Ash Resources at Great Smoky Mountains National Park What's at ...

Ash Resources at Great Smoky Mountains National Park What's at ...

National Park Service

U.S. Department of the Interior

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Ash Resources at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

What’s at stake?

Glenn Taylor - Biologist


Ash Species in GRSM

White ash (Fraxinus americana)

common, wide-range of elevations

Minor component in many vegetation types-

A dominant species in cove hardwood and hemlock forests

Green ash (F. pennsylvanica)

infrequent, low elevation

Alluvial flood plains

Green Ash is an important component of a critically imperiled forest type in

the park- montane floodplain slough forest

Pumpkin ash (F. profunda)

extirpated, low elevation

Selected white ash forest types:

Southern Appalachian Cove Forest (Typic Montane Type)

Rich Low-Elevation Appalachian Oak Forest

Appalachian Montane Oak

Southern Appalachian Cove Forest (Typic Foothills Type)

Appalachian Montane Alluvial Forest

Ridge and Valley Dry-Mesic White Oak-hickory Forest

Southern Appalachian Northern Hardwood Forest (Rich Type)

Montane Sweetgum Alluvial Flat

Southern Appalachian Eastern Hemlock Forest (Typic Type)

Southern Appalachian Acid Cove Forest (Typic Type)

Blue Ridge Calcareous Shale Slope Woodland (Shrubby Type)

Eastern Native Tree Society- (ENTS)

Ash Fraxinus (two species)

1. White ash Fraxinus americana

Ht Circ

165.8’ 12’ 5.0” NC Big Creek, Cataloochee, Haywood Co; Blozan 12/7/03

155.2’ N/A NC Bettis Branch, Haywood Co. Blozan; Coyle & Busch 1/3/04

148.2’ 4’ 8.0” NC Baxter Creek, Cataloochee, Haywood Co; Blozan & Coyle


142.1’ NC Baxter Creek, Haywood Co; Blozan & Davie 6/23/02

139.5’ 10’ 4.0” NC Baxter Creek, Cataloochee, Haywood Co; Blozan & Coyle


138.9’ 6’ 10.0” NC Bettis Branch, Haywood Co; Blozan, Coyle & Busch 1/3/04

135.8’ 13’ 2.0” TN Ramsay Prong, Sevier Co; D&J Riddle Apr 2001

2. Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica

139.0’ 9’ 6.0” NC Big Creek, Cataloochee , Haywood Co; Blozan & Coyle


134.9’ 7’ 0” NC Big Creek, Cataloochee, Haywood Co; Blozan & Coyle


83.0’ 12’ 2.0” TN Cades Cove, Blount Co; Blozan 6/8/96

Ash in Vegetation


Cove hardwood:

white ash 79,000 Ac

N hardwood, Hemlock,

Floodplain forests: ash

minor component 33,000 Ac

Wildlife value of Fraxinus

Birds- game, passerines, cavity nesters

Mammals- deer, squirrels, rabbits


How important to invertebrates?

A recent Ohio State University study found that 286

arthropod species associate with ash and of these 44 species

are specific to ash (Herms/Gandhi, 2009)

No formal surveying for ash invertebrates has been

completed in the Smokies but a proposal to survey hosts of

ash and walnut is under consideration for NPS funding

Phoebetron pithecium - Monkey Slug

Euclea delphini i- Spiny oak slug

Ectropis crepuscularia - Saddleback looper

Hypagyrtis unipunctata - One-spotted variant

Erannis tiliaria - Linden looper

Ennomos magnaria - Maple spanworm

Ennomos subsignaria - Elm spanworm

Tetracis cachexiata - White slant line

Eutrapela clemataria - Purplish brown looper

Nematocampa resistaria - Filament bearer

Apatelodes torrefacta- Spotted Apatelodes

Olceclostera angelica - The Angel- only ash and lilac

Tolype velleda - Large Tolype

Malacosoma disstria - Forest Tent Caterpillar

Citheronia regalis - Hickory horned devil (Regal or Royal walnut moth) – Ash, butternut, walnut, et al

Antheraea polyphemu s- Polyphemus moth

Callosamia promethea - Promethia moth

Hyalophora cecropia - Cecropia moth –declining due to gypsy moth biocontrol fly Compsilura concinnata

Ceratomia undulosa - Waved sphinx- olive family hosts

Sphinx chersis - Great ash Sphinx- olive family hosts

Sphinx gordius - Apple Sphinx

Sphinx kalmiae - Fawn Sphinx - olive family hosts

Acronicta americana - American dagger moth

Acronicta impleta - Yellow haired Dagger moth –walnut, ash

Harrisimemna trisignata - Harris’ Three spot

Lithophane antennata - Ashen pinion

Lithophane patefacta - Branded pinion

Lithophane querquera - Shivering pinion

Melanchra assimilis - Black Arches

Orthosia hibisci - Speckled Green Fruitworm

Crocigrapha normani - Norman’s quaker

Achatia distincta - Distinct Quaker

Morrisonia confuse - Confused woodgrain

Hyphantria cunea - Fall webworm

Halysidota tessellaris- Banded Tussock moth

Lophocampa caryae - Hickory Tussock moth

Ash caterpillar hosts Wagner, 2005

Papilio glaucus - Eastern tiger swallowtail

Ash as a cultural resource- Cherokee

Native American use of ash

Medicinal properties- depression, fatigue, wound treatment, tonic,

fever reducer

Products- arrow shafts, bows, pipe stems, spoons, basketry

GRSM Frontcountry Campgrounds

159 sites

220 sites

92 sites

165 sites

142 sites




Cove Cosby Deep Cr Elkmont



5/14-6/18 5/13-10/17 6/3-6/17 4/1-5/15 4/28-10/9 5/19-10/29

1*/34 384*/1114 1/11 0/10 219/1029 5/365

3% 34% 9% 0 21% 1%

*one was


Number of campers who brought firewood

from EAB/TCD quarantined areas in 2011

*6 lumber or

USDA cert

Abrams Creek, Look Rock, Big Creek, Cataloochee are self registration

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