SENSATION AND PERCEPTION - Index of

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SENSATION AND PERCEPTION - Index of

SENSATION AND

PERCEPTION

An Integrated Approach

I I Fifth Edition

Harvey Richard Schiffman

Rutgers, The State University

'JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore


CONTENTS

I 1 I AN INTRODUCTION TO

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1

Sensation and Perception, 2

Why Study Sensation and Perception?, 3

The Historical and Scientific Roots of Sensation

and Perception, 5

Empiricism and the-Senses, 5

Sensation and Perception as Interdisciplinary

Sciences, 6

Approaches to the Study of Sensation

and Perception, 6

Structuralism, 7

Gestalt Psychology, 7

Constructivist Approach, 8

Direct Perception, 8

Computational Approach, 10

Neurophysiological Approach, 10

Cognitive Neuroscience, 10

Physiological Perspective: Neuronal

Communication, 12

The Neuron, 12

Neural Transmission, 13

Sensory-Neural Transmission and Integration, 16

Sensory Receptors, 18

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Sensory

Receptors, 19

Summary, 21

I 2 I PSYCHOPHYSICS 23

Detection and the Absolute Threshold, 24

Psychophysical Methods, 25

Signal Detection Theory (SDT), 27

Sensitivity Versus Response Bias, 27

Detection and Noise, 27

ROC Curves, 32

Subliminal Perception, 35

Semantic Priming, 36

The Difference Threshold, 37

Weber's Fraction, 37

Fechner's Law, 38

Stevens' Power Law, 40

The Relativity of Psychophysical

Judgments, 43

Summary, 44

I a I THE VISUAL SYSTEM

The Physical Stimulus, 47

Wavelength, 48

Intensity, 49

Light Reception, 50

Anatomy of the Vertebrate Eye, 52

The Iris, Pupil, and Whytt's Reflex, 53

The Lens, 55

The Retina, 55

Variations in Eye Position: Mobility

and Placement, 61

Eye Mobility, 61

Placement of the Eyes and the Visual Field, 62

Accommodation, 62

Refractive Errors, 65

Lens Aberrations, 67

Astigmatism, 68

Pupil Mobility, 69

Pupillometry, 70

Eyeblinks, 71

46

/x


X D CONTENTS

Eye and Brain, 71

Visual Pathway of Eye to Brain, 71

Receptive Fields, 75

Receptive Fields for Ganglion Cells: Center-Surround

Organization, 75

Two Types of Ganglion Cells: P-Cells

and M-Cells, 77

Receptive Fields for the LGN, 77

Receptive Fields for the Visual Cortex, 79

Cortical Cells and Feature Detection, 83

Summary, 86

FUNDAMENTAL

VISUAL FUNCTIONS

AND PHENOMENA

Scotopic and Photopic Vision, 89

Dark Adaptation, 90

Measuring Dark Adaptation, 90

The Photochemical Basis of Dark Adaptation, 92

Spectral Sensitivity and the Purkinje Shift, 93

Limits of Basic Visual Function, 95

Absolute Threshold, 95

Factors Affecting the Absolute Threshold, 95

Perceiving Continuity from Intermittent Light:

The CFF, 96

Acuity, 97

Visual Angle, 99

Recognition Acuity and the Eye Chart, 100

Acuity and Retinal Location, 100

Superior Acuity of Birds, 101

Eye Movements, 103

Saccades, 103

Pursuit Movements, 106

Vestibulo-Ocular Eye Movements, 106

Vergence Movements, 107

Miniature Eye Movements, 107

Mixed-Mode Eye Movements, 107

Development of Efficient Eye Movements, 108

Temporal Factors in Perception, 109

Masking, 109

Aftereffects, 110

Object Identification and Localization: Focal

and Ambient Systems, 112

Blindsight, 113

Summary, 114

89

COLOR VISION

The Function of Color Vision, 116

Color Vision in Animals, 117

The Nature of Color, 117

The Dimensions of Color, 118

Color Mixture, 120

Additive Color Mixture, 120

Subtractive Color Mixture, 124

Afterimages, 125

Color Adaptation: Color Contrast Phenomena and

Complementary Afterimages, 126

Memory Color, 127

Color Constancy, 128

Factor Influencing Color Constancy, 128

Function of Color Constancy, 128

116

Theories of Color Perception, 129

Trichromatic Receptor Theory CYoung—Helmholtz

Theory), 129

Opponent-Process Theory, 131

Defective Color Vision, 135

Anomalous Trichromatiism, 135

Dichromatism, 136

Monochromatism, 137

The Structural Basis of Defective Color Vision, 137

Conical Color Blindness, 138

Subjective Colors, 138

Summary, 139

VISUAL PATTERN AND

FORM PERCEPTION: BASIC

PROCESSES OF PERCEPTUAL

ORGANIZATION 142

Contour and Contrast Perception, 142

Lateral Inhibition, 143

Hermann Grid, 145

Lightness Contrast, 146

Stimulus Change, 149

The Ganzfeld: Perception in a Homogeneous

Field, 149

Stabilized Image, 149

Spatial Frequency Analysis, 151

Spatial Frequencies, 151

Contrast Sensitivity Function, 153

Selective Adaptation, 155

Image-Processing: Block Portraits, 156


Spatial Frequency and Acuity, 157

The Role of Spatial Frequency Analysis in

Vision, 158

Perceptual Processing, 158

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes, 158

Attention, 159

Feature Integration Theory: Preattentive and Focused

Attention Stages, 160

Object Identification: Recognition by

Components, 161

The Computational Approach, 163

The Connectionist Model, 165

Summary, 166

HIGHER PROCESSES

OF PERCEPTUAL

ORGANIZATION 168

Figure-Ground Perception, 168

Ambiguous Figure-Ground Relationships, 170

Perceptual Differences Between Figure

and Ground, 170

Figure-Ground and Perceptual Organization, 170

Tactual Figure-Ground Perception, 172

The Gestalt Approach, 173

Gestalt Psychology Versus Structuralism, 173

Gestalt Grouping Principles, 174

Measures of Grouping Effects, 178

Law of Pra'gnanz, 178

Subjective Contours, 180

Apparent Overlap, 181

Neural Basis of Perceptual Organization, 185

Visual Agnosia, 185

Figural Orientation and Form Perception, 186

Perceptual Set, 187

Perceptual Set, Reading, and the Stroop Effect, 190

Bottom-up or Top-Down Processing?, 191

Summary, 192

I 8 I THE PERCEPTION

OF MOVEMENT

Motion Detectors, 195

Movement Systems of the Eye, 195

Image-Retina Movement System, 196

Eye-Head Movement System, 196

194

CONTENTS • XI

Optical Stimulation for Movement Perception, 200

Optic Flow Patterns, 200

Retinal Expansion and Rate of Movement, 201

Thresholds for Movement, 202

Biological Motion, 202

Biological Motion Extracted from Point-Light

Displays, 203

Distortions in the Perception of Movement, 204

Motion-Produced Depth: Kinetic Depth Effect, 204

Anorthoscopic Perception, 206

Induced Movement, 206

Pulfrich Pendulum Effect, 208

Apparent Movement, 209

Stroboscopic Movement, 209

Motion Pictures, 210

Autokinetic Movement, 212

Motion Aftereffects, 213

The Prediction of Motion Paths, 214

Summary, 216

I ft I THE PERCEPTION OF

SPACE: MONOCULAR AND

BINOCULAR VISION 218

Monocular Cues for Spatial Perception, 218

Interposition, 219

Aerial Perspective or Clearness, 219

Shading and Lighting, 219

Elevation, 221

Linear Perspective, 221

Texture Gradients, 224

Relative Size, 225

Pictorial Perception, 225 ^

Motion Parallax, 228

Motion Perspective, 231

Accommodation, 231

Familiar Size, 231

Binocular Cues, 232

Convergence, 232

Binocular Disparity, 233

Corresponding Retinal Points and the

Horopter, 234

Binocular Disparity and Stereopsis, 237

Binocular Rivalry, 239

Cyclopean Perception, 240

Physiological Basis of Binocular Disparity, 244


Xii a CONTENTS

The Interaction of Cues to Space, 245

Constructivist Approach to Spatial Cues, 245

Gibson's Direct Approach, 246

The Visual Cliff, 246

Summary, 248

I 1Ql CONSTANCY AND

ILLUSIONS 250

Perceptual Constancy, 250

Lightness Constancy, 251

Size Constancy, 253

Shape Constancy, 258

Visual Illusions, 261

Transactionalism and the Ames Illusions, 26l

The Ames Illusions, 262

Illusions of Depth, Distance, and Constancy, 264

The Moon Illusion, 265

Angle-of-Regard Hypothesis, 266

Apparent Distance Hypothesis, 266

Alternative Explanations of the Moon Illusion, 268

The Muller-Lyer Illusion, 268

The Muller-Lyer Illusion and Perspective-Constancy

Theory, 268

The Ponzo Illusion, 270

The Ponzo Illusion and Perspective, 271

The Ponzo Illusion and Framing Effects, 272

The Poggendorff Illusion, 273

The Poggendorff Illusion and Perspective, 273

The Horizontal-Vertical Illusion, 275

Contrast Illusions, 275

Ambiguous, Reversible, and Multistable

Figures, 277

Multistable Figures and Adaptation, 278

Multiple Determinants of Illusions, 279

Optical-Retinal Components, 279

Cognitive Components, 280

Multiple-Illusion Figures, 281

Impossible Figures, 282

Summary, 285

PERCEPTUAL

DEVELOPMENT 287

Development of the Sensory System, 288

Cortical Effects of Visual Deprivation, 288

Effects of Rearing with Selective Visual Stimulation in

Animals, 289

Effects of Selective Stimulation for the Human, 290

Restored Sight with Humans, 292

Perception of the Newborn Human, 293

Eye Fixations and Scanning, 293

Form and Pattern Perception, 295

Color Perception, 298

Visual Acuity, 298

Space Perception, 300

Development of Perceptual-Motor

Coordination, 303

Perceptual-Motor Coordination, 303

Perceptual Adaptation to Distorted Visual

Stimulation, 305

Adaptation to Prism-Induced Distortion, 305

Adaptation to Optical Inversion and Reversal, 306

Active Movement and Adaptation, 307

Comparative Studies of Adaptation, 309

Vision and Aging, 310

The Eye and Aging, 310

The Retina and Aging, 310

Visual Acuity and Aging, 311

Summary, 312

THE AUDITORY

SYSTEM

The Physical Stimulus, 315

Frequency, 317

Amplitude, 318

Complexity, 321

Phase, 323

Resonance, 324

Anatomy and Mechanisms of the Ear, 325

The Outer Ear, 325

The Middle Ear, 327

The Inner Ear, 329

The Auditory Nerve, 331

Functioning of the Inner Ear, 332

The Place Theory, 333

The Frequency-Matching Theory, 336

Cooperation of Place and Frequency-Matching

Mechanisms, 337

Auditory Pathology, 338

Tinnitus, 338

Hearing Loss, 338

Causes of Hearing Loss and Deafness, 341

Comparative Auditory Structures, 342

Summary, 344

315


I 13 I FUNDAMENTAL

AUDITORY FUNCTIONS

AND PHENOMENA 347

Intensity, 347

Intensity Discrimination, 348

Loudness, 348

Loudness and Frequency, 349

Frequency, 351

Frequency Discrimination, 351

Pitch, 351

Pitch and Intensity, 352

Hearing and Sound Duration, 353

Effects of Multiple Tonal Stimulation, 353

Beats, 353

Masking, 353

Auditory Fatigue and Auditory Adaptation, 356

Subjective Tonal Attributes, 357

Volume and Density, 357

Consonance and Dissonance, 358

Laboratory versus Natural Sounds, 358

Summary, 358

AUDITORY PATTERN

PERCEPTION: SOUND AS

INFORMATION 361

The Auditory Pathway and Central Structures, 361

Cerebral Dominance and Hearing, 363

Auditory Space Perception, 365

Monaural Cues, 365

Binaural Cues, 366

The Pinna and Localization, 371

Echolocation, 372

Obstacle Perception by the Blind, 374

Perception of Music, 376

Dimensions of Music, 376

Absolute or Perfect Pitch and Tone Deafness, 377

Perception of Pitch Sequences: Melodies, 378

Chromesthesia and Music, 380

Function of Music Perception, 380

Perception of Speech, 381

Range of Speech Sounds, 381

Speech Perception with Sound Distortion, 383

General Issues in Speech Perception, 386

Perception of Words, 386

Uniqueness of Speech, 386

Auditory Scene Analysis, 391

Auditory Streams, 392

Animal Communication, 393

Dog Sounds, 393

Primate Sounds, 393

Summary, 394

CONTENTS a xffi

THE ORIENTING

SENSE 398

Receptors for Orientation, 398

Mammalian Orienting System, 399

Saccule and Utricle, 401

Semicircular Canals, 403

Vestibular Stimulation, 403

Vestibular Nystagmus and Vestibulo-Ocular Eye

Movements, 403

Visually Induced Illusions of Movement, 404

Vestibular Habituation, 405

Deficiencies of the Vestibular Mechanism, 406

Motion Sickness, 407

Active versus Passive Movement, 408

Cause of Motion Sickness: Sensory Conflict

Theory, 408

Reducing Motion Sickness, 408

Other Mechanisms for Orientation, 409

Magnetic Sense, 409

Summary, 410

I 16l THE SKIN SENSES 412

Functions of the Skin: Protection and Sensation, 413

Cutaneous Sensitivity, 414

The Skin and The Brain, 415

Cutaneous Representation in the Brain:

The Homunculus, 415

Lemniscal and Spinothalamic Pathways, 416

Receptive Fields, 418

Slowly and Rapidly Adapting Fibers, 419

Touch and Pressure, 419

Touch Stimulation and Reception, 419

Thresholds for Touch, 420

Aristotle's Illusion, 423

Adaptation to Touch, 424

Complex Touch, 424

Braille System, 424

Tadoma Method, 425

Seeing with the Skin: Tactual-Visual Substitution

System, 426

Kinesthesis, 428

Tickling and Self-Produced Stimulation, 429


XlV n CONTENTS

Haptic System, 430

Tactual Stereognosis, 431

Roughness Enhancement, 432

Temperature, 432

Temperature Receptors and Thermal Spots, 433

Thermal Conductivity, 433

Thermal Adaptation, 434

Paradoxical and Synthetic Thermal Sensations, 436

Pain, 437

Function of Pain Perception, 437

Qualities of Pain, 438

Pain Stimulus and Pain Thresholds, 438

Subjective Factors in Pain Experience, 439

Pain Adaptation, 440

The Nociceptor, 441

Spinal Gate Control Theory, 441

Acupuncture, 443

Endorphins and Enkephalins, 444

Summary, 445

I 17 I THE CHEMICAL SENSE

OF TASTE 449

The Diversity and Origins of Chemoreception, 450

The Functions of Chemoreception, 450

Taste Primaries and the Chemical Stimulus, 450

Taste Primaries, 450

Origins of Primary Tastes, 451

Chemical Stimulus for Taste, 451

Anatomy and Physiology of Taste, 452

Taste Receptors, 452

Taste Pathways to the Brain, 453

Neural Recording of Taste Receptors, 453

Cross-Fiber Patterning, 453

The Best Stimulus and Labeled Lines, 455

Taste Thresholds, 456

Taste Thresholds and Temperature, 457

Taste Thresholds and Tongue Regions, 457

Taste Thresholds and Genetics, 457

Taste Thresholds and Age, 459

Taste Abnormalities and Disease, 459

Adaptation, 460

Adaptation-Produced Potentiation, 460

Cross-Adaptation, 461

Taste Interactions, 461

Taste Modifiers, 461

Sugar Substitutes, 462

Taste Preferences and Taste Worlds, 463

Taste Preferences and Selective Deprivation, 463

Origins of Taste Preferences, 464

Conditioned Taste Aversion, 464

Taste Preferences and Flavor, 465

Summary, 465

I 18l THE CHEMICAL SENSE

OF SMELL 468

Function of the Sense of Smell, 468

Odor Quality, 469

The Chemical Stimulus for Smell, 469

Classification of Odor Quality, 470

Anatomy and Physiology of the Olfactory

System, 471

Olfactory Receptors, 471

Olfactory Pathways to the Brain, 473

Active Sniffing and Odor Sensitivity, 473

Plasticity of Olfactory Receptor Cells, 474

Olfactory Coding, 474

Odor Intensity, 474

Odor Quality, 474

Olfactory Disorders, 475

The Odor of Disease, 476

Odor Thresholds, 476

Odor Thresholds and Gender, 477

Odor Thresholds and Age, 478

Adaptation, 478

Self-Adaptation and Cross-Adaptation, 479

Odor Mixtures, 479

Odor Preferences, 479

Own-Odor Preference, 479

Identification and Memory of Odors, 480

Odor Memories versus Visual Memories, 480

Odors and Memory Cues, 481

Odors and Emotions, 482

Psychobiological Functions of Olfaction:

Pheromones, 483

Releaser and Primer Pheromones, 483

The Vomeronasal System, 484

Human Pheromones, 485

The Common Chemical Sense, 486

Stimuli for the Common Chemical Sense, 487

The Appeal of Irritating Chemical Stimuli, 488

Summary, 488


THE PERCEPTION

OF TIME 491

The Biological Basis of Time Perception, 492

Hoagland's Hypothesis: The Biological Clock, 493

Drugs and Time Perception, 494

Cognitive Theories of Time Perception, 494

Ornstein's Theory: Information-Storage Size, 494

Cognitive-Attentional Theory, 496

Biological versus Cognitive Basis of Time

Perception, 497

Age and the Passage of Time, 498

Time Perception and the Size of the Spatial

Environment, 499

Time and Distance: The Tau and Kappa

Effects, 500

Tau Effect, 500

Kappa Effect, 500

Summary, 500

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

INDEX

CONTENTS O XV

529

576

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