There is no more venerated name in the world of cinema

than Alfred Hitchcock. His movies and methods have been

studied and emulated by fi lmmakers around the world,

and his impact on the art of directing is unsurpassed. The

master of suspense made fi lms in the United Kingdom and

in Hollywood, demonstrating the adage that moving images

speak a global language.

Surprisingly, in light of these facts, Hitchcock’s very early

silent era work — fi lms that offer a fascinating glimpse

into the development of his style — has been in bad shape.

Deluxe and the British Film Institute (BFI) have corrected this,

gathering as many elements of these early fi lms as possible

and using the latest restoration techniques to resurrect them.

The project required thousands of hours of painstaking work.

Hitchcock fans have rejoiced.

Hitchcock afi cionados of future generations will also be

certain to benefi t, as the BFI and Deluxe used fi lm technology

to safely archive and future-proof the restored classics.

Archivists note that these movies would not exist today had

they been stored on a less reliable medium. Black-and-white

archival emulsions promise centuries of easy and accurate

reproduction of these cultural treasures, regardless of future

display formats.

The fi lms were made in the UK between 1925 and 1929,

and the titles include The Ring, The Manxman, Blackmail, The

Farmer’s Wife, Champagne, Easy Virtue, The Lodger, The

Pleasure Garden and Downhill.

The Lodger was previously the best known of the

bunch, and that fi lm is cited by fi lm historians as a

turning point, displaying many characteristics that

would later come to be called “Hitchcockian” and

enjoying a degree of commercial success that

boosted the director’s career trajectory.

The BFI — one of the world’s largest

collections of fi lm and television with over

180,000 titles — laid a strong foundation

for the restorations with

technical and

April 2013

Today’s black-and-white

archival emulsions promise

centuries of easy and accurate

reproduction of these cultural

treasures, regardless of

future display formats.

curatorial research, gathering elements from its own archives

as well as from various collections around the world. Under the

direction of the BFI, Deluxe carefully catalogued the images

from delicate and irreplaceable source material, and assembled

versions based on the best scholarship.

Deluxe used cutting edge restoration and preservation

technology and a staff of two senior graders and eight digital

restoration artists. Some of the fi lms were scanned by the BFI

itself, and others were digitized at Deluxe’s London restoration

facility. The task was made more delicate by some highly

fl ammable nitrate negatives. Elements gathered also included

nitrate, acetate and polyester fi ne grain positives, and nitrate

prints. After examination, preparation and cleaning, each element

was scanned through ARRISCAN or Spirit 4K scanners to create

2K data fi les (in DPX format). BFI archivists reconstructed the

fi lms shot by shot.

“As would be expected with fi lms made on nitrate and other

unstable fi lms stocks of that era, the original source material had

seen a fair amount of wear and tear as prints were repeatedly

made from the original negative,” says Deluxe’s Paul Collard. “The

celluloid had degraded and parts of the fi lm were either lost or

unusable. In places where the original celluloid had deteriorated

too far, we seamlessly replaced it with copy material. The key was

not to try to improve or enhance the original in any way, but to

present it authentically, in the way it would have been seen by our

grandparents and great-grandparents.”

The ARRISCAN scanner has a number of adaptations that

make it perfect for this delicate work. The registration

pin can be disabled and the LED illumination

means that highly fl ammable nitrate materials are not exposed

to any heat during the scan. Dry-and wet-gate scanning are also

options, depending on the type and condition of the materials.

Sometimes a “double-fl ash” technique was used to better capture

the rich tonal range on the nitrate material.

The next stage was a 2K digital intermediate, graded by Deluxe

restoration colorists Stephen Bearman and Trevor Brown, again

with supervision by the BFI. The graded, conformed scans were

then digitally restored to remove defects such as scratches,

warping, fl uctuations, mold and frame damage. Newly re-created

polyester inter-titles were incorporated based on existing prints

and extensive research.

Three of the fi lms were originally released as tinted and toned

prints. Tinting and toning were early color processes used to add

expressive colors to black-and-white images. In the days before

color fi lm, these colors were applied by dyes and toning baths

after the printing stage. “We worked to reproduce those colors in

the digital grade and the color management translated them to

intermediate negative and new prints,” says Kieron Webb, fi lm

conservation manager for the BFI.

After a fi nal review screening with the BFI, a 35mm fully

restored color or black-and-white polyester digital negative

was recorded out to KODAK Film frame-by-frame on the latest

ARRILASER fi lm recorders. Show prints of the new restorations

were made along with a 2K data archive of all scans and restored

fi les, a digital cinema package and television masters.

Webb says that several restoration masters were produced,

including fi lm, digital cinema, HD video and data. “In our full

restoration projects, we always make a new fi lm negative,”

says Webb. “This is important not only for the long-term

conservation of the fi lm and the restoration work, in addition

to the preservation data, but also for the creation of excellent

35mm show prints which are screened internationally. Early

in the Hitchcock project, we carried out extensive comparison

tests in conjunction with Deluxe of the various blackand-white

intermediate stocks. Deluxe recorded the new

negatives on their ARRILASERs and we processed and printed

them in the archive’s lab.

Echoing the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences

Digital Dilemma reports, Collard notes the challenges of

storing and archiving larger and larger data fi les as the demand

grows for 4K and greater resolution in feature fi lms. “What

better permanent, low-cost solution could you have than a fi lm

recording of the fi nal 4K master data onto black-and-white

separation masters, ready for re-scanning back to data up to 200

years into the future?” he asks.

In June and July 2012, The Pleasure Garden, Blackmail,

The Ring and The Lodger were presented with specially

commissioned scores in a series of screenings during the

London 2012 Festival, part of the Cultural Olympiad. Newly

restored prints of those fi lms, as well as Downhill, Easy

Virtue, Champagne, The Farmer’s Wife and The Manxman were

presented as part of a major Hitchcock retrospective at BFI

Southbank from August to October 2012.

“Archives are working incredibly hard to ensure our

moving image heritage is reproduced as accurately as

possible,” says Webb. “And there’s always something very

reassuring about being happy with the new print at

the conclusion of a restoration


Photos – Cover – Top: The Ring,

Right: All from The Pleasure Garden

This page – Top: The Lodger Bottom

left: The Lodger, Bottom middle:

Blackmail, Bottom right: The Pleasure

Garden. (All Photos: BFI National


Enlightened showcases a fascinating collaboration between series

co-creator Mike White and lead actor Laura Dern, who also serves

as co-creator and executive producer. Dern portrays Amy Jellicoe, a

self-destructive woman who undergoes a breakdown, followed by a

spiritual awakening, and emerges determined to live an enlightened

life. This of course creates a wealth of comedic situations in her work

and home life. At the offi ce, she tries to enlist the meek Tyler —

played by White — in her jargon-fi lled schemes to seize the day.

Xavier Grobet, ASC, AMC shot the second season of

Enlightened, which began airing on HBO earlier this year. In addition

to the fi rst season of Enlightened, his credits include The Woodsman,

I Love You Phillip Morris, Nacho Libre and The Back-up Plan.

On Enlightened, Grobet uses KODAK VISION3 500T Color

Negative Film 5219 and KODAK VISION2 200T Color Negative

Film 5217 in the 3-perf Super 35 format. He shoots ARRICAM

LT cameras — usually two — and relies on COOKE S4 prime and


“We like the quality of fi lm, as well as the practicality,” says Grobet.

“We like the fi lm feel and fi lm grain. Taking care of my actors is

what’s most important for me. Especially with Laura, I always want

her to look good and I think fi lm helps that way. It’s gentle compared

to digital. And I have more freedom in terms of staging and lighting.”

The cinematographer also notes that he fi nds fi lm to be a

more effi cient way of working. White was also strongly in favor

of originating on fi lm. “It’s much more practical,” Grobet relates.

“There’s less technology and less paraphernalia around the

camera to deal with. It’s easier to handle. Film is reliable. The

technology is so advanced that you feel very confi dent about it.

“One of the problems I have with the digital world is that it tries to

go into perfection in terms of the quality and the defi nition,” Grobet

observes. “Sometimes that’s not what you’re looking for. I think it’s

best to use the texture and light. When something is too sharp and

too defi ned and too perfect, it loses the emotion in a way. When

there’s no texture, there’s a certain rejection, at least on my part.”

The set depicting Jellicoe’s workplace, Cogentiva, is a

predominantly white environment. Grobet has rigged two layers

of light — practicals, and above them, recessed movie light

fi xtures. On wider shots, the white room is comparatively high-key,

but Grobet modulates somewhat on close-ups, creating more

contrast and volume on faces depending on the scene. “I can

go with different levels or turn off light in certain areas,” he says.

“Sometimes I’ll kill all the lights

behind me so that the faces stand out

against the bright background.”

The show is split between sets on

stages and practical location shooting.

Given the tight TV schedule — an

episode is often accomplished in six

days or less — Grobet often comes

into a set for the fi rst time the day

before he must shoot in it. “You have

to come up with something without

a lot of time to think things through,”

he notes. “You have to be creative

and make it work. It makes you think

outside the box, experiment, and

go beyond what you’d do in a more

controlled situation. When you have

to make it work, you do.”

Grobet says that fi lm gives him the confi dence to push the

boundaries. “You know how the fi lm will react,” he explains.

“You know how much you can push it. You can trust the fi lm,

and that’s a good feeling.”

White writes the show entirely and directs about half of the

episodes. The opportunity to work with a rotating roster of

directors, including Jonathan Demme, Nicole Holofcener and

Miguel Arteta, appeals to Grobet. “But Mike makes the show

special and fulfi lling,” emphasizes Grobet. “He puts a lot of heart

into the project. It doesn’t feel like a TV production. Each episode

is almost like an independent fi lm, made with care. That’s what is

fantastic about HBO — you have the freedom to create.”

Photos – Top: Mike White and Laura Dern on the set of Enlightened. Bottom: Dermot Mulroney

and Laura Dern. Right: Xavier Grobet, ASC, AMC. (All Photos: Lacey Terrell/HBO)

Stephen Windon, ACS is

best known for some of the

most widely seen images

depicting World War II in

HBO’s The Pacifi c. Windon

shared credit with Remi

Adefarasin, BSC on the

miniseries, and his work

on the episode “Okinawa”

earned an ASC Outstanding

Achievement Award, as well

as an EMMY® nomination. His

credits include two fi lms in the

Fast and Furious franchise, as

well as Deep Blue Sea and The

Patriot, among others.

In shooting The Pacifi c,

Windon was focused on

honesty and believability,

down to the beads of sweat

on a malaria-stricken soldier’s

face. This time around,

Windon is back in war mode,

and while G.I. Joe: Retaliation

leaves a bit more room for

dramatization and even

playfulness, the early talks

with director Jon M. Chu and

producers Herb Gains and

Lorenzo di Bonaventura were

centered around creating a

realistic look on which to base

the action and adventure.

“Jon wanted to make

everything feel as real as

possible,” says Windon. “Even

though there are extensive

visual effects in the fi lm, he

wanted the characters to

seem like people you might

come across in real life. He

wanted a very organic style

with nothing forced or too

clean and polished. We

talked about making it fun,

without distracting from our


G.I. Joe: Retaliation was Chu’s

fi rst foray into the action genre,

after successes like The League

of Extraordinary Dancers and

Justin Bieber: Never Say Never.

HBO initially suggested that

fi lm was the right origination

medium for G.I. Joe: Retaliation,

but left the decision up the

fi lmmakers. Windon and Chu

were all for it.

“Film just seemed right,”

Windon explains. “Jon was

very pro-fi lm. For the time,

the look we wanted, and

the texture, it was the right


Windon shot in the Super

35 format to achieve a wide

2.40:1 aspect ratio. For most

shots, he used PANAVISION

cameras and PRIMO lenses,

although for overcranked,

slow-motion shots he used

an ARRI 435. He also made

extensive use of the small

ARRI 235 camera.

“I like to use the 235 at

hip level, and it’s just great

at that,” he says. “I used that

technique quite a bit on The

Pacifi c, with a little monitor

onboard and no eyepiece. It’s

literally ‘shoot from the hip.’”

That was in keeping

with the shooting style

that evolved, which prized

continuous movement. “We

just kept driving into things

and getting whisked along,”

Windon describes. “The

fi lm takes place in different

countries with different

governments, events and

strategies. That was the fun

thing for me — there were so

many distinctive looks in the

fi lm. It’s quite a journey.”

Almost the entire movie,

aside from some mountain

shots photographed in British

Columbia, was done in

Louisiana. Windon estimates

that 85 percent of the fi lm was

produced on sets, many of

which were built at a hulking

former NASA facility east

of New Orleans called the

Michoud Assembly Facility.

“I’ve never seen buildings

as big as these,” remarks

Windon. “We were fi lming

in these massive chambers,

if you like, and they became

our sound stages. One of

them looked so good that

we ended up using it as a set

itself, a place where huge

missiles are being made. It

was fun to light.”

These big spaces required

plenty of lighting fi repower.

The production used an

abundance of 20Ks and large

Fresnel units. Dinos and

Maxis were used to create

strong beams of light coming

in windows.

Another sequence done

at Michoud depicts a Tokyo

rooftop. Windon shot with a

360-degree TransLite. The

nearby Greenwood Plantation

stood in for the U.S.

President’s vacation home.

Fort Pike was the location for

a climactic confrontation in

Act III. A corner of City Park

in New Orleans was used

as a nighttime entryway

into an underground lab.

There, Windon played with a

mixture of sodium vapor and

tungsten light.

He says that the KODAK

Film stocks — mostly KODAK

“The 5219 is my favorite stock. I love grading it, and

seeing all the details it captures. I love big, hot practical

lights and overexposure, and contrasting that with dark

areas in the frame. And you can’t break that stock. It’s

really cool. It loves all the color.”

VISION3 500T Color Negative

Film 5219 in that situation

— handled the mixed color

temperatures well. “The

(52)19 is my favorite stock. I

love grading it, and seeing all

the details it captures. I love

big, hot practical lights and

overexposure, and contrasting

that with dark areas in the

frame. And you can’t break

that stock. It’s really cool. It

loves all the color.”

Windon and Chu leaned

toward a cyan-to-cool color

palette for the majority of the

movie. The front-end lab was

Cineworks in New Orleans.

“There was a cyan-ish base in

the dark areas and the blacks,”

notes Windon. “We kept that

in mind with the lighting and

also with the color timing

at Company 3 with Stefan

Sonnenfeld. That was fun.”

Lenses were generally

medium-wide, with the 27mm

and 21mm getting heavy

use. “That opened up the

background, and Jon really

loved that,” says Windon. “He

had not worked with the wide,

2.40 frame before, and he

really embraced it.”

Windon also made use of

a daylight-balanced stock,


Negative Film 5203. Prior to G.I.

Joe, his predilection in daylight

situations was for shooting

tungsten-balanced stock

without a correction fi lter and

adjusting in color correction.

He says the result can be an

appealingly gritty look. “But

for this fi lm, I wanted really

fi ne grain, and that really clean

crispness, especially for the

beautiful sequences that take

place in the Himalayas. I’ve

used it on commercials, but

this was the fi rst time I’ve shot

a feature with it. I really liked it,

and Jon loved it.”

One amazing sequence

shows a number of ninja

fi ghters hanging off the side

of a Himalayan mountain,

fi ghting each other while

swinging and swooping from

their mountain-climbing ropes.

The sequences required weeks

of rehearsal. The scenes were

shot on the big stages against

a green screen background.

It was the most technically

complex sequence of the

80-day shoot.

“Normally, I would prefer

to shoot something like that

outside and really fi ght with

Mother Nature because that’s

what you’d have to do in a real

environment,” says Windon.

“And that’s the way I prefer to

do daytime greenscreen. But

because we were shooting in

New Orleans, there’s always

the chance of hurricanes and

bad weather, so we decided to

do it indoors. I can’t remember

the number of 24Ks we had

in this set, but there were

many. The shots were so big

that I was using a Russian arm

on a pursuit camera car as

the dolly. That was the most

technically challenging part of

the project.”

Since he wrapped G.I.

Joe: Retaliation, Windon has

moved on to Fast and Furious

6 with director Justin Lin —

also originating on 35 mm


Photos – Left page, top Left: Dwayne

Johnson plays Roadblock in G.I. JOE:

RETALIATION, from Paramount Pictures,

MGM, and Skydance Productions. Center:

Windon (far right) on the set This page top:

Johnson (left) and Bruce Willis as Colton

(center) Bottom: Left to right: Ray Park

plays Snake Eyes and Elodie Yung plays

Jinx (Photos: Jaimie Trueblood © 2013

Paramount Pictures. All Rights Reserved.

Hasbro and its logo, G.I. JOE and all related

characters are Trademarks of Hasbro and

used with permission. All Rights Reserved.)

This Ain’t California is a unique movie that straddles the

line between documentary and narrative fi lmmaking. The

project depicts the skateboard subculture in East Germany

in the 1980s, which is presented as a manifestation of a

yearning for freedom. In the fi lm, skaters from the era — now

approaching middle age — look back on that time wistfully.

They saw skateboarding as a rebellious act, and a way of

doing something completely nonproductive, just for fun, in a

politicized society where such actions were not only frowned

upon but actively repressed, and in extreme cases, could land

you in prison.

One skater in particular is recalled by all as a catalyst for

the scene. Identifi ed at a young age as a gifted athlete, he

is put into the East German training pipeline by a driven,

competitive father, and by age 13 he is training 35 hours a

week as a swimmer. Eventually he rebels, drops out, takes the

street name Panik, and becomes a superlative skater who is

constantly provoking confrontations with authority.

The kids are put under surveillance by the Stasi, and the

government, after fi rst decrying the sport as decadent and

Western. The skaters from the East make contact with their

opposite numbers on the other side of the Iron Curtain,

and travel to Prague for a major competition that includes

legendary skaters from the West. Their journey home is

bittersweet, as they realize the full extent of the repression

they’ve been living under. At the same time, East Berlin is


The story is told with a combination of actual home movies

— the kids loved their Super 8 cameras almost as much as

their homemade skateboards — archival footage, and new

footage designed to mimic the older images shot by the kids.

The kids loved their Super 8

cameras almost as much as

their homemade skateboards.

The Super 8mm imagery is often blurry, with colors that bloom

and smear. The result is an impressionistic fi lm that conjures a

feeling of memory, an idyllic past that is simultaneously tinged

with regret and lost innocence.

This Ain’t California won the top documentary prize at the

2012 Warsaw Film Festival, and at the Berlin International Film

Festival the fi lm was honored with the Dialog en perspective

prize, which honors fi lms that foster international dialog.

The jury cited the fi lm’s “visual strength and the stylistic

confi dence of its editing. With gripping dynamics, it mixes

personal history with the collective memory of the German

Democratic Republic (GDR). We’ve rarely been so splendidly


Cinematographer Felix Leiburg and director Marten Persiel

initially looked at some digital formats, but the feeling wasn’t

right. They both made Super 8 fi lms as kids, which included

at least 20 interviews with former skaters that they used for

background and as the basis for a script.

“We could have made a normal documentary from these

interviews, but Marten had a vision for a different kind of fi lm,”

says Leiburg. “He created Panik out of three or four actual

people based on what he learned in these interviews.”

For the new footage, the fi lmmakers used skaters and

friends who were carefully dressed and made up in styles from

the 1980s. They found locations in East Berlin that echoed the

hulking concrete forms of GDR architecture.

The main cameras were two BEAULIEU 6008 Super 8

cameras. The BEAULIEU cameras could take Super 16 lenses, but

most of the time Leiburg stayed with the fi sheye 5.6mm lens that

comes standard. Two BRAUN NIZO 501s served as crash cams

that could be mounted directly on the decks of the skateboards.

The NIZO cameras were capable of overcranking and ramping at

54 frames per second. Most of the skating footage was done with

only natural light.

“It was a fun shoot,” Leiburg recalls. “It was more of a team

feeling. I became a character in the script, the kid who always

had the camera. It was an interesting experience, because

normally I’m telling people what to do, but here I was one of

them, reacting with what they did. To get convincing footage

that felt like home movies, I had to forget all my experience and

studies and become an amateur again.”

Leiburg shot 300 rolls of Super 8mm fi lm. About half was

KODAK VISION3 500T Color Negative Film 7219, and the rest

was on KODAK VISION3 200T Color Negative Film 7213. Leiburg

chose negative because it gave him more control over contrast.

Often he was imitating the look of ORWO stocks available in

that time and place, which delivered more pastel colors and less

crispness than today’s fi lm stocks.

For scenes like the competition in Prague, Leiburg shot Super

16, often at high frame rates. A shot re-creating the fall

of the Berlin Wall used a vintage cathode

ray video camera borrowed

from a museum. For some

scenes, including a campfi re

scene where the older skaters

reunite and recall the glory

days, CANON 5Ds were used.

Typically, the skaters’ words are

a mix of actual recollections and

scripted reminiscences.

All the Super 8 footage was

transferred to HD ProRes 4:4:4

format at Screenshot in Berlin,

chosen after tests at three different

labs. “We didn’t need to do a lot of

grading,” says Leiburg. “That was

the idea. We tested HD cameras, but we found the only way to

make it really look believable and true was to actually shoot it

on Super 8. Also, that was the only way to get all the ramping

and other crazy stuff we did, like stopping the camera and

shooting again, shooting with — and then without — correction.

We would open the door and close it while fi lming. We tried

to make as many mistakes as we could. Most of the time, I

underexposed two or even three stops. Sometimes, I found

out that I could underexpose fi ve or six stops, and even then

it looked great. I really loved that experience, and the chance

to do everything wrong. It was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.”

Leiburg adds that sometimes the method that delivers

maximum resolution is not what is right for a given story.

“Super 8 doesn’t show a lot of detail, so it’s very forgiving.

What you see with your eyes and the footage are completely

different worlds. When the fi rst footage came back, we drank

a few beers and watched it. We were so relieved that our

strategy worked out.”

This Ain’t California has garnered positive notice at dozens of

fi lm festivals around the world, including the Plus Camerimage

International Festival of the Art of Cinematography in Poland,

and the Cannes Independent Film Festival, where it was named

best documentary.

Photos – Left page: Skateboarding in

the ‘80s (©Harald Schmitt). This page

bottom left: Skateboarding was seen

as a rebellious act in East Gemany.

(©Wildfremd Production GmbHD.)

Middle: Felix Leiburg and Marten Persiel

on the set (© Wildfremd Production

GmbHD). Right: Scene from This Ain’t


(© Harald Schmitt.)

Kees Van Oostrum, ASC got an interesting call recently

from producer Richard Middleton, whose credits include The

Artist and Hitchcock. “Richard and I go way back, and he often

calls me when he has something unusual or challenging,” says

Van Oostrum. The EMMY®-nominated cinematographer has

compiled more than 70 narrative credits, including Gods and

Generals, Return to Lonesome Dove, and the forthcoming Civil

War-set feature Copperhead.

Middleton told Van Oostrum about an interview project for

Serious Jibber-Jabber with Conan O’Brien, a non-comedic chat

show on O’Brien’s website. The interview subject was to be the

GRAMMY-winning musician/producer Jack White.

White, who is well known as a connoisseur and collector of

things analog, makes his music recordings using tape and tube

technologies, insisting that the resulting sound is warmer, less

harsh, and fuller. White had agreed to the interview on one

condition: that it be done on fi lm.

Normally the Jibber-Jabber interviews are done on a stage

with electronic cameras. The Jibber-Jabber format emphasizes

lengthy interviews with minimal interruptions.

Van Oostrum originally recommended shooting 35mm,

3-perf. “When we thought about it some more, we realized

we only need the center extraction, which actually made

2-perf an even better option. We found a system designed by

PANAVISION that used 2,000-foot mags. We thought that if

we could combine the 2,000-foot mags and the 2-perf format,

we would have 32 minutes of run time.”

PANAVISION got onboard and set up some PANAFLEX

bodies with 2-perf movements. The cameras were equipped

with 11:1 zooms. The fi lm stock was KODAK VISION3 500T

Color Negative Film 5219.

“The next thing we knew, we were shooting 2-perf with

three cameras on the stage as Conan interviewed Jack

White,” says Van Oostrum. “The interview went 110 minutes,

which we shot with two magazine changes. It worked

brilliantly. They ran quietly, which was important because it

was a pretty small room.”

Van Oostrum and Bennett

joked with O’Brien that in

100 years, this could be

the only trace left of his

television legacy.

Bill Bennett, ASC operated one of the other cameras. The

third camera was handled by one of the shows regular camera

operators. The cameras were mounted on fi lm-style dollies

as opposed to pedestal-style dollies that are standard for

talk show production. The interview plays out against a black

background a la Charlie Rose.

Van Oostrum and Bennett joked with O’Brien that in 100

years, this could be the only trace left of his television legacy.

It was a reference, of course, to fi lm’s archival stability, and

digital’s short shelf life, both in terms of storage instability and

format obsolescence.

FotoKem did a simple color correction under Van Oostrum’s

eye, and extracted the 16x9 image from the 2.4:1 2-perf frame.

“We emulated their normal look in terms of the black,” says

Van Oostrum. “It looked identical, except it was fi lm, so it was

much gentler and not so sharp and harsh as video.”

The wide-ranging interview covers White’s early musical

endeavors, and the effects of a Catholic upbringing and a

background in upholstery on his work.

O’Brien was reportedly enthusiastic. “At fi rst, it looked

daunting, and we needed to work out the issues in terms of

mag length and run time,” says Van Oostrum. “But in the end,

it was absolutely smooth, and everyone was excited about the


See the entire interview at http://teamcoco.com/video/


Photo: Jack White and Conan O’Brien. Photo credit: Will Becton/Team Coco

Set against the backdrop of India’s breathtaking landscape of

mountains, rivers, valleys and forests, Ballad of Rustom is a story

about seemingly ordinary people who are in fact quite extraordinary.

Rustom is a young, imaginative man working in a small

government telephone offi ce in a remote township in India. On

the surface, Rustom leads a mundane life fi xing telephone lines,

but on his adventures he travels into his dream world in the

beautiful and magical countryside that is slowly disappearing as

the town is eroded by development.

“This fi lm does not rely on the usual storytelling devices,”

explains director Ajita Suchitra Veera. “Rather it works on a very

different psychological plane. It’s traditional cinema, but where

the narrative is pushed to the background and what’s important

is the cinematic experience created through the characters’

states of minds.”

Ballad of Rustom was shot entirely on 35mm KODAK Film

in the CinemaScope format. Veera and cinematographer

Shanti Bhushan Roy shot over six months, allowing them to

capture the transition of seasons in natural light. Locations

included Southern India’s exquisite coffee countryside with their

undulating landscape of blue hills and dense vegetation.

The fi lm contains different episodes of

Rustom’s journeys, which alternate between

his real and imaginary worlds. Veera worked

diligently to utilize the desaturated colors

of the landscape, the dialogues between

different characters, and the constant

presence of nature to tell the story.

“Ballad of Rustom draws attention to

those ideas and confl icts that are very

much part of our lives and our existence

in the contemporary world, and which

connect us to an uncertain future as we

become more and more disconnected from nature with the

disappearance of our natural worlds,” says Veera.

Thus, the director chose to shoot Ballad of Rustom on fi lm

stock — not only for its aesthetic, but for what it represents.

“KODAK [Film] has always given me great choices as a visual

artist,” offers Veera. “I’m a photographer myself and I love playing

with images, light, color, contrast and texture, to bring an idea — a

story — to life cinematically. Film emulsion is very important

in expressing moods, feelings and ideas without saying much.

Complexity in a scene and characters’ states of minds can be visually

communicated with contrast and light, and emulsion is crucial in this

respect. KODAK Films give me that freedom and latitude.”

Roy explains that with the KODAK VISION3 250D Color

Negative Film 5207 and KODAK VISION3 500T Color Negative

Film 5219 stocks they could shoot with minimal lights and

extend daytime scenes. They ended up shooting a lot of magic

hours — early morning shots and many interiors where they

could not have used artifi cial lighting to gain the authenticity

both he and Veera were trying to achieve.

“We went for push-processing and a bleach bypass to increase

the grain, and to get rich, charcoal blacks and washed out colors,”

says Roy, explaining that they wanted to defi ne the landscape in the

fi lm as a character of its own. “This was only possible because of

Kodak’s ability to handle both under-exposure and over-exposure,

and still maintain the details in these areas.”

The bleach bypass was a very strong

aesthetic choice for Veera. She had

previously experimented with it on her

graduate thesis fi lm in 2004, and was keen

on a high contrast, desaturated look for

Ballad of Rustom. In fact, Veera reveals that

the imagery of the story came to her much

ahead of the narrative storyline.

“I often have images playing in my

mind that later are defi ned by a storyline,”

says Veera. “I was particular about this

desaturated color palette with a heightened

sense of monochrome to create the surreal atmosphere of

Rustom’s dream world — of technology, nature and his own

subconscious — and also to subtly blend the reality and dream

sections in the fi lm, since it constantly moves between the stark

reality of Rustom’s everyday life and his dream world.”

The cinematographer under-exposed the entire fi lm by three

stops and pushed the stock by two stops with bleach bypass on

the entire negative to attain their specifi c look.

“The 500T and 250D really helped to fi nd the image quality

we had in mind, since both have a layered grain structure which

makes it possible to extract details even with fi ve to seven

stops of underexposure,” explains Roy. “We knew the structure

of Kodak motion picture emulsion and its ability to produce

true colors and tones would allow us to manipulate the image

accordingly to suit the story.”

Photos – Top: A scene from Ballad of Rustom Right: Cinematographer Shanti Bhushan Roy

Middle: Director Ajita Suchitra Veera (Photos courtesy of IMAGINEM CINEMA Pvt Ltd India)

New Mobile Aspect

Ratio App Available

on iTunes®

A new Aspect Ratio app is now available

as part of the KODAK Cinema Tools

application. This suite of apps from Kodak

can be downloaded for free from iTunes.

The Aspect Ratio App lets fi lmmakers

see how different aspect ratios affect a

shot. The app allows you to select a photo

from your device and overlay it with 2-perf,

3-perf, 4-perf and 16mm motion picture

fi lm formats and popular aspect ratios.

The KODAK Cinema Tools App also


Lab Locator: Find a lab or transfer

house while on the go! Using a current

location and selecting the service

needed, the Lab Locator tool will fi nd

a service provider nearby and provide

contact information as well as a map.

Sun Calculator: Helps fi lmmakers take

the guesswork out of capturing sunrise

and sunset scenes.

Film Calculator: Information can be

entered into fi elds where data is known:

format, length, run time and frame rate.

The app then calculates and supplies

the other variables. Film length can be

measured in feet or meters.

Depth of Field Calculator: Assists

fi lmmakers in determining the settings

they need to get the focus they want. The

app is designed to be used with any fi lm

format, including Super 8, 16, 35 and 65

mm. F-stops range from F1.4 – F22, with

1/3 stops included.

InCamera: Our mobile-friendly

magazine. Read about fi lm productions

around the world.

Film Products: Lets fi lmmakers

view product descriptions, technical

information, sample footage, and

provides ordering details.

Glossary of Motion Picture Terms:

Search and view defi nitions for hundreds

of fi lmmaking terms.

How To Read A Film Can: All the letters

and numbers on a fi lm can are explained

in full detail on this interactive label.

Guides & References: Kodak

proudly offers its most popular

publications in mobile-friendly

formats, including The Essential

Reference Guide for Filmmakers

and Cinematographer’s Field


Contact a Sales Rep: Whether

it’s a quick question or help with

a current or future production,

fi lmmakers can get in touch with

a Kodak representative online.

Director Michael Haussman

and cinematographer

Paolo Roberto Caimi have

collaborated on a collection

of commercials for the Italian

jeweler and luxury goods

retailer BVLGARI. Their latest

effort is a black-and-white

spot that takes place in Rome.

The audience follows a young,

beautiful couple spending

a romantic weekend in the

eternal city.

“When Michael called me

to explain the storyline of the

commercial, I was pleased to

hear that the fi nal result would

be in black and white,” says

Caimi. “We chose to shoot on

fi lm stock because we wanted

the look to be very classical,

and everlasting like Rome.”

Caimi explains they decided

to shoot in color to have a

wider choice of stocks, and

given their schedule, they

needed to take advantage

of every single minute of

the daylight. They chose


Negative Film 5219 for the

speed and the latitude, and


Negative Film 5207 for the

fi ne grain and balance needed

for exteriors and daylight


“While I was shooting, I

was aware of the fact that

the fi lm would eventually

be transferred in black and

white,” notes Caimi, “but

I felt more comfortable

knowing that my negative was

balanced in terms of color


Panalight in Rome provided

an ARRI 435 Xtreme and

a set of COOKE S3 lenses

that Caimi describes as

“perfect” to reproduce a

black-and-white look that was

contemporary and classic at

the same time.

A STEADICAM captured

the perspective for audiences,

and takes the viewers on

an intimate tour of Rome.

Instead of visiting the city’s

hallmark sites, they visit

small cafes and hotels, and

the trip ends with a BVLGARI

engagement ring.

“Every shot for the

commercial was with either

a STEADICAM or on a

dolly,” Caimi says. “We

didn’t want anything to be

static, but for our couple

to be constantly moving

through time and places.

“Elegance was really our

mandate for this spot, and

everything needed to fall into

a place of style and class,

which made fi lm the perfect

choice,” he adds.

Photos – Top: Paolo Roberto Caimi.

Bottom: Caimi and his crew. (Photos courtesy

of Paolo Roberto Caimi)

Road to London is a visual

poem that highlights the

lyrical beauty of high-level

gymnastics, and the fi erce

dedication required of an

OLYMPIC athlete. Goksu

Uctas started learning

gymnastics at age 5, and at

age 6, she moved to a city in

western Turkey to continue.

She spent years training twice

a day, and endured a series of

injuries, including a dislocated

elbow and a painful neck

hernia. Not to be deterred,

Uctas persevered and became

the fi rst athlete in history to

represent Turkey in the fi eld

of artistic gymnastics at the

OLYMPICS. She competed at

the 2012 OLYMPIC Games in

London. Despite her heroic

story, she is not especially

well known in her country.

Director Efe Oztezdogan

enlisted cinematographer

Meryem Yavuz to help

document Uctas’s training

regimen. Yavuz studied at the

Turkish National Film School,

and has shot several features

and more than 50 short fi lms

over the past seven years. She

has also worked as a loader

and electrician on bigger

international co-productions.

“I prefer to shoot fi lm

when possible,” says Yavuz.

“Film was defi nitely the right

medium for Road to London.

Also, the fi lm postproduction

path is well established

in Turkey, whereas

digital workfl ows are less


To prepare for Road to

London, the fi lmmakers

studied iconic sports

documentaries like

director Kon Ichikawa’s

Tokyo Olympiad (1965).

They planned their project

carefully, because Uctas

could not perform limitless

takes. They spent a generous

amount of time getting to

know the athlete.

“You can feel her aura

when you enter the room,”

says producer Cem

Doruk. “She has

a strong will.

We didn’t change anything

about her actual training,

except the background.”

More than 1,000 square

yards of black cloth were hung

around the training to isolate

Uctas against black as she

performed her routines on the

uneven parallel bars and other

equipment at the gym. Each

shot and angle was planned

out ahead of time to minimize

wasted takes.

Yavuz shot with two ARRI

435 cameras loaded with


Color Negative Film 5219, and

equipped with MASTER PRIME

lenses. Once the decision was

made to render black-andwhite

images, Yavuz felt free

to light with daylight-balanced

light — usually a single 6K

lamp, perfectly placed —

which rendered a subtly

different quality of light that

she preferred over light from a

tungsten lamp.

Slow motion was also a key

aspect of the cinematography.

The over-cranked images slow

the gymnast’s movements and

emphasize her grace, power

and beauty. One camera

was usually running at 25

frames per second, a rate

that works well with the post

infrastructure in Turkey. The

second camera was mounted

on a JIMMY JIB, a small crane,

and ran at 150 frames per

second. About 30 100-foot

rolls of fi lm were exposed.

After a 2K transfer, the

color was drained from the

images digitally. Film prints

and DCPs were made.

Representatives of one of

the largest theater chains

in Turkey saw the fi lm and

were suffi ciently impressed

to show it before the main

feature in their theaters

all across Turkey. Road to

London was also screened at

the 2012 Plus Camerimage

International Festival of the

Art of Cinematography in a

special category devoted to

documentaries on sports,

gaining the fi lmmakers

positive notice and

international exposure.

“We plan to make more

fi lms about amateur athletes,”

says Doruk. “We hope to make

longer fi lms that examine the

personalities of the athletes.“

Photos – Courtesy of Cem Doruk

Actor. Writer. Director. Producer. There isn’t much that Timothy Van

Patten can’t do. After getting his start in front of the camera on The

White Shadow (1978), Van Patten went on to appear in a number of

fi lms and television shows, including The Master and True Blue.

In 1992, the Brooklyn native earned his fi rst off-screen credit for

directing an episode of Home Fires. Since then, Van Patten has become

a fi xture of the small screen, directing hit shows like Sex and the City

and The Wire. He cut his teeth producing on Steven Spielberg and Tom

Hanks’ miniseries The Pacifi c. And his work on The Sopranos earned him

fi ve EMMY‰ nominations.

Today, Van Patten is the executive producer and oft-director of

Boardwalk Empire. Here, Van Patten talks about the Prohibition-set hit,

how to fi nd beauty in violence, and the discipline fi lm requires.

It’s almost become a cliché to talk about fi lm’s ‘cinematic’ look,

but it really seems the most appropriate way to describe Boardwalk

Empire. While there’s a consistency to the look, it also changes

with each episode. How do you work with your cinematographer to

match the story to the visuals?

In the best case scenario, we do have conversations before every

episode begins. And this dates back to the fi rst episode, when

Jonathan Freeman (ASC) was our lead DP. We shaped the series

through referencing art, photography and other fi lms. As the episodes

went on, we tried to attach a look to the theme of the episode — and

yet stay within the overall theme for the series.

Television moves fast, so it’s challenging. You don’t always have the

luxury of time to fi nd the subtle nuances. But we really make our best

attempt to do so and it’s thrilling when it comes off.





From a visual standpoint, the show’s recent season fi nale really

stood out. There’s a lot of violence in the episode but, like Raging

Bull, the violence is beautiful to watch. Was there a specifi c

reference for that episode?

Yes. That episode was shot by Bill Coleman, who came up as an

operator; I worked with him on The Sopranos for many seasons. He’s been

a DP for two seasons now and the level of work he’s doing is astounding.

We had a very quick turnaround for that episode and had to think

fast. So when it came to the montage of violence, I thought, I’m going

to throw the kitchen sink at this thing! It’s going to be Sam Fuller,

Sam Peckinpah and Walter Hill; I’m going to reference Raoul Walsh’s

old gangster pictures of the ‘30s and, of course, we always reference

Marty Scorsese’s movies. I wanted to really make it cinematic.

There was a ton of work to do in a short amount of time, so a lot of

those montage pieces were shot from the hip. We’d literally say, ‘Get

me fi ve bad guys, get me this character, let’s go over to this alley and

have them go by in two cars and spray bullets … at magic hour!’ The

crew reacts so quickly and so effi ciently that we can pull it together,

and fi lm’s latitude allows us all to work speedily.

Why is it important for you to shoot Boardwalk Empire on fi lm?

I feel like Boardwalk Empire is sort of a throwback in the way it is

presented. With digital, it sometimes feels like there’s too much

information on the screen. With fi lm, we can control the image much

more. It just feels much more personal.

What’s the biggest misconception about shooting on fi lm?

I think it boils down to the budget. Digital is faster and cheaper and

that’s not always a good thing. We can move around quickly and do

multiple takes and never cut, but that has its downside as well. There’s a

lot of discipline in fi lm.

Why is it important for you to know the images you create will be

viable decades from now?

It’s cultural. You look back at fi lms. It’s history!

As much as audiences might hate it, it’s always impressive when a

show isn’t afraid to kill off a central character. Even in a show that takes

place in a world of violence, is it diffi cult to make those decisions?

We fall in love with these cast members, but the story wants what

it wants, and we can’t just hold on to an actor because we like him or

her. Sometimes it’s necessary to kill one off. We just go with the story.

Of all the characters you’ve ever killed off, who has been the toughest?

Adriana on The Sopranos. The day we did that, it was absolutely

reverential. No one could deal with the fact that our beloved friend —

and a beloved character — wasn’t going to be there anymore.

Anything you can tell us about Boardwalk’s upcoming season?

There’s going to be a heavy body count!

Photos – Top: Timothy Van Patten (L) discusses a scene with Shea Whigham (R). Lower right: Kelly

Macdonald and Steve Buscemi star in Boardwalk Empire. (All photos: Macall B. Polay / HBO)

InCamera is published by Eastman Kodak Company. To see our expanded online edition, go to www.kodak.com/go/incamera. To be

featured in the magazine, please contact your local representative. You will fi nd your Kodak representative contact information at


© Kodak, 2013. KODAK, EASTMAN, VISION, VISION2, VISION3, and the fi lm numbers are trademarks. OSCAR is a trademark of the

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. EMMY is a trademark of, and copyrighted by, the National Academy and American Academy

of Television Arts and Sciences. Imax is a registered trademark of the Imax Corporation.

The opinions expressed by individuals quoted in articles in InCamera do not necessarily represent those of Kodak Limited, Eastman Kodak

Company or the editors of InCamera. Because of our constant endeavour to improve quality and design, modifi cations may be made to

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