline Direct Injection: - The Institute of Motor Industry

Gasoline Direct Injection: - The Institute of Motor Industry

Gasoline Direct Injection: - The Institute of Motor

MIM Tech Talk in association with Gasoline Direct Injection: In the two previous articles we looked at the history, development, basic operation and components associated with Gasoline Direct Injection systems. In this final part we focus on the operation of the fuel charge modes, system advancements and associated systems. System Review Mainly consisting of a fuel pump (high pressure), delivery pipe, and slit nozzle type injectors, this system effects optimal control for combustion by controlling the fuel pressure, injection volume, and the injection timing via the Engine ECU and EDU (Electronic Driver Unit). The petrol/gasoline is highly pressurized, and injected by high voltage driven injectors via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. This contrasts with the conventional single or multi- point fuel injection that happens in the intake manifold tract, or cylinder port for improved fuel efficiency, and reduced emission levels at low load. The combustion of the fuel takes place in a toroidal (doughnutshaped) cavity on the piston’s surface designed to improve air swirl and delivered by a specially designed injector nozzle. This allows successful ignition without misfire, even when the air/fuel mixture is very lean. Fuel Charge Modes The meaning of the term ‘stratified charge’ is the 4 2 M O T O R I N D U S T R Y M A G A Z I N E S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 0 layering of the fuel/air mixture inside the combustion chamber. A GDI engine generally runs in a stratified charge mode from the low and up through to the medium engine load and speed range by the fuel/ air mixture stratification in the combustion chamber. A highly ignitable mixture is injected directly into the combustion chamber during compression and forms around the spark plugs at the centre of the combustion chamber where it burns quickly and smoothly. As the combustion continues, it advances into a very lean PART Three mixture where the flame propagation cools rapidly as it reaches the outer layer, which is comprised mostly of fresh air. Homogeneous Charge Mode The meaning of the term ‘homogeneous charge’ is a thorough mixing of the air/ fuel mixture throughout the combustion chamber equal to lambda 1. This mixing of the charge occurs before the onset of ignition. Homogeneous charge is designed to create an easily ignitable combustion mixture that burns evenly and smoothly across the whole combustion chamber. However, this combustion process burns more fuel and creates a higher level of CO2 and NOx. Homogeneous Lean Charge Mode Homogeneous lean charge mode is a transition period between the homogeneous and stratified charge mode where the engine runs in a homogeneous lean charge mode. The lean mixture is distributed evenly throughout the combustion chamber. The air/fuel ratio in this mode is approximately lambda 1.55. W W W . M O T O R . O R G . U K

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