A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an ... - Index of


A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an ... - Index of


Prcscntcb to

She ^tbrarg

of the

Pntbersttg of Toronto

Mrs. T. E. Knowlton

|V A N E w and General'




An Hlftorical and Critical Account

o F T H E



Moft Eminent Perfons

In every Nation;

Particularly the B r i t i s h and I r i s h j

From the Earlieft Accounts of Time to the prefent Period,


Th^ir remarkable Actions or Sufferin orell

their Virtues, Parts, and Learning, are

accurately difplayed ; with a Catalogue cf their

Literary Productions. ^^^ .-^s



f «>

-- " 2."- '•^-


Printed for T. Osborne, J. Whiston and B. White,

W.Strahan, T.Payne, W.Owen, W.Johnston,

S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Field, T. Durham,

J^RopsoN, R. GoADBY, and E. Baker,



Univerfal, Hiftorical, and Literary




(Jacobus), in French, James le Fevre, a

very little man, fays Bayle, and of mean extra6tion,Dii

but a great genius, fupported by a great deal of learn-

ing, was born at Etaples in Picardy, about the year

1440; and was one of thofe, who began to expel the barbarifm,

which reigned in the univerfity of Paris. He be-^

tired from Paris to Meaux ; where the bifliop was Wii^am

Briconnet, a lover of the fciences and men of true learning.

The perfecution raifed by the Francifcans Jt Meaux

obliging the bifliop, againft his inclination, to bf a good

Catholic ; Faber was forced to retire to Blols, and from

thence to Guicnne. Margaret, queen of Navarre, fifter to

Francis I. honoured him with her prote£iion ; fo that he enjoyed

full liberty at Nerac till his death, which happened in

1537, when he was little fhort of a hundred years old.

He was one of thofe, who, like Erafmus, though they

did not outwardly depart from the church of Rome, and dis-

approved in fome meafure the conduct of thofe, who eftabliftied

the Reformation in Germany, yet at the bottom were

very indifferent Papifts. He took a journey to Strafburg, by

the queen of Nnvarre's. order, to confer with Bucer and Capito,

concerning the reformation of the church. He pub-

VpL,;V, B liflie*^.

2 F A B E R.

Hflied, (o early as the year 15 12, a tranflation of St. PauKs

Epiftles, with critical notes and a commentary, wherein he

frequently cenfures the Vulgate. He publiflied, in the year

1522, the like notes and commentary upon the other parts

of the New Teftament. Natalis Bedda, a divine of Paris,

cenfured his divinity as well as that of Erafmus : and the Inquifitors

of Rome under Clement Vlll. put his commentary

o.> the whole New Teftament, in the catalogue of prohibit-

ed books, till it fhould be corrected and purged from its

errors. Father Simon has pafTed a judgment on this work

of Faber's, which he concludes with obferving, that *< Crit Hift

tes Com-'


" ought to be placed among the moft able commentators of

" the age. But Erafmus, who wrote at the fame time, and

" ^'^^^ infinitely more politenefs, greatly lefTened his repu-

" tation. The works of Faber are no longer read at Paris,

mcnr. du «« whereas thofe of Erafmus are highly eiteemed even at

^- '^ • *' this day."

His natural moderation left him, when he wrote againfl

, him

his friend Erafmus, and the quarrel did not end at all to his

advantage. Faber was angry at Erafmus for no other rea-

fon, but becaufe he had not adopted all his opinions as to

certain pafTages of fcripture, when he publiflied his notes on

the New Teftament. He rudely attacked him, and accufed

of having advanced impious notions. Erafmus defended

himfelf ; and when he had faid what was fufficlent for

that purpofe, begged of his adverfary the continuance of his

i.'endfliip, afluring him, that he had always loved and efl:eem»

edvim. The letter he wrote him on this occafion, is dated

April 1517; the very year that Luther began to preach.

Erafmus was very fincere in his profeffions to Faber ; and accordingly,

was much difpleafed with the compliments,

which he received from his friends on his viftory, defirlng

them at the fame time not to change their opinion of Faber,

on account of this quarrel. What Erafmus wrote on this

head to Tonftal, the Enalifh embafTador at Paris, in the

year 15 17, does fo much honour both to himfelf and Faber,

that it is but right to tranfcribe it. Quae fcribis de noflra ad

Fabrum Apologia, &:c, that is, " l^'hat you write concern-*

*' ing my anfwer to Faber, though I know you wrote it with

" a moft friendly intention, yet gave me uneafinefs on a

*' double account : becaufe it revives my paft grief, and be-

*' caufe you feem on this occafion, to fpeak with lefs efteem

" than 1 could wifh of Faber; a man, who for integrity and

*' humanity has fcarcely his equal among thoufands. In this

*' fingle inftance only, has he aded unlke himfelf: in at-

" 3


F A B E R. ^

*' tacking a friend, who deferved not fuch ufage, In (b Vio-

*« lent a manner. But what man was ever wife at all times ?

" And I wi(h I could have fpared my adverfary : but now I

'« am afflicted for two reafons ; both becaufe I am conftrain-Eraf

*' ed to engage with fuch a friend, and becaufe I perceive,^P^^

** fome to think lefs candidly of Faber, for whom it is my *

*' earneft defire, that all fhould entertain the utmoft efteem /*

Can there, fays Mr. Bayle, be more heroic fentiments than^pi^

thefe ? They had their efFed on Faber, who repented of his ^

attack, and made no reply.

Some very Angular things are related of Faber's laft hours,

which it may not be improper juft to mention. Margaret

of Navarre was very fond of Faber, and vifited him often.

He and fome other learned men, whofe converfation greatly

pleafed the queen, dined with her one day j when, in the

midft of the entertainment, Faber began to weep. The

queen afking the reafon of it, he anfwered. That the enormity

of his fins threw him into grief : not that he had ever

been guilty of debaucheries, or the like, but he reckoned it

a very great crime, that having known the truth, and taught

it to feveral perfons who had fealed it with their blood, he had

had the weaknefs to keep himfelf in a place of refuge, far

from thrf countries where crowns of martyrdom were

diftributed. The queen, who was very eloquent, comforted

him; yet, going to bed, he was found dead a few hoursr"^

after. Mr. Bayle fays, it is hard to doubt the truth of this;

ftory, and hard not to doubt of it : and canvafTes the poin^'

It is probably one of thofe flrange ftories, which confift ^r a

mixture of truth and falfhood.

FABER (NicoLAus), a very ingenious, leaijied, and

pious man, was born at Paris upon the 2d of June i544;Dupin Hift.

and liberally educated by his mother, his father dying while ^^^^^'

he was an infant. During the courfe of his fludies, a terri-

ble accident happened to him,. As he was cutting a pen, a

bit of the quill flew into his eye, and gave him fuch excef-

five pain, that haftily lifting up his hand to it, he ftruek it

out with his knife. Having finifhed his ftudy of the lan-

guages, he was fent to ftudy the civil law at Tholoufe, and '

Padua, and Bolonia. He did not come back, till he had tra«

veiled through Italy 5 and he refided eighteen months in Rome^

about the year 1571, where he cultivated a friendfhip with

Sigonius, Muretus, and other learned men. He there got

his tafle for antiquity, and brought away with him many

curiofities,, Upon his- retwrn to Frances he applied himfeff

B 2 whc^y





F A B E R.

wholly to letters, and would hear no mention of marrrag(?.

His mother and brother dying in the year 1 581, he lived with

Peter Pithaeus, with whom he was very intimate ; and having

nothing to do but ftudy, he employed himfelf in reading

the works of the ancients, in corre(Sting them by the manu-

Icripts, of which he had a great number in his own library,

and in writing notes upon them. He laboured particularly

on Seneca, whom he publilhed in the year 1587, with a

learned preface and notes. He applied himfelf alfo, to ftudies

of a different kind, to the Mathematics paticularly ; which

he fucceeded in fo well, that he difcovered immediately the

defe£t in Scaliger's demonftration of the Quadrature of the

.Circle. When Henry the IVth of France, became at length

the peaceable poireilbr of the crown, he appointed Nicolaus

Faber, or Nicholas le Fevre, preceptor to the prince of

Conde. During this important truft, he found time to labour

upon fome confiderable works ; and compofed that fine

preface to the fragments of Hilary, in which he difcovered fo

many important tads, relating to the hiftory of Arianifm,

not known before. After the death of Henry IV. he was

chofen by the queen, preceptor to Lewis XIII. He died

upon the 3d of November, 1611.

Though he laboured intenfely all his life, he was one of

thofe learned men, who are not ambitious of the chara£^er

"*'., of author, but content with ftudying for themfelves and their

V friends. He applied himfelf in his youth to the reading of

\he Belles Lettres and Hiftory, which he never neglected.

CV;;il Law, Philofophy, and Morality, were afterwards his

occupation : and at the latter. part of life, he fpent his time

chiefly among Ecclefiaftical Antiquities. As he kept up a

correfpoij'dence with all the learned men of Europe, fo when

he heara of any perfon, about to publifti an author, or to

compofe a work of his own, he took care to aflift him with

manufcripts, and to furnifh him with memoirs, but without

fuffering any mention to be made of his name, though his

injun£lions upon this point were not always obferved. His

own works, which were but few, were colle£led after his

death, by John le Begue his friend, and printed at Paris in

the year 161 4, in one fmall volume in quarto. They confift

of pieces in Latin and French,

Nicholas le Fevre, fays Baillet, " is the model of a truly

Jugcmens ^j chriftian critic. He knew {o perfectly well hovir to join

des Savans. . , . .-itr "i 1 1 r

" Virtue to learnmg, which before were thought to be lome-

« what inconfiftent with each other, that he rendered the for-

" mer amiable to all the learned, an4 the latter to all the

** virtuous.

F A B E R.


the boy conceived fuch a terror of him, that his father could

not perfuade him to purfue his ftudies, till he took him home,

and put him under another preceptor. But this preceptor

was ignorant of the Greek language ; which Faber, being

convinced of the neceffity of underftanding as well as the

Latin, acquired intirely by his own application. Afterwards

he was fent to the college of la Fleche, where he went

through a courfe of Rhetoric and Philofophy. The Jefuits

ufed their utmoft eflbrts to detain him, but in vain : for he

returned to his father at Caen, who advifed him to take or-

ders, as the readiell: way for his advancement, but with as

little fuccefs.

Having continued fome years in Normandy, he went to

Paris ; where, by his parts, his learning and his addrefs, he

gained the friendfhip of perfons of the highefl diftin6lion.

Monfieurdc Noyers recommended him to cardinal de Riche-

lieu, who fettled on him a penfion of 2000 livres, to infpedl:

all the works printed at the Louvre. The cardinal defigned

to have made him principal of the college, which he "Was about

to ere6\ atRiciielieu, and to fettle on him farther a conilderable

ftipend for that purpofe: but the cardinal died, and

Mazarine who fucceeded him, not giving the fame encouragement

to learning, the Louvre-prefs became almoft ufelefs,

./and Faber's penfion was very ill paid. His hopes being thus

lit an end, he quitted his employment ; yet continued fome

^s^ars at Paris, purfuing his ftudies, and publifhing from time

to^vme various works, of which an account {hail be given

imim^iiately. Some years after, he became a profeflbr in

the univQtfity of Saumur ; which place he accepted, preferably

to thT, profeflbrfhip of Greek at Nimeguen, to which he

was invltet at the fame time. His great merit and character,

foon drew to him from all parts of the kingdom, and

even from foreign countries, numbers of fcholars, many of

whom boarded at his houfe. He had afterwards a conteft

with the univerfity and confiftory of Saumur, on account of

his having aflerted in one of his works, that '* he could par-

*« don Sappho's palTion for thofe of her own fex, fmce it had

*' infpircd her with fo beautiful an ode upon that fubje£^.*'

Upon this difpute he wculd have refigned his place, if he

could have procured one elfewhere: and at laft, in 1672, he

was invited upon very advantageous terms to the univerfity of

Heidelberg. He was preparing to remove thither, but was

feized with a fever, which proi'ed fatal to him in eleven days.

He died on the I2th of September 1672, aged fifty-feven

years. He kii a Ion of his own name, author of a frnal!


F A B E R.

tTa£t De futilltate Poetices, printed at Amfterdam 1697, in

3 2mo. who was a minifter in Holland, and afterwards fpent

many years in London, and in 1697 went to Paris, where he

embraced the romifti religion; and two daughters, one of

whom was the celebrated madam Dacier, and the other married

to Paul Bauldri, profeflbr at Utrecht. Monfieur Huet,

bifhop of Avranches, tells us, that '^ he had almof! per-Dcmonft.

*' fuaded Faber to reconcile himfelf to the church of Rome,"^^^'^g^^'

from which it feems he had formerly deferted, " and that hecom^mentar,

*' fignified to him his refolution to do fo, in a letter written de rebus ad

••« a few months before his death, which prevented him from^""^ p"^'"

** executing his deiign. Ub. iy.

Faber was agreeable in his perfon, and his flature was above

the common ftandard ; but he was a little flifF in his

behaviour. He was good-natured, but fomewhat blunt in

his converfaticyi. He had an averfion to a lie, and could not

bear great talkers. He had one fingularity, for fuch it may

be called in a man, who had broken off almoft all converfa-

tion, for the fake of applying himfelf more clofely to his

ftudies : he was always very' elegant in his drefs, and fo expenfive

with regard to this, that he is faid to have fent con-

flantly to England for whole boxes of gloves, filk-ftockings,

&c. and to Paris, and even to^Rome, for all forts of efTences,

perfumes, and powders. He was a man of vaft fire, and

fubje6l to fudden ftarts of paflion in his family, which hov^> ,x^

ever were foon over. His books, his chldren, and his gat--

den, in which he cultivated all kinds of flowers himfelf, wf^re

his ordinary diverfions. He eat and flept little. His cly.?'acter,

literary as well as religious, is thus given in {^rt by

monfieur Voltaire. *' He was," fays that agreeayreauthor,^f -^

" aCalvinift, a profeflTor at Saumur, defpifed tfofe of theLewisXIV,

*' fe£l, though he always continued among them. He was vol.".

" rather a philofopher than a Hugonot. He wrote Latin as

" correctly, as a dead language can be writtea ; and was the

*' author of fome Greek verfes, which very likely have had

*' but few readers. Learning is indebted to him the moft for

*' having produced madam Dacier." As to religion, there

are many circumftances in his life, and many hints dropped

in his waitings, which fhew him not to have been bigotted

to any of outward profeflion ; but for learning, with fub-

miffion to Voltaire, we think him treated with rather too

much contempt, and we imagine the reader will be of our

opinion, when he has lun over the following catalogue of

his woiks*

B 4



p. 67.


He publifiied, i. Luciani de mortc Peregrini libellus.

Cum notis. Paris 1653, 4to. He thought this treatife the

beft of all Lucian*s pieces ; and having a defign to publifh an

edition of all that writer's works, which however he never

executed, he put out this by way of fpecimen. In his notes

Can.ii. upon one place, he obferves, that Lucian had introduced

there many things againfl Chrift, which had been caftrated

by the too great zeal and piety of our anceftors. 2. Diatribe,

Flavii Jofephi de Jefu Chrillo teflimonium fuppofitum efle.

Saimur. 1655. 8vo. At the clofe of this difTertation, after

obviating the cenfures which he fuppofed the orthodox would

pafs upon feveral things advanced in the courfe of his argument,

he owns, that " he was greatly averle to that gloomy

*' and timorous kind of religion, fo commonly approved of j

*' but that no perfon could fliew, that he had ever in the

" leafl departed from true and genuine religion. I entertain,

** continues he, no ideas of the Deity which are low and mean,

*' and deprefs him to our bodily fervices : on the contrary,

*' I am fully perfuaded, that thofe people, who diftort their

*' eyes, and lift up their hands to heaven in the churches

*' with fo much afFe£latIon, who figh perpetually, and cry

•' Lord, Lord, cover themfelves only with a pretended piety,

*' being indeed very hypocrites So much difference, do I

*' think, there is between formal and real goodnefs, between

\^ the ftage and the church, between a theatrical a6l:or and

*' a fincere worfhipper, who, as Chrill fays in St. John,

**^^or{hippeth the Father in fpirit and in truth." Obferve,

tharche above diflertation is particularly anfwered by the

learne\!-Mr. Charles Daubuz in his treatife, entitled, De

TeftimoiVo F. Jofephi de Jefu Chriffo, libro duo. 3. Luciani

Timolj, with a Latin verfion and notes. 4. Epiftolarum


pars prima. Saimur. 16^9. 4to. Pars fecunda : cui accedunt

Ariftophanis Concionatrices, Graece & Latine cum

notis. Saimur. 1665. 4to. The authors of the Journal

des S^avans, for May 1666, have pafled a judgment upon

this work, which very much illuflratcs the temper and cha-

rad^er of the man. " All the fubje6ls here treated of, {^y

*' they, are almofl intirely critical. We fee many paffages of

" the ancients explained with much learning, ingenious con-

" jecSlures to reftore corrupted paffages, and fine remarks re-

** lating to hiffory and chronology. But it is difficult to

*' fay, whether this critical talent of monfieur le Fevre, is

*' of more advantage or prejudice to the authors of whom

*' he treats. For if he has illuftrated feveral paffages of

'* their works, he has pretended to difcover many confidtra-


*« ble

F A B E R.

** ble defe

t6 F A B E R.


under this title :

*« A Compendious way of teaching anticnf

*' and modern languages, formerly pra6tifed by the learned

*' Tanaquil Faber, in the education of one of his fons, and

of his daughter, the celebrated madam Dacier. To which

*' are added, fome trades and obfervarions on the fame fubjedt

*' by feveral eminent men, namely, Roger Afcham, Richard

*' Carew, Milton, Locke, &c. With an account of the

*' education of the Dauphin, by BolTuet bifliop of Meaux."

13. Fabulae ex Locmanis Arabico Latinis verfibus redditae,

1673. i2mo.

He publiftied notes upon feveral Greek and Latin authors

of antiquity : upon, 14. Dionyfius Longinus. 1663. l2mo.

Thefe notes are faid to have been his favourite work ; and

he intended to have enlarged them, but did not. Boileau,

in the preface to his tranflation of Longinus, tells us, that

*' Faber's fliort notes upon that author were of great ufe to

" him." 15. Phaedrus, cum notis & verfione Gallica.

1664. i2mo. 16. Lucretius. 1662. 4to. the fecond edition,

to which are added, Gifanius*s life of Lucretius, and

Lambinus's Index, was publiflied at Cambridge in 1686.

i2mo. It would not be juftice to Faber to omit mentioning,

that he dedicated this work to monfieur Peliflbn, when Pelif-

fon was in the Baftile. This was an effecl of his gratitude

- r^ for Peliflbn had given him a penfion of an hundred crowns,

^ which was paid him by Menage, becaufe Peliflbn had a mind

to be concealed. It was paid for four years, till the impri—

"^ment of that gentleman : and then the penfion ceaflng,

thV.donor was discovered. 17. JElhn, 18. Eutropius, and

'A.Vf^or. 19. Juftin. 20. Terentius. At the end of the

notes \^on this author, is fubjoined a tranflation of Bion

Smyrna'js's lamentatio Veneris ad Adonim in Latin verfe.

21. Horatius. 22. Apollodorus. 23. Virgilius. 24. Plinii

Panegyricus. 25. Dionyflus de fitu Orbis. 26. Anacreon-

tis et Sapphonis Carmina. The Latin notes in this edition,

have been joined to the French tranflation of thefe poems by

madam Dacier, in the Amfl:erdam edition of 1716, in 8vo,

Lafl:ly, he was concerned with Paul Colomiez, in publi(h-

ing the Scaligerana, which is called Prima, to diftinguifh it

from another, which was printed before, though in reality

made after, it.

Voltaire, as we have obferved above, has fpoken with

fome contempt of our author. Bochart fl:iles him a man

*' admirably fkilied in Greek and Latin learning, and of un-

ti. iS. " common fagacity and penetration." ToUius tells us, that

he was a perfon " cf great wit and pleafantry, and wonder-


** fully


** fully pollfhed by all the elegance of Greek and Roman ^o'*"'^

*' literature." Guy Patin, in a letter dated Paris, Sept.^' 3*°'

^i, 1666, gives him the charafter of an excellent perfon,

and calls him one of the moft learned men of his age. Mor-Lettres &c.

hofF fays, that he was " very learned, a good philologer,

" well (killed in the Greek language, of an acute but rather

*' too enterprifing a genius : who from his own imagination,

*« without the help of manufcripts, made prodigious altera-

*' tions in writers ; for which rafhnefs, however, he has fre-

" quently been cenfurA, &c." P'ather Niceron obferves,PoIylu(l.

that *' his Latin ftile is fine and delicate, without any

" points or afFedation ; that he had likewife a good genius

*' for Greek and Latin poetry ; and that his verles are wor-

** thy of the better ages. His French flile, fays he, has not

'* the graces of his Latin. He knew well enough the rules

** of our language ; but he did not throughly underftand the

•' genius of it. As he lived in the Province, that is, almoft

" out of the world, he wrote more by fludy than cuftom

" and he has not always obferved the French turn and idiom.

" Befides, he fpoiled his flile by a vicious afFe(3ation, endea-

'* vouring to mix the ferious of Balzac, with the humour

'* and pleafantry of Voiture. Notwithflanding thefe de-

" fe(fts, what he has written in our language will ftill pleafe :

" and if his tranflations have not all the elegance poffibla,j^c.-. 'reg,

*' theyfupport themfclves by their accuracy, and the learned ^fc.

" remarks which accompany them." Nicholas Heinfius re-j^,^^. j^^

prefents him as a man of learning and genius, but very opl'- Ovid, t!e

nionated : and our William Baxter hardly allows hi^ toAneAmaahave

had any thing in him worth commending. yS^LKter^^^'^^^^'

feems, indeed, to have conceived a particular pre'jpdice a-

gainft him : for, in the dedication of his edition of '^Anacreon,

printed at London in 1695, he ftiles him Futilis Gallus

and affirms that Faber, in his notes on that author, every

where trifles, and with all his felf-conceit and vanity, has

(hewn himfdf abfolutely unfit for that tafk. In the 24th

note, page the 13th, he fays, Nugatur etiam Tanaquillus

Faber, utfolet: and in the 40th note, page the I9th5 he

calls him Criticafler Gallus.

FABIAN (Robert), author of the Chronicle of England

and France, or, as he himfelf calls it, " The Con-

** cordaunce of Stories," was born in London in the 15th

century. He was brought up to trade, and became fo con-

siderable a merchant, that he was chofen one of the aldermen

of that city: and in the year 1493, ^^^ '^^ honour of

being one of the {herifFs of the fame, He was a perfon of




learning for the times he lived in ; had fo-nefkill In poctry>

both in Englifh, Latin and French ; but applied himfelf

chiefly to the ftudy of hiftory, and compiled out of feveral

authors a chronicle, which was printed after his deceafe.

He died at London in the beginning of the year 15 12, and

was buried in the church of St. Michael, Cornhill. Stow,

, in his furvey of London, has preferved fome verfes, which

were formerly upon his monument.

His Chronicle was firft printed at London in the year 1 5 1 6 ;

and afterwards in the year 1533, ^" ^"^^ll but neat black

types, and on a good paper. It is divided into two volumes

folio ; the firfl: of which begins at Brute, and ends at the

death of our.Henry If. and Philip II. king of France. The

fecond volume^ which is the moft valuable of the two, con-

tains the Chronicles of England and of France, from the

beginning of the reign of king Richard L to the end of the

reign of Charles IX. of France; that is, to the year 1504^

the 2oth of king Henry Vll. and it appears by the conclu-

lion, that it was finifhed by the author November the 7th,

1504. As for the work. Stow calls it, "a painful labour.

Survey, &c.^' to the great honour of the city, and of the whole realm.**

i. V. 126. Hq is very particular upon the affairs of London ; feveral

things relating to the government thereof being noted by

him, which are not to be met with clfewhere.—We are told,

tor'es*&H^^^' t^^^ cardinal Wolfey caufed as many copies of this book as

tannine cent, he could comc at to be burnt, becaufe the author had made

8vo.N0.62. j.^Q clear a difcovcry of the large revenues of the clergy.


F A B R E T T I.

found time to read the ancients, and apply himfelf to polite

literature. He returned to Rome with cardinal Charles Bonclli,

who had been nuncio in Spain ; and from his domeftic

became his moft intimate friend. He was at Rome appointed

judge of the appeals to the Capitol j which poft he

afterwards quilted for that of auditor of the legation of Ur-

bino, under the cardinal legate Charles Cerri. His refidence

in his own country gave him an opportunity of fettling bis

private affairs, which iTad been greatly difordered during his

abfence. He continued there three years, which appeared

very long to him, becaufe his inclination to ftudy and antiquities

made him wifh to fettle at Rome, where he might

eafily gratify his utmolf defires in that way. He readily ac-

cepted therefore the invitation of cardinal Corpegna, the

pope's vicar, who employed him in drawing up the apoftolical

briefs, and other difpatches belonging to his office, and

gave him the infpe6lion of the reliques found at Rome and

the ports adjacent. Alexander the Vllf. whom Fabretti had

ferved as auditor when cardinal, made him fecretary of the

memorials, when he was advanced to the pontificate ; and

had fo great a value and afFecflion for him, that he would cer-

tainly have raifed him to higher dignities-, if he had lived a

little longer.

Upon the death of Alexander, Fabretti retired from bullnefs,

and devoted himfelf intirely to his favorite amufement.

He went to fearch antiquities in the country about Rome,

without any other companion than his horfe, and without

any regard to the heat or inclemency of the weather. As he

always made ufe of the fame horfe, his friends gave tto animal,

by way of jeft , the name of Marco Polo, tby^mous

traveller; and faid, that this horfe ufed to difcov'jrr antient

monuments by the fmell, and to ftop of himfelf inrirnediately,

when became to any ruins of an old building. Fabretti was

fo well pleafed with the name given to his horfe, that he ufed

it to write a letter to one of his friends in an ironical flrain,

yet full of learning, upon the ftudy of antiquity : but this

letter was never printed. Pope Innocent the Xllth, obliged

him to quit his retirement, and made him keeper of the ar-

chives of the callle of St. Angelo : a poft, which is never

given but to men of the moft approved integrity, fmce he,

who enjoys that place, is malfer of all the fecrets of the

pope's temporal eftate. All thefe different employments

never interrupted his rcfearches into antiquity ; and he col-

lected enough to adorn hh paternal houfe at Urbino, as well

:as that which he had built at Rome, after the death of Alexander

the Vlllth. Old age, likewife, could not divert him



14 F A B R E T T I.

5ee his do- from his ftudies, nor hinder him from labouring at the ediml'n?co'Rit'

'^°" of his works, which he printed at his own houfe. He

viera in died on the 7th of January, 1700, in the 80th year of his

Vite Degii

^Lge, He was a member of the academy of the Afforditi at

torn! i!* Urbino, and the Arcadi at Rome.

He was the author of the following works: i. De Aquis^

& Aquse-duflibus Veteris Rom^ Differtationes tres. Romae,

1680, in 4to. His defign is to explain every thing, which

^°d M*"^


relates to thefe kinds of antiquities ; and his book may ferve

to give great light to Frontinus, who has treated of the aqueducts

of Rome, as they were in his time under the emperor

Trajan. Kufter in his Bibliotheca librorum novorum, pub-

Jiflied under the name of L. Neocorus, tells us, that thefe

diflertations of Fabretti contain many excellent obfervations,

and a folid confutation of various miftakes, which had been

made by learned men. They have been inferted in the fourth

volume of Grjevius's Thefaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum,

printed at Utrecht in 1697. 2- -^^ Columna Trajana Syntagma.

Acceflerunt explicatio Veteris Tabell^ Anaglyphae

Homeri Iliadem, atque ex Stefichoro, Archino, et Lafche

Ilii excidium continentis, et emlflarii lacus Fucini defcriptio.

Romae, 1683. in folio. 3. Jafithei ad Gronovium Apologema,

in ejufque Titivilitia, five de I'ito Livio fomnia,

animadverfiones. Neapol. 1686. In 4to. This work is an

^^ anfwer to James Gronovius's Refponfio ad Cavillationes R*

Fabretti, printed at Leyden, 1685. in 8vo. Fabretti had

given occafion to this difpute, by cenfuring: in his book, De

aquis et aquaB-du6tibus, fome corrections of Gronovius ; and

by tLat means drawn upon him an adverfary, who treated him,

as hett^i every body eife, with very little ceremony. Fabretti

reMied to him here, under the name Jafitheus, and

treated hkn with as little; though the point was of no importance

at all, turning only upon mere queftions of grammar.

4. infcriptionum Antiquarum, quae in aedibus pater-

nis afiervantur, explicatio et additamentum. Romae, 1699.

in folio. Our author had an admirable talent in decyphering

the moft difficult infcriptions, and difcovered a method of

making fomething out of thofe which feemed intirely dif-

iigured through age, and the letters of which were effaced

in fuch a manner, as not to be difcernible. He cleaned the

iurface of the ftone, without touching thofe places, where

the letters had been engraven. He then laid upon it a piece

of thick paper well moiftened, and prefled it with a fpunge,

or wooden pin covered with linen : by which means the paper

entered into the cavity of the letters, and, taking up the duft


F A B R I C I U S. ^5

there, difcovered the traces of the letters, which had been formerly

engraven there. Monfieur Baudelot, in his book De

1* Utilite des Voyages, informs us of a fecret very like this, in

order to read upon medals thofe letters, which are difficult to

be decyphered. 5. " A Letter to the abbe Nicaife," containing

an iiifcription remarkable for the elegance of its ftile, in-

fertcd in the Journal des^avansof December, 1691.

Fabretti difcovers in his writings a lively genius, a clear

and €afy conception, and a great deal of learning.

FABRICIUS ZUSCINUS (Caius), a Roman gene-

ral, remarkable for his honefty and frugality, as well as for

his courage, of all which qualities he gave feveral proofs, du-g^ j^,

ring the war with Pyrrhus. He lived upon herbs, which heoidt.

cultivated and gathered himfelf. All the plate he had was

a filver cup and falt-feller, nor would he iufFer thr generals

to have more. Pyrrhus hearing he was very poor, offered

him money by his embafladors, declaring that he fhould ex-


%6 F A B R 1 C I U S.

was.in danger. Rufinus thanked him for his intereft, to whom

Fabricius faid, " You have no great reafon ; it is bedaufc

*' 1 had rather be plundered than fold :" nihil ei{ quod mihi

gratias agas, inquit, fi malui compilari, quam vx-nire.- He

died fo poor, that they were obliged to marry his daughter

at the expence of the public. In honour of his great virtues,

they broke through the law of the twelve tables, by which it

was prohibited to bury any perfon in the city.

FABRICIUS (Jerome), a celebrated Italian phyfician,

ufually called Aquapendente from the place of his na-

tivity, was in high fame about the end of the fixteenth cen-

tury. He laid the foundation of his future acquiiitions at

Padua, where he made himfelf mafter of the Latin and Greek

tongues, and went through a courfe of philofophy. Then

he applied himfelf to the fludy of phyfic, under the famous

Gabriel Fallopius ; and made a wonderful progrefs by the

dire6tions of fo excellent a mafter. He applied himfelf principally

to Chirurgery and Anatomy, which he profefled with

high reputation at Padua for forty years. Contrary to the

fpirit, which animates the generality of his order, fame, and

not intereft, is faid to have been his principal point in view.

He had many good qualities of the heart, as well as great ones

of the head, which procured him numerous friends ; from

whom he fhould feem to have received prefents, inftead of

fees : for the cabinet, which he fet apart for the reception of

thefe prefents, had this remarkable infcription on it, Lucri

negledli lucrum, that is, "The lucre of negleded lucre.'*

Theyrepublic of Venice fettled upon him a yearly revenue of

a tho6^d crowns in gold, and honoured him with a ftatue

and a g(i»fl chain. He died about the year 1603, leaving behind

hiik feveral treatifes in both Phyfic and Chirurgery,

whofe titles and merit are too well known, to be particularly

dwelt upon here.

FABRICIUS (George), a learned German, and celebrated

for his talent at Latin poetry, was born at Chemnitz



in Mifnia, a

April, 1516.

province in Upper Saxony, on the 24th of

After a liberal education, he had an opportu-

vitis philof. nity of going to Italy and vifiting Rome, in quality of tutor

to a young nobleman ; where he fpent his time in a manner

fuitable to his parts and learning. He did not content himfelf

with barely looking on, and blindly admiring ; but he examined

with great accuracy and minutenefs all the remains of

antiquity, and compared them with the defcriptions, which


F A B R I C I U S. 17

the La,tin writers have ^iven of them. The refult of thefe

obfervations was his work, intltled, Roma, containing a

defcriptipn of that city. From Rome he vifited feveral parts of

Italy, and at lalT: fettled atMTfenum; where he was perfu^ded

to take upon him the care and management of a great fchool,

over which he prefided to the day of his death, which happened

upon the i^ch of July, 1571. He was the author of

a great number of Latin poems, and he had the ftrongefl

paflion for verfe, that can be conceived. His Sacred Poems g^jiiet

in five and twenty books, appeared at Bale in two volumes Jugcirena

8vo. 1567: and befides this great collection, there are alfo'^"^^^'^"'*

Hymns of his. Odes againft the Turks, the Art of Poetry,

Comparifons of the Latin Poets, &c.

His poems are written with great purity and elegance ;


he is remarkable for being (hort, yet not obfcure. He was

particularly careful in the choice of his words ; and he carried

his fcruples in this refpe6t fo far, that he would not on

any account make ufe of a word in his Sacred Poems, which

favoured the leaft of Paganifm, He condemned fome liberties

of this fort, which he had taken in his youth ; and he

exceedingly blamed thofe Chriftians, who applied themfclves

for matter to the divinities of ParnafTus, and the fables of

the antients. Befides the above-mentioned performances ia

verfe, he was the author of fome works in profe. The

RoMA has been mentioned already. He wrote alfo, fevea

books of the Annals of Mifnia, three of the Annals of Meiffen,

and Travels, His Roma has been greatly admired by

fome, by Barthius in particular : and there is this fingularity

in it, that he has fo adapted to his defcriptions, the la^^age

of the Latin writers, who have defcribed the fdmf.jtkAnd of

things, as to make fome Germans fancy it an antijjnt work.

We are not fure however, that this is in favor of tlie work,

but rather againft it; fmce we think, he might fometimes be

tempted to deviate from the truth of defcription, for the fake

of adopting ancient language,

FABRICIUS (Vincent), a man eminent for his wit

and learning, and for the civil employments with which hepavle'«

was honoured, was born at Hamburgh in the year i6i3.Di^,

He was a good poet, an able phyfician, a great orator, and

a learned civilian. He gained the efteem of all the learned

men in Holland, while he fludied at Leyden ; and they liked

his Latin poems fo well, that they advifed him to print them.

He was for fome time counfellor to the bifliop of Lubec, and

afterwards fyndic of the city of Dantzic, This city alfo

Voi. V. C honoured „

F A B R I C I U S.

honoured him with the dignity of hurgomafter, and fent

him thirteen times deputy into Poland, He died at

Warfaw, during the diet of the kingdom, upon the nth of

April, 1637, aged fifty- four years. The firft edition of his

poems in 1632, was upon the encouragement of Daniel

Heinfius, at whofe houfe he lodged. He publifhed a fecond

in 1638, with corredions and add tions : to which he added

a fatire in profe, entitled Pranfus Paratus, which he dedi-

cated to Salmafius ; and in which are foundly ridiculed the

poets, who fpend their time in making anagrams, or fmutty

verfes, as alfo tho^e who afFc£l to defpife poets. He was the

author alfo of a Latin poem, in which is told at large, the

following remarkable Itory of a Dutch maid-fervant. She

had been (hut up, it feems, in a garden, on account of three

large carbuncles, which had been obferved upon her, during

the plague in the year 1636. She thought of nothing hot

certain death, when a young man, who was vehemently in

love with her, adminirtered no other remedy to her, but the

moft ardent embraces he was capable of; and as he perceived

them to be of fome effect:, he continued, in order to apply

the remedy oftener, to go and lie every night with this infe6ted

maid. She recovered her health intirely, nor did he

contract the leaft diitemper from her. This is the flory :

on which Mr. Bayle obferves, that " if love gives wit to the

** moft ftupid, it alfo infpires the moft cowardly with courage

** and boldnefs ; for, fays he, in all likelihood this maid's

*' lover would have run away like a hare, had he met a foot-

*' man infected with the plague : but becaufe he was in love,

*' ^fJ ;had a favourable opportunity to fatisfy his paffion, he

*' venti^-ed to expofe himfelf to the greateft danger."

The Vioft complete edition of P'abricius's poems, was pub-

hftied at Lelpfic in the year 1685, under the direction of his

fon Frederic Fabricius ; for befides the poems printed in the

former editions, it contains feveral new ones. It contains

alfo Orations of our author, made to the kings of Poland;

an Oration fpoke at Leyden in the year 1632, concerning, the

fiege and deliverance of that city; and the Medical Thefes,

which were the fubjeft of his public difputations at Leyden,

in the year 1 634 ; &c.

FABRICIUS (John Albert), one of the moft learned

and laborious men of his age, was born at Leiplic on the

iith of November, in the year 1668. Having loft his parents,

when he was not more than ten or eleven years of

age, he was fent by thofe that had the care of him, to ftudy

• at

F A B R I C I U S. 19

at Quddlimburg ; where, vve-Are told, he was inf^ired with

an incredible ardor for Jetter-s, by the accidental reading of

Barthius's Adverfaria. Upon his return from Lelpfic, in the

year 1686, he applied himfelf very attentively to the reading

of ancient authors, facred as well as profane. He went to

Hamburg in the year 1693, where John Frederic Mayer,

offered him apartments in his houfe, and the care of his library.

He accepted the offer, and fpent five years with Mr.

Mayer in a very agreeable manner, dividing his time betwixt

preaching and ftudy. He was chofen profeffor of eloquence

in this city, in the room of Vincent Placcius, who died in

the year 1699; and was made dodlor in divinity at Kiel.

In the year 1719, the landgrave of Hefle CafTel offered him ^4

the firft profefforfliip of divinity at Gieffen, and the place of JH^H^

fuperintendaht over the churches of the Augfburg confeflion ;

which offer Fabricius was very ready to accept. But the

magiftrates of Hamburg augmented his falary very confider-

ably, for the fake of keeping him there ; and of this he ever

after retained fo grateful a fenfe, that ro offers of preferment

could tempt him to leave them. He died at Haniburg upon

the 3d of April, 1736, after a life fpent in the fevereft

application : for it is almoft incredible what labours he underwent,

in order to benefit, as he did in an eminent de-

gree, the republic of letters.

Among a great number of works, thefe following are the

principal and moft ufeful : i. Bibliotheca Latina, five No-

titia Audtorum Veterum Latinorum, quorumcunque fcripta

ad nos pervenerunt. This work was afterwards enlarged ;

and the beft edition of it is that in two volumes, 4^i«^ 2.

Bibliotheca Grasca, five Notitia Scriptorum Vetervljn Graecorum,

quorumcunque Monumcnta integra aut fulgmenta

edita extant : turn plerorumque ex Manufcriptis ac Deperditis.

This work confifls of fourteen volumes in 4to. and

gives an exad account of the Greek authors, their different

editions, and of all thofe, who have commented, or avritten

notes upon them. Thefe two works may be faid t(jfet forth

a very compleat hiftory of Greek and Latin learning. 3.

Codex Apocryphus Novi Teftamenti, colledlus, caftigatus,

cenfuris et animadvcrfionibus illuitratus. The beft edition is

in three volumes 8vo. and printed at Hamburg, in 17 19.

4. Bibliographia Antiquaria, five Introduftio in Notitiam

Scriptorum, qui Antiquitates Hebraicas, Graecas, Romanas,

et Chriftianas fcriptis iliuflraverunt. The beft edition is that

of Hamburg and Leipfic, in 17 16. 410. 5. Deledus Argumentorum

et fyllabus Scriptorum, qui veritatem Religionis

C 2 Chfiftianse


io F A B R O T.

Chriftianae adverfus Atheos, Epicureos, Deiftas feu Natura-

Jiftas, Idololatras, Judaeos et Mohammedanos lucubratioiii-

bus fuis afl'eruerunt. Hamburg, 1725. 410. This performance,

very valuable in itielf, is yet more fo, on account of

the Proemium and flrft chapters of Eufebius's Demonitratio

Evangclica, which are wanting in all the editions of that

work, and were fuppofed to be lofl; but which are here recovered

by Fabricius, and prefixed to the Delectus, with a

Xatin tranflation by himfelf. 6. Salutaris Lux Evangelii,

toti orbi per Divlnam Gratiam exoriens ; five Notitia Hiftorico-Chronologica,

Literaria, et Geographica, propagatorum

per orbem totum Chriftianoruni Sacrorum Dclineata. Ham-

burg, 1 731. 4to. This work is very curious and interefting

to the hiftorian, as well as divine. It contains fome

Epiftles of the apoftate emperor Julian, never before pub-


By thcfe, and many other works of a fmaller nature, Fa-

bricius has laid the whole learned world under the greateft

obligations ; fmce he has contributed more, perhaps, than any

other man ever did, to abridge and (horten the fatigue and

drudgery, which fcholars are obliged to undergo, in order to

be acquainted wiih the materials of their profeflion.

FABROT (Charles Hannibal), a very celebrated-

French lawyer, was born at Aix in Provence, in the year

1580. His fkill in the civil and canon law, and alfo in the

Belles Lettres, procured him many friends ; and he became

advocate, docSlor, and profefibr of law, at Aix ; where he

coi!^ued to the year 1017, and then went to Paris, at the

folllci\|ion of the prefident du Vair. After the death of this

prefideltt, he returned to Aix j but went again to Paris in the

year 1637, and was detained there by the chancellor Sequier,

Avho fettled on him a confiderable penfion, by way of encouraging

him to compleat an edition of the Bafilicae, or

Conflitutions of the Eaflern Emperors. This work he exe-

cuted tcir the approbation of all, and publifhed it in 1647, in

feven volumes folio. He added a Latin tranflation of his

own to the Greek original, and illuftrated the whole with

notes. Two years after he publiflied Cedrenus, Nicetas,

Anatlafius Bibliothecarius, Conftaniine Manafles and Glycas,

in two volumes folio ; all which he illuftrated with cu-

rious notes, and differtations of his own. In the year 1652,

he began to revife the works of Cujacius, writing notes upon

him, and adding fome tra

F A E ]^ N U S. 121 i

v/hich we have in ten volumes folio, was finifhed by him in

the year 1656 : and his too great application to this tafk,

threw him into a diftemper, which put an end to his life the

year after. Eefides the works above-mentioned, he publifh-

cd notes upon fome part of the Theodofian Code, in the

year 1618. He likewife wrote a treaiife againfl Salmafiu.^

upon fome cafes in the civil law, entitled, Replicatio adver- ^

fus Claudii Salmafii Replicationem, Sec. Juftellus and Vocl, i

who publifhed their liibliotheca Juris Canonic! in the year I

166 1 , inferted in their fecond volume a collection of Ecclefi- ;^

aftical Conftitutions of Theodorus Balfamon, which they


found in Fabrot's ftudy, with learned notes of his own.

FA £RN US (Gabriel), a native of Crfmona in Italy, ;

was a very excellent Latin poet and critic, and flourifhcd in \

the fixteenth century. He was Co fkilled in every thing re-

lating to polite literature, that the cardinal de Medicis, after- I

wards pope Pius IV. was particularly fond of him. He was i

the author of fome Latin Elegies, a hundred Latin Fable? ;

fele6ted from the ancients, and written in Iambic verfe; and j

of fcvcral things in the way of criticifm, "as, Cenfura Emen- 1

dationem Livianarum, De Metris Comicis, &c. He was


remarkably fkilled in decyphering manufcripts, and reftoring

antient authors to their purity. He took great pains with i

Terence, in particular i and the celebrated Dr. Bentley

thought his notes upon that fine author (o important, that he ^

has given them intire in his edition of him. He died at

Rome upon the 17th of November, 1561, as Thuanus re-Hift. ad

Jatesj who wrote his eloge, and fays, that the Icarri^^^^^orldann. 1561,

was greatly obliged to him, yet had been more {o.jjff inftead J

of flippreffing, he had been content with imitating/the Fables J

of Phaedrus. If we believe Thuanus, Faernus dealt very ;

unfairly with the public in regard to Phaedrus, who was t|jen \

unknown ; having a manufcript of that author, which he ]

concealed from the world, for fear of lefTening the value of ;

the Latin fables, he had made in imitation of i^'fop, if it

Ihould be known that fuch an author as Phaedrus was in be- 1

ing. Mr. Perrauit however, who publiflied a tranilation of ';

Faernus's fables into PVench verfe at Paris, in the year 1699, ]

has defended his author from Thuanus's imputation. His

words in the preface are, as follow : " Faernus has been

'' called a fecond Phaedrus, by reafon of the excellent ftile of

" his fables, though he never faw Phaedrus, who did not

*' come to our knov/ledge, till above thirty years after his \

" death; forPithoeus, having found that manufcript in the j

4t C 3

dull ,j




2% F A G I U S.

• ^'

*^ dufl: of an old library, publifhed it in the beginning of

*V this century. Thuanus, who makes a very honourable

'' mention of our author in his hiftory, pretends, thatPhae-

'* drus was not unknown to him ; and even blames him for

*' having fitpprefled that author, to conceal what he had

'• ftolen from him. But there is no ground for what he fays ;

** and it is only the efFeft of the ftrong perfuafion of all

*' thofe, who are fo great admirers of antiquity, as to think

" that a modern author can do nothing that is excellent, un-

*' lefs he has an ancient author for his model. Out of the

" hundred fables which Faernus publifhed in Latin verfe,


there are but five that have been treated on by Phsedrus;

and out of thofe five, there is but one or two

" that have been treated on almoft in the fame man-

^* ner: which happened only, becaufe it is impofTible that

'' two men, who treat on the fame fubjedi, (hould

f not agree fometimes in the fame thoughts, or in the

*' fame expreiTipns."

M^lchlor FAGIUS (Paul), alias Buchlin, a learned proteflant

Arfam. minifter, was born at Rheinzabern in Germany, in the year

1504, and laid the foundation of his learning in that town.

He was fent to Heidelberg at eleven years of age, and at

eighteen to Strafburg ; where not been properly fupported,

by reafon of his parents narrow circumflanccs, he had recourfe

to teaching others, in order to find himfelf books and

; , and

neceflaries. 7'he fludy of the Hebrew growing into vogue in

Germany, Fagius applied himfelf to it ; and by the help of

EliasSsi^^ita, a learned Jew, became a great proficient in it.

In the ye^r 1527, he took upon him the care of a fchool at

Ifna ; wnVtre he married a wife, and begat children. After-

wards quitting the fchoolmafler, he entered into the miniflry,

became a zealous and fedulous preacher. Petrus Buffle-

jTus, one of the fenators of Ifna, being informed of his per-

fect knowledge in the holy tongue, and of a natural biafs

ivhich he had to the arts, eredled a printing-houfe at his own

coft ar;d charge, to the end that Fagius might publifh,

whatever he ihould deem ufeful to religion in that way :

but the event did not anfwer the charges Bufflerus had

been at. *

In the year 1^41, the plague began to fpread at Ifna;

when Fagius underf^anding, that the wealthieft of the inhabitants^

were about to leave the place, without having

any regard" to the poorer fort, rebuked them openly, and

admoniflied them of their duty ; that they fbould either con-

•' ' •''' ^: ''--:



tinue in the town, or liberally bcftow their alms before they

went, for the relief of thofe they left behind ; adding that^

during the time of their vifitation, he would himfeif in perfon

vifit thofe that were fick, would adminifter fpiritual comfort

to them, pray for them, and be prefentwith them day and

night: all which he did, and yet cfcaped thediftemper. At the

fame feafon the plague was hot in Stralburg, and among many

others took off Wolfangus Capito ; upon which Fagius was

called by the fenate to fucceed him ; and here he continued

preaching, till the beginning of the German wars. Then

Fredericus Secundus, the prince elector Palatine, intending a

reformation in his churches, called Fagius from Sirafburg to

Heidelberg, and made him the public profefibr there : but the

emperor prevailing againft the eledtor, the reformation was

put a flop to. During his refidence here, he published many

books for the promotion of Hebrew learning j which were

greatly approved by Bucer and others.

His father dying in the year 1548, and the perfecution in

Germany threatening pains and penalties to all, who did not

profefs the dodrine of the church of Rome, he and Bucer

came over to England, upon receiving letters from arch-

bifliop Cranmer, in which they had aflurances of a kind re-

ception and a handfome ftipend, if they would continue here.

They arrived in the year 1549; were entertained for fomc

days in the palace at Lambeth ; and were deftined to rcfide at

Cambridge, where they were to perfect a new tranflation and

illuflration of the fcriptures, Fagius taking the Old Teftament,

and Bucer the New, for their feveral parts. But this

was all put an end to, by the fudden illnefs and death of both

thefe profefTors. Fagius fell ill at London of ^^uartan

fever, but would be removed to Cambridge, upon^tprefump-

tion of receiving benefit from the change of air. He died

thereupon the 13th of November, 1550 j and Bucer did

not live above a year after. Both their bodies were du^up

and burnt in the reign of queen Mary. Fagius wrote a great

number of books.

FAIRFAX (Edward), an Englifh poet, of whom

Jefs mention feems to have been made by biographers, than

he deferved. He flourifhed in the reigns of queen Elizabeth

and king James L and dedicated a tranflation of Taflb

to the former. He was natural fon of fir Thomas Fairfax,

and natural brother of that fir Thomas Fairfax, who was

created baron of Cameron. Hisyounger brother was knighted,

and flain at the memorable fiege of Oflend

C 4

in 1 60 1 , of



24 F A I T H O R N.

Mufe'filiti-a.^IiJch p]ace he was fometime governor. When he married*

^if> ?' 343' Qj. jj^ what circumftances he lived, is not on record : but it

is very probable, that his father fupported hirti in a manner

fuitable to his own quality, he being always ftiled Edward

Fairfax, efq; of Newhall in Fuyilone, in the foreft of

Knarefborough. The year, in which he died, is likewife

uncertain ; and the laft account we have of him is, that he

was living in 1631. He was the author of feveral things in

the poetical way. He wrote alfo a book, intitled, '' Daemonologie/'

in which he fnews a great deal of ancient readihg

and knowledge. It is ftill in manufcript ; and, in the

beginning of it, he gives this character of himfelf. " I am

*' in religion neither a fantaftic puritan, nor fuperftitious

" papiftj but fo fettled in confcience, that I have the fure

" ground of God'.s word to warrant all I believe, and the

*' commendable ordinances of our Englifli church, to ap-

*' prove all I pra6life : in which courfe I live a faithful chrif-

lbid.p,5t4-'' '^i*^"? and an obedient fubjedl, and fo teach my family.'*

All who have mentioned Mr. Fairfax, have done him the

juftice to allow, that he was an accomplifhed genius. Mr.

Dryden introduces Spencer and Fairfax almoft on a level, as

the leading authors of their times: nay, feems to give the

preference to the latter in point of harmony, when he obferves,

that Waller owned himfelf indebted for the harmony

of his numbers to Fairfax's '' Godfrey of Bulloign."

FAITHORN (William), an ingenious Englifti pain-

ter, that flourlfhed in the feventeenth century. After the

tivii >^rs broke out, he went into the army; when being

taken prv'^C'' i" Bafuig houfe, and refufing to take the oaths

to OiiverJi he was banifhcd into France. He ftudied feveral

years under the famous painter Champagne, and arrived to

Very great perfeclion in corre^tnefs of drawing. He was alfo

a great proficient in graving, as likewife in painting; efpecially

in miniature, of which there are many fpecimens now

extant in England. He died in Black-fryars about the beginning

of king William's reign, when he was nearfeventyiive

years of age. He wrote a book, *' Upon Drawing,

*' Gfaving, and Etching," for which he was celebrated by

his friend Mr. Thomas Flatman the poet, in the following

copy of verfes

*< Should I attempt an elogy, or frame

A paper-ftru6iure to fecure thy name.


F A L L O P I U S. 25

The light'ning of one cenfure, one ftern frown,

Might quickly hazard that, and thy renown :

But this thy book prevents that fruitlefs pain.

One line fpeaks purelier thee, than my beft ftrain.

Thofe myileries, once like the fpiteful mould

Which bars the greedy Spaniard from his gold.

Thou doft unfold in every friendly page,

Kind to the prefent and fucceeding age.

That hand, whofe curious art prolongs the date

Of frail mortality, and baffles fate

With brafs and fteel,' can furely potent be

To rear a lading monument for thee.

For my part I prefer, to guard the dead,

A copper- plate beyond a (heet of lead.

So long as brafs, fo long as books endure.

So long as neat wrought pieces, thou'rt fecure,

A *' Faithorn fculpfit,'* is a charm can fave

From dull oblivion, and a gaping grave."

FALLE (Philip), a learned man, was born in the ifle

of Jerfey in 1^55, and at fourteen years of age became a

commoner of Exeter college in Oxford: from whence heathen* i

removed to St. Alban's-hall, and took both his degrees inv. ii,

arts* Afterwards he went into orders, retired to his native i

country, where he was made rector of St. Saviour's, and af-

terwards chofen deputy from the ftates of the faid ifle to their i

majefties king William and queen Mary . He publifhed three ]

fermons ; one preached at St. Hilary's in Jerfey, in April 1692, j

another at Whitehall in December, 1694, and anotKi? be-


fore the lord mayor of London, in April 1695. H§)was the \

author alfo of, *' An account of the ifle of Jerfey, the greateft

*' of thofe iflands, that are now the only remainder of the ^

" Englifh dominions in France : with a new and accurate map

*' of that ifland," Lond. 1694. 8vo. i

FALLOPIUS (Gabriel), a moft celebrated phyfician

and anatomilt of Italy, was born at Modena in the year

1523, and defcended from a noble family. He enjoyed a

flrong and vigorous conftitution, with vaft abilities of mfnd,

which he cultivated by an intenfe application to his ftudies in

Philofophy, Phyfic, Botany, and Anatomy. In this laft he

made fome new difcoveries, and, among the reft, that of

the Tubes, by which the Ova dcfcend from the Ovarium,

and which from him are called the " Fallopian Tubes."

He travelled through th-e greateft part of Europe, and pene-



25 F A N S H A W.


trated by his labour the

He pradtifed phyfic with

moft abftrufe

great fuccefs,

myfterlcs of nature.

and gained the charadter

of one of the ableft phyficians of his age. He was

made profeflbr of anatomy at Pifa in the year 1548, and at

Padua in the year 1551 : at which laft place he died upon the

9th of Odlober, 1562, aged thirty-nine years. Dr. Friend

fays, that " he was a great mafter in his profeflion ; that

*' ^^ ^'^^ ^ fcholar of BrafTavolus, and read his ledtures up-

Hift. of " on the Morbus Gallicus, about the year 1555 ; but that,

Phyfic, ic though he treats of every branch of the difeafe very ex-


'* adtly, he fays little or nothing, but what may be found in

iond. 1727." Nicolas Mafla, in his book de Gallico Morbo."

His writings, by which he very much diftinguifhed himlelf,

were firft publi (bed feparately, at the time they were writ-

ten ; and afterwards collected and printed with the title of.

Opera Genuina Omnia, tam Pradica, quam Theoretica, in

trestomos diftributa. They were printed at Venice in 1584,

and in 1606 ; and at Francfort in i6co, cum Operum Ap-

pendice, and in 1606, in folio. The firft volume contains,

I. Inftitutiones Anatomicae. 2. Obfervationes Anatomicae.

3. Obfervationes de Venis. 4. De partibus fimilaribus humani

corporis. 5. De Medicamentis Simplicibus. 6. De

materia medicinali iilibrum primum Diofcoridis. 7. De

Thermalibus aquis libri feptem. 8. De Metallis atque Fofli-

Jibus libri duo. 9; De medicamentis purgentibus fimplici-

bus. 10. Epiftola ad Mercurialem de Afparagis. The fecond

volume contains, i. De Ulceribus et eorum fpecibus :

de morbo Gallico : de ulceribus fmgularum partium. 2. De

Vuffi^tibus in Genere et Specie. 3. Commentarius in Hip-

pocratf^ Coi librum de vulneribus capitis. 4. De Cauferiis.

The third volume contains, i. De 'Fumoribus praeter Naturam.

2. Expofitio in librum Galeni de Offibus. 3. De

luxatis et fradlis oflibus. 4. Methodus confultandi, 5. De

Compofitione Medicamentorum.

When we confider the time Fallopius fpent in travelling,

and in the pradice of phyfic ; the difcoveries he made; the

number of writings he publifhed ; the value that has always

b^n put upon them ; and laftly, that he did not reach forty

years of age, we cannot help conceiving the higheft opinion

of his abilities.


'^. FANSHAW (Sir Richard), an eminent Engllfli genmil

tleman, famous forjjis embaflies and writings, defcended from


F A N S H A W. 27

an ancient family feated at Fanfhaw-gate in Derbyfliire, was

the youngeft and tenth fon of fir Henry Fanfhaw of Ware-

Park in Hertfordfhire, where it is fuppofed he was born ^^o"^ ^^° q'^^^

the year 1607. He received the firft rudiments of his educa-^jj'


tion from the famous Thomas Farnaby, afterwards com-fhortacpleated

his ftudies in the univerfity of Cambridge, and ^^om ^^ Sir


thence went to travel into foreign countries, by which means ^^^^^j"'

he became a moft accomplifhed perfon. He diftinguiflied hiswritings,

himfelf fo early by his abilities, that in 1635,^ he was taken PJ-^^^^*^^^^^^^^

into the employments of ftate by king Charles I. and^,..

then fent refident to the court of Spain ; whence being re-

called in the beginning of the troubles in 1641, he adhered

to the royal intereft, and was employed in the moft important

matters. In 1644, attending the court at Oxford, he

had the degree of doctor of the civil law conferred upon

him ; and being now grown eminent for his excellent parts

and learning, he was made fecretary to Charles prince of

Wales, whom he attended into the weftern parts of Eng-

land, and from thence into the ides of Scilly and Jerfey.

In 1648, he was* made treafurer of the navy under the

command of prince Rupert, which he managed till the year *

1650 ; when he was created a baronet by king Charles 11.

and fent envoy extraordinary to the court of Spain. Being

recalled from thence into Scotland, he ferved therein quality

of fecretary of ftate ; to the great fatisfadion of all parties,

though he never took, fays Mr. Wood, Covenant or

Engagement. From thence he attended his majefty to

Worcefter; and being taken prifoner in the battle there of

1651, he was committed to clofe cuftody in London v^here

continuing till he had contracted a very dangerous/ illnefs,

he had the liberty allowed him, upon bail given, to go any

where for the recovery of his health, provided he ftirred not

five miles from the place, without leave of the parliament.

During thefe, and other feafons of leifure, he wrote divers

poems, and made feveral tranflations, of which an, account

fhall be given below.

In February 1659, he repaired to the king at Breda, who

knighted him. the April following. Upon his majefty's^re-

ftoration, it was expected from his great fervices, and the regard

the king had for him, that he would have been made

fecretary of ftate : but at that period there were fo many

peoples merits to repay, and fo great a clamour for preferment,

that fir Richard was difappointed, but had the place of

mafter of requefts conferred upon him, a ftation in thofe

jimes of conllderable profit. On account of his being a



2» F A N S H A W.

good Latin fcholar, he was alfo made fecretary for that

tongue. In 1661, being one of the burgciTes for the uni-

verfity of Cambridge, he was fworn a privy counfellor of

Ireland ; and having, by his refidence in foreign parts, qualified

himfelf for public employment, he was fent envoy-ex-

traordinary to Portugal, with a dormant commiilion to the

embaflador, which he was to make ufe of as occafion fhould

require. Shortly after, he was appointed embailador to that

court, where he negotiated the marriage between his malier

king Charles II. and the infanta donna Catherina. He return-

ed to England towards the end of the fame year: but we are

affured by Wood, that in 1662, he was fent again embaflador

to that court ; and when he had finifhed his commifEon

to the fatisfaction of both princes, being re-called in 1663,

he was fworn one of his majcfty's privy council.

In the beginning of the year 1664, he was fent embaflador

to Philip thelVth of Spain, and arrived ihe 29th of February

at Cadiz, where he met with a very extraordinary and unexpected

falutatlon, and was received with foine circumfliances

of particular efl:cem. It appears from one of flr Richard's

letters, that this diAinguiibing rdpe6t was paid him,

not only on his own, but on his matter's account : and in another

he difcovers the fecret, why the Spaniard yielded him,

contrary to his imperious -proud nature, fo much honour;

and that is, that he^expecled Tangier and Jamaica to be reftored

to him by England, which occafioned his arrival to be

fo impatiently longed for, and fo magnificently celebrated.

During his refidence at this court king Philip died, September

tj;e. 17th, 1665, leaving his fon Charles an infant, and

his doSlinions under the regency of his queen, Mary Anne,

daughter of the emperor Ferdinand III. Sir Richard, tak-

ing the advantage of his minority, put the finifhing hand to a

peace with Spain : which was fufficiently tired and weakened

with a war of twenty-live years for the recovery of Portu-

gal, which had been difmembered from the Spanifli crown in

1640. The treaty of peace was figned at Madrid the 6th of

December 1665, and is to be feen in the fecond volume of

Arlington's letters. About the 14th of January follovt'ing,

fir "Richard took a journey into Portugal ; with a view, no

doubt, of bringing about an accomrnodation between that

crown and Spain : but this was not efFe^ied till 1667, by the

mediation of his Britannic majefty.

Sir Richard having fulfilled his commlfl!!oi, was preparing

to return to England ; when upon the 4th o" June 1666, he

was feiiied at Madrid with a violent fever, which put an end


F A N S H A W. 29

to his life the 16th of the fame month. His body being embalmed,

was conveyed by his lady, and all his children then

living, by land to Calais, and fo to London : whence being

carried to AH-Saints church in Hertford, it was depofited in

the vault of his father- in law, fir John Harrifon, till May

the 1 8th, 1671 ; and then was removed into a new vault,

made on purpofe for hirli and his family, in the parifli church

of Ware. By his lady, Anne, eldeft daughter of fir Johti

Harrifon of Balls, he had fix fons and eight daughters

whereof, only one fon and four daughters furvived him.

The author of the Ihort account of his life prefixed to his

letters fays, that *' he was remarkable for his meeknefs,

*' fincerity, humanity, and piety ; and alfo, was an able

*' ftatefman and great fcholar, being in particular, a com-

** pleat maimer of feveral modern languages, efpccially the

*' Spanifh, which he fpoke and wrote with as much aiivan-

" tage, as if he had been a native."

1 hough his life may truly be faid, to have been a life of

bufinefs, yet he found time to produce the following works

in the literary way : I. An Englilh tranflation in rhyme of

the celebrated Italian F^aftoral, called, II Pail-or Fido, or

*'- The Faithful Shepherd," written by Battifta Guarini.

Lond. 1646, 4to, and 1664. 8vo. H. A tranflation from

Engliili into Latin verte of '* The Faithful Shepherdefs," a

paftoral : written originally by John Fletcher, gent. Lond.

1658. III. In the oflavo edition of the " Faithful Shepherd,'*

are inferted the following poems of our author ; a?, i. An

Ode upon occafion of his majefty's proclamation in 1630,

commanding the gentry to refide upon their eitates^n tlie

country, z. An Engliih tj-anllation of the fourth ^'oook of

Virgil's Eneid. 3. Odes of Horace, tranflated into Englifh.

4. A Summary Difcourfe of the Civil Wars of Rome.

IV. He tranil.!ted from Portugueze into Englifh, *' The

" Lufiad, or Portugafs Hifiorical Poem,'* written original-

ly by Luis de Caxncj^ns. Lond. 1655. folio. V. After his

deceafe, namely, in 167 1, thefc two pieces in 4ta. Querer

per folo querer, *' To love only for love's fake," a dramatic

romance, reprefented before the king and queen of Spain;

and Fieftas de Ararjuez, " Feftivals at Aranjuez " They

were both written originally in Spanifh by Antonio de Mendoza,

upon occafion of celebrating the birth-day of kiftg

Philip VL in 1623, at Aranjuez: and were tranflated by our

author in 165^, during his confinement. VI. " Original

*' Letters, during his Embaffies in Spain and Portugal.'*

1702. i&vo* With>bis Life prefixed,


36 F A R E U

We are told, that he compofed feveral other things, remaining

in nianufcript, which he wrote in his younger years,

but had not the lelfure to compleat. Even fome of the forementioned

printed pieces have not all the perfection, which

our ingenious author could have given them : for, as the

writer of the Ihort account of his life obferves, " being, for

*' his loyalty and zeal to his matter's fervice, tofTed from

" place to place, and from country to country, during the

*' unfettled times of our anarchy, fome of his manufcripts

" falling by misfortune into unfkilful hands, were printed

** and publifhed without his confent or knowledge, and be-

" fore he could give them his lafl: finifliing ftrokes." But

that was not the cafe with his excellent tranflation of II Paftor

Fido, which was publilhed by himfelf, and hath been applauded

by fome of the beft judges : particularly, by fir John

Denham, who, after cenfuring fervile tranflators, goes on

thus :

" A new and nobler way thou dofl purfue

** To make tranflations and tranflators too.

'* They but preferve the aflies, thou the flame,

*' True to his fenfe, but truer to his fame."

FAREL (William), a learned minifter of the church,

and moft intrepid reformer, was the fon of a gentleman of Dau-

Bayle's phine in France, and was born at Gap, in the year 1489. He

Did, fludied philofophy and the Greek and Hebrew tongues at Paris

with great fuccefs, and was for fome time a teacher in the

college of cardinal le Moine. Briconnet bifhop of Meaux,

being^clined to the reformed religion, invited him to preach

in his dVocefe in the year 1521 ; but the perfecution, raifed

there againfl: thofe that were ftiled heretics, in the year 1523,

obliged him to provide for his fecurity out of France. He re-

tired to Strafburg, where Bucer and Capito admitted him as

a brother; and was afterwards received as fuch by Zwing-

Jius at Zurich, by Haller at Berne, and by Oecolampadius at

Bafil, As he was thought a very proper man to make pro-

felytes, he was advifed to undertake the reformation of religion

at Montbeliard, in which defign he was fupported by

the duke of Wittenberg, who was lord of that place; and

he fucceeded in it moft happily. He was a man of mofl

firey zeal, which however he tempered a little, according

to Oecolampadius's advice. Once on a proceflion-day, he

pulled out of the prieft's hand the image of St. Anthony, and

threw it from a bridge into the river : it is a wonder, he wag

not torn to pieces by the mob. Erafmus did by no means


F A R E L. 51

like Farers temper, as appears from what he wrote of h'ltn

to the official of Berancon. " You have, fays he, in your

" neighbourhood, the new evangel ift Fare! ; than whom I

'« never faw a man more falfe, more virulent, more fedi-

*' tious." He has given a frightful chara(Sler of him elfe-Ep;^./

where: but he thought Farel had abufed him in fome of hisp. 798, edit,

writings, and therefore, is not to be altogether believed in^^"^*^'

every thing he fays of him.

In the year 1528, he had the fame fuccefs in promoting

the reformation in the city of Aigle, and foon after in the

Bailiwick of Morat. He went afterwards to Neufchatel, in

the year 1529, and difputed againit the Roman Catholic party

with fo much ftrength, that this city embraced the reformed

religion, and eftablifhed it intirely on the 4th of November,

1 5 30. He was fent a deputy to the fynod of VValdenfis,

held in the valley of Angrogne. Hence he went to Ge-

neva, where he laboured againft popery : but the grand vicar,

and the other clergy refilled him with fo much fury, that he

was obliged to retire. He was called back in 1534, by the

inhabitants, who had renounced the Roman Catholic reli-

gion : and he was the chief perfon, that procured the per-

fe6t abolition of popery the next year. He was baniflied

from Geneva with Calvin in the year 1538, and

retired to Bafil, and afterwards to Neufchatel, where

there was great probability of a large evangelical har-

veft. From thence he went to Mets, but had a thoufand dif-

ficulties to ftruggle with, and was obliged to retire into the

abbey of Gorze, where the count of Furftemberg protected

him and the new converts. But they could not continue

there long; for they were befieged in the abbey, and obliged

at laft to furrender, after a capitulation. Farel very happily

efcaped, though ftri(5t fearch was made after him, having

been put in a cart among the fick and infirm. He took upon

him his former functions of a minifter at Neufchatel,

whence he tcok now and then a journey to Geneva. When

he went thither in the year 1553, he was prefent at Servetus*s

execution. He went again to Geneva in the year 1564, to

take his laft leave of Calvin, who was dangeroufly ill. He

took a fecond journey to Mets in the year 1565, being in-

vited by his ancient flock, to come and fee the fruits of the

feed, which he had fown in their hearts. He returned to


fame year.

and died there the 13th of September in the

He married a wife at the age of fixty-nine, and left a fon,

who was but one year old, and who furvived him but three




32 F A R I A.

years. Though he was far better qualified to preach, than

to write books,, yet he was the author of fome kw pieces.

The difficulties this minifter underwent in promoting the reformation,

and the courage he (hewed in furmounting them

all, are almoft incredible. He was often furrounded with

drawn fwords : bells were rung to prevent his being heard ^ but

they could neither interrupt nor terrify the preacher.

in vain :

His marriage was thought very ftrange, and out of feafon, by

his friends : but he was not at a lofs for arguments, to make

them approve of it. He married, as is faid, for the fake of

an help- mate in his old age : he married to fhew, that a ftatje

of celibacy is neither meritorious nor fatis/a£tory, as they of

the romifh church afiert ; and he married to prove, that the

grace of a perpetual continency is neither given to all, nor

for ever. Thefe reafons have been urged by his friends and

party : the laft of which muft needs appear a very flrange one,

** Men will hardly imagine," fays Mr. Bayle, " that the

*' gift of continence, which has been kept till the ag^ of

" fixty-nine, fhould on a fudden difappear and vanifh away,

*' The mofl fenfual and voluptuous perfons generally lofe

*' their incontinency at that age, and even fooner. Even

'' they, who have not abufed a hot conftitution, find that

f' theif flrength is intirely decayed, before they come to their

^' fixty-ninth year: and here is a man, who at that age be"

*' gins to find, that he cannot be continent any longer."

FARIA (Emnj A^'UEx) de Soufa, a Portugueze knight,

was born in the year 1590, of a noble family ; and being

educated in a manner fuitable to his q^ality, made a great

Baillet progr^'s irj the belles kttres, and in the knowledge of lan-

Jugemens guages. He accompanied the marquis de Caftel Rodngo,

who went embaflador to Rome in the time of Urban VIIL

and gained the efteem of all the learned, who frequented the

court of that pontiff. Leo AUatius has mentioned him with

honour. He died at Madrid in the year 1650, and like many

others, who have devoted their lives to the profecution of

letters, is faid to have been fo negligent of his fortune, as to

have died extremely poor. He is the author of feveral works

in poetry and profe : and is remarkable, for having preferred

ihe Caftjliaii to the Portugueze, though the latter was his

jiative tongue. His Poems have been collected into (even

volumes, footje of which were not publiflied till after his

Jli^ol. death. Hiii Itile is manly, vigorous, nervous ; and he every

^^^^^ (hews much genius and judgment. He wrote. Moral




'and political Difcowrfesi Commentaries upon the Lufiadas,


F A R I N G D O N.

of Camoens ; feveral things in the hiftorical way; and he

made tranflations. After his death was publifhcd the Europe,

Afia, Africa, and Portugueze America of the fame author. i

FARINATO (Paul), an emi>nent Italian painter, was


born at Verona in the year 1522 ; and was cut, it is faid,


out of his mother's belly, who was juft dead in labour, j

He was a difciple of Nicolo Golfino, and an admirable de- 1

figner, biit not altogether fo happy in his colouring : though ;

there is a piece of his painting in St. George's church at Ve- j

rona, (o well performed in both parts, that it does not feem

inferior to one of Paul Veronefe's hand, which is placed next ]

to it. He was famous alio for being an excellent fwordfman, \

and a very good orator. He was confiderable likewife for \

his knowledge in (culpture and architecSture, cfpecially that J

part of it, which relates to fortifications. His laft moments \


are faid to have been as remarkable as his firft, on account I

of the death of his neaieft relation. He lay upon his death- i

bed in the year i5c6: and his wife, who was fick in the ]

fame room, hearing him cry out, '* He was going," told !

him, " She v/ould bear him company :" and was as good as j

her word, they both expiring the very fame minute. Fari- j

nato lived longer than is ufual with painters', being no lefs 3

than eighty- four years of age. \

FARINGDON (Anthony), a learned and worthy

Englifh divine, was born at Sunning in the county of Berks, ^^^j,^ j

in the year 1596. He was admitted fcholar of Trinity- Athem ]

college in Oxford, in 16 j 2, and was ele6led fellow thereof 0^on»


inji6i 7. Three years after he took a Mafter of Arts degree ; 1

about which time entering into holy orders, he became a j

noted preacher in thofe parts, an eminent tutor in the college, i

and, as Mr. Wood fays, an example fit to be followed by '

all. In the year 1634, being then bachelor of divinity, h^ '\

was made vicar of Bray near iVIaidenhead in Berks, and foon ;

after divinity-reader in the king*s chappel at Windfor. He j

continued at the firft of thefe places, though not without )

fome trouble, till after the civil commotions broke out j and j

then he was eje6led, and reduced with his wife and family 'i

to fuch extremities, as to be very near ftarving. At length fii:

John Robinfon, alderman of the city of London, and kinfman ,

to archbiftiop Laud, and fome of the good pariftiioners of

Milk-ftreet, in London, invited him to be pallor of St. '

Mary Magdalen there -, which he gladly accepted, and preach-* i

ed to the great liking of the loyal party. In the year 1 657^ ,

Vol. V. D ^e






F A R N A B Y.

h^ publlflied a folio volume of thcfe fermons, and dedicated

them to his kind patron Robinfon, •' as a witnefle or mani-

•' fefto," fays he to him, '* of my deep apprehenfion of

" your many noble favours, and great charity to me and

'* mine, virhen the fharpnefie of the weather, and the rough-

" ncffeof the times, had blown all from uif, and weH-neer

** left us naked.".

After his death, which happened at his houfe in Milkfireet,

in September, 1658, his executors publiftied in 1663,

a fecond folio volume of his fermons containing forty, and a

• Truro

third in 1^7 'j, containing fifty. He left alfo behind him in

manufcript, feveral memorials of the life of the famous John

Hales of Eton, his moft intimate friend and fellow-fuft'erer :

but thefe meniorials have never come to light.

FARNABY (Thomas), a very eminent grammarian

and fchool-mafter, was fon of Thomas Farnaby of London,

carpenter, and grandfon of Mr, Farnaby, fometime mayor of

in Cornwall j and was born at London about the

y^^^ '575* ^^ became a fervitor of Mer ton -college in Ox-

Athen. ford, in the beginning of the year 1590, but continued

^xoa. there a fhort time only : for, being feduced to abandon his

religion and country, be went into Spain, and was for fome

time educated there in a certain college belonging to the Jefuits.

He was originally of foreign extra6tion : for his great

grandfather, the father of him who was the mayor of Truro,

was an Italian mufician. Being weary, at length, of the

fevere difcipline of the Jefuits, he found a way to leave

them; and went with iir Francis Drake, and fir John Hawkins,

in their laft voyage in 1595, being in fome efteem

with the former. He afterwards ferved as a foldier in the

Low Countries ; but being reduced to great neceffity, he

landed in Cornwall ; at which time, fays Mr. Wood, *' his

" diftrefies made him ftoop fo low, as to be an abcdarian,

*' and feveral were taught their horn-books by him." At

length, he fettled at Martock in Somerfetfhire, and taught a

grammar- fchool there with good fuccefs. He afterwards removed

to London, and applied himfelf to the education of

noblemen and gentlemen's children, which procured him a

handfome livelihood. The number of his fcholars amounted

at one time to above three hundred. While he taught this

fchool, he was made mafter of arts in the univerfity of Cambridge;

and April the 24th, 1616, was incorporated in that

o( Oxford. He removed again about the year 1636, on account

of freijuent ilckHeffe* in the city, toSevencck in Kent,


F A R N A B Y. 2$

in the neighbourhood of which place he purchafed an eflate;

and purfued his occupation of teaching, with fuch fuccefs and

profit, that he afterwards purchafed another eftate at Hor-

Iham in SulTex. Upon the breaking out of the commotions

in 1641, he was reckoned to be ill affedted to the parliament

; becaufe, when the proteflation was urged that year,

he faid, " It was better to have one king than five hundred,'*

Afterwards, being furpe6ted to have favoured the rifing of the

country for the king about Tunbridge, in 1647, he was im-

prifoned in Newgate, and thence carried on ihip-board. It

was likewife debated in the houfe of commons, whether he

(hould be fent to America ; but this motion being rejedted^

he was removed to Ely-houfe in Holbourn, where he remained

till about a year before his death. He died upon the

12th of June, 1647, aged 72; and was buried in the chancel

of Sevenock, where, fome time after, this infcription was

fixed over his grave. P. M. Viri Ornatiffimi Thomae Far-

nabii Armigeri, caufje olim Regiae Reique Publlcae fed Literariae

vindicis acerrimi. He was twice married, and had

children by both his wives. His firft wife was a gentleman's

daughter in Cornwall, by whom he had a fon, who was a

captain in king Charles I.'s army, and inherited his eftate

in Sufl'ex ; where he lived in good efteem, and died about

the year 1673. ^'^ fecond, was the daughter of Howfoa

bifhop of Durham, by whom he had feveral children : one

named F'rancis, who inherited his eftate in Kent, and from

whom Mr. Wood received thefe memoirs of his life.

Mr. Farnaby's works are, i. Nota: ad Juvenalis et Perfii

Satyras. Lond, 16 j2. He dedicated this to prince Henry,

James the Ift's eldeft fon ; and, when he prefented it, was

very kindly received by the prince, who did even in fome

meafure command him to write fuch commentaries on all the

Latin poets. He was [o vexed at the cenfures of fome cri-

tics, that he refolved, though againft his own inclination^

to difcontinue that kind of labour. However, he afterwards

altered his refolution, and wrote, 2. Notae ad Senecae Tragosdias.

Lond. 1613. Ben Johnfon had vvritten epigrams,

by way of panegyric, upon his notes on Juvenal and Perfius :

and his Seneca was ufliered in with commendatory verfes by

Daniel Heinfius, and others. 3. Notse ad Martialis Epigrammata.

Lond. 1 615. 4. Lucani Pharfalia cum Notis

T. Farnabii. Lond. 1618. To which is prefixed, commendatory

verfes in Latin by Mr. Selden. 5. Index Rhetoricus

Scholis et Inftitutioni tcnerioris astatis accommodatus.

Lond. 1625. Afterwards were added to it, Formula: Ora-

D 2 tori^e


F A R Q^U H A R.

torlae et Index Poeticus. In the preface to this work he informs

us, that he had pubhflaed about twenty years before,

without his name, his fcheme " of Tropes j" which meeting

with fuccefs, and being claimed by a certain plagiary,

put him upon coinpofing his Index Rhetoricus. Monfieur

Baillet has pafled a favourable judgment upon it j and father

VavafTor, though he reckons Farnaby's Latin to be fometimes

exceptionable, yet allows him to be a diligent and

iearned writer. 6. Florilegium Epigrammatum Gr^ecorum,

eorumque Latino verfu a variis redditorum. Lond, 1629.

7. Notae ad Virgilium. Lond. 1634. 8. SyftemaGrammaticum.

Lond. 1641. King Charles the Ift ordered him to

write a Latin grammar, for the ufe of all the fchools, whin

that which had been eftabliflied by law, and againft which a


ipift. ad

g^eat many complaints had been made, was to be reformed :

and this we fuppofe to be it. 9. Notse in Ovidii Metamor-

VoiTium, phofes, 10. Phrafeologia Anglo-Latina. 1 1 . Tabulae Gras-

^* 2^5* cae Linguae. 12 Syntaxis. 13. Notae in Terentium. He

had finillied his notes upon Terence, as far as to the end of

the fourth comedy only, when he died : but Dr. Meric Ca»

faubon compleated the two laft,

London in the year 1651.

and publilhed the whole at

Mr. Farnaby was a very ufeful man in his generation :

and many writers have fpoken with great approbation of his

Ba h*s


labours. Mr. Bayle, in particular, fays, that " his notes

*' "port moft of the ancient Latin poets, have been of very

'^ great ufe to young beginners ; being (hort, learned, and

'* defigned chiefly to clear up the text."

FARQUHAR (G forge), an ingenious comic writer

and poet, was the fon of a clergyman in Ireland, and born

at Londonderry in the year 1678. There he received the


harj betrre Tudiments of educat^on, and difcovered a genius early de-

his works, voted to the mufes. When he was very young, he gave fpe-

cimens of his poetry ; and difcovered a force of thinking,

and turn of expreflion, much beyond his years. His parents,

having a numerous illue, could beilow on him no other fortune,

than a liberal and polite education : therefore, when

he was qualified for the univerfity, he was fent to Trinity-

Memoifs of College, in Dublin. This was in the year 1^94. He made

Wilks, by great progrefs in his itudies, and acquired a coniiderable rei

,'^^"' putation : but his gay and volatile difpofition could not long

and there-

r^lifh the gravity and retirement of a college life ;

fore, ibon quitting it, he betook himfelf to the diverfions of

the ftage, and got admitted into the company of the Dublin


FAR Q^U H A R. |y

theatre. He had the advantage of a good perfon, and was

well received as an aflor, though his voice was fomewhat !

weak : for which reafon he was refolvcd to continue on the ^

liage, till fomething better fli' uld offer. But his refolution j

was foon broken by an accident, whereby he was near turn- ' j

ing a feigned tragedy into » real one : for being to play the ]

part of Guyomar, who kills Vafquez, in Mr. Dryden's r

" Indian Emperor," and forgetting to exchange his fword ,|

for a foil, in the engagement he wounded his brother trage-

dian,who reprtfented Vaft^uez, very dangeroufiy ;

and though

the wound did not prove mortal, yet Mr. Farquhar v^'as fo

fhocked at it, that he determined never to appear on the ftagCpJJ^^iaL \

any more. j

Soon after this, Mr. Farquhar, who had now no induce- ;

ment to remain at Dublin, went to London. Afcer his ar- 1

rival there, which was in the year 1696, the celebrated slSot I

and his friend Mr. Wilks, ceafed not. to foliicit him, till he 1

had prevailed with him to write a play. Wilks, knowing ^

his humour and abilities, affured him, that he was conlidered ^

by all in a much higher light, than he had yet (hewn him- 'J

feif in ; and that he was much fitter to furnifh conipofitions

for the ftage, than to echo thofe of other poc^ts upon it* 1

But he was more fubftantially invited yet by a genteel accommodation,^

which fnffereJ him to exercife his genius at his




leifure : for the earl of Orrery, who was a patron as well as i

mafter of letters, conferred a lieutenant's commiifion upon i

him in his own regiment in Ireland, which Mr. Farquhar j

held feveral years, and behaved himfelf well as an officer, i

giving feveral proofs both of courage and conduct. In the i

year 169S, his firfl: comedy, called " Love and a Bottle," \

appeared on the ftage ; and for it's fprightly dialogue and I

bufy fcenes, was well received by the audience, though

Wilks had no part in it. It may not be amifs to remember, I

that the year after the celebrated Mrs. Oldlield was, partly ?!^"^^'j^ **

upon his judgment and recommendation, admitted on thefijdip. $



this year, we meet with Mr. Farqubar in Holland, probably

upon his military duty ;

from whence he has given a very face-

tious defcription of thofe places and people, in two of his letters

dated from the Brill and from Leyden. And in a third dated

from the Hague, he very humoroufly relates how merry he

was there, at a treat made by the earl of Weflmorland,

while not only himfelF, but king William, and others of his

fubjefts, were detained there by a violent ftorm. 1 here is

alfo among his poems, an ingenious copy of verfes to his

miftrefs upon the fame fubject ; which miftrefs is fuppofed to

have been Mrs. Oldfield : for that Lady was often heard to

fpe(^ator, if not a mourner, at Mr. Dryd(

the defcription, he has made of it in one of his letters, is

not much calculated to infpire forrow.

Mr. Farquhar, encouraged by the prodigious fuccefs of his

laft play, mads a continuation of it, in the fame year lyor,

in his comedy called, " Sir Harry Wildair, or. The Sequel

of the Trip to the Jubilee:'* in which Mrs. Oldfield re-

ceived as much reputation, and was as greatly admired in her

part, as Wilks was in his. In 1702, he publifhed his

« Mifcellanies, or, Colledlion of Poems, Letters, and

*' Ellays," which contain a variety of humorous and pleafant

fallies of fancy. It is faid, that fome of the letters were

publifiied from copies, returned him at his requeft by Mrs.

Oldfield. There is at the end of them an Klla/, which is

called, '^ A Difcourfe upon Comedy, in ref rence to the Eng*

*' lifh Stage." There is one among the Letters, which he

calls, " The Pidlure," containing a defcription and charac-

ter of himfelf, which begins thus : " My outfide is neither

^' better nor worfe, than my Creator made it j and the piece

*' being drawn by fo great an artift, 'twere prefumption to

*' fay there were many ftrokes amifs. I have a body qua-

** lified to anfwer all the ends of its creation, and that's fuffi-

*' cient. As to the mind, which in moft men wears as many

** changes as their body, fo in me 'tis generally drefTed like

*' my perfon, in black. In fliort, my conftitution is very

^' fplenetic and VQty amorous ; both which 1 endeavour to

'« hide, left the former fhould ofFend others, and the latter

' incommode myfelf : and my reafon is fo vigilant in re-

** ftraining thefe two faihng>, that I am taken for an eafy-

' natured man by my own fex, and an ill natured clown by

f yours.—I have very little eftate, but what lies under the

*^ circumference of my Ijat -, aqd fhoul

F A R Q U H A R.

** "to lofe my head, I fhould nat be worth a groat. But I

" ought to thank providence, that I can by three hours ftudy

*' Hve one and twenty, with fatisfadion to myfelf ; and con-

** tribute to the maintenance of more families, than fume,

" who have thoiifands a year." This, though not all, is

enough for a fpecimen.

In the year 1703, came out another diverting comedy of

his, called " The Inconftant, or, The Way to win him :*'

but now plain Englifti produdtions, with nothing but good

fenfe, natural humour, and wit to recommend them, began

to give way to Italian and French operas ; the iiiry entertainments

of dancing and finging, which conveyed no inftruc-

tion, awakened no generous paflion, nor filled the breaft with

any thing great and manly: and thertfore, t.his comedy was

received more coldly than the former, though not at all in-

ferior to them in merit. Mr. Farquhar was married this

year, and, as was at firft reported, to a great fortune ; which

indeed he expe(5^ed, but was miferably difappointed. 7'he

lady had fallen in love with him, and fo violent was her

paffion, that flie refolved to have him at any rate : and .as

fhe knew he was too much diffipated in li e to fall in love,

or to think of matrimony, unlefs advantage was annexed to

it, flie firft caufed a report to be fpread of her being a great

fortune, and then had him given to underftand, that fhe was

in love with him. Farquhar married her : and what is pretty

extraordinary, though he found himfelf deceived, his circumftances

embarralled, and his family increafing, he never

once upbrai4ed her for the cheat, but behaved to her with ali

the delicacy and tendernefs of an indulgent hufband.

Very early in the year 1704, a farce called, " The Stage-

** Coach," in the compofition of which he was jointly concerned

with another, made its firft appearance, and was well

received. His next comedy, named " The Twin-Rivals,"

was played in i 705. In 1706, was a(ftefl his comedy, called

*' I he Recruiting Officer." He dedicated it

*' to all friends

" round the Wrekin," a noted hill near Shrewfbury, where

he bad been to recruit for his companj ; and where, from his

obfervations on country life, the manner that ferjeants in-

veigle clowns to inlifl, and the behaviour of the officers towards

the milk-maids and country- wenches, whom they feldom

fail of debauching, he colledt^d matter fufficient to build

a comedy upon : in which he was fo fuccelsful, tliat even

now that comedy faik not to bring full houfes. His lafl

comedy, was '* The Beaux's Stratagem," of which he did

ftot live to enjoy the full fuccefs. He w^is unhappily opprefTed

D 4





with fome debts : and this obliged him to make application t©

a certain courtier, v;ho had formerly given him many profcfTions

of his friendfhip. His pretended patron advifed him

to convert his commillion into the money he wanted, and

pledged his honour, that in a fliort time he would provide

him another. This circumftancc appearing favourable, and

unable to bear the thoughts of want, he fold his com-

miffion : hwt when he renewed his application, and reprefen**

ed his diftreffed fituation, his noble patron had forgot his

promife, or rather, perh^ips, had never refolved to fulfil it.

This diflradting difappointment To preyed upon our author,

that it carried, him off this worldly theatre, while his laft

play was adling^in the height of its fuccefs, at that of Drurylane.

His death happened in April, 1707, before he was

thirty years of age. His friend, Mr. Wilks, was very kind

to his two daughters; and propofed to his brother managers,

who readily came into It, to give each of them a benefit, to

put them out to mantua-makers.

The author of the " Mufes Mercury, or. Monthly Mif-

*' cellany,*' for May, 1707, has the following pafTage.

^^ All that love comedy, will be forry to hear of the death

^' of Mr, Farquhar, whofe two laft plays had fomething in

*• them truly humorous anc-l diverting. It is true, the critics

*^ will not allow any part of them to be regular; but Mf,


and it is certainly true, that his comedier, in general, owe

their fuccefs full as much to the player, as to any thing i*"-

trinfically excellent in themfelves.

However, if the fale of books be any proof of their merit,

there is reafon enough to think well of Mr. Farquhar;

for the eighth edition of bis '* Works, containing all his

*' Poems, Letters, EiTays, and Comedies, publiftied in his

" life-time," was printed at London, in two volumes i2mo.

in the year 1742.

FASTOLFF (John) knight, and knight-banncret^*^^ a

valiant and renowned general, and nobleman in F ranee, during

our conquers in that kingdom, under king Henry IV.

VTandVLof England; knight of the garter; ^nd in all

refpeds a moft extraordinary perfon ; was defcended of an

ancient and famous family in Norfolk, and is fuppofed to

have been born at Yarmouth in that county, about the year

1377. There is no doubt, but a mafter of thofe accomplifhments,

which made him fo ufeful afterwards in adminif-

trations of the greateft confequence, as well as fuch a promoter

and patron of learning, muft have been very carefully

educated, though we do not find any account of it. His

father, John FaftolfF, Efq; dying before he was of age, he

became ward to fome great nobleman i and it is faid, that hs

was trained up, according to the cuftom of thofe times, in

the Norfolk family. About the year 140 1, Thomas of Lancafter,

afterwards duke of Clarence, and fecond fon of king

Henry IV. was fent lord lieutenant into Ireland ; and our

FaftolfF probably attended him : for it is affirmed, that he

was with him in 1405, and 1406. It is almoft certain too,

that FaftolfF was with him in 1408, becaufe at the end of

that very year he was married in that kingdom to a rich

young widow of quality. Soon after his marriage, receiving

fome confiderable pofts of truft under the Englifti Regency

in France, he betook himfelf to refide in that kingdom.

Here he palled through feveral offices of the higheft:

importance, diftmguifhed himfelf moft illuftrioufly in all the

arts of peace and war, and was fucceffively crowned with

titles and honours.

He did not make his final return to England, till the year

1440 ; and loaden with the laurels he had gathered in France,

he now laboured to raife a new plantation of them in his own

country. At home he (hone as bright in virtue, as he had in

valour abroad ; and became no kfs amiable in his domeftic,

^han h^ had been admirable in his public chara(^er. All we




meet with In this fcene of his recefs is elegant, hofpitable,

generous, whether we confider the places of his abode, or

thofe places and foundations on which he fliovT'ered his bounty.

He was a benefai^or to both the univtrfities, bequeath-

ing a confiderable legacy to Cambridge, for building the

ichools of Philofophy and Civil Law ; and at Oxford, he was fo

bountiful to Magdalen-college, through the afPedion he had for

his friend William Wainfleet, the founder, that his name is

there commemorated in an anniverfary fpeech. It would carry

us too far, if we fhould enumerate the many inftances of his

munificence : fuffice it to fay, that no retirement could ob-

fcure his reputation, no infirmities weaken him in the exer-

cife of his generous fpirit, to the lait.

upwards of fourfcore years of age, as

He died

we learn

in 1459,

from his

noted contemporary, William Caxton, our firft printer : who

fays, in the preface to Cicero's Trad of Old Age, which he

printed in Englifli in 1481, that '«

it was tranflated, and

'* thyfloryes openly declared, by the ordenaunce and defyre

of the noble auncyent Knyghr, Syr Johan FaflolfF, of the

*' Countee of Norfolk, Banneret, lyvyng the age of four-

** fcore yere; exercyfing the warrys in the Royame of

*' Fraunce and other countrees, for the difFence and unyver-

*' fal welfare of both Royames of England and Fraunce


by fourty years cndurying the faytc of armes haunts ng, and

*' in admynyftryng juftice and polytique governaunce, under

*' thre Kynges ; that is, to wete, Henry the fourth, Henry

*' thefyfthe, Henry the fyxthe ; and was Governour of the

" Duchyc of Angeou, and the Countee of Mayne j Capy-

" tayne of many Townys, Caftellys, and Fortreflys, in the

** faid Rdyame of Fraunce; having the charge and fauf-

*' garde of them dy verfe yeres ; ocupyeng and rewlynge thre

*' hondred fpeeres, and the bowes accuftomed thenne ; and

*' yeldyng good acompt of the forfaid Townes, Caftellys,

" and Fortreflys, to the feyd Kynges,'* &c.

Shakefpear has been extremely blamed by fome writers,

for perverting, they fay, with an unaccountable licence, the

charader of this great and good man, under his fir John

Falftaff ; while others will not allow, that he had any view

of drawing fir John FalflafF, from any part of fir John Faf-

tolfF's characSter. Thefe latter urge, as arguments in their

behalf, the difference of names, a difference in their ages,

and, above all, that this charader of fir John Falflaff was

written and aded originally under the name of fir John Oldcaftle.

Without doubt, nothing can be more different than

the charaders. The poet's Falilaff is an old, humorous,



vapouring, cowardly, lewii, lying, drunken debauchee J

while our FaftolfF was a young and grave, difcreet and va-

liant, chafte and fober, commander abroad, and eminent for ]

every acl of virtue and goodnefs at home. And hence ^

it is,

tliat offence has been taken at Shakefpear, although, accord-

ing to the ftridlnefs of the letter, the name of FalflafF is not -

to be found in hiflory. " The comedian, fays one author, ]


is not excufable by fome alteration cf his name, feeing \

«' the vicinity of founds intrench on the memory of that^^^^";'? j

*' worthy knight ; and few do heed the inconfiderable difFe-gngjgj^jj^^

*' rence in fpelling their names.*' Then in regard to theNorfolk. ]

fiibffitutlon of one perlbn for the other, he fays ellewhere I

** Stage poets have themfelves been very bold with, and

** others been very merry at, the memory of fir John Old- 3

** caftle, whom they have fancied a boon-companion, a

'* jovial royfter, and yet a coward to boot; contrary to the

'* credit of all chronicles, owning him a martial man of I

*• merit. The beft is, fir John FalftafF hath relieved the J

*' memory of fir John Oldcaftle, and of late is fubftituted Church

*' buffoon in his place. But it matters as little, what petu-^*^- ^^"*j

" lant poets, as what malicious Papifls, have written a-j '

/ i

*' gainft him." It mufl be remembered, that fir John Old- I

caftle was an early and eminent inflrument of, and fufferer

for the Reformation j and that the offence, conceived againft I

Shakefpear for his freedom with fo facred a name, obliged •

him to change it for FalflafF. Me telis us himfelf of the j

change, in the Epilogue to the fecond part of Henry IV.

" If, fays he, you be not too much cloyed with fat meat, '[

" our humble author will continue the ftory with fir John in ]


it, and make you merry with fair Catherine of France; \

*' where, for any thing I know, Falflaff fliall die of a fweat,

** unlefs already he be killed with your hard opinions ; for j

*' Oldcaftle died a martyr, and this is not the man. I

But to proceed. In another place, the above cited author 1

has thefe words of fir John Faflolff : " To avouch him by j

' many arguments valiant, is to maintain that the fun is

" bright; though fince, the flage hath been over bold with <

*' his memory, making him a thrafonical pufF and emblem of .;

«* mock-valour. True it is, that fir John Oldcaftle was the |

" make fport in all plays for a coward. It is eafily known, i

" out of what purfe this black penny came; the Papifls ]

*' railing on him for a heretic, and therefore he muft be \

'* alfo a coward ; though indeed, a man of arms every inch ;


** of him, and as valiant as any in his age. Now, as I

^ am glad that fir John Oldcaftle is put out, fo I am forry j

*^ that i






Fuller's ^^^^ ^^^ Jo^" FaftoliF is put in, to relieve his memory, in

Worthies, " this bafe fervice to be the anvil for every dull wit to ftrikc


F E A T L Y. 45

clfe. This pedantic afFe£lation led him, as Spartian relates,

to deride, to contemn, to trample upon the profeflbrs of all

arts and fciences, whom he took a pleafure in contradicting

upon all occafions, right or wrong. Thus one day he reproved

Fa^vorinus, with an air of great fuperiority, for ufing

a certain Word ; which however was a good word, and fre-

quently ufed by the beft authors. Favorinus fubmitted patiently

to the emperor, without making any reply, though he

knew himfdf to be perfed^ly in the right: which when his

friends objected to, " fhall not I eafily fufFer him, fays he,

*' to be the moft learned of all men, who has thirty legions

*' at his command ?

This philofopher is faid to have wondered at three things :

firft, that being a Gaul he fhould fpeak Greek fo well ; fe-

condly, that being an eunuch he (hould be acaufed of adultery

; and thirdly, that being envied and hated by the empe-

ror he fhould be permitted to live. Many works are attri-

buted to him ; among the reft a Greek work of Mifcellane-

ous Hiftory often quoted by Diogenes Laertius.

FEATLY (Daniel), alias Fairclough, an eminent

Englifh divine, was the fon of John Featly, fometime co -k

to the prefident of Magdaien-college, Oxford, and born at Wood's \

Charlton upon Otmore in that county, in March, i582.^"^^''^"' i

He was educated in the Grammar- fchool joining to Magda-yoi. xi.

len-college, admitted Scholar of Corpus Chrifti in 15945 and .-,

Probationer- Fellow in 1602, being then Bachelor of Arts. i

He became a fevere ftudent in divinity : he read Fathers, ]

Councils, and Schoolmen, and was deeply learned in every 1

thing relating to them. His admirable way of preaching, ^

his fkiil in difputation, and his other rare accomplifhments, ^

diftinguilhed him fo much, that fir Thomas Edmunds, be- i

ing difpatched by king James to be lieger-embafTador in

France, -made choice of Featly for his chaplain. He lived \

three years there, and did great honour to the Englifti nation, I

and the Proteftant religion, by difputing fuccefsfully againft the \

moft learned Papifts ; infomuch, that his antagonift^ could ]

not forbear giving him the titles of acutiffimus, and acer-


' '

Upon his return to England, he repaired to his college, ,

took a bachelor of divinity'*s degree in 161 3, and foon ;i

after became redor of Northill in Cornwall. But before

he was fettled there, he was called to be chap-

lain to Abbot archbiftiop of Canterbury ; and by him was 1

preferred foon after to the redory of Lambeth in Surry.

In i




F E A T L Y.

In 1617, he proceeded in divinity, and puzzled Prideaux the

king*s profefTor fo much with his arguments, that a quafrel

commenced thereupon, which the archbiftiop himfelf was

forced to compofe. The famous archblfhop of Spalato,

Antony de Dominis, being alfo prefent at the difputation,

was fo mightily taken with our author's manner, that he immediately

gave him a brother's place in the Savoy-hofpital,

of which he Was then mafter. About that time archbifhop

Abbot gave him the re6lory of All-hallows, Breadftreet, in

London, which foon after he changed for the redlory of Ac-

ton, in Middlefex, and at length became the third and laft

provoft of Chelfea college.

In 1625, being then married, he retired from the fervice

of his grace of Canterbury, to Kennington near Lambeth,

where his wife had a houfe. In 1626, he publiflied his An-

cilla Pietatis, or. " The Handmaid to Private Devotion :'*

of which eight editions were printed ofF before the year 1676.

With this was afterwards printed, '* The Pra6tice of Extra-

*' ordinary Devotion:" and Mr. Wood relates, that " in

** one of thefe two, he makes the ftory of St. George, the

" tutelar faint of England, a mere figment, for which he

'* was forced to cry peccavi, and to fall upon his knees be-

*' fore Laud archbifhop of Canterbury." From the year

1626, to the beginning of the civil war, he was chiefly employed

in writing books, and in difputing againft perfons of

a different way of thnkin^; in matters of religion.

In 1642, after the king had encountered the parliamentarmy

at Brentford, fome of the foldiers took up their quar-

ters at Adfon. There they made fearch for our author Fer^t-

jy, whom they took to be a Papifl, at leaft to have, as is faid,

a Pope in his belly: but not finding him, they did him vaft

damage in deftroyinj; his houfe, ftables, granaries, barns,

&c. They fought him afterwards at Lambeth, in order to

put him to death ; but he happily efcaped upon timely notice,

in 1643, ^^ ^^^ appointed a member of the Aflembly of

Divines, and was afterwards a witnefs againft archbifhop

Laud. He had difcovered more Calvlnifm, than he was ever

fuppoied to have; but Dr. Heylin has faid, that he was always

a Calvinift In his heart, though he never fhewed it

openly till then. He was, however, a great oppofer of the

Covenant, and wrote a letter to archbifhop Ufher, then at

Oxford, containing his reafons : which letter being intercept-

ed, and carried firft to the clofe committee, and then to the

• houfe of commons, he was judged to be a fpy and betrayer

of the parliament's caufe. He was feizcd onj and committed


F E C K E N H A M. 47

prlfoner to lord Petre's houfe in Alderfgate-ftrect, on the -^oth

of September, 1643, his redories being taken from htm ; |

and in this prifon he continued till March, 1644. Being

dropfical, he was redticed to a low and weak ftate ; upon

which he was removed for his health's fake to Chelfea-coHege, i

of which he was then provolt ; where fpending a fhort

time in devout exercifes, he died upon the 17th of April, I

1645. *' He was efteemed," (ays Mr. Wood, *' by tha j

*' generality to be one of the moft refolute and victorious 1

*' champions of the reformed Proteftant religion in his time, i

*' a moft fmart (courge of the church of Rome, a compen-

" dium of the learned tongues, and of all tha liberal arts J

*' and fciences : and though of fm-.ll ftature, yet he had a .^.^

'' great ibul, and learning of all kinds compared in him." ;

He was the author of near forty different works, chiefly of :

the polemic kind, and therefore of little u(e now, fince the


occafions of them are forgotten. He alfo publiflied, in 1629, i

king James's Cygnea Cantio ; in which may be feen, a fcho- i

laftic duel between that king and our author.

FECKENHAM (John de), fo called, becaufe he was ^

born of poor parents in a cottage, near the foreft of P'eckenham

in Worcefterfhire, his right name being Howman, was^^^^^'* i

the laft abbot of Weftminfter. Difcovering in h.s youth very qj^o^^' 1

good parts, and a ftrong prt)peBfity to learn'ng, the prieft ofvol. i. \

the parifh took him under his care, and inftrudted him fome i

years, and then got him admitted into Evefham monaftery.

At eighteen years of age, he was fent by his abbot to GIou- ]

cefter-college, in Oxford ; from whence, when hehad fuffi- :

ciently improved himfclf in academical learning, he was re- )

called to his abbey ; which being diflblved in November, ]

1535, he had a yearly penfion of an hundred florins allowed

him for his life. Upon this, he returned to Gloucefter- \

college, where he purfued his ftudies (bme years ; and in J

i^3g, took the degree of bachelor of divinity, being then

chaplain to Bell bifliop of Worcefter. That prelate rdlgning

his fee in November, 1543* he became chaplain to Bonner 1

bifliop of London ; but Bonner being deprived of his bifhopric ]

in 1549, by the Reformers, Feckenham was committed to ]

the Tower of London, becaufe, as fome fay, he refufcd to 1

adminifter the Sacraments after the Proteftant manner. Soon

after, he was taken from thence, to difpute on the chief ]

points controverted between the Proteftants and Papifts; and


he difputed feveral tinies in piiblic before, and with fome great









• ward

F E C K E N H A M.

He was afterwards remanded to the Tower, where he continued

till queen Mary's acceflion to the crown, in 1553:

but was then reieafed, and made chaplain to the queen. He

became alfo again chaplain to Bonner, prebendary of St.

Paul's, then dean of St. Paul's, then re6tor of Finchley in

Middlefex, which he held only a few months, and then re6lof

of Greenford in the faid county. In April, 1 554, he was

one of the difputants at Oxford againft Cranmer, Ridley, and

Latimer, before they fufFered martyrdom ; but he faid very

little againft them. During queen Mary's reign, he was

conftandy employed in doing good offices to the afflidted

Proteftants from the higheft to the loweft. Francis Ruflel

earl of Bedford, Ambrofe and Robert Dudley, afterwards

carls of Warwick and Leicefter, were benefitted by his kindnefs:

as was alio fir John Cheke. Nay, he interceeded with

queen Mary, for the lady Elizabeth's enlargement out of pri-

fon, and that fo carneftly, that the queen was actually difpleafed

with him for fome time. In May, 1556, he was

complimented by the univerfity of Oxford, with the degree of

doctor in divinity; being then in univerfal eiteem iov his

learning, piety, charity, moderation, humility, and other

virtues. The September following, he was made ahbot of

Weftminfter-abbey, which was then reftored by queen Mary ;

and fourteen Benedidine monks placed there under his government,

with epifcopal power.

Upon the death of queen Mary, in 1558, her fucceflbr

Elizabeth, not unmindful of her obligations to Dr. Fecken-

ham, fent for him before her coronation, to confult and re-

him ; and, as it is faid, offered him the archbifhopric

of Canterbury, provided he would conform to the laws, but

he refufed. He appeared in her firft parliament, taking the

loweft place on the bifliop's form ; and was the laft mitred

abbot, that fat in the houfe of peers. During his attendance

there, he fpoke and protefted againft every thing tending towards

the Reformation ; and the ftrong oppofitiun, which he

could not be reftrained from making, occalioned his commitment

to the Tower in 1560. He continued there till 1^63,

when he was taken from thence, and committed to the cuftody

of Home bifhop of Winchefter : but thefe two having written

againft each other about the oath of fupremacy, could not

agree to live together, fo that Feckenhani was remanded to

the Tower, in 1564. Afterwards he was removed to the

Marfhalfea, and then to a private houfe in Holborne. In

1571, he attended Dr. John Storle before his execution. In

15785 we find him in free cuftody, with Cox biihop of Ely>


F E C K E N H A M. 49

whom the queen had put upon ufing his endeavours with Feckenham,

that he would acknowledge her fupremacy, and

come over to the church : and he was ,\t length induced to do

the former, though he could never be brought to a thorough

conformity. Soon after, the reftlefs fpirit of fome Roman

Catholics, and their frequent attempts upon the queen's life,

obliged her to imprifon the moft confiderable among them;

upon which our author was fent to Wifbich-caftle in the ifle

of Ely, where he continued a prifoner to the time of his

death, which happened in the year 1585. As to his charac-

ter, Mr. Camden calls him, *' a learned and good man, thatAnnalsof

** lived long, did a great deal of good to the poor, and always^^^'^*'

*' follicited the minds of his adverfaries to benevolence.'*

Fuller fliles him, " a man cruel to none, courteous and cha- Worthies In

«' ritable to all who needed his help or liberality" Dr. ^[^^^^'"'"V

Burnet fays, he was " a charitable and generous man, who

*' lived in great efteem in England :" and Mr. Dart con-^gJ^J^.^^

eludes his account of him in thefe words j '^ though I can-p. 11. p.^gy,

'* not go fo far as Reyner, to call him a martyr, yet I can-^^n ,^

*^ not gather, but that he was a good, mild, modeft, cha-terium,

*« ritable man, and a devout chriftian." vol. ii.

Mr. Wood has given us the following catalogue of his

works: i. " A Conference Dialogue- wife held between the

*' Lady Jane Dudley, and Mr. John Feckenham, four days

*' before her death, touching her faith and belief of the Sa-

" crament and her religion." Lond. 1554. On the loth

of April, 1554, he was fent by the queen to this lady to

commune with her, and to reduce her from the dodrinc of

Chrift to queen Mary*s religion, as Mr. Fox exprefles it.

The fubftance of this conference may be [ecn alfo in Fox's y-^y j-

*' Afts and Monuments of Martyrs." 2. Speech in theeiit*i684.

Houfe of Lords, 1553. 3. Two Homilies on the firft, fecond,

and third articles of the Creed. 4. Oratio Funebfis

in exequiis DucifTas Parmas, &c. that is, " A Funeral Oration

*' on the death of the duchefs of Parma, daughter of Charles

*' V. and governefs of the Netherlands." 5. Sermon at the

Exequy of Joan (^een of Spain. Lond. 1555. 6. " The

*' declaration of fuch fcruples and ftaies of conlcience, touch-

*' ing the Oath of Supremacy, delivered by writing to Dr^


50 F E I T H I U S.


F E L I B I E N. 51

the fecond time embaflador extraordinary to the court of

Rome, in 1647, monfieur Felibien was made fecretary to the

embafly, and perfe^lly anfwered the hopes, which that

miniftcr had conceived of him. During his ftay at Rome,

his fondnefs for the liberal arts made him fpend all the time

he could fpare, in vifiting thofc who excelled in them ; and

efpecially the celebrated Pouffin, by whofe converfations he

learned to underftand all that is moft beaut.Tu: in ftatues and

pictures: and it was accord in


52 F E L I X.

in i2mo. 5. The Conferences of the Royal Academy of

Painting, in one volume in 4to. 6. The Defcription of

the Abbey de la Trappe, in i2mo. He alfo left fome tranflations

: viz. " An Account of what pafTed in Spain, when

" the Count Duke of Olivares fell under the King's Dif-

** pleafure," tranflated out of Italian ; " The Caftle of the

*« Soul," written by St. Terefa, tranflated from the Spanifli

" Th€ Life of Pope Pius the Vth," tranflated from the


In all that he has written, there appears a found judgment,

an exquifite tafle, a great clearnefs and politenefs :

but his " Dialogues upon the lives of the Painters," is the

work which has done him the greatefl honour. It is elegant

and profound ; and the moft excellent tafte is every where

fliewn throughout the whole. But he fays too little in too

many words, and is abfolutely without method. This is

Voltaire's criticifm upon him; who informs us alfo, that he

_ was the firft, who gave Lewis the XIV. the fur-name of

EouisXiv. Great, in the infcriptions in the Hotel-de-Ville. It muft

be remembered alfo, that Feliblen was a man of great vir-


tues, not ambitious, or greedy of wealth, but moderate in

his defires and contented. He was a man of probity, of

honour, of piety. Though he was naturally grave and fe-

rious, and of a hafty, and fomewhat fevere temper, yet his

converfation was always agreable, and even merry, when

there was occafion for it. He was evermore an advocate for

truth ; and he ufed to encourage himfelf in it, by this motto,

which he caufed to be engraved on his feal, Bene facere et

vera dicere, that is, " To do good and fpeak the truth."

He lived in a conflant pradice of thefe two duties, which

form the character of an honell man and a perfect chriftian.

FELIX (MiNUTius), a father of the primitive church,

who flourifhed in the beginning of the third century, about

the year 220. He was an African by birth, which we collect

from his ftile, as well as from the ufe which he made of

Tertullian's writings ; and by profeflion a lawyer, as we learn

not only from Ladantius and Jerome, who have exprefsly

afl'erted it, but alfo from himfelf. Ad vindemiam ferias judi-

ciariam curam relaxaverant ; the ixtcatton of the vintage-time

^^^^ reUafcd him^ he fays, from the bujinefs of the bar : where

we perceive, that he was not only a lawyer, but that he

practiced at the bar, after he became a convert to chriftiani-

ty. He has written a very elegant dialogue in defence of the

Chriftian Religion, iiititied O^aviusy ftoia the name of his.


fell; 55

Chridlan fpealcer, who difputes with Caeclllus, while himself

fuftains the part of a moderator. Caec'dius opens the

conference, and urges all the topics he could think of, in de-

fence of Paganifm and againft Chriftianity : Minutius Felix

makes fome obfervations upon what Caecilius had advanced ;

after whidi, Oclavius enters upon a particular refutation of

the Pagan, and concludes with fupporting and eflabliftiing the

Chriflian religion : the refult of all which is, that Csecilius

becomes a convert. The dialogue Is fprightly, elegant, and

inftruftive ; and fhews us, as Ladantius fays, what an ad-

mirable defender of the truth Minutius Felix would havebeen,

had he applied himfelf intirely to the ftudy of it. We

will quote his words. Minutius Felix non ignohll'is inter caufi"

dicos loci fuit. Hujus liber, cui O^tavio titulus eji, declarai^

quam idoneus veritatis offer tor ejfe potuiffet^ ft fe t'Aum adidJlu'

dium contulijfei. We may obferve by the way, that fome-

thing like this has been faid of LacSantius himfelf; and that,

as elegant a writer as he is, he has been ranked by both ancients

and moderns among the number of thofe, who have

undertaken to defend chriftianity, before they underftood it.

This dialogue of Minutius Felix pafTed a long time for *

the eighth book of Arnobius's piece, adverjus gentes : for being

found with the other feven, in an ancient manufcript of

the Vatican, it was printed four times under his name, before

any body fufpedled its true author. At length Balduinus, a

celebrated lawyer, caufed it to be printed feparately at Hei-

delberg, in the year 1560, and prefixed to it a very learned

diflertation of his own, in which he detedted the common

error, and afcertairted the book to it's genuine author : although

Urfinus, whether he had not feen Balduinus's edi-

tion, or whether he envied him the honour of the difcovery,

printed it at Rome thirty years after, at the end of Arnobius,

works again. However, it has fince been confidered by the

critics, as the work of Minutius Felix, and accordingly print-

ed feparately from Arnobius : as it is in the beft edition that

was given of it at Cambridge, by Dr. Davis, in the year 17 12,

to which the diflertation of Balduin is prefixed.

St. Jerome tells us, that in his time another book, intitled,jj^g^j.j ^

De fato^ vel contra Mathimaticos, went about under the namec, ixvUi.'

of Minutius Felix ; and that, though it was well written,

yet from the diffimi-larity of its ftile with that of the 0(Sla-

vi^s, he concluded it to be fpurious.

FELL (Dr. John), an eminently learned and pious divine,

was the fon of Dt, Samuel Fell,

E 3

dean of Chrift-church



Wood's in Oxford, and born at Longworth In BerkQiIre, on the 23d



of June, 1625. He was educated moftly at the free-fchool

of Thame in Oxfordfhirc ; and in 1636, when he was only

eleven years of age, admitted fludent of Chrift-church in

Oxford. In Odlober 1640, he took the degree of bachelor

of arts, and that of mafter in June 1643 ; about which

time he was in arms for king Charles I. within the garrifon

of Oxford, and afterwards became an enfign. In 1648, he

was turned out of his place by the parliamentarian vifitors,

being then in holy orders 5 and from that time till the reflo-

ration of Charles II. lived in a retired and ftudious condir.

tion, partly in the lodgings of the famous phyfician Willis,

who was his brother-in-law, and partly in his own houfe

over againil Mcrton-college, wherein he and others kept up

the devotions and difcipline of the church of England.

After the Reftoration he was made prebendary of Chichefter,

and canon of Chrift-church, into which laft he was

inftalleu on the 27t:h of July, 1660; and on the 30th of

November following, he was mac'e dean of the faid church,

being then doctor of divinity, and one of his majefty's chaplains

in ordinary. As foon as he was fixed in that eminent

ffation, he carneftly applied himfelf to purge the college of

all remains of hypocrify and nonfenfe, which had every where

prevailed in the late times of confufion, and to improve it in

all forts of learning as well as true religion : laying thofe

foundations, that have rendered it fo famous to pofterity, and

will continue to make it ever flourifh. Nor was he more

diligent in reiicring its difcipline, than in adorning it with

magtuficent buildings, tov/ards which he contributed very

great f.nvj. Amongft other things, he built the ftately

tower over the principal gate of the college ; into which, in

J 083, he caufed to be removed out of the fteeple in the ca-

thedral the bell, called " Great l^om of Chrift-church,"

/aid to have been brought thither with the other bells from

Ofeney-abbey. He took care to have it recaft with additional

metal, fo that it is now by far the biggeft bell in England.

Round it is this infcription : Magnus Thomas Cufms

Oxcnienfis, renatus Ap:il viii, mdclxxx. regnante Carolo

Secundo, Decano Johanne Oxon. Epifcopo, Subdecano Gu-

Jiulmo Jane b. S. Theol. Profellbre, T^hefaurario Henrico

Smith S. S. Theol. Profeflare, cura & arte Chriftopheri Hodfon.

The dinicnfions of it are as follow : the diameter

feven feet one inch ; from the crown to the brim five feet

nine inches ^ thicknefs of the ftriking place fix inches;

weight near 17000 lb. weight of the clapper 3421b. Six-



teen men are required to ring it ; and it was firft rung out on

the 29th of May, 1684. From that time to this, it bas

been tolled every night, as a fignal to all fcholars to repair

to their refpef^ive colJeges and halls i and fo it ufed to be,

before its removal.

In the years 1666, 1667, 1668, and 1669, Dr. Fell was

vice-chancellor of the univerfity : during which time he ufed

every poffible means to reftore the difciplineand credit of the

univerfity ; and fuch was his indefatigable fpirit, that he fuc-

ceeded to a miracle. In 1675-6, he was advanced to the

biOiopric of Oxford, with leave at the fame time to hold his

deanery of Chrift-church in commendam, that he might continue

his fervices to his college and the univerfity: and he

was no fooner fettled in his fee, but he fet about re-building

the epifcopal palace of Cuddefden in Oxfordfhire. In a word,

he devoted his whole fubftance to works of piety and Charity.

Among his other benefactions to his college, it muft not be

forgot, that the beft re6tories belonging to it were bought

with his money :

and as he had been fo bountiful a patron to

it while he lived, and a fecond founder as it were, fo he left

to it at his death an eftate, for ten or more exhibitions for

ever. It is fiiid, that he brought his body to an ill habit, and

wafted his fpirit?, by too much zeal for the public, and by

forming too many noble defigns ; and that all thefe things,

together with the unhappy turn of religion, which he dreaded

under king James II. contributed to fhorten his life. Be

this as it will, he died on the loth of July, 1686, to the

great lofs of learning, of the whole univerfity, and of the

church of England : for he was, as Mr. Wood has obferved

of him, *' the moft zealous man of his time for rhe church

*' of England ; a great encourager and promoter of learning

** in the univerfity, and of all public works belonging there-

*' unto; of great refolution and exemplary charity ; of ftri6t

** integrity; a learned divine; and excellently fkilled in the

'* Latin and Greek languages." Mr. Wood relates one fin-

guldrity of him, which is, that he was not at all well affected

to the Royal Society; and that the noted Mr. Stubb attacked

that illuftrious body, under his fan6tion and encouragement.

He was burled in Chriit-church cathedral ; and over his tomb,

which is a plain marble, is an elegant infcription, compofed

by the learned and polite dean Aldrich, his fucceflbr. He

never was married.

It may eafily be imagined, that fo a6^Ive and zealous a

man as bifhop Fell, had not much time to write books : yet

we find him the author and editor of the following works.

E 4 I. " The



, known

F E L L,

I. ** The Life of the moft reverend, learned, and pious Dr*

^' Henry Hammond, who died April 25, 1660." Lond.

1660. re- printed afterwards with additions at the head of

Hammond's works. 2. Alclnoi in Platonicam Philofophiam

Introdu(?iio. Oxon. 1667. In laudem Mufices Carmen

Sapphicum. Deligned probably for fomc of the public

exercifes in the univerfity, as it was fet to mufic. 4. Hifto-

ria et Antlquitates Univerfitatis Oxonienfis, &c. Oxon. 1 674.

2 vols.fol. This hiftory and antiquities of the univerfity of

Oxford, was written in EngHfh by Antony Wood, and tran-

ilated into Latin, at the charge of Dr. Fell, by Mr. Chriltopher

Wafe and Mr. Richard Peers, except what he did himielf.

He was alfo at the expence of printing it, with a good

chara6ter on a good paper; but '* taking to himfelf, fays

*' Mr. Wood, the liberty of putting in and out feveral things

** according to his own judgment, and thofe th^t he employ-

*' ed being not careful enough to carry the whole defign in

*' their head, as the author would have done, it is deiired

*' that the author may. not be accountable for any thing

•' which was inferted by him, or bi cenfured for any ufelefs

*' repetitions, or omiffions of his agents under him." At

the end of it, there is a Latin advertifement to the reader,

containing an anfwer to a letter of Mr. Thomas Hobbesj

wherein that author had complained of Dr. Fell's having

caufed feveral things to be omitted or altered, which

Antony Wood had written in that book in his praife. 5.

•* The Vanity of Scoffing : in a letter to ^ Gentleman.''

Lond. 1674. 6. St. Clement's two Epiftles to the Corinthians

in Greek and Latin, with notes at the end. Oxon. 1677.

7. *' Account of Dr. Richard AUefh'ee's life :" being the

preface to the faid doflor's fermons, publiOied by our author.

8. '« Of the Unity of the church :" tranflated from the ori-

ginal of St. Cyprian. Oxf. 1681. 9. A beautiful edition of

St. Cyprian's works, revifed and illuftrated with notes.

-Oxon. 1682. 10. Several Sermons. 11. The following

pieces written by the author of the Whole Duty of Man, with

prefaces, contents, and marginal abbreviations, viz. " The

" Ladies Calling ; The Government of the Tongue ; The

*' Art of Contentment; The Lively Oracles," &c. He alfo

\yrote the general preface before the folio edition of that un-

author's works. There is another piece, which was

afcribed to him, with this title, " The Intereft of England

" flated : or, a faithful and juft account of the aims of all

f' parties now pretending ; diftindly treating of the defign-.

Tments of the Roman Catholic, Royaliff, Prefbytenan,

" Anabaptiifj

F E N E L O N.

** Anabaptift," &c. 1659. 4to. but it not being certainly

known, whether he was the author or not, we will not place

it among his works. One thing in the mean time, Mr.

Wood mentions, relating to his literary character, which muft

not be omitted : that " from the year i66r, to the time of

** his death, viz. while he was dean of Chrift-church, he

«' publifhed or re-printed every year a book, commonly a

*« clafTical author, againft new-years tide, to diftribute a-

** mong the ftudents of his houfe ; to which books he either

put an epiftle, or running notes, or corredions. Thefe,

fays Mr. Wood, I have endeavoured to recover, that the

'* titles might be known and fet down, but in vain."

We have juft mentioned Dr. Samuel Fell, our author's

father ; but it feems necelTary to fay fomething more of him.

He was born in the parifh of St. Clement's Danes, London,

1594; eleded ftudent of Chrift church, from Weftminfterfchool,

in 1 60 1 ; took a mafter of arts degree in 1608 ; ad-

mitted bachelor of divinity in 1616 ; and about that time be--yyQo^,3

came minifter of Freftiwater in the ifle of Wight. In May,Athen,

1619, he was inftalled canon of Chrift-church, and thefame^*^'^year

proceeded in divinity, being about that time domeftic

chaplain to king James I. In 1626, he was made Margaret

profefTor, and fo confequently had a prebend of Worcefter,

which was about that time annexed to the profeflbrfliip. He

was then a Calvinifl, but at length leaving his opinion, he

was, through archbifhop Laud's intereft, made dean of Lich-

field, in 1637; and the year following, dean of Chrift-

church. In 1647, he was ejefted from his deanery and vicechancellorfliip

by the rebels, who were fo exafperated at him

for his loyalty to the king, and zeal for the church, that they

actually fought his life : and being threatened to be murdered,

he was forced to abfcond. He died broken-hearted on

the ift of February, 1648-9; that being the very day, he was

made acquainted with the murder of his royal mafter king

Charle-. He was a public- fpirited man, and had the character

of a fcholar. Mr. Wood, though he fuppofes there were

more, only mentions thefe two fmall productions of his, viz.

Primitiae; five Oratio habita Oxoniae in Schola 7'heologiae,

9. Nov. 1626. and, Concio Latina ad Baccalaureos die cinerum

in Colofs. ii. 8. They were both printed at Oxford, in


FENELON (Francis deSalign AC de laMotte),

archbifhop of Cambray, and author of Telemachus, was of

;»p ancient and iiluftrious fan:^ily, and born at the caftle of





P E N E L O N.

Fenelon, In the province of Perigord, Auguft the 6th, 1651,

At twelve years of age he was fent to the univerfity of (Jahors

; and afterwards went to finifli his ftudies at Paris, un-

der the care of his uncle Anthony marquis of Fenelon, lieu-

tenant-general of the king's armies. Francis de Fenelon foon

made himfelf known at Paris, and at the age of nineteen

years preached there with general applaufe : but the marquifs,

who was a very wife and good man, feared left his nephew's

appearing fo early in the world might make him proud and

vain, and therefore perfuaded him to imitate for feveral years

the filence of Jefus Chrift. At the age of twenty- four, he

VicdeMr. entered into holy orders ; and three years after was chofen by

ie Tendon, the archbifhop of Paris, to be fuperior to the new convert

P»S«9' women in that city. In the year 16B6, which was the year

after the edict of Nantz was revoked, the king named him

to be at the head of thofe miffionaries, who were fent along

Tom. VI.

the coaft of Saintonge, and the Pais de Aunix^ to convert the

Proteftants : though indeed, there feems to have been but

little for thefe miffionaries to do, thofe Proteftants having

all been converted by feven or eight hundred fufiliers, fup-

poried by f ur or five companies of dragoons.

Having finiftied his milHon, he returned to Paris, and was

prefented to the king ; but lived two years afterwards without

going to court, being intirely taken up with inftru£ling again

the new female converts. And that he might forward this

good work by his writings, as well as his ledures, he pub-

liftied in >688, a little treatife, intitled, Education de FilleSy

or, ** The Education of Maidens :" which the author of

the Bibliotheque Unlverfelle, calls the beft and moft ufeful book,

P- 37=>' which had been written upon the fubje£i: in the French lan-

guage. In 1688, he publirhed a work, " concerning /^^

*' functions of the Paflors of the Church ;" written chiefly a-

gainft the Proteftants, with a view of fhewing, that the firft

authors and promoters of the Reformation had no calling,

and therefore were not true paftors. In 1689, he was

made tutor to the dukes of Burgundy and Anjou; and in

1693, chofen member of the French academy, in the room

of Mr. PelifTon deceafed. All the time Mr. de Fenelon

lived at court, he preferved the difmtereftednefs of an Hermit,

and never received, or afked any thing either for himfelf

or his friends. At laft, the king gave him the abbey of

St» Vallery, and forne months after the archbifhnpric of Cam-

bray, to which he was confecrated by monfieur Boflliet biftiop

of Meaux, in the year 1695.




F E N E L O N. 5$

But now a ftorm arofe againft him, which obliged him td C|

leave the court for ever i and was occafioned by his book, I

entitled, " An Explication cf the maxims of the Saints^ con-


6o F E N E L O N.

cry again ft ft; and the clamours coming to the king's ear,

his majefty expoftulated with the prelates, for having kept

fecret from him what they alone knew. Upon this the bifhop

of Meaux waited on the king, and afked his majefty's pardon

for not acquainting him fooner with his brother^s fanati-


p. 50.

^V^' ^^^ controverfy was for fome time carried on be-

tween the archbifhop of Cambray and the bifhop of Meaux.

But as the latter infifted upon a pofitive recantation from the

former, monfieur de Fenclon applied to the king, and reprc-

fented to his majefty, that there was no other means to remove

the offence, which this controverfy occafioned, than

by appealing to the Pope : and therefore, he begged leave to

go himlelf to Rome. But the king fent him word, that it

was fufficient to carry his affair thither, without going him-

felf ; and accordingly, it was brought before the Conjultaton

of the Inquifition to be examined. They were divided in

their opinions : but at laft the Pope condemned the book,

with twenty-three proportions extra(5ted from it, by a brief

dated March the 12th, 1699.

Some of the archbifhop's friends have pretended, that

there was in this affair more court-policy, than zeal for re-

ligion. They have obferved, that this Itorm was conjured

up againft him at a time, when the king thought of cTiufing

an almoner for the duchefs of Burgundy : and that there was

no way of preventing him, who had been tutor to the duke

her hufband, and who had acquitted himfelf perfectly well

in the functions of that port, from being made her almoner,

but by railing fufpicions of herefy againft him. They think

themfelves fufficiently juftihed and confirmed in this opinion,

by bifhop Boffuet's being made almoner, after Mr. de Fenelon

was difgraced and removed.

Be this as it will, the archbiftjop fubmitted patiently to the

Pope's determination, and retired to his diocefe of Cambray,

where he led a moft exemplary life, acquitting himfelf punc-

tually in all the duties of his ftation. Yet he was not fo

much taken up with them, nor fo deeply engaged in his contemplative

devotion, but he found time to enter into the controverfy

with the Janfenifts. He laboured not only to confute

them by his writings, but alfo to opprefs them by procuring

a bull from Rome againft a book, which cardinal de

Noailles, their chief fupporr, had approved : the book was

father Qiiefnel's *' Refleftions upon the New Teftament."

The Jefuits, who were refolved to humble that prelate, had

formed a great party againft him, and prevailed with the

archbifhop of Cambray to afTift them in the affair. * He engaged

F E N E L O N. 6i ^

gaged himfelf; wrote many pieces againft the Janfenlfts, the

chief of which is the " Four Paftoral Letters," printed in \

1704, at Valenciennes; and fpared no pains to get the car- j

dinal difgraced, and the book condemned, both which were i

at length effected. I

But the work, that has gained him the greateft reputation,

and for which he will be immortal, is his Telemachus. It

was begun to be printed at Paris; but there were hardly '2-OO^j'"^^'




pages printed off, when the imprelTion was flopped by the p. yg^.

king's command. We are told in the preface to the firft cor-Oeuvres, ^ ^

re6t edition of Telemachus, which was printed at the Hague'°"^' ^"^

in 1701, that a fervant, whom he employed as an amanuen- '1

fis, took fecretly a copy of his work, and fold it to a book-

feller : and it is certain, that it was handed about in manu- \

fcript. At laft Moetjons, a bookseller, got a copy of it,

after it had been prohibited at Paris, and printed it in the '

year 1699. -It has

great many places :

been reprinted feveral times fmce, in a

and in 17173 after the author's death,



his heirs gave a new edition of it,

compleat edition. This book fold

which they fay is the only

prodigioufly, and no work


ever had a greater reputation. The ftile of it is lively, na-



tural, beautiful ; the fidions well contrived ; the moral <

fublime ; and the political maxims tending all to the happi- ,

nefs of mankind. But, as monfieur Bayle fays, " what con- :

" tributed moft to the fuccefs of this work, is doubtlefs tbe ^

" author's fpeaking to the tafte of all nations ; and efpecial-

" ly of thofe, who, like the French, have felt the dreadful \

'* efFedts of arbitrary power, which he has very well de- \

'* fcribed and expofed." Some perfons have imputed the \

archbifhop's downfall to the maxims difperfed through his

Telemachus, and not to his Maxims of the Saints concerning


the interior life. " It is a misfortune for France," fays mon-^^^ j^ j

fieur le VafTor, '« that the archbiftiop of Cambray mull: h2i\/eLouhXUi,


" been a Quietift, whether he would or no. Pofterity wiIl'^'^"^-"^'P*^ ;

'* always do juttice to this worthy prelate. His true herefy

*' was in politics, and not in divinity. Some maxims difperfed^

*' through his Avanturei de Telemaquc^ feemed to Lewis the

*' XlVth more capable of corrupting the minds of his grand- ^

" children, than the maxims of the Jaints^ which monfieur

€z F E N E L O N.

hmachus^ which, if it be true, as all the world feems to think

it is, was a fufficient caufe for Lewis the XlVth, to contrive

a quarrel with him, and to banifh him as far as poflible from

the court.

In the year 171 3, he publifhed another confiderable work,

intitled, '* A Demonjiration of the Being cf God^ grounded on

*' the knowledge of Nature^ and fuited to themeane/i capacity. ^^

This is one of the bcft books, that is written in French upon

that fubjed. There goes another work under his name with

this title, *' Dialogues cf the great men in the Elyjian Fields^,

" applied to the manners of this age :'^ but this is faid not to anfwer

the reputation of its author. His Dialogues fur /' Elo^

querice, or, " Dialogues upon Eloquence," though compof-

ed in his youth, was not publifiicd till after his death, in the

year 1718. It contain^, many litie obfervations, exprefled in

an eafy ftile. He dieii in the beginning of January, 1715,

aged fix ty- three years, and upwards.

He was certainly a man of great learning, great genius,

of a fine tafte, and exemplary manners : yet many have

fufpedted, that he was not always, fincere, and intirely free

from ambition. For his fincerity, confider him as the author

of a book, compofed, as his Maxims of the Saints was,

with the utmoft care, and which hardly contained any thing

but extra61s from the Fathers of the Church, whofc writings

he had diligently read and examined. This book was

condemned at Rome, in fpite of all his explications and vin-

dications i he fubmits immediately to the fentence; he prohibits

the reading of the book, fuppofing it erroneous, and

yet never offered to fliew where the error lay. Can it be fuppofed,

that he condemned it from his heart ? that he chang-

ed his opinion of it, as foon as he knew it was condemned ?

Yet we mud either fuppofc this, or confefs that Mr. de Fenelon

diflembled upon riiis occafion. For his ambition, one

can hardly afcribe to any other motive his condudt towards

the Janfenifts and cardinal de Noaiiles. How could a man of

bis exalted devotion enter into a controverfy, plainly carried

on upon worldly principles and defigns ? how fet himfelf

at the head of a party, m order to ruin a great and worthy

prelate, if it were not with a view of re-ingratiating himfelf

with thofe in power ? However, let us not be mifunderftood

we only take notice of thefe marks of human frailty, tofhew,

that the greateft and beft of men are not exempt from it.

Befides the works of our author, already mentioned, they

. have publifhed fmce his death, Lettres fur la Religion, " Let-

" ters upon Religion ;" fome of which were written to the



F E N T O N. 63

late duke of Orleans, who had a conftant friend/hip with,

and regard for our prelate. There has of late years been

printed at Rotterdam, a colledion of all his fpiritual works,

under the care of the marquifs de Fenelon, his grand-nephew,

and embaflador from his moft Chriftian majefty to the Statesgeneral

; which colledion contains feveral pieces, that had

never been printed.

FENTON (Sir Geoffrey), an eminent writer and

ftatefman, during the reigns of queen Elizabeth and king

James I. was defcended from an ancient family in Nottinghamlhire,

and born about the middle of the fixteenth century.

He was certainly educated liberally, though we cannot

tell where ; fince, while a young man, he gave many

proofs of his acquaintance with ancient and modern learning,

and of his being perfe(Stly verfed in the French, SpanifLi,

and Italian languages. He is well known for a tranflatioa

from the Italian of " The Hiftory of the Wars of Italy, by

*' Guicciardini," the dedication of which to queen Elizabeth

bears date January the 7th, 1579. This was however

his laft work, he having publiftied before, i. *' An

*' Account of a difpute at Paris, between two Do6lors of

** the Sorbonne, and two Mmiilers of God's Word,"

Lond. 1 57 1. 4to. A Tranflation. 2. " An Eplftle, or

•' Godly Admonition, fent to the Paftors of the Flemifh

" Church in Antwerp, exhorting them to concord with

*' other Minifters : written by Antony de Carro." Lond.

1578. 8vo. A Tranflation. 3. " Golden Epiftles : con-

*' taining variety of difcourfes both moral, philofophical,

and divine, gathered as well out of the remainder of Gue-

*' vara's works as other authors, Latin, French, and Ita*

*' lian. Newly corrected and amended. Moa heur viendra."

Lond. 1577. 4to. In order to underftand this title-page

clearly, it is oeceflary to inform the reader, that the familiar

epiftles of Antony Guevara, had been publilhed in Englilh

by one Edward Helloes i fo that this collection of Mr. Fenton's

confided of fuch pieces of the fame author, as were

not contained in that work. The epiflle dedicatory is to the

right honourable and vertuous lady Anne, countefs of Oxenford

; and is dated from the author's chamber in the Blackfriars,

London, February the 4th, 1575. This lady was

the daughter of fir William Cecil, lord Burleigh : and it appears

from the dedication, that that noble perfon was our

author's beft patron ;

and that one great purpofe of Mr. Fen-

ton, in tranflating and publifhing this wprk, was to


64 ,


E N T O N.

teftify his warm zeal


and abfolute attachment to that great

What the inducements were, which engaged him to leave

his own country, in order to ferve the queen in Ireland, cannot

eafily be difcovered : it is however certain, that he went

thither well recommended, and that being in particular favour

with Arthur lord Grey, then lord-deputy in that kingdom,

he was fworn of the privy- council about the year 1581.

It is more than probable, that his intereft might be confider-

ably ftrengthened by his marriage with Alice, the daughter of

Dr. Robert Wefton, fometime lord chancellor of Ireland,

and dean of the arches in England, a man of great parts,

and who had no fmall credit with the earl of Leicefter, and

other ftatefmen in the court of queen Elizabeth : and when he

was once fixed in his office of fecretary, his own great abili-

ties and fuperior underltanding, made him fo ufeful to fuc-

ceeding governors, that none of the changes, to which that

government was too much fubjeil in thofe days, wrought any

alteration in his fortune. One thing, indeed, might greatly

contribute to this, which was the ftrong intereit he found

means to raife, and never was at a lofs to maintain, in England

; fo that whoever was lord lieutenant in Ireland, fir

Geoffry Fenton continued queen Elizabeth's counfellor there,

as a man upon whom fhe depended, from whom (he took

her notions of ftate- affairs in that ifland, and whofe credit

with her was not to be ftiaken by the artifices of ^ny fadion


In 1603, fir GeofFry married his oaly daughter Katherlne

to Mr. Boyle, afterwards the great earl of Corke ; and died

athishoufe in Dublin, O^lober the 19th, 1608. He was

interred with much funeral folemnity at the cathedral church

of St. Patric, in the fame tomb with his wife's father, the

lord chancellor Wefton; leaving behind him the character

of a polite writer, an accomplifhed courtier, an able ftatefman,

and a true friend to the Englifh nation, and Proteflant

intereft in Ireland.

FENTON (Elijah), an Englifh poet, was defcended

from an ancient family, and born at Shclton, near Newcaftle

under the Line, in StafFordlhire : but we know not exaftly

when. He was the youngefl of twelve children, and was intended

by his parents for the miniftry. He was fent to the

univerfity of Cambridge, where he embraced principles very

oppofite to the government, by which he became difqualified

for entering into holy orders. We find hiijia foon after his



?]uitting the univerfity, fecretary to the earl of Orrery: but vi

how long he remained in that ftation, we cannot afcertain.

After he quitted the fervice of this noble peer, it was his

cuftom to pay a yearly vifit in the country to his brother,

who poflefled an eftate of loool. per annum. He was a

man of great tcndernefs and humanity, and carried the faireft

reputation. After a life of eafe and tranquillity, he diet! at *

Eaft-Hampftead-Park, near Oakingham, on the 13 th of July,

1730,' much regretted by all men of tafte, as, what is very

fmgular, having never been obnoxious to the refentment of t

his brother-poets. He publilhed a volume of Poems in the

year 171 7 : and in the year 1723, he introduced upon the i

Stage his Tragedy of Mariamne, built upon the flory related

of her in the third volume of the Spedator, which the inge- i

jiious author colle6led out of Jofephus. He publiftied alfo,

a very fine edition of the works of Mr. Edmund Waller,

illuftrated with full and ufeful notes of his own. Mr. Fen- \

ton was much beloved and effeemed by Mr. Pope, who >

honoured him with the following beautiful Epitaph :


" This modeft flone, what few vain marbles can, 1

*' May truly fay. Here lies an honeft man :

" A Poet, blefs'd beyond a Poet's fate,

*' Whom Heaven kept facred from the proud and great

*' Foe to loud praife, and friend to learned eafe, >

*' Content with fcience in the vale of peace. \

" Calmly he looked on either life, and here ^

" Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear

*' From Nature's temperate feaft rofe fatisfy'd, i

" Thank'd Heaven, that he had li\^'d, and that he dy'd. \

FERNELIUS (John), phyflclan to Henry the II. I

king of France, was born in Picardy, at the latter end of i

the 15 th, or the beginning of the i6th century: we cannot Bayle's ^

tell which, for there are difputes about his age. He was not^^"^* J

very young, when he was fent to Paris to ftudy Rhetoric and

Philofophy : but he made fo quick a progrefs, that having

been admitted maffer of arts after two years time, the prin- i

cipals of the colleges flrove, who (hould have him to teach

Logic ; and ofFered him a confiderable flipend. He would


not accept their offers ; but chofe to render himfelf worthy )

of a public profefTor's chair by private ffudies and k

66 F E R N E L I U S.

verfation. He read Cicero, Plato, and Ariflotle. The read-

ing of Cicero procured him this advantage, that the lectures

he read on phiiofophical fubjec^s were as eloquent, as thofe

of the other matters were barbarous at that time. He alfo

applied himfclf very earneftly to the Mathematics.

This continual ftudy drew upon him a long fit of ficknefs,

which obliged him to leave Paris. On his recovery he

returned thither with a defign to ftudy phyfic ; but before he

applied himfelf entirely to it, he taught Philofcphy in the

college of St. Barbara. After this he fpent four years in the

fludy of Phyfic ; and taking a doctor's degree, confined him-

felf to his clofet, in order to read the bell authors, and to

improve himfelf in the Mathematics ; that is, as far as the

bufinefs of his profeffion would fuffer him. Never was a

man more diligent than Fernel. He ufed to rife at four a

clock in the morning, and ftudied till it was time either to

read lectures, or to vifit patients. He then examined the

urine that was brought him, for this was the method of thofe

times, with regard to the poor people, who did not fend for

the phyfician. Coming home to dine, he {liut himfelf up

among his books, till they called him down to table. Rifing

from table, he returned to his ftudy, which he did not leave

without neceflary occafions. Coming home at night, he

did juft as at noon : he ftaid am.ong his books, till they called

him to fupper; returned to them the moment he had fupped ;

and did not leave them till eleven a clock, when he went to

bed. So much pains do fome men take to get ill health and

the fpleen, which however we do not find to have happened

to Fernel.

In the courfe of thefe fludies, he contrived mathematical

inftruments, and was at great charges in making them.

His wife, who feems to have been a fpirited thrifty woman,

did not like thofe expences, by which even a part of her fortune

was wafled. She murmured, fhe cried, {he complained

of it to her father, who was a counfellor at Paris. Fernel

fubmitted at laft, fent all his inftrument-makers away, and

applied himfelf in good earneft to praif^ife phyfic. But as

vifiting patients did not employ his whole time, he refumed.

the fame office, in which he had been engaged already, of

reading public ledures upon Hippocrates and Galen. This

foon gained him a great reputation through France, and in

foreign countries. His bufinefs increafing, he left off reading

ledures; but as nothing could make him ceafe to ftudy in

private, he fpent all the hours he could fpare in compofing a

work of phyfic, intitled, Phyfiologia, which was foon after


F E R N E L I U S. 67

publiflied. He was prevailed with to read leftures upon this

new work, which he did for three years : and undertaking

another work, which he pubHfhed, De venae feitione, he laid

himfelf under a neceffity of reading lectures fome years longer j

for it was paffionately defired,

new book to the youth.

that he would alfo explain this

While he was thus employed, he was fent for to court, in

order to try whether he could cure a lady, whofe recovery

was defpaired of. He was fo happy as to cure her, v\^hich

was the firft caufe of that efteem, which Henry the II. who

was then but Dauphin, and was in love with that lady, con-

ceived for him. This prince offered him even then the

place of firft phyfician to him ; but Fernel, who infinitely

perferred his ftudies to the hurry of a court, would not ac-

cept the employment, and had even recourfe to artifice, in

order to obtain the liberty of returning to Parfs. Ke reprefented

firft, that he was not learned enough to d^ferve to be

cntrufted with the health of the princes ; but that, if he were

permitted to return to Paris, he would zealoufly employ all

means, to become more learned, and more capable of ferv-

ing the Dauphin. This excufe being not admitted, he pre-

tended, in the next place, to be fick, and fent to the prince

a chirurgeon, who was accuftom.ed to fpeak familiarly to him,

and who ^ told him, That Fernel had a pleurify, which grief

would certainly render mortal ; and that his grief was occa-

fioned by his being abfent from his books, and from his family,

and by his being obliged to difcontinue his lectures, and

lead a tumultuous life. The prince, giving credit to this

falfe ftory, permitted Fernel to retire, A man, as Mr.

Bayle oblerves, muft be exceffively in love with his ftudies,

and with a philofophical life, when he employs fuch tricks to

avoid, what all others are defirous to obtain ?

When Henry came to the throne, he renewed his entrea-

ties : but Fernel reprefented, that the honour which was of-

fered to him was due, for feveral reafons, and as an hereditary

right, to the late king's phyfician ; and that as for himfelf,

he wanted fome time to make experiments concerning feveral

difcoveries he had made relating to phyfic. The king admitted

this : but as foon as Francis the Firft's phyfician died, Fer-

nel was obliged to go, and fill his place at Henry the lid's

court. And here juft the contrary to what he dreaded canie

to pafs : for he enjoyed more reft and more leifure at court,

than he had done at Paris j and he might have confidered the

court as an agreeable retirement, had i- not becri for the journies,

which the new civil war obliged tlttking to take. Be-

F 2 ing

V ^ probable,



F E R N E L I U S.

ing returned from the expedition of Calais, he made his

wife come to Fontainbleau : but this good woman was fo




Francis Vimercat, who was profefTor in the royal college at

Paris, in the reign of Francis the I. returning to Italy upon

the death of that kin^r, fixed upon him, preferably to all

other men, for the publication of his works. He continued

at Padua four years, and then returned to Milan ; where he

continued to teach philofophy till his death, which happened

in the year 1586. Bartholomew Capra the civilian, his intimate

friend, to whom he left his library, made his Funeral

Oration. Though he was excellently fkilled in polite litera-

ture, yet he was principally famous for Philofophy, being

efleemed a fecond Ariftotie. He was no lefs illullrious for

his probity, than for his learning.

He was the author of feveral works; as, i. De Sermonibus

Exotericis. Venet. 1575. in 4to. Ferrari treats here of

that part of Ariftotle's do£lrine, which was intended for all

forts of people, without meddling with the Acroamatics,

which were only for the ufe of his fcholars. This book was

re-printed at Francfort, 1606. in 8vo. with a new diflerta-

tion of Ferrari de difciplina Encyclia, under the general title

of Clavis Philofophiae Peripateticas Ariftotelicae. 2. De

Origine Romanorum. Milan, 1607. in 8vo. Though

death prevented Ferrari from putting the laft hand to this

work, yet Graevius thought proper to infert it in the firfl

volume of his " Roman Antiquities," and added his own

corrections to it. 3. fie trandated Athenaeus into Latin, and

wrote Ibme notes upon Ariftotle.

FERRARI (Francisco Benardino), of the fame

family with the former, was a very learned man, and born at

Milan about the year 1677 Being entered at firfl as a novice

in the Congregation of St. A mb' ofe and St. Charles, he applied

himfelf with great fuccefs to Philofophy and Divinity, as well as

to the Latin, Greek, Spanifh and French languages, and

was admitted adpdor of the Ambrofian-college. His vaft

knowledge i f books, and abilities in all kinds of learning,

induced Frederic Borromeo archbifhop of Milan, to appoint

him to travel into divers parts of Europe, in order to purchafe

the bed books and manufcripts, with a defign to form

a library at Milan. Ferrari pafied over part of Italy and

Spain, and collecSfed a great number of books, which laid

the foundation of the famous Ambrofian library. About the

year 1638, he was appointed direclor of the College of the

Nobles, lately ere^kd at Padua : which office he difcharged

two years, and then on account of indifpofuion returned to



FERRARI. 'fi \

Milan. He died the 30th of January, 1669, aged ninety- ;

two years. J

He wrote, i. De Antiquo Ecclefiafticarum Epiftolaru^ \

Genere libri tres. Milan, 1613. in 8vo. 2. De Ritu Sa- !

crarum Ecclelide Catholicae concionuin libri tres. Milan, ^

1620. in 4to. This work is very curious, and was after-

wards printed in 8vo. at Utrecht, i6gi, cum prasfatione

Joannis Georgii Graevii. 3. De Veterum acclamationibus & •

plaulu libri feptem. Milan, 1627. in 4to. It is likewife


reprinted in the fixth volume of Graevius's '* " quities."

Roman Anti-

Ferrari began feveral other works upon various



points of antiquity, both ecclcfiailical and profane ; and it is i

a little to be wondered at, that though he lived forty-two \

years after the publication of the la(t mentioned book, he -

Hiould not have publifhed fome other. All his writings arcgji^j ^^^

full of learning and curious refearches into antiquity: and heAuteursEor

wrote with great clearnefs and method, is very judicious in^^^!* '^o'"' ,'

his conje6lures, and exa6t in his quotations. This at leaft^^J^^' '°J*

is vi^hat the learned and impartial Du Pin fays of him. in 410. i

FERRARI (OcTAVio), of the fame family with the J

former, was alfo a very learned man, and born at Milan upon i

the 2Cth of May, 1607. His father dying when he was ]

very young, his uncle Francifco Bernardino Ferrari, men- ]

tioned in the former article, took him home to his houfe, and

educated him. He went through his ftudies in the Ambro- ]

fian college : and after he had paiTed through his courfe of -'

Philofophy and Divinity, applied himfelf intirely to polite

literature. He made fo great a progrefs in it, that cardinal \

Frederic Borromeo entertained a great efteem and afFe6tion ;

for him, and procured him a profeflbrfhip of Rhetoric in that

college, though he was then but one and twenty years old.

Six years after, the Republic of Venice invited him to Padua,

in order to teach Eloquence, Politics, and the Greek Ian- '

guage, in the univerfity of that city. This univerfity was


then extremely in its decline : but Ferrari reftored it to its ;

former flourifhing ftate. The Republic rewarded him by

enlarging his penfion every fix years, which from five hun- ^

dred ducats was at laft raifed to two thoufand. After the ;

death of Jofeph Ripamonte, hiftoriographer of the city of

Milan, Ferrari was appointed to write the hiftory of thai

city, and a peniion of two hundred crcfwns was fettled on him

for that purpofe. He began, and compofed eight books;

but finding that they would not communicate to him the

neceiTary materials, which were repofiied in the archives i

F 4 of ^








, work.


I of Milan, he defifted, and left what he had done to his

heir, on condition that he fliould not publifli it. His repu-

tation procured him prefents and penfions from foreign princes.

ChriOina queen of Sweden, in whofe honour he had

made a publicdiicourfe, upon her mounting the throne, prefented

him with a golden chain, and honoured him with her

letters. Lewis XIV. of France, gave him a penfion of five

hundred crowns for feven years. He died upon the 7th of

March, 1682, in the 75th of his age. Re was remarkable

for the fweetnefs, fmcefity, and affability of his temper

and had fo happy a way of mitigating perfons exafperated

againft each other, that he acquired the title of the '' Re-

*' conciler, or Pacificator."

His works are, i . De Re Veftiaria libri tres. Padua, 1 642.

In 1654, he added four books more to a fecond edition.

2. Anale6la de re veftiaria, five excrcitationes ad Alberti Ru»

benii Commentarium de re veftiaria et lato clavo. Acceflit

Differtatio deveterum lucernis fepulchralibus. Padua, 1670.

This was afterwards, in 1685, fubjoined to his book, De

re veftiaria. The feven books of Ferrari, De re veftiaria,

>re inferted in the fixth book of Graevius's " Roman Anti-

F E R R A R S. 73

naee has written a book upon the fame rubje£t, to corre£l

the^ errors of Ferrari. 9. De Pantomimis & Mimis Difler-

tatio. 10. DilTertaiiones duae; altera de balneis, de gladiatoribus

alcera. Thefe two works are pofthumous, and were

pubhfhed by John Fabricius, the former at Wolfenbuttle,

1 7 14. in 8vo J the latter at Helmftad, 1720. in 8vo.

FERRARS (George), a learned lawyer, a grave hif-

torian, a celebrated poet, and a mo ft accomplifhed courtier, -^^oj^^

in the reigns of Henry Vill. Edward VI. queen Mary, andAthen.

queen Elizabeth, was defcended from an antient family in^*^"*

Hertfordfliire, and born there in a village not far from St.

Albans, about the year 15 10. He was bred at the univerfity

of Oxford, and removed from thence to Lincolns-Inn

where he applied himfelf with fo much fuccefs to the ftudy of

the law, that he foon began to be taken notice of in Weftiiiinfter-hall

as an advocate, at the fame time that he was

much admired at court for his wit and good-breeding. His

firft rife in his profeflion, and at court, was owing to the

king's great minifter, Cromwell earl of Eflex; who was himfelf

a man of great parts, and took a pleafure in countenancing

and advancing fuch. Upon the fall of this patron,

he quit the public exercife of his profeffion as a lawyer ; not

however before he had given evident teftimonies of his know-

ledge and learning, as appears from, i. '* The double tran-

** flation of Magna Charta from French into Latin and Eng-

'' lifli. 2. Other Laws enabled in the times of Henry IIL

and Edward L tranflated into Englifh."

Afterwards he became the king's menial f^rvant, whom he

attended in war as well as in peace ; and ferved not with his

pen only, but with his fword. In fliort, he was a very gal-

lant man in all fenfes of the word, and fo much in favour

with king Henry, as to receive from that monarch, a very

confiderable grant in his own native country, out of his proper

and private eftate. This was in the year 1535 ; yet he

managed fo ill, that fome years after, when he was member

of parliament for Plymouth, he had the misfortune, during

the feflions, to be taken in execution by an oiiicer belonging^/"^ .^


to the iheriiFs of London, and carried to the Compter. ThCp, 1255.*

news of this, however, being carried to the Houfe of Com- X.ex Pariiamons,

occafioned fuch a difturbance there, as not only pro- "'^"g^"*'

duced his difcharge, but a fettled rule with refpeiSt to privi-HoHing-

lege. He continued in high favour with king Henry all his^ied's

reign, and feems to have {food upon good terms with the^^^^iil

lord protector Somerfet, in the beginning of king Edward's ;p. 555,



F E R R A R S.

fince he attended the Prote6lor, as a commifTioncr of the

army, into Scotland in the year 1548. King Edward alfo

had a fingular kindnefs for him, as appeared afterwards at a

very critical juncture. For when the unfortunate duke of

Somerfet Jay under fentence of death, the people murmuring

on the one hand, and the king uneafy and melancholy on the

Stowc's other, it was thought expedient to do fomething, to quiet and



amufe the one, and if poffible to entertain and divert the other.

In order to this, at the entrance of Chriftmas hoHdays, Cj^orge

Ferrars, Efq; was proclaimed Lord of Misrule, that is,

a kind of prince of fports and paftimes j which office he

difcharged for twelve days together at Greenwich with great

magnificence and addrefs, and entirely to the king's fatis-

fadion. In this charader, attended by^ the politeft part of

the court, he made an excurfion to London ; where he was

very honourably received by officers created for that purpofe,

fplendidly entertained by the lord mayor, and, when he took

leave, had a handfome prefent made him in token of refpeft.

But although he made fo great a figure in the diversions of

a court, he preferved at the fame time his credit with all the

learned world, and was no idle fpedator of political aiFairs*

This appears from the hiftory of the reign of queen Mary,

which though inferted in the Chronicle, and publifhed under

the name of Richard Grafton, was actually written by our

5.^, author; as Stowe exprefsly tells us. Our author was an

hiftorian, a lawyer, and a politician, even in his poetry ;

as appears from pieces of his, inferted in a work intitled,

*' The Mirrour for Magiftrates, wherein may be ken, by

" examples pafled in this Realm, with how grievous plagues

*' vices are punifhed in great Princes and Magiftrates, and

*' how frail and unftable worldly profperity is found, where

** fortune; feemeth moft highly to favour." The firlt edition

of this work was publifhed in 1559, by William Baldwin,

who prefixed an epiftle before the fecond part of it, wherein

he fignifies, that it was intended to reprint, '' The Fall of

*' Princes," by Boccace, as tranflated into Englifh by Lidgate

the monk J but that, upon communicating his defignto

ieven of his friends, all of them fons of the Mufes, they dif-

fuaded him from that, and propofed to look over the Englifh

Chronicles, and to pick out and drefs up in a poetic habit

fuch ftories, as might tend to edification. Our author contributed

to this colle£tion the following pieces : i. "The

" Fail of Robert Trefilian, Chief Juiiice of England, and

•' other his fellows, for mifcbnftruing the Laws, and ex^

*' pounding them to ferve the Prince's affed^ions. 2. The

*' Tragedy,

F E R R A R S. 75 ]

*« Tragedy, or unlawful murder, of Thomas of Woodftock,

" duke of Gloucefter. 3. Tragedy of king Richard II. j

*' 4. llie Story of dame Elianor Cobham, duchefs of ]

*« Gloucefter :" rnuch altered and augmented in the fecond


edition of 1587, in which are added, to the four already \

mentioned, 5. '* The Story of Humphrey Plantagenet, 1

*' duke of Gloucefter, proteftor of England. 6. TheTra-


*« gedy of Edmund duke of Somerfet/* !

With regard to our author's religion, it is very probable,


If not certain, that he was a fixed, perhaps a zealous Pro- ]

teftant. This may reafonably be colleded from his coming \

into the world under the protection of the lord Cromwell, j

who was undoubtedly of the Proteftant religion 5 and from ]

the high credit in which he ftood with the protestor Somer- ;

fet and king Edward, to which it is fcarce poffible he could \

have attained, if he had not been fo. In his hiftory alfo of \

the reign of queen Mary, though written with much caution I

and wonderful moderation, and wherein he fpeaks highly of ]

the perfonal virtues of that princefs, yet he fhews himfelf


clearly of the reformed religion ; more efpecially in the large i

account he gives of the death of archbifhop Cranmer, and Grafton's ;i

of fir Thomas Wiat's infurreiiion. He died in the year Chronicle, 4


buried in the parifti-church.

at his houfe at Flamftead in Hertfordfhire, and was?* '3So« 1

There ilouriftied alfo at the fame time with him, one Mr:


Edward Ferrars, a Warwickfhire gentleman of a good fami- ]

]y, bred at Oxford, a celebrated poet likewife, and much in '

the good graces of Henry VIII. Wood calls him a very in- -

genious man ; and fays, that he wrote feveral tragedies and <

comedies. He died in 1564. ]

There was Henry Ferrars too of the fame county and fa- j

mlly, bred at Oxford, and afterwards famous for his knowj

ledge and fkill in heraldry, genealogies, and antiquities.


Mr. Wood fays, that out of the collections of this gentle.- I

man, fir William Dugciale laid part of the foundation of his ^ ;

elaborate work, intitled, " The Antiquities of Warwick- \

*' fhire illuftrated ;'* and that after fir William's death, feve- v

ral of Mr. Ferrars's colleiftions, that had come into his hands,

were repofited in the Afiimolean Mufaeum. Mr. Ferrars was

well known to, and refpedted by the learned Camden, who, 1

in his difcourfe of the Antiquity of the city of Coventry, i

makes this honourable mention of him : " Thus much of ',

*' Coventry, yet have you not all this of me, but, willingly ;

" to acknowledge by whom I have profited, of Henry Fer- i

" rars of Baldefly, a man both^for parentage and knowledge ;

" of antiquity \Qry commendable, and my fpecial friend I




F E R k I.

" who both in this place, and alfo elfewhere, hath at all

*' times courteoufly fhewcd me the right way when I was

*' out, and from his candle as it were hath lightened mine."

Mr. Ferrars had alfo, in his younger days, a good talent at

poetry, fome of which, Mr. Wood tells us, he had ken

Scattered in divers books, printed in the reign of queen Eli-

zabeth. He died the loth of O6tober, 1633, aged 84;

*' leaving behind him," fays Mr. VVood, " the chara6^er of

'* a well-bred gentleman, a good neighbour, and an honelt

FERRI (Paul), in Latin, Ferrius, was a moft learned

divine of Germany, and born of a confiderable family at

Mets, upon the 24th of February, 1591. He was fent

Bayle's ^q ftudy divinity at Montaban, and made fo uncommon

a progrefs, that he was admitted a minifter at Mets,

in the year 1610. Though he was but nineteen, he

had then publlftied a book of Poems ; the advertifement to

which, he finifhed in thefe words, fat ludo nugifque datum,

that is,

*' we have now fpent time enough in trifling amufe-

*' ments." He had eminent talents for preaching, being

the moft eloquent man of his province,. His noble prefence,

his venerable countenance, and fine delivery, added great

force to his eloquence, which was very moving. His enemies

fpread a falfe report of him, namely, that he was one

of the minifters, whom cardinal Richelieu had bribed to procure

a coalition of the tvi^o religions : however, it is certain,

that he was grieved at the divifion of the Proteftants, and

hoped that he could contribute fomewhat to forward a re-

See Art. union; and it is fuppofed, that with this view he kept a cor-

DURV, refpondence with Dury, His death happened on the 27th

of December, 1669: arKl there was found above fourfcore

flones in his bladder, which occafioned it. He had a very

fine library, -which he increafed by feverai works of his own.

In 1616, he publifhed Scholaftici Orthodoxi Specimen, in

which he fliews, that the Proteftant do61:rine of Grace has

been taught by the fchoolmen. This treatife gained him the

efteem of the illuftrious monfieur du Plelirs Mornay, who

wrote him a letter upon it, in which he advifed him about

another work he was upon, intitled, Le dernier defefpoir de

la Tradition, &c. that is,

*' The laft fhift of Tradition a-

*' gainft the Holy Scripture." In 1630, he publiflied at

Leyden, Vindiciae pro Scholaftico Orthodoxo, againft Leonard

Perinus, an eminent Jefuit, who had publifhed in 1619,

a book, intitled, Thrafonica Pauli Ferrii Calviniftae. In

1654, he publifhed, General Catechifme de la Reformation,

5 ,


F E R R I.

that is, " a General Catechirm to prove the necefllty of a

'* Reformation in the Church," which was anfwered by Boffuet,

afterwards bifhop of Condom and Meaux. We muft

not forget to obferve, that this minifter was pitched upon to

preach the Funeral Sermon on the death of Lewis Xlll. and

that on the death of the queen mother, Anne of Auftria

both which fermons have been printed. He alfo made, on

fome occafions, prayers for the recovery of their majeflies

health ; which prayers have alfo been publifhed, and arc,

Mr. Bayle fays, very beautiful.

FERRI (CiRo), a fkilful painter, was defcended of a

good family, and born at Rome in the year 1634. Eafy circumftances

did not hinder him from purfuing his inclination

and tafte for painting. He was a true and faithful imitator

of Peter Cortona, under whom he had been bred ; and to

whom he came fo near in his ideas, his invention, and his

manner of painting, that his ceilings particularly are oftea

miftaken for Cortona's. Though he fet great prices on his

works, he was in continual employ. Prince Borghefe and

Pope Alexander VII. had a great efteem for him : and his

three fucceilbrs were no lefs favourable to him. The Great

Duke fent for him to Florence, and afligned him a large penfion

to finilh the works, which Peter Cortona had left imper-

fect. He entered fo well into the fpirit of them, and acquitted

himfelf fo worthily, that the whole work feems to be

of the fame hand. The Great Duke nominated him chief

of the School of Florence; and fo he continued for a long

time. Ferri returned to Rome, where he appeared a great

architedl, as well as a good painter. Several palaces and

grand altars, as St. John of the Florentines, and that of the

Chiefa Nuova, were raifed from his defigns. He diverted

himfelf more with drawing than painting. He was much

importuned for devices, figures for breviaries, and titles of

books : feveral of which have been engraved by Spierre and

Bloemart. The Pope employed him in making cartoons for

the Vatican ; and no man has worked in more different kinds,

than he. The cupola of St. Agnes, in the palace of Navo-

na, was his laft work. The chagrin he felt in feeing the

angles of Bacici, which were directly under it, the force of

whofe colouring made his appear too weak, is faid to have

been the caufe of his death. One day he told Lazaro Baldi,

his companion, that his cupola appeared very different on the

fcafFold, from what it did from below, and that the angles of

Bacici gave him great pain : and falling fick foon after, he

died in the year 1689, aged fifty-five. This is an infiance to



78 F E R R I E R.


prove, that illnefs does not always arifc from the body, but

fometimes from the mind ; jealoufy, or rather envy having

confefledly been the caufe, not only of Ferri's illnefs, but of

his death.

FERRIER (Arnold de), one of the moft eminent

lawyers of his age, and called the Cato of France, was born

at Touloufe in the year 1506. He was admitted a doftor of

law at Padua; and from a profeflbr in the univerfity of Tou-

loufe, was raifed to be a counfellor in the Parliament of the

fame city. The circumflance which makes him chiefly memorable

now, is, that though he was a Proteftant in his

heart for a good part of his life, yet he did not profefs him-

felf fuch, till a little before his death. He had indeed often

difcovered, that he was at the bottom no very good Papift

and he was fo ftrongly fufpeded of herefy, after the famous

Mercuriale of the year 1559, that he would have been im-

prifoned, if he had not made his efcape. He harangued in

the year 1562, in the council of Trent, whither he was fent

embaflador by the moft Chriftian King; and he exprefled

himfelf in fo bold and free a manner, that fome of the more

zealous were highly ofFended at him. He went afterwards

embaffador to Venice, where he continued feveral years ; and

took occafion to afliil: father Paul, in colleding materials for his

hiftory of the council of Trent. On his return from Venice,

monfieur du Pleflis Mornay, who knew his thoughts, prelTed

him fo earneftly to declare the truth, that Ferrier openly profefled

himfelf a Proteftant : and the king of Navarre made

him his chancellor. He was about 76 years old at the time

of his renouncing Popery; and he only lived to be 79. It

has been faid, that he confpired with the chancellor de 1' Hof-

pital, to break the knot which united the moft Chriftian

King with the Holy See ; to aftsmble a national council, in

which the king of France, after the example of the king of

England, {hould be declared Head of the Gallican Church

and to ufurp all the eftates of the church of France. He was

reckoned among the greateft men in Europe, He was

the author of fome works in the literary way.

FERRIER (Jeremy), a m'nlfter and profeflbr of divinity

at Nimes, is, contrary to his namefake in the preceding

article, memorable for becoming a Papift, even after having

maintained in a public difputation in i6c2, that, " Pope

" Clement the Vlllth was properly the Antichrift." Who

would have fufpefled it ? Yet he was the firft who began to

yield in the political aflemblies of the reformed in France.


F E R R I E R. 79

Many circumftances in his behaviour had made him fufpci^cd

as a penfioner of the court, as a falfe brother, and a trai-

tor to the churches. He did not however openly change his

religion, till a popular tumult arofe againft him, in which his

houfe was plundered, and himfelf fo near being murdered,

that for the fake of efcaping, he was obliged to lie three

days concealed in a tomb : fo that, as Mr. Bayle obferves,

though " many have been compelled to come in, yet he

" may certainly be looked upon as one, who was compelled

«' to go out." After this he fettled at Paris, where he endeavoured

to make his fortune. He publifhed in 1614, the

year after his converfion, a book of controverfy upon the

fubjed of Antichrift. The king employed him in feveral

important aiFairs ; and in 1626, he was commanded to attend

his majefty in his journey to Britanny, where he was

honoured with the title of flate and privy counfellor. Car-

dinal de Richlieu had a particular efteem for him. He died

of a he£lic fever on the 26th of September, 1626. His family

was numerous ; yet there was but one daughter among

them. He made all his children promife, that they would

live and die in the Catholic Faith " : and you, my daughter,

'' fays he, who have had the happlnefs above your brothers,

*' that you were baptized in the church, do not you alfo

*' make me the fame promife ? " Monfieur Patin, in a letter

dated Auguft 25th, 1660, mentions this daughter in the following'manner

: " The lieutenant Criminal here is very ill.

*' His wife, who is a (brew, has beat him, and fhut him up

*' in a cellar. She is a worfe devil, than Pilate's wife was.

" She is daughter of Jeremy Ferrier, formerly a minifter of

" Nimes, but who abjured his rcl gion." In another letter

dated Auguft the 25th, 1665, Patin fpeaks alfo of this fame

woman *'

: Men talk here of nothing but the murder of Mr.

" Fardieu Lieutenant Criminal and his wife. The two mur-^

'' derers were immediately apprehended.—The whole people

*' go, in proceflion as it were, to pray for the fouls of this un-

" happy pair. The woman was fo prodigioufly covetous, that

** (he had neither a footman, nor coachman, nor maid -fervant:

** but chofe to wait on herfelf, in order to fpare her bread,

*' Prayers have been fafd in a folemn manner in St. Bartho-

*' lomew's-church, for the faid Lieutenant Criminal and his

" wife : but if fhe had no foul, what will become of thofe

'^ prayers? for as to the wax-tapers, they are burnt and con-

*« fumed." It is remarkable, that a fon alfo of Jeremy Fer-^^'p'['''^^*=*

rier was killed by fome footmen, whom he would have pre- 1665.

vented from ftriking his own ; fo that, we fee, here is a very



F E S T U S,

unfortunate family. Monfieur Boileau, in his lOth Satyr,

has formed a very curious Epifode from the marriage of Mr.

Fardieu and its confequences.

We muft not forget to obferve, that Ferrier was the reputed

author of a famous political work, intitled, Catholique

d* Etat ; in anfwer to fome libels, which the king of Spain's

partizans had publifhed againft France, upon allying herfelf

with the Proteftant Powers, to the prejudice of the (JathoHc


FESTUS (PoMPEius), a celebrated grammarian of

antiquity, who abridged a work of Verrius Flaccus de lignificatione

verborum. Flaccus lived under the emperors Augullus

and Tiberius ; and his work has been greatly commended

by Pliny, Aulus Gellius, Prifcian, and other ancient

writers. Feftus took the pains to abridge it ; not however

without taking great liberties : for he was not content with

ftriking out a vail number of words, but pretended to criticife

VoPT. ie the relt, and in a manner, as Gerard Voflius has obferved,


j^Qj favourable to the credit and reputation of Flaccus. He

met however with one afterwards, who revenged, as it were,

this treatment of Flaccus, by fliewing the fame to Feftus.

For in the eighth century Paul the deacon, undertaking to

make a fecond abridgment of the lirft, fo maimed and dif-

figured poor Feftus, that it was fcarce poflible to know him.

He lay in this miferable ftate, till a confiderable fragment of

him- being found in the library of cardinal Farnefe, fome pains

was taken to put him again into a little order. Scaliger, Ful-

vius Urfmus, Aldus Minutius, and others, have publiflied

three fragments of Feftus; but the moft complete edition is

that of Paris, i68r, in quarto, publiftied by Mr. Dacier for

the ufe of the Dauphin. This work is alfo to be found among

the Au6lores Latinae Linguge, colleiled together in a

body by Dionyfius Gothofredus in 1585, and afterwards reprinted

with emendations and additions at Geneva, in 1622.


Scaliger fays, that Feftus is an author of great ufe to thofe,

iefsava"ns. who would attain


the knowledge of the Latin tongue- with

FETTI (DoMENico), an eminent painter, was born at

Rome in the year 1589, and educated under Lodovico Civo-

11, a famous Florentine painter. As foon as he quitted the

fchool of Civoli, he went to Mantua ; where the paintings

of Julio Romano aftorded him the means of becoming a great

painter. From them he took his colouring, the boldnefs


F E T T I. 8i

of his characters, and a beautiful manner of thinking : and

it were to be wifhed, that he had copied the nice corredtnefs

of that mafter. Cardinal Ferdinand Gouzaga, afterwards

duke of Mantua, difcovered the merit of Fetti, retained him

at his court, furnifhed him with means of continuing his

ftudies, and at Jaft employed him in adorning his palace. ^

Fetti painted with great force, but fometimes, as is faid, too

darkly ; was very delicate in his thoughts ; had a grandeur

of expreffion, and a mellownefs of pencil, that relifhed

with the connoifleurs. His pi6tures are fcarce, and much

fought after. He painted very little for churches. Going to

Venice, he abandoned himfelf to diforderly courfes, which

breaking his conftitution put an end to his life in its veryprime

; for he was only in the 35th year of his age. The

duke of Mantua regretted him exceedingly, and fent for his

father and fifter, whom h€ always took care of afterwards.

The fifter painted well. She became a nun, and exercifed

her talent in the convent, which fhe adorned with feveral of

her works. Other religious houfes in Mantua were alfo de-

corated with her paintings.

FEVARDENTIUS (Francis), a famous Francif-

can friar, and very learned man, was born at Conftance in

. in- Lower Normandy in the year 1541 : and might have

herited a large eftate, had he not chofen to wear a monk's

habit rather than a fword. However, he feems to have

judged rightly of himfelf and his talents ; for he got, fays

Mr. Bayle, a much greater reputation under this drefs, than

he would have done in that of a gentleman. Mr. Daille

obferves, that '* he deferved his name perfectly well : for

*' that he was fo tranfported with anger, hatred, and fury,

** as to be feldom in hi^ right fenfes.*' Fevardent in French


fignifies a brifk fire : and indeed, he was as fiery a zealot,

and as bitter a perfecutor as the Proteftants ever had. He '

was one of the moft feditious preachers, who raifed the dlfturbance^

againlt Henry III. and Henry IV. of France;

nor did he fpare even the Chief of the Leaguers, when he

thought him guilty of fomething, that might prejudice the

caufe of the rebels. He "wrote commentaries on fome books

of Scripture, and tranflated fome works of the Fathers into

French. He publifhed at Paris in 1576, " The five books of

" Irenjeus, revifed and correiled in feveral places from an

** ancient manufcript, with an addition of five intire chap-

*< ters, which were in his manufcript at the end of the fifth

^' book. He has added, at the end of each chapter, fuch

Vol. V. G «< notes



dS^ ^


" notes as he thought neceflary for the better underflandlng

'' of his author. They are for the moft part ufeful and

" learned : but there are fome which go beyond the bounds,

" that a commentator ought to fet to himfelf ; fmce his de-

*' fign muft not be to appear learned, or to treat controvert-

'' ed fubje(51s, but only to explain his author. The fecond

" edition printed at Cologne, in 1596, and again in 1630,

«' and at Paris in 1639,

is better than the firft, becaufe it

*' contains the Greek paflages of Irenaeus, which were in

" Epiphanius, and in fomc other ancient writers." Thus

the impartial Dupin, in hiis account of Irenaeus. Fevardent

publirtied alfo fome books of controverfy, which the Catholics

themfelves own to have been written with too much

paflion. He died at Paris upon the ift of January in the

year 1610.

FEVRET (Charl-es), an eminent French civilian,

was born at Semur in Auxois, upon the i6th of December,

1583. In 1602, he attended into Germany the celebrated

monfieur Bongars, who was fent by Henry IV. refident

from France to the eledors and princes of the empire : but

foon left him to go and ftudy the law at Heidelberg, a famous

univerfity of Germany, where the well-known Godefroy

was at that time law-profefTor. Godefroy took great care of

Fevret, who was recommended to him by feveral perfons of

quality : he received him into his houfe, and cau(ed him to

hold public difput2tions with great applaufe. In the year

1607, Fevret returned to Dijon, where he married Mrs.

Anne Bri^net of Beaulne, by whom he had nineteen chil«

dren ; fourteen of which they brought up together during

eight years. After his wife's death, which happened in the

year 16^7, he caufed his bed to be made one half narrower,

and never would marry again. He gained great reputation at

the bar at Dijon ; and was chofen counfellor tq the three

eftates of the province.


In the year 1629, Lewis the Xlllth being come to Dijon,

in order to punifh the authors of a popular infurredion,

Fevret was chofen to petition the king, that he would gra-

cioufly be pleafed to pardon the guilty. He fpoke for all the

corporations, and made fo elegant a difcourfe, that the king

commanded him to print it, and to fend it to him at Lyons.

His majefty pardoned the authors of the fedition, and granted

to fevret the place of counfellor in the parliament of Dijon :

but not being permitted to fill it by a deputy, he refufed it,

becaufe he would not quit his profeflion of an advocate, and


. the

F E V R E T. 83

contented himfelF- with the pofi: of king's counfellor fecretary

to the court, with a penfion of 900 livres, which he obtained

gratis. As he was frequently fent a deputy to the court, he

was known to monfieur de Morillac, keeper of the feals of

France, who honoured him with his friendfhip. As early as

years 1626 and 1627, Monfieur, the king's brother, had

chofen him for his counfellor in ordinary in a!l his affairs :

and the prince of Conde had made him intendant of his

houfe, and of his affairs in Burgundy. He was continued in

the f^me poft by his fon Lewis de Bourbon prince of Conde ;

and during the life of thefe two princes, he was honoured

with their favour in a diftinguifhing manner. Frederic Calimir,

prince palatine of the Rhine, and his confort Amelia

Antwerpia, born princefs (f Orange, did alfo choofe him

for their counfel and intendant for their affairs in Burgundy.

He had a particular correfpondence with all the learned civilians

in his time! He died at Dijon upon the 12th of Augufl,

1661, in his 78th year.

He publifhed in 1645, a fmall Latin treatife, intitled,

De Claris Fori Burgundici Oratoribus j and his Traite de

r Abus, or, " Treatife of Abufes," in 1653. This laft celebrated

work was written at the follicitation of the fecond

Lewis de Bourbon prince of Conde. He enlarged it by one

half, which occafioned a fecond edition of it, publifhed after

his. death in 1667. It was reprinted a third time ten years

after ; but the beft edition is that of Lyons, 1736, in two

volumes folio. He made an excellent tranflation of Pybrac's

Quatrains, in Latin verfes, printed at Lyons 1667, with a

commentary under this title, De officiis vitae humanse, five,

in Pybraci fetrafiicha Comtnentarius. Several authors have

mentioned him and his works in a very honourable manner.

FICLNUS (Marsilius), a celebrated Italian, was

-born at Florence upon the 19th of October in the year

1433, and^ducated at the expence of Laurence de Medicis.

He attained a perfect knowledge of the Greek and Latin

tongues, and became a great philofopher, a great phyfician,

and a great divine. He was in the higheff favour with Laurence

and Cofmo de Medicis, who provided him plentifully

with every thing he wanted, and made him a canon of the

cathedral church of V^lorence, He applied himfelf intenfely

to the ftudy of phdofophy ; and while others were flriving

who fhould be the deepell read in Ariftotle, who was then

the philofopher in fafhion, he devottd himfelf wholly to

PLto. He was indeed the firft, who rellored the Platonic

G 2 Philofophy

F I C I N U S.

Philofophy in theVVefl^ for the better efFe£^ing of which,

he tranflated into Latin the whole works of Plato. There

goes a ftory, but we know not how true it is, that when he

had tiniftied his tranflation, he communicated it to his friend

Marcus Mufuru^, to have his approbation of it ; but that

Mufurus difliking it, he did it all over again. He had no

fooner ended his tranflation of Plato, but he was informed by

John Picus earl of Mirandula, that Cofmo delired to have

Plotinus t-anflated. This tafk Ficinus undertook and finifhed;

He not only tranftated Plotinus, but alfo made fummaries and

analyfes of each book. He tranflated alfo the works, or

part of them at leaft, of Proclus, lamblicus, Porphyrius,

and other celebrated Platonics.

In his younger years, Ficinus lived like a philofopher;

and too much (o, as is faid, to the negle6l of piety. However,

Savanorola coming to Florence, Ficinus went with

every body elfe to hear his fermons ; and while he attended

them for the fake of the preacher's eloquence, he imbibed a

flrong fenfe of religion, and devoted himfelf henceforward

more efpecially to the duties of it. He died at Correggio in

the year 1499, and, as Baronius afTures us upon the teftimony

of what he calls credible authors, appeared immediately

after his death to his friend Michael Mercatus : to whom,

it feems, he had promifed to appear, in order to confirm

what he had taught concerning the immortality of the foul.

His writings, lacred and prophane, are very numerous.

Among the former are his Treatife of the Chriilian Religion,

dedicated to Laurence de Medicis; eight books of the immortality

of the Soul and Eternal Happinefs ; a Commentary

upon St. Paul's Epiftle to the Romans, &c: among the latter,,

De Sole liber Allegoricus et'Anagogicus ; De Lumine

Jiber; De Vita ; De Voluptate, &c. His works were all

colleifled and printed at Venice in 15 16, and at Ba'il in

1561, and J576, and at Paris 1641, in two volumes folia.

Twelve books of his Epiftles, among which are many Treatifes,

were printed feparately in folio at Venice, 1495, and

at Nuremberg, 1497, in quarto.

FIDDES (Ricfiard), an eminent Englifli divine, and

ingenious and polite writer, was born of reputable parents,

at Hunmanby near Scarborough in Yorkftiire, in the year

2671. After reading the ufual dailies at a private fchool in

that neighbourhood, he was admitted of Corpus Chrifti, and

then of Univerfity-college, in Oxford ; where by his part?

and addrefs he gained many friends. However, he did not


F I D D E S. S5

continue there ; but after taking his batchelor of arts degree

in 1693, he returned to his relations, and married the fame

year a gentlewoman of good family and fortune. In 1694,

he was ordained prieft by Dr. Sharp archbifhop of York ;

and not long after, was prefented to the reftory of Halfhaiii

in that county. Halfham being fituated in a marfh, proved

the occafion of much ill health to Mr. Fiddes and his family ;

and he had the misfortune, while he was there, to be fo de-

prived on a fudden of his fpeech, as never to be able to utter

words very articulately after, unlefs, which is pretty extraor^

dinary, he was elevated with two or three glafles of wine

more than ufual. His diocefan, however, difpenfed with

his refidince upon his benefice for the future ; upon which he

removed to Wickam, and continued there fome months.

Being no longer able to difplay his preaching talents,

which before were confefledly very great; and having a numerous

family, he refolved to devote himfelf entirely to

writing. He was not the firft, who had been forced to eke

out an infufficient maintenance, by applying to that way of

life : Bayle and Le Clerc, much greater men, had been driven

to it before him. For this purpofe, he went to London ia

the year 1712 ; and by the favour of dean Swift, was introduced

to the earl of Oxford, who received him kindly, and

made him one of his chaplains. The dean, had a great

efteem for Fiddes ; and recommended his caufe with the

warmth and fmcerity of a friend. The queen foon after ap-

pointed him chaplain to the garrifon at Hull, and would pro-

bably have provided handfomely for him and his family, if

death had not prevented her. Lofmg his patrons upon the

change of the miniitry in the year 17 14. he loft the abovementioned

chaplainfhip ; and the expences of his family in-

creafing, as his ability to fupply them leffened, he was obliged

to apply himfelf to writing with greater aflidui;y than ever.

Neverthelefs, he continued in high efleem with his contemporary

writers, efpccially thofe of his own party ; and was

encouraged by fome of the mofl noted men of thofe times.

By the generofity of his friend and relation Dr. RatclifF, he

took the degree of batchelor of divinity ; and was afterwards

honoured by the univerfity of Oxford with his do(Si:or*3

degree, partly in confideration of his abilities as a writer,

and partly, no doubt, on account of his party. He died in

the year 1725, aged fifty-four years, at Putney, leaving be-

hind him an unhappy family, conlifting of a wife and fix

children ; and v/as buried in Fulham church-yard, near the re-

mftin? of bifliop Compton, to whom he had been much obliged.

%6 F I D D E S.

We fhall have occafion to mention other particulars, relating

to his life and chara6ler, in the c .talogue of his works,

which is now to foilow. His firft publication, as far as we

can find, was, i. ** A Prefatory Epiftle concerning fome

" Remarks to be publifhed on Homer's Iliad: occa-

** fioned by the propofals of Mr. Pope towards a new

" Englifti verfion of that Poem.'* Lond. 17 14. i2mo.

It is addrefTed to Dr. S.vift, to whom in the follow-

ing pafTage he "makes a grateful acknowledgment of his

obligations: " If this prefatory addrefs, fays he, may be of

any ufe, which you are the beft able to determine, I fhall

be glad to fee it made public; though from no other motive

of vanity, except that of being thought to have a

{hare in your friendihip, and to have received the moft in-

genious, the moft fenfible, and feafonable proofs of it.

In particular, from your recommending me to that noble

" Mccaenas of the age, who difpenfes his favours with a

*' magnihcencc, &c.

But the firft work, by which he diftinguiflied himfelf in

any confiderable degree, was, 2. " Theologia Speculativa:

" or the firft part of a body of divinity under that title,

*' wherein are explained the principles of Natural and Re-

*•* veajed Religion " Lond. 1718. folio. This work met

with a favourable reception froni the public : neverthelefs,

when Mr. Stackhoufe came afterwards to undertake a work

of a fimilar nature, he could not help fpeaking lightly of it.

" Dr. Fiddes, fays he, was a polite rather than a learned

'' man : and his want of books, and other proper encou-

" ragements, put him under the neccffity of enterta'ning us

" with a fine ftile and manner of exprefiion, .whereof he

F ! D D E S. ^7 j

« were never before printed." Thefe, as well as his '•Body 1

** of Divinity," were publifhed by fubfcrlption.

But the work which made the moft noife, which gained i

him the moft friends, and certainly the moft enemies, was, 4

4. " The Life of Cardinal Wolfey," printed at London in

1724, folio. It is dedicated to the chancellors, vice-chan-

cellors, the doctors, with the oiher members of the two 'j

univerfities: and the fubfcription for it was large. This 1

work was attacked with great feverity in the London Journal, g

and the author charged with being a Pa pi (t : who thereupon 1

publiflied, 5. *' An Anfwer to Britannicus, Compiler of the ^


" London Journal." Lond. 1725. This anfwer confifts

of two Letters 5 in the firft of which he endeavours to ob- j

viate the charge of Popery ; in the fecond, to (liew the im- i

partiality with which he drew up the life of this cardinal. .'

Neverthelefs, Dr. Knight, in the Life of p>afmus, publiflied \

a little after our author's dea^h, attacked him in the fevereft

terms, accufmg him of fpeaking irreverently of Erafmus,

*' probably, fays he, becaufe he had by his writings favour- ]

*' ed the Reformation.—Dr. Fiddes cenfures the Reformaj

*' tion ;—and to give it the more home ftrokcs— goes to the j

** very root of it, and does all he can to evince the unjuftifi- I

*' able grounds it proceeded upon ; ridicules the inltruments ^ ;

" of it; and would infmuate, that there was a change made ^."^^^^^ ^ \

*' for the worfe, and therefore palliates fome of the moft ab Erafmus. .j

*' furd doctrines of the church of Rome, which were hap-lntrodua. .

*« pily thrown off" at the Reformation." He afterwards P* ^S> ^6«

goes much farther, aflerting among other particulars, that \

our author '^ has moft partially and indeed fcandaloufly re- \

*' fle6ted upon the opening the Reformation, laying on the


'* grofteft colours to hide the deformities of Popery." He Life, p. 38?,


then proceeds, '* '

to give the true rile and occafton of wric-


*' ing this life of Wolfey," which he declares to have been J

at the follicitation of the late bilhop Atterbury, on occafion of dl

the difpute, in which he was then engaged with archbifnop

Wake. Dr. Knight fays, that *' bi(hop Atterbury fupplied

** our author with his own collections, direded him to the


" ftock of others, procured him the whole party of fib- ]

*' fcribers, entertained him at his deanery at Weftminfter, -J

*' fuggefted matter and method, turned him to authorities 1

*' and conjedlures, and laid the whole plan for forming fuch -

" a life, as might blacken the Reformation, caft lighter

" colours upon Popery, and even make way for a Popifh ;

'' pretender." Dr. Fiddes indeed, had given occafion for p^ -^^, J

part of this furmifc, by faying, *' a very learned prelate ge- ^

G 4 *' ncroufly ^




S8 F I D D E S.

F I D D E S. 89

*' a perfefl: charafler. I charge him with feveral faults, but i

'' was willing, confidering fome popular unjuft prejudices, %

'' under which he has all along fuffercd, to obviate them, fo :

** far as they might be obviated, upon juft and reafonablc 1

" grounds : and after all the noife that has been made, con-

*' cerning my partiality to him, I have not yet been charged


" upon fufficient evidence with one falfe fa6t, or with one 1

*' falfe inference from any true fa6t or fa6ts relating to him. \

*' —However, had I really been under fome favourable pre- j

*' judices, in compiling the life of fo great a Prelate and Mi-

** nifter of State, who employed all his ecclefiaftical revenues, ,

*' not in a facrilegious application of them to private ufes, ^

*' and all the revenues arifing from his civil employments, i

'^ not to aggrandize his own family, but in acSis of public ^

" munificence, efpecially towards the advancement of learn-

" ing; which glorious defign both our univerfities have fo \

^' often and fo juftly celebrated j though in this refpe£l I had

*' not indeed written cardinal Wolfey's life according to the J

" ftri6t rules of hiflorical juftice, yet an error, which for


*' the fake of fo many beneficent adtions had inclined me to ^

" cover even a multitude of faults, would certainly have been j

" more pardonable, than the method according to which,

'^ I perceive, his life would have been written under your 1

'* dire(f^ion, with all bitternefs, and wrath, and anger, andjj^j^ \

" clamour, and evil fpeaking.'* ' -


The great encouragement, which his Life of cardinal |

Wolfey met with, prompted him to undertake the Lives of i

fir Thomas More, and Fifher bifhop of Rochefler : but

when he had gone through a great part of this work, he loft 1

his manufcript. He publiftied, 6. " A General 7 reatife of

" Morality, formed upon the principles of Natural Reafon

" only ; with a preface, in anfwer to two EfTays lately pub-

" liftied in the Fable of the Bees, and fome incidental

*' remarks upon an Inqjjiry concerning Virtue, by |

*' the right honourable Anthony earl of Shaftcfbury j*' in

1724. 8vo. In the courfe of his preface, he defends fome

opinions of the noble author of " The Charaderiftics," in

oppofition to the author of the " Search into the Nature of j

" Society ;" and afterwards attempts a vindication of Dr.

RatclifF from the afperfions caft upon him, on account of ^

his benefa6iion to the univerfity of Oxford. 7. *' A Prepa- i

'* rative to the Lord's Supper." 8. " A Letter in anfwer to

90 F I D D E S. 1

, was

'* docSlrinc of the foul's immortality aflerted. To which is I

*' prefixed a verfion of the Epitaph, agreeably to the expli- I

" cation given of it in the Anfwer j" in 172 1. 8vo. Here ^

follows the Epitaph and Verfion, by which the reader may i

know tuai our author mifunderftuod it, without being at the ;

trouble to read his pamphlet. ;

Pro Rege f^spe, pro Republica femper.

Dubius, non improbus vixi.


Incertus morior, fed inturbatus. ^

Humanum efl errare, Sc nefcire.

Chriftum adveneror, Deo confido,

Omnipotenti, benevolentiffimo.



En Entium, miferere mei.



" Much for the prerogative, ever for my country. J

" I lived irregular, not profligate. ]

*' Though going to a ftate unknown, I die refigned.

" Frailty and Ignorance attend on human life. \

'' Religioufly I worfhip Chrift, in God confide. \

'* Almighty, and moft merciful. j

*' O thou principle of all Heings, and firft of I

" Caufes, have compailion on me." :

To conclude

an ingenious,

with a fliort

not a very



of our



He had

He ;



happy a memory, that he retained every thing he read, and

never made ufe of notes in preaching. He was far from be- j

ing a nervous writer, abounding in matter : he was, on the ,

contrary, wordy ; more (o^ than probably he would have

been, if his nccefiities would have allowed

met his thoughts into a narrower compafs.

him time to con-

It is reafonable




to fuppofe, that he was fincere in his profeflions concern- -

ing the Hierarchy ; and as reafonable to fuppofe, that he had «

no afFedion for Popery. His misfortunes, in the latter part ,,

of his life, wtre chiefly owing to his ftrong attachment 'to a \

party : neverthelefs, his application to his ftudies was (o in- l

tenfe, that he would frequently pais whole nights in writing, I

which together with his misfortunes, is fuppofed^to have con- j

tributed not a little to haffen his death. He was reckoned \

upon the. whole a good kind of man ; but wanting fome- \

what in point of prudence, and by no means a manager

of his money.






FIELD (Richard), an eminent divine of the church

of England, was born of a reputable family at Hempftead

in Hertfordfhire, on the 15th of Odober 1561 ; and at

fixteen years of age, admitted of Magdalen college in thewood's

univerfity of Oxford : but after taking his firft degree re-Athen.

moved to Magdalen halK Fie continued fevcn years in this^''^"*

fituation, diftinguifhed as a great divine, a great preacher,

and a prodigious difputant: and then in 1594, being batche-

lor of divinity, vi^as chofen reader in that faculty to the

honourable Society of Lincoln's-inn in London. He gave

fo much fatisfadiion here, that one of the members of the

houfe became his patron, and gave him the living of Burrowclere

in Hampfbire. Soon after he had the ofi^er of St.

Andrevvrs in Holborn, London, a living of greater valiie and

more in the way to preferment; but he chofe to continue

where he was, liking a referved life, where he might, fays

Mr. Wood, ferve God and follow his ftudies. In 1598,

being then do6lor of divinity, he was made chaplain to queen

and about that time commenced a friendfliip with

Elizabeth ;

the famous Mr. Richard Hooker, whom he refembled in his

great learning and humility. Upon the acceflion of king

James, he was made chaplain in ordinary to him; and by

his majefty*s own appointment, was fent for to Hampton-

Court. In the year 1604, he became canon of Windfor ;

and the fame year, when the king was to be entertained at

0.\ford with all forts of fcholailic exercifes, he was fent for

out of the country to bear a part in the divinity-adl. In

the year 1609, he became dean of Gloucefter; and the year

after publifhed a fecond edition, augmented with a fifth book

and an appetidix, of his '* f>)ur Books of the Church."

This famous work is dedicated to fir George Villiers, after^

wards duke of Buckingham ; and confirmed all men in the

high notions they had conceived of his great parts and deep

learning. He was efteemed a perfetfl oracle in his way; and

divines of even the firft order fcarce ever went to him, without

loading themfelves with queftions. When king James

heard him preach the firft time, he faid, *' This is a Field

*' for God to dwell in :" an expreiTion like that of Thomas

Fuller, who citing fomething out of his books upon the .

church, ftyleth him, *' that learned divine, whofe memory ^ojy War,

" fmelleth like a Field which the Lord hath blelTed.'"^-'"- ^- 5-

7'he king had once an intention to fend him into Germany,

with a viev/ of compofing the difix^rences between the Lutherans

and Calvinifts; but fomething put him ofF. His


92 F I E N N E S.

majefty however retained the fame good opinion of him to

the laft, and defigned him for a bifliopric. Sahfbury was

firft fixed on, but the follicitation of great perfonages carrying

that elfewhere, the king was refolved to beftow Oxford

upon him ; and fir George Villiers, in a letter dated July the

nth, 16165 told him, that if he was minded to take that

fee upon him, he fhould repair to the court, kifs the king'»

hand, and hold his benefices in commendam with it. God,

however, was pleafed, as Mr. Wood fays, to prefer him to a

better place ; for on the 21ft of November following he

died, aged fifty-five years. He was efteemed, fays the fame

author, " a principal maintainer of proteftancy, a powerful

" preacher, a profound fchoolman, exa

F I E N N E S.

founder, he was made fellow. After he had fpent fomc

years here in ftudy, he travelled into foreign countries, and

then returned home with the reputation of a wife and prudent

man. When the war was carried on in the Palatinate,

he contributed largely to it, according to the meafure of his

eftate, which was highly pleafing to king James ; but indulging

his neighbours by leaving it to themfelves to pay

what they thought fit, he was, on notice given to his majefty,

committed to cuftody in June 1622. He was however

foon releafed, and in July 1624, advanced from a

baron, to be vifcount Say and Sele. At this time, fays Mr.

Wood, he flood up for the privileges of Magna Charta, but

after the Rebellion broke out, treated it with the utmoft

contempt: and when the Long-parliament began in 1640,

he {hewed himfelf fo a6tive therein, that, as Wood fays, he

and Hampden and Pym, with one or two more, were efleemed

parliament-drivers, or fwayers of all the parliaments in

which they fat. In order to reconcile him to the court, he

had the place of mafterfliip of the Court of Wards given

him in May 1641 : but this availed nothing, for when arms

were taken up, he ad^ed openly againft the king. In February

1642, his majefty publifhed two proclamations, commanding

all the officers of the Court of Wards to attend

him at Oxford j but lord Say refufing to come, was outlawed

and attainted of treafon. In 1648, he oppofed any

perfonal treaty with his majefty, yet the fame year was one

of the parliament-commiffioners in the ifle of Wight, when

they treated with the king about peace : at which time he is

faid to have urged againft the king this jiafTage, out of the

three laft books of Mr. Hooker's Ecclefiaftical Polity, which

Mr. Wood calls corrupted, that *' though the king was fin-

" gulis major, yet he was univerfis minor :" that is, greater

than any individual, yet lefs than the whole community.

After the king's death, he joined with the Independents, as

he had done before with the Preft)yterians ; and became great

with Oliver, who made him one of his houfe of lords.

*' After the Reftoration of king Charles II. when he had

'' aded, fays Mr. Wood, as a grand rebel for his own ends

*' almoft twenty years, he was rewarded forfooth with the

" honourable offices of lord privy feal, and lord chamber-

'* lain of the houftiold; while others, that had fuffered in

'' eftate and body, and had been reduced to a bit of bread

*' for his majefty 's caufe, had then little or nothing given to

*' relieve them : for which they were to thank a hungry and

** great oificer, who to fill his own coffers, was the occafion

« of


94 F I E N N E S.

of Erjift

'• of the utter ruin of many." Mr. Wood relates alfo,

with fome degree of furprize, that this noble perfon, after

he had fpent eighty years moftly in an unquiet and difcontented

condition, had been a grand promoter of the Rebellion,

and had in fome refpeit been acceflary to the murder

of king Charles I. fhould die quietly in his bed, as he did,

on the 14th of April 1662 ;

^'^ anceftors at Broughton.

and be buried, as he was,

Mr. Whitlock fays, that


" he

Affairs, " w^:s 3. perfou of great parts, wifdom, and integrity:"

an, 1642. and lord Clarendon^ though of a Contrary party, does not

deny him to have had thefe qualities, but only fuppofes them

to have been wrongly directed, and greatly corrupted. The

lord Say he calls, *' a man of a clofe and referved nature,

*' of great parts, and of the higheft ambition ; but whofe

*' ambition would not be fatisfied with offices and prefer-

*' m'ents, without fome condcfcenfions and alterations in ec-

" clefiaftical matters. He had for many years been the

*' oracle of thofe, who were Puritans in the worft fenfe,

*' and had fteered all their counfels and defigns. He was a*

" notorious enemy to the church, and to moft of the emi-

" nent churchmen, with fome of whom he had particular

*' contefts. He had always oppofed and contradicted all

*' adls of flate, and all taxes and impofitions, which were

" not exadly legal, &c.— In a word, he had very great

" authority with all the difcontented party throughout the

*' kingdom, and a good reputation with many who were

Hift.ofthe'' not difcontented ; who believed him to be a wife man.

Rebellion, " and of a very ufeful temper in an age of licence, and one

book ill. ,, who would ftill adhere to the law." Afterwards he re-

prefents him as " a man, who had the deepcft hand in the

" original contrivance of all the calamities, which befell

*' this unhappy kingdom, though he had not the leaffc

*' thought of diflblving the monarchy, and lefs of levelling

** the ranks and diftindions of men. For, fays the noble

F I E N N E S.

** with the prince from Spain, to mak'e himfelf popular by

^* breaking that match, and to be gracious with the parlia-

" ment, as for a (hprt time he was, he refolved to embrace

^' the friendship of the lord Say, who was as foUicitous to

*-' climb by that ladder. But the duke quickly found him of

*« too imperious and pedantical a fpirit, and to affed too

^' dangerous mutations, and fo caft him ofl- : and from thac

*' time he gave over any purfuit at court, and lived narrowly

*' in the country ; having converfation with very few, but

** fuch who had great malignity againft the church and fiate ;

** and fomented their inclinations, and gave them inftruc-

" tions how to behave themfelves with caution, and to do

*' their bufmefs with molt fecurity ; and was in truth the

" pilot, that fteered all thofe veffels, which were freighted

'' with fedition to deftroy the government.—Neverthelefs,

** when he thought there was mifchief enou h done, he

" would have flopped the current, and diverted farther fury :

*' but then he found he had only authority and credit to do

" hurt, none to heal the wounds he had given ; and fell into

" as much contempt with thofe he had led, as he was withji^j^ 1,^ ^j^

" thofe whom he had undone."

Befides feveral fpeeches in parliament, he publifhed, i

" The Scots delign difcovered : relating their dangerous at-

** tempts lately pradtifed againft the Engiifh nation, with the

*' fad confequence of the fame. Wherein divers matters of

*' public concernment are difclofed ; and the book called,

*' Truths Manifeft, is made apparent to be Lies Manifeft.'*

Lond. 1653. 4to. 2. '* Folly and Mad nefs made manifeft :

*' or, fome things written to (hew, how contrary to the

*' word of God, and pra6tice of the Saints in the Old and

*' New Teftament, the do6trines and practices of the Qua-

*' kers are." Oxf. 1659.410. 3. "The Quakers R-epIy

'' manifefted to be railing : or, a pupfuance of thofe by the

" light of the Scrip! ures, who through their dark imagina-

" tions would evade the Truth." Oxf. ^659. 4to; It

feems, the Quakers were pretty numerous in his neighbourhood

of Broughton ; and he either was, or pretended to be,

much troubled with them.

FIENNES (Nathaniel), fecond fon of lord Say

juft mentioned, was born at Broughton in Oxfordfhire in

1608; and, as his father before him, after a proper education

at Wickham-fchool near Winchelter, was admitted of

New College in Oxford, and made fellow in right of his kin

to the founder. After fpen^ding fome years there., ha. travelled




3,6 F I E N N E S.

abroad to Geneva, and among the Cantons of Switzerland^

where he improved that difafFeilion to the church, which

had been infufed into him with his milk. From his travels

he returned through Scotland, at the time that the Rebellion

was in the bud ; and in 1640, was elected a burgefs to fit in

parliament for Banbury, when it was quickly difcovered,

that as he was the darling of his father, fo he was ready to

join in all his meafares. Afterwards he became colonel of a

regiment of horfe under the earl of Efl'ex, and was made

governor of Briftol, when firft taken in for the ufe of the

parliament ; but, furrendering it too eafily to prince Rupert,

in July 1643, he was thereupon tried by a council of war,

and fentenced to lofe his head. He had afterwards, by the

intereft of his father, a pardon granted him for life, but he

could not continue any longer an officer in the army ; and the

fhame of it afFecSled him fo much, that he went for fome time

into foreign parts, •' retaining ftill, fays lord Clarendon, the

" fame full difafFedion to the government of the church and

Hift.of the

F I E N U S.

*' his nature not fo well dlfpofed, he had fure been fecond to

" none in thofe councils, after Mr. Hampden's death." ibij.

FIENUS (Thomas), a very ingenious and learned

phyfician, was born at Antwerp in the year 1566, and went

into Italy to ftudy phyfic under Mercurialis and Aldroandus.

Upon his return he diftinguifhed himfelf {o much in the uni-

verfity of Louvain, that he was chofen profefTor of phyfic

there. Afterwards he was made phyfician to the duke of

Bavaria. He died at Louvaiii in March, 163 r, aged fixty-

four years. He compofed feveral works, among which were,

De viribus imaginationis, and De formarione faetus. In the

former of thefe performances, he relates a ftory of an hypo-

condriac, whofe delufions reprefented hi? body fo large, that

he thought it impoffible for him to get out of his room.

The phyfician fancying, there could be no better way of

reiEtifying his imagination, than by letting him fee that the

thing could be done, ordered him to be carried out by force.

Great was the ftruggle : and the patient no fooner faw himfelf

at the outfide of the door, than he fell into the fame

agonies of pain, as if his bones had been all broke by being

forced through a paflage too little for him ; and died immediately

after. Fienus does not relate this upon his owa

knowledge, but he does not feem in the leaft to queftion the

reality of the faiSi^.

FINiEUS (Orontius), in French, Fine, profeflbr of

mathematics in the Royal-college at Paris, was the fon of a

phyfician, and born at Briancon in Dauphine in the yearBayle's

1494. Being very young when his father died, he went toI>i

98 F I N JE U S.

as the moft proper man to teach the mathematics in the

New-college, which that prince had founded at Paris. He

omitted nothing to fupport the glory of his profeffionj and

though he inltrucled his fcholars with great affiduity, yet he

found time to publifti a great many books upon almoft every

part of the Mathematics. In order to have a notion of his

fkill in Mechanics, we need only confider the clock which

he invented in the year i 553, and of which there is a dcfcription

in the Journal of Amfterdam for March the 29th,

1694. Neverthelefs, his genius, his labours, his inventions,

and the eileem which an mfinite number of perfons fhewed

him, could not fecure him from that fate, which fo often

befalls men of letters. He was obliged to ftruggle all his

life-time with poverty; and when he died, he left a numerous

family deeply in debt. However, as merit muft always

be efleemed in fecret, though it feldom has the luck to be

rewarded openly, fo Finasus's children found Mecaenas's, who

for their father's fake affilred his family. His death happened

on the 6th of October, 1555, when he was fixty-one years

of age. Like all the other mathematicians and aftronomers

of thofe times, he was greatly addicted to Aftrology ; and

he had the misfortune to be confined a long time in prifon,

becaufe he had foretold fome things, which were not acceptable

to the court of France. He was one of thofe, wha

vainly boafted of having found out the Quadrature of the


FINET (Sir John), a man confiderable enough to be

Wood's remembered, was fon of Robert Flnet of Soulton near Do-

Athen. ver in Kent, and born in the year 1571. His great grand-



father was of Sienae in Italy, where his family was antientj

and coming into England a fervant to cardinal Campegius,

Legat-a-latere to the Pope, married a maid of honour ta

queen Catherine, confort to Henry Vlll. and fettled here.

He was bred up in the court, where by his wit, mirth, and

uncommon fkill in compofing fongs, he pleafed king James I.

very much. In 1614, he was fent into France about matters

of public concern ; and the year after was knighted.

About the fame time he was made afliftant to the mailer of

the ceremonies, and had that office conferred upon him in

1626, being then in good efteem with king Charles I. He

died the 12th of July, 1641, aged 70 years ; and was buried

in the church of St. Martin's in the Fields by his wife Jane,

who was the daughter of Henry lord Wentworth, of Nettleftead

in SufFoIk, and filler %q the earl of Cleveland. He


F I N E T.

v/rote a book with this title, " Fineti Philoxenis : Some

loo F I R M I C U S.

fuch profane and impious fpeculations. But fuppofe, f^y»

Cave, that lie wrote thefe books in his unconverted ftate,

which might cafily be the cafe : for though Baronius wil>

have them to have been written about the year 355, yet

Labbacus, as he tells us, affirms them td lie between 334

and 337. There is not light enough however to determine,

who is in the right.

FIRMIN (Thomas), a perfon memorable for public

benefactions and chanties, was born at Ipfwich in Suffolk,

l^l^^jjj^°^in June, 1632. His parents were Puritans, but very reputa-

Firmin, hteble and fubftantial people; and at a proper age put out their

Citizen of fon to an apprenticefhrp in London. His mafter was an Ar-

^0x1 on,

minian, a hearer of Mr. John Goodwyn ; to whofe fermons

Lond. 1698. young Firmin rcforting, *' exchanged, as we are told, the

" harfti opinions of Calvin, in which he had been educated^

" for thofe more reafonable ones of Arminius and the Re-

Ibid. p. 7.

F I R M I N. loi

•t)ur Saviour, and the Satisfadion. She fpoke to Tillotfon

therefore, to fet him right in thofe weighty and neceflary

points : who anfwered, that he had often endeavoured it,

but that Mr. Firmin had now fo long imbibed the Socinian

dodrine, as not to be capable of renouncing it. However,

his grace, for he was then archbiftiop of Canterbury, publifhed

his fermons, formerly preached at St. Laurence's, con-

cerning thofe queftions, and fent Mr. Firmin one of the firft

copies from the prefs. Mr. Firmin, not convinced, caufed a

refpe6iful anfwer to be drawn up and publiftied with this

title, " Confiderations on the explications and defences of

*' the do6lrine of the Trinity," himfelf giving a copy to his

grace : to which the archbifliop, after he had read it, only

anfwered, " My lord of Sarum," meaning Dr. Burnet,

*' fhall humble your writers ;" IVill retaining, however, his

ufual Icindnefs for Mr. Firmin. But to return :

In 1664, he married a fecond wife, who brought him

feveral children : neverthelefs, his benevolent fpirit did not

ilacken, but he went about doing good as ufual. The

Plague in 1665, and the Fire in i6b6, furjpifhed him with

variety of objeds. He went on with his trade in Lombard-

ftreet, till the year 1676 : at which time his biographer fup-

pofes him to have been worth 9000]. though he had difpofed

of incredible fums in charities. This year he crciSfed his

warehoufe in Little-Britain, for the employment of the poor

in thelinnen-manufa6ture : of which Dr. Tillotfon has ^oke

in this honourable manner, in his Funeral Sermon on Mr,

Gauge, in the year 1681. ** Mr. Gouge, fays he, fet the

'' poor of St. Sepulchre's parifh, where he was Minifter, to

*' work at his own charge. He bought flax and hemp for

*' them to fpin : when fpun he paid them for their vi'ork,

*' and caufed it to be wrought into cloth, which he fold as

** he could, himfelf bearing the whole lofs. This was a

*' very wife and well chofen way of charity ; and injthe good

'" efFedl of it a much greater charity, than if be had given

•' to thofe very perfons, freely and for nothing, fo much as

*' he made them to earn by their work : becaufe by this

^ means he refcued ihem from two mod dangerous tempta-

" tions, Idlencfs and Poverty. This courfe, fo happily dc-

*' vifed and begun by Mr. Gouge, gave, it may be, the firft

" hint to that ufeful and worthy citizen, Mr. Thomas Fir-

" min, of a much larger deiign : which has been manage-d

** by him, fome years in this city, with that vigour and good

*^ fuccefs, that many hundreds of poor children, and others

•'-* who lived idle before, unprofitable both to

H 3

themCelves and

^« Xhe


\^' '^*

tot F I R M I N.

" the public, now maintain themfelv^s, and are alfo fome

" advantage to the community. By the afEftanceand chari-


*"^ by his works, and cannot reafonably be reproached for

*' that, which brought forth fuch plenty of good fruits. He

*' died December the 20th, 1697, and in the 66th year of

*« his age/*

FISH (Simon), a man who deferves toljc recorded in a

few lines, on account of his zeal for the Reformation. He

was born in Kent, and after an education in the univerfity of Wood's

Oxford, he went to Gray's-Inn to ftudy the law. A play^^^^"*

was then written by one Roe, in which cardinal Wolfey was

feverely refleded on ; and this play Fifh undertook to a6l,

after every body elfe had refufcd to venture upon it. This

obliged him to fly his country ; and he went into Germany,

where he found out, and aflbciated himfelf with, William.

Tyndale. In 1527, he wrote a little piece, called, " The

*' Supplication of Beggars :" which is nothing but a fatyr

upon bifhops, abbots, priors, monks, friars, and indeed the

clergy in general. A copy of this was fent to Anne Boleyne,

and by her given to king Henry VIII. who was not difpleaf-

ed with it : and afterwards, when Wolfey, againft whom it

was levelled, was difgraced, Fifti was recalled home, and

gracioufly countenanced by the king for what he had done.

He died of the plague in 1571. He tranflated from Dutch

into Englilh a book, intitled, *« The Summ of the Scrip-

*' tures,'' which, Mr. Wood fays, was well approved.

FISHER (John), the celebrated bifhop of Rochefter,

and martyr to Popery, was born at Beverley in Ycrkfhire,

in the year 1459. ^^* father, a merchant, left him an orphan

very young : but by the good care of his mother, he

was taught fchool-learning at Beverley, and afterwards admitted

in the univerfity of Cambridge oF Michael Houfe, fmce

incorporated into Trinity College. He took the degrees in

arts, in (488 and 1491

: and being elected fellow of his

houfe, was a pro6tor of the univerfity in 1495. The fame

year he was eleded mailer of Michael-Houfe : and having

for feme time before applied himfelf to the fludy of divinity,

he took holy orders, and became eminent in that way. The

fame of his learning and exemplary virtues reaching the ears

of Margaret counters of Richmond, mother of king Henry

VII. (he chofe him her chaplain and confeiTor ; in which high

ftation he behaved himfelf with fo much wifdom and goodnefs,

that fhe committed herfelf entirely to his government

and direct on. It was by his counfel, that .this princefs ud-

dertoek thofe magnificent foundations of St. John's and ChfllFs

H Colle^&a



Colleges at Cambridge ; eftablifhed the divinity-profe/Torfliips

in both univerfities ; and did a thoufand other acts of gcne-

roiity, for the propagation of learning and ^iety.

In 1501, he took the degree of do6ior of divinity, and

the fame year was chofen chancellor of the univerfity

during the exercife of which ofHce, he encouraged learning

and good manners, and is faid by fome to have had prince

Henry, afterwards king Henry VIII. under his tuition in that

univerfity. In 1502, he was appointed by charter the lady

Margaret's firfl divinity-profeiibr in Cambridge : and in 1504,

was made bifliop of Rophelter, at the recommendation of

Fox bifhop of Winchefter. It is remarkable, that he never

would exchange this bifhopric, though then the leaft in England,

for a better: for he called his church his wife, and was

won*t to fay, " He would not change his little old wife, to

'^ whom he had been fo long wedded, for a wealthier." In

1505, he accepted the headOiip of Queen's- College in Cambridge,

which he held for little more than three years. The

foundation of Chrift's- College was perfected, under his care

^nd fuperintendancy, in the year 1506; and hjmfelf was appointed

by the ftatutes, vifitor for life, after the death of the

munificent foundrefs. The king's licence for founding St.

John's was obtained foon after : but before it was palTed in

due form, the king dies April the ift, 1509, as does the lady

Margaret herfelf the 29th of June following. The care of

the new foundation now devolved upon her executors, of

whom the moft faithful and moft adiive, nay, the fole and

principal agent, was bifhop i^'ifher : and he carried it on with

the titmoft vigour. Jn 15 12, he was appointed to go to the

council of Lateran at Rome, but never went, as appears

from procuratorial powers, and letters recommending him to

great men there, ftili extant in the archives of St. John's-

College. This college being finifhed in 15 16, he went to

Cambridge, and opened ic with due folemnity j and was alfo

commiflioned to make ftatutes for the fame. He became a

great benefactor afterwards to this college.

Upon Luther's firft appearance in 151 7, and ftout oppqption

to the errors and innovations of Popery, bifhop Fifher,

like a zealous champion for the church of Rome, was one

of the firft to enter the lifts againft him. He not only endeavoured

to prevent the propagation qf his doctrine in his

pwn diocefe, and in the univerfity of Cambridge, over

yvhich as chancellor he had a very great influence ^ but alfo

preached and wrote with great vehemence and earneftnefs

agifinft him. Nay, he bad even refolved to go to JR.ome,



but was diverted by cardinal Wolfey's calling together a

fynod of the whole clergy ; wherein the bifhop delivered him-

Celf with great freedom, on occafion of the cardinal's ftate-

linefs and pride. Hitherto, Fiftier had continued in great

favour with Henry VIII. but the bufinefs of the divorce being

fet on foot in 1527, he adhered fo firmly to the Queen's

eaufe and the Pope's fupremacy, that it brought him into

great troubles, and in the end proved his ruin. For the

king, who had a great efteem for him, both on account of

his honelry and learning, having defired his opinion concern-

ing his marriage with queen Catherine of Arragon, the

biihop declared, that there was no reafon at all to queftioa

the validity of it ; and from this opinion nothing afterwards

could ever make him recede.

In the parliament, which met November the 3d, 1529, a

motion being made for fuppreffing the lefler monafteries, the

biftiop oppo(ed it in a very warm fpeech : at which fome

lords were pleafed, others dilplea fed. The duke of Norfolk,

addrefling himfelf to the bifhop, faid, '* My lord of Ro-

*' chefter, many of thefe words might have been well fpared :

*' but it is often feen, that the greateft clerks are not al-

*' ways the wifeft men," To which the bifhop replied,

" My lord, I do not remember any fools in my time, that

'* ever proved great clerks." Complaint was made by the

commons of this fpeech to the king, who contented himfelf

with gently rebuking Fifher, and bidding him ** ufe his

" words more temperately." In 1530, he efcapcd two very-

great dangers, namely, of being firft poifoned, and then

(hot, in his houfe at Lambeth- Marfh : upon which he re-

tired to Rochefter. One Roufe, coming into his kitchen,

took occafion, in the cook's abfcnce, to throw poifon into

gruel, which was prepared for the bifhop's dinner. He could

eat nothing that day, and fo efcaped ; but of feventeen per-

fons, who eat of it, two died, and the reft never perfedlly

recovered their healths. Upon this occafion an a6l was

made, which declared poifoning to be high-treafon, and adjudged

the offender to be boiled to death : which fevere

punifhment was infli6led upon Roufe in Smithheld foon after.

The other danger proceeded from a cannon bullet, which being

(hot from the other fide of the Thames, pierced through

his houfe, and came very near his fludy, where he ufed to

fpend moft of his time.

When the queilion of giving king Henry the Vlllth, the

title of the Supreme Head of the Church of England, was de-

jbated in coflvocatKjjn in 153 1, the bifhop oppofed it with all


io6 F I S H E R.

his might; which only ferved the more to incenfe the court

againft him, and to make them watch all opportunities of

getting rid of fo troublefome a perfon. He foon gave them

the opportunity they fought for, by tampering with, and

hearkening too much to the vifions and impoftures of Elizabeth

Barton, the Holy Maid of Kent : who, among other

things pretended a Revelation from God, that " if the king

" went forwards with the purpofe he intended, he fhould not

*^ be king of England feven months after." The court hav-

ing againft him the advantage they wanted, foon made ufe

of it, by adjudging him guilty of mifprifion of treafon, for

concealing the maid's fpeeches that related to the king, and

by condemjiing him with five others in lofs of goods, and

imprifonment during the king's pleafure: but he was releafed

upon paying 300 1. for his majefty's ufe. Afterwards an acSl

was made, which abfolutely annulled king Henry's marriage

with Catherine of Arragon; confirmed his marriage with

Anne Boleyn ; entailed the crown upon her iiTue, and nomi-

nally upon the lady Elizabeth ; and made it high-treafon to

flander, or do any thing to the derogation of this laft marriage.

In purfuance of this, an oath was taken by both

houfes, March the 30th, i534> whereby they fwore, " to

** bear faith, truth, and obedience to the king's majefty,

*' and to the heirs of his body by his moft dear and entirely

*' beloved lawful wife queen Anne, begotten and to be be-

gotten," &c. Inftead of taking this oath, bifhop Fifher

withdrew to his houfe at Rochefter : but he had not been

there above four days, when he received orders from the arch-

bifhop of Canterbury and other commiffioners, authorifed

under the great feal to tender the oath, to ap.pear before them

at Lambeth. He appeared accordingly, and the oath being

prefented to him, he perufed it a while, and then defired time

to confider of it j fo that five days were allowed him. Upon

the whole, he refufed to take the oath, and was immediately

committed to the tower, it being the 26th of April, 1534.

Neverthekfs, in refped of his great reputation for learning

and piety, earneft endeavours were ufed to bring him to

a compliance. Some bifhops waited on him for that purpofe,

as did afterwards the lord chancellor Audeley, and others of

the privy-council ; but they found him immoveable. Secretary

Cromwell was alfo with him, to try to perfuade and con-

vince him. Cromwell found, that what ftuck moft with the

bifhop was, that the marriage was to be reckoned contrary to

the Levitical Law, which forbids a man's taking his brother's

wife, Catherine having been efpoufed to Henry's cldeft bro-



ther Arthur : and therefore fent Lee, biftiop of Lichfield

and Coventry, to talk with him upon that point. The iffue

was, bifhop Fifher declared, that he would, " fwear to the

*' fucceffion ; never difpute more about the marriage; and

*« promifed allegiance to the king : but his confcience could

" not be convinced, that the marriage was againft the Law

*' of God." Thefe conceffions did not fatisfy the king;

who was refolved to let all his fubje^h fee, that there was no

mercy to be expe(Sled from him by any one who o[ipofed his

will. Therefore, in the parliament which met the 3d of

November 1534, he was attainted for refufing the oath of

fuccelTion ; and his biftiopric declared void from the 2d of

January following. During his confinement, the poor old

bifhop was but hardly and unkindly ufed, and fcarce allowed

neceflarles. He continued above a year prlfoner in the tower,

and might have continued there, till releafed by a natural

death, which could not be far off confidering his age, if an

unfeafonable honour, paid him by pope Paul III; had not

haftened his deftrudion ; which was, the creating of him,

on the 21 ft of May 1535, cardinal, by the title of Cardinal

Prieft of St. Vitalis. When the king heard of it, he

gave ftri£l orders, that none fhould bring the hat into his

dominions : moreover, he fent lord Cromwell to examine ths

bifhop about that affair, who after fome conference between

them alked him, " My lord of Rochefler, what would you

** fay, if the pope (hould fend you a cardinal's hat; would

*' you accept of it ? " The bifliop replied, " ijir, I know

** myfelf to be fo far unworthy any fuch dignity, that I think

'' of nothing lefs ; but if any fuch thing fliould happen,

" affure yourfelr" that I (hould improve that favour to the

*' beft advantage that I could, in affifting the Holy Catholic

*' Church of Chrift ; and in that refpeft I would receive it

** upon my knees.'* When this anfwer was brought to the

king by fecretary Cromwell, Henry faidjn a great paflion,

'' Yea, is he yet fo lufty .? Well,

let the pope fend him a

*' hat when he will. Mother of God, he fhall wear it on his

** fhoulders then, for I will leave him never a head to fet it

*' on " The bifhop's anfwer has b:-en differently reprefent-

cd by our hiftorians, as if it had been, that '* if a cardinal's

" hat was laid at his feet, he would not (loop to take it up :"

but that was fir Thomas More's anfwer to his daughter, A'Irs.

Roper, when (he acquainted him, that the bifhop was created

a cardmal.

From this time the bifhop's ruin was abfolutely determined :

but 3S no legal advantage could be taken againft him, Richard




Rich, efq; follicitor-general, a bufy and officious man, went

to him; and in a fawning treacherous manner, under pretence

of confulting him, as from the king, about a cafe of

confcience, gradually drew him into a difcourfe about the

t-ender point of Supremacy, which he declared to be " un-

*' lawful, and what his majefty could not take upon him,

" without endangering his foul." The bifhop being thus

caught in the fnare, purpofely laid for him, a fpecial com-

miffion was drawn up for trying him, dated June the ift,

1535 ; and on the 17th, upon a fliort trial, he was found

giiilty of high-treafon, and condemned to fufter death. He

obje(Sled greatly againft follicitor Rich's evidence, on which

he was chiefly convid^ed ; and therefore toW him, that " he

*' could not but marvel to hear him bear witnefs againft him

*' on thefe words, knowing in what fecret manner he came

*' to him." Then addreifing himfelf to his judges, he re-

lated to him all the particulars of Rich's coming, and thus

went on : " he told nie, that the king for better fatisfadtion

** of his own confcience, had fent unto me in this fecret

** manner, to know my full opinion in the matter of the

*' Supremacy, for the great affiance he had in me more than

'' any other; and farther, that the king willed to afTure me

^ on his honour, and on the word of a king, that whatever

*' I fhould fay unto him by this his fecret meiTenger, I (hould

" abide no danger nor peril for it, nor that any advantage

*' (hould be taken againft me for the fame. Now therefore,

" my lords, concludes he, feeing it pleafed the king's ma-

'' jefty, to fend to me thus (ecretly under the pretence of

*' plain and true meaning, to know my poor advice and

*' opinion in thefe his weighty and great affairs, which I

*' moft gladly was, and ever will be, willing to fend him ;

^' methinks, it is very hard and unjuft to hear the meflen-

F I S H E R.

head was fet up over London-bridge the next day. Such

•was the tragical end of this unhappy bifliop, " which left

*« one of the greateft blots upon this kingdom's proceedings,"

as biftiop Burnet, fays in his hiftory of the Reformation.

He was a very tall well made man, ftrong and robuft, but

at the latter end of his life extremely emaciated. As to his

moral and intelle(5lual attainments, nothing could well be

greater. Erafmus reprefents him as a man of the higheft in-

tegrity, of deep learning, incredible fweetnefs of temper,

and greatnefs of foul. His words are remarkable, and de-

ferve to be tranfcribed. Reverend us Epifcopus Roffenfis,

vir non folum mirabili integritate vitse, verum etiam alta &

recondita do^trina, turn moruni quoque incredibili comitate

commendatus maximis pariter ac minimis.—Aut egregie fal-

lor, aut is vir eft unus, cum quo nemo fit hac tempeftate



vcl mtegritate vitae, vel eruditione, vel animi

He was the author of feveral works : as, I. AfTertionum

Martini Lutheri confutatio. that is,

'* A confutation of

*' Martin Luther's allertions." 2. Defenfio Afl'ertionis Hen-

rici Octavi de feptem facramentis, &ic. that is, " A defence

*' of king Henry's book againft Luther's, intitled. The

no F I T Z H E R B E R T.


FITZHERBERT (Sir Anthony), a very learned

lawyer in the reign of king Henry V!IJ. was defcended from

2 yg^y ancient family, and born at Norbury in the county of

Oxon.* Derby; but it is not faid in what year. After he had been

properly educated in the country, he was fent to Oxford, and

from thence to one of the inns of court ; but we neither

know what college, nor what inn, he was admitted of. His

great parts, judgment, and diligence, foon didinguiflied him

in his profeflion ; and in procefs of time, he became fo emi-

nent, that on the 1 8th of November, 1511, he was called

to be a ferjeant at law. In 15 16, he received the honour of

knighthood ; and the year after, was appointed one of his

majefty's ferjeants at law. He began now to prefent the

world with the produ6l of his ftudies; and publifhed from

time to time feveral valuable works, which fhall be mentioned

juft now. In 15:^3, which was the 15th year of Henry

Vlllth's reign, he was made one of the juftices of the court

of Common Pleas, in which honourable ftation he fpent the

remaining part of his life ; difcharging the duties of his office

with fuch fufficiency and integrity, that he was held as the

oracle of the law, and univerfally refpeited. Two remarkable

things are related of his ccndu6l : one, that he openly

oppofed cardinal Wolfey in the height of his power ; the

other, that, when he came to lie upon his death bed, fore-

feeing the changes that were likely to happen in the church as

well as flate, he prefTed his children in very ftrong terms to

promife him folemnly, neither to accept grants, nor to make

purchafes of abbey-lands. He died upon the 27th of May,

1538, and was buried in his own parifh church of Norbury.

He left behind him a very numerous pofierlty ; and as he became

by the death of his elder brother pofTefTeJ of the family eftate,

fo he was in a condition to provide very plentifully for them.

Our learned lawyer's works are, 1. *' The Grand A-

** bridgment collected by that moft reverend judge, Mr.

" Anthony Fitzherbert, lately conferred with his own manu-

*' fcript corred^d by himfelf, together with the references of

*' the cafes to the books, by which they may be eafily found ;

** an improvement never before made. Alio in this edition,

*' the additions or fupplements are placed at the end of their

'* refpe6live titles." Thus runs the title of the edition

1577 : but the work was firfl publiftied in 1519. To this

edition of 1577, is added a moft ufeful and accurate table,

by the care of William Raftall, ferjeant at law, and alfo one

of the juftices of the Common Pleas in the reign of queen



F I T Z H E R B E R T. in

Mary : which table, as well as the work, together with its

author, is very highly commended by the lord chief juftice

Coke. 2. ** The Office and Authority of Juftices of Peace,

*' compiled and extracted out of the old books, as well of

*' the Common Law, as of the Statutes." Lond. 1538,

3. '* The Office of Sheriffs, Bailiffs of Liberties, Efcheators,

'* Conftables, Coroners," &c. 1538. Though we give the

titles in Englifh, thefe three works are written in French

only part of the fecond is in Englifli. 4. " Of the Diverfity

*• of Courts;" 1529. in French; but tranflated afterwards

by W. H. of Gray's-Inn, and added by him to Andrew

Home's Mirrour of Juftices. 5. ** The New Natura Bre-

*' vium ;'* 1534. in French ; but afterwards tranflated, and

always held in very high efteem. 6. *« Of the furveying of

** Lands." 1539. 7. *' The Book of Hufbandry, very pro-

•* fitable and necefTary for all perfons ;" 1534, and feveral

times after in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. It is faid,

in an advertifement to the reader, that this book was written

by one Anthony Fitzherbert, who had been forty years an

huibandman : from whence many have concluded, that this

could not be our judge. But in the preface to his book

*' Of Meafuring Lands," he mentions his book *' of Agri-

" culture ;" and in the advertifement prefixed to the fame

book, it is exprefsly faid, that the author of that treatife of

Meafuring, was the author likewife of the book '* concern-

*' ing the office of a Juftice of Peace." Whence it fhould

feem, that both thofe books were written by our author

who perhaps in the feafons, which allowed him lelfure to go

into the country, might apply himfelf as vigoroufly to hufban-

dry in the country, as to the ftudy of the law when in town ;

and throw his thoughts down upon paper, though with no

view of ever having them publiftied.

FITZHERBERT (Thomas), grandfon of fir Anthony,

and a very ingenious and learned man, was born in

the county of Stafford in the year' 15 52; and after having

been grounded in fchool -learning, was fent to either Exeter ^^j'"'^'^

or Lincoln-college in Oxford, in 1568. But having beenoxon?*

moftly before trained up in the Catholic Religion, the college

was uneafy to him ; and though he would now and then hear

a fermon, which he was permitted to do by an old Roman

prieft, who lived privately in Oxford, and to whom he often

recurred for inftru(Stion in matters of religion, yet he would

feldom or never go to prayers, for which he was often ad-

monifhed' by the fub-rei^or of his houfe. At length, feem-



112 F I T Z H E R B E R T.

ing to be wearied with the herefy of the times, as he called

it, he receded without a degree to his patrimony ; where alfo

"refufing to go to his parifli-church, he was imprifoned about

the year 1572 : but being loon after let at Hberty, he became

ftill more zealous in his religion, defending it againft the

proteftant minifters, and maintaining publicly, that catholics

ought not to go to proteftant churches ; for which being like

to fufFer, he withdrew and lived obfcurely. In 1580, when

the jefuits Campian and Parfons came into England, he

went to London, found them out, (hewed hinilelf exceedingly

attached to, and fupplied them liberally : by which,

bringing himfelf into dangers and difficulties, he went a vo-

luntary exile into France, in the year 1582, where he folli-

cited the caufe of Mary queen of Scots, but in vain.

After the death of that unfortunate princefs, he left France,

and went to Madrid, in order to implore the protedion of

Philip II. but upon the defeat of the Armada in 1588, he

left Spain, and accompanied the duke of Feria to the city of

Milan in Italy. This duke had formerly been in England

with king Philip, had married an Englifh lady, and was

juftly efteemed a great patron of the Englifh in Spain. Fitzherbert

continued at Milan fome time, and from thence

went to Rome : where taking a lodging near the Englifh

College, he attended prayers as regularly as the refidents

there, and fpent the reft of his time in writing books. He

entered into the Society of Jefus in 16 14, and received

priefts orders much about the fame time ; after which he

ipeedily removed into Flanders to prefide over the million

there, and continued at BrufTels about two years. His great

parts, extenftve and polite learning, together with the high

efteem that he had gained by his prudent behaviour at Bruf-

fels, procured him the government, with the title of redor,

of the Englifh college at Rome. This office he exercifed for

twenty-two years with unblemifhed credit, during which

time he is faid to have been often named for a cardinal's hat.

He died there on the 27th of Auguft 1640, in the 88th

year of his age ; and was interred in the chapel, belonging

to the Englifh college.

As to his writings, Mr. Wood has given us a lift, con-

taining ten different works : but thefe being chiefly of the

controverfial kind, in defence of Popery, and directed againft

Barlow, Donne, Andrews, and other Englifh authors, do

not deferve, methinks, a particular enumeration. There is

however a treatife or two among our author's works, which

were received with univerfal approbation both by Proteftants




and Papifts ; and did him great honour, as they fhewed hinl

to be a man of deep fenfe, firong parts, and of a generous

difpofition, as wdi as of much reading and fingular experience.

Their titles are, i. " Treatife concerning Polity and

** Religion." Doway, 1606. 4to. wherein are confuted

feveral principles of Machiavel. The fecond part of the

faid treatife was printed alfo at Doway, 161G ; and both together

in 1615, 4to. A third part was printed at London

in 1652. 4to. '* being then cried up, fays Mr. Wood, for

" a good book, as the other parts had been." 2. An fit utilitas

in fcelere, vel de infelicitate Principis Machiavellani

that is, " Whether there be any utility in wickednefs, or

*' concerning the unhappinefs of Machiavei's Prince." Romae,

1610. 8vo. The language of thefe pieces is a littla perplexed

and obfcure, and the method, according to the manner of

thofe times, fomewhat embarafled and pedantic; but they abound

with good matter, and have ferved as a fund to feveral

authors, who have written fmce againfl Machiavel.

FITZHERBERT (Nicholas), grandfon alfo to fir ^

Anthony Fitzherbert, and coufm to Thomas, was born about

the year 1550, and became a ftudent of Exeter- College in^ood'

Oxford. About 1572, he left his native country, parents, Athen,

and patrimony, for religion ; and went beyond the feas as a^'"^"'

voluntary exile. At firft he fettled at Bononia in Italy, to

obtain the knowledge of the civil law, and was there in 1 5 80.

Not long after he went to Rome, and in the year 1587, began

to live in the family of William Alan, the cardinal of

England. He continued with him till his death, being then

eminent for his knowledge in the laws and in polite literature.

He was unfortunately drowned, fome time in the year 1612,

in a journey he ma^efrom Rome. He publifhed the follow-

ing pieces: i. Cafas Galatsei de bonis moribus, ,that is,

" Cafa Galataeus, of good manners." Romae, 1595. A

tranflation from Italian. 2. Oxonienfis in Angjia Academiae

Defcriptio, that is, '


F L A C C U S.

FLACCUS (Caius Valerius), an ancient Latin poet,

of whom we have but very impeited accounts remaining.

There are many places tha,t claim him, but Setia, now Sezzo,

a tdwn of Campania, feems to have the befl title ; and

it is from thence, that he bears the firname Setinus. Mar-

tial, who was his contemporary and friend, intimates, that

he lived at Padua, or at leaft was born there.; as may be col-

i'j* '• ledled from an epigram, wherein he advifes him to quit the

Inft. Orat

L. X. c. i.

beggarly fludy of poetry, and to apply himfelf to the bar, as

the more profitable profeffion of the two. He died when he

was about thirty years of age, and before he had put the

finifhing hand to the poem which he left.

f laccus chofe the hillory of the Argonautic expeirtion for

the fubjed of his poem ; of which he lived to compofe no

more than feven books, and part of an eighth. It is ad-

drefled to the emperor Vefpafian ; and Flaccus takes occafion

at the fame time to compliment Domitian on his poetry, and

Titus on his conqueft of Judiea. 7 he learned world have

been divided in their opinion of this autlior: fome critics not

having fcrupled to exalt him above all the Latin poets, Virgil

only excepted, while others have fet him as much below

them. This poem of the Argonautic expedition, is an imi-

tation rather than a tranflation of the Greek poet Apollonius,

four books of whofe poem upon the fame fubjeil are yet remaining

: and it has generally been agreed, that the Latin

poet has fuceeded beft in thofe parts, where he had not the

Greek in view. Apolloniushas by no means fufFered, where

Flaccus has feemed to tranflate him, none of his fpirit having

been loft in the transfufion : fo far from it, that our author

has the honour to be ranked among the few, whofe copies

have rivalled their originals. He had a true genius for poetry,

which would have been more diftingulfhed, had he attained

to riper years, and a more fettled way of judging. He profefledly

imitated Virgil, and often does ic in a moft happy

manner. Upon the whole, he does not deferve to be fo negleded

as he has been -, efpecially, while other poets of an-

tiquity have been thought worthy of notice, who are not

fuperior to him either for their matter, flyle, or verfification.

Quintilian feems to have entertained the higheft opinion of

his merit, by the fhort eloge he has left of him. Speaking

of the poets, he fays, multum in ValerioFlacco nuper amiflimus

: that is, ** we have lately loft much by the death of Valc-

*' rius Flaccus." After feveral editions of this poet, with notes

of the learned, Nicholas Heinfius publifhed him at Amfterdam

in 1 680. i2mo. which edition was republiihsd in the fame lize


F L A M S T E E D. 115

in r 702. But the beft edition is that, cum notis integrls Variorum

& Petri Burmanni, printed at Leyden in 1724. 410.

It may be proper juft to mention, that John Baptifta Pius

an Italian poet, compleated the eighth book of the Argonau-

tics, and added two more, by way of funplement, from the


fourth of Apollonius; which fupplement was firft



at the end of Flaccus, in Aldus's edition of 1523, and has

been fubjoincd to all, or at leaft moft of the editions fmce.

FLAMSTP:ED (John), a moft eminent Engl'lfli aftronomer,

was born of reputable parents at Denby in Derby-

fhire, on the 19th of Auguft, 1646. He was educated at

the Frce-fchool of Derby, where his father lived ; and at

fourteen years of age was vifited with a fevere fit of ficlcnefs,

which being followed by a corTfumption and other diftempers,

prevented his going to the univeifity, as was defigued. He

was taken from fchool in the year 1662, and within a month

or two after had Sacrobofco's book De Sphaera put into his

hand, which he fet himfelf to read without any diredtor.

This accident, and the leifure that attended it, laid the groundwork

of all that mathematical and aftronomical knowledge,

for which he became afterwards fo juffly celebrated. He had

already turned over a great deal of hiftory, ecclefiaftical, as

well as civile but this fubje6l was intirely new to him, and

he found a mi-ihty pleafure in it. Having tranflated fo mucK

from Sacrobofco, as he thought neceflary, into Englifh, he

proceeded to make dials by the direction of fuch ordinary

books as he could get together ; and having changed a piece

of Aftrology, found among his father's books, for Mr. Street's

Caroline Tables, he fet himfelf to calculate the places of the

planets. He fpent fome part of his time alfo in aftrological

fludies, yet fo as to make them fubfervient to Aftronomy :

for he never was in the leaft captivated with the folemn pre-

tenfions of that vain fcience.

Having calculated by the Caroline Tables an Eclipfe of

the Sun, which was to happen on the 22d of June, 1666,

he imparted it to a relation, who fliewed it to Mr. Emanuel

Halton, of Wingfield manor in Derbyihire. This Emanuel

Halton was a very good mathematician, as appears from

fome pieces of his, in the appendix to Fofter's Mathematical

Mifcellanies. He came to fee Mr. Flamfteed foon after; and

finding he was not acquainted with the aftronomical performances

of others, he fent him Riccioli's Almageftum Novum

and Kepler's Tabulae Rudolphinse, to which he was before

a ftranger. He profecuted his aftronomical ftudies from this

I 2 time

ii5 ^


A M S T E E D.

time with all imaginable vigour, and with all the fuecefs he

could wifh. In 1669, he collected Tome remarkable eclipfes

of the fixed ftars by the Moon, which would happen in

1670, calculating them from the Caroline Tables ; and di-

Te£ied them to the lord vifcount Brouncker, prefident of the

Royal Society- This produced very good effects; for his

piece, being read before that Society, was fo highly approT-

cd, that it procured him letters of thanks, dated January the

14th, 1669-7C, from Mr. Oldenburg their fecretary, and

from Mr. John Collins Oiie of their members, with whom he

correfponded feveral years.

From the time of the above-mentioned piece's being read

to the Royal Society, he began to have accounts fent him of

all the mathematical books, which were publifhed either at

home, or abroad: and in June, 1670, his father, who had

hitherto difcountenanced his ftudies, taking notice of his correfpondence

with feveral ingenious men he had never feen,

advifed him to take a journey to London, that he might be

perfonally acquainted with them. Mr. Flamfteed gladly embraced

this offer, and vifited Mr. Oldenburg and Mr. Collins

; and they introduced him to Sir Jonas Moore, who prefented

him with Mr. Townley's Micrometer, and undertook

to procure him glafles for a Telefcope, at a moderate rate.

At Cambridge, he vifited Dr. Barrow, Mr. Newton, and

Dr.Wroe, then fellow of Jefus-College, of which he alfo entered

himfelf a ftudent. In the fpring of the year 1672, he

excerped feveral obfervations from Mr. Gafcoigne's and Mr.

Crabtree's Letters, which had not been made public, and

which he tranflated into Lat n. He finiflied the tranfcript of

Mr. Gafcoigne's papers in May : and fpent the remainder of

the year in making obfervations, and in preparing advertifements

of the approaches of the Moon and Planets to the fixed

Stars for the following year. Thefe were publifhed by

Mr. Oldenburg in the Philofophical Tranfadlions ; with fome

obfervations on the Planets, which Mr. Flamfleed imparted

to him. In 1673, -he wrote a fmall tra6t in Englifh, concerning

the true and apparent diameters of all the Planets,

"w.hen at their neareft or remoteft diftances from the earth

which tract he lent to Mr. Newton in 1685, who made ufe

of it in the third book of his Principia Mathematica, &c.

In 1673-4, he wrote an Ephemens to (hew the falfity of

Aftrology, and the ignorance of thofe that pretended to it;

and gave a Table of the Moon's rifing and fetting carefully

calculated, together with the Eclipfes and Approaches of the

Moon and Planets to the fixed Stars. This fell into the hands




of Sir Jonas Moore, for whom Mr. Flamfteed made a Table

of the Moon's true Southings that year; from which, and

Mr. Phih'ps's Theory of the Tides, the High Waters being

made, he found that they (hewed the times of the turn of

the Tides very near, whereas the common feaman*s coarfe

rules would err fometimes two or three hours. In 1674,

our author paffing through London in the way to Cambridge,

Sir Jonas Moore informed him, that a true account of the

Tides would be highly acceptable to his majefty ; upon

which he compofed a fmall Ephemeris for his majefty's ufe.

Sir Jonas had heard him often difcourfe of the Weather-glafs,

or Barometer, and the certainty of judging of the weather by

it, from a long feries of obfervations he had made upon it

and now requefted of him to fct him up a pair of thefe

glafles, which Mr. Flamfteed did, and left him materials for

making more. Sir Jonas valued thefe glaftes extremely ; and

mentioning them as curiofititrs to the king and duke of York,

•he was ordered to exhibit them the next day, which he did,

together with Mr. Flamfteed's diredlions for judging of the

weather from their riling or falling. Sir Jonas was a g'^eat

friend to our author; had (hewn the king and duke his Te-

and, whenever he acquaint-

lefcopes and Micrometer before :

ed them with any thing, which he had gathered from Mr,

Flamfteed's difcourfe, he told them frankly from whom he

had it, and recommended him to the nobility and gentry a-

bout the court.

Mr. Flamfteed, having taken his degree of mafter of arts

at Cambridge, defigned to enter into holy orders, and to

fettle in a fmall living near Derby, which he had a promife

of from a friend of his father's. In the mean time. Sir Jonas

Moore having notice of his defign, wrote to him to come to

London, whither he returned in February 1674-5, ^


F L A M S T E E D.

Greenwich was laid ; and during the building of it, Mf,

Flamfteed lodged at Greenwich: and his Quadrant and Telefcopes

being kept in the queen's houfe there, he obferved the

Appulfes of the Moon and Planets to the fixed Stars. In

J 68 1, his " Dodirine of the Sphere," was publifhed in a

pofthumous work of Sir Jonas Moore, intitled, " A new

" Syllem of the Mathematics," printed in quarto.

About the year 1684, he was prefented to the living of

Burftow in Surrey, which he held as long as he lived. He

was, indeed, very moderately provided for, yet Teems to have

been quite contented, afpiring after nothing but knowledge,

and the promotion of the fciences. This however, as it

raifed him to the notice of the world, and recommended

him to royal favour and protection, fo it likewife procured

him the friendfliip and confidence of fome of the moft iljuftrious

perfons in the way of fcience; fuch as the incomparable

fir Ifaac Newton, Dr. Edmund Halley, William Molineux

of Dublin, efq; Dr. John Wallis, the celebrated

Cafiini, Sec. He fliewed the fame afliduity in labouring for

the improvement of Aftronomy, after this moderate provi-

fion was made for him, as he did before i as the numbcrlefs

papers addreffed by him to the fecretaries of the Royal Society,

many of which are printed in the Philofophical Tranf-

^(Si:ions, do abundantly teftify. He fpent the latter, as he

had done the former part of his life, in promoting true and

ufeful knowledge ; and died of a ftrangury upon the laft day

of December 1719. Though he lived to above feventythree

years of age, yet it is remarkable, that he had from

his infancy fiich a natural tendernefs of conftitution, as he

couW never get the better of; and in a letter to Mr. John

Collins, dated March the 2Cth 1670-71, he fays, that *' he

*' fhall fcarcely have time to tranfcribe, and fit his papers

** for the prefs, partly, becaufe his occafions, but more fre-

** quently his diflempers, withdraw and detain him from his

** pen-endeavours. For the fpring, fays he, coming on,

*' my blood increafes, which if 1 fliould not exercife ftrong-

** Jy, I fhould fpit up, or receive into my flomach, with

** great detriment to my health." He was married, but

had no children. His Hifloria Caeleftis Britannica was pub-

liflied at London, 1725, in three volumes folio, and dedicated

to the king by his widow, Mrs. Margaret Flamfteed

and Mr. James Hodgfon. A great part of this work was

printed off before his death ; and the reft compleated, ex-

cept the Prolegomena prefixed to the third volume. In the

preface we are informed, that in 1704, he having conmu-


F L A M S T E E D. 119

nicated by a friend an account of his colle(Sl:ion of Obfervations

to the Royal Society, they were fo highly pleafed with

it, that they recommended the work to his royal highnefs

prince George of Denmark, who ordered P'raocis Roberts,

efqj Sir Chriftopher Wren, Sir Ifaac Newton, Dr. David

Gregory, and Dr John Arbuthnot, to infpe(5l Mr. Flamfteed*s

papers. This being done, and a report made in their favour,

ninety-feven fheets were printed at the prince's expence be-

fore his death ; after which the remainder was publifned at

the charge of the author and his executors, and will be a

noble and lafting monument to his memory.

By way of coiiclufion to this article, we will fubjoin the

teftimony of fome eminent perfons in favour of our author.

Mr. Stephen Gray, in a letter dated from Canterbury, May

the 5th, 1 70 1, defcribing a very ingenious inftrument in-

vented by him, for drawing a true meridian line by the Pole

Star, and alfo for finding the hour of the day and night for

the fame, has the following pafTage. " That moft learned,

** accurate, and judicious Aftronomer, Mr. John Flamfteed

" has lately difcovered, that there is a parallaxis of the

" Earth's annual orbit at the Pole Star, of about forty or

" forty-five feconds ; whereby the diameter of the ftar's pa-

*' rallel is greater in June than in December, by about one

«' minute two feconds, which he has evinced from fcven

" years fucceflive obfervations, whereby the Earth's motion P^^^* '^^^"^*

«* is indubitably demonftratcd, as appears from his learned

*« letter to Dr. Wallis on that fubjed.' The learned Dr.

Wotton, who was a perfon of univerfal knowledge, pro-

duces the labours and difcoveries of Mr. Flamfteed to prove,

tbat the ancient Aftronomy was not at all comparable to the

modern ; or, which is the fame thing, that modern Aftronqmers

have far furpafled the ancient in point of accuracy, as

well as extenfivenefs in their obfervations. " Galileo Galilei,

fays he, '* was the firlt, who d fcovered four Planets moving

" conftantly round Jupiter, from thence ufually called his

*' Satellites, which afterwards were obferved to have a con-

*' ftant, regular, and periodical motion. This motion is

*' now fo exaflly known, that Mr. Flamfteed, who is one

*' of the moft accurate obfervers that ever was, has been

" able to calculate Tables of the Eclipfes of the feveral

*' Satellites : according to which Aftronorhers, in difFerent^=**^^.'0"*

*' quarters of the world, having notice of the precife time^JJ/J5J*j"J„

" when to look for them, have found them to anfwer to his Learning,

*' predictions, and publifhed their obfervations accordingly."?* '75*

The gr€;at Mathematician, Dr. John Keill, ha& faid of Mr.

I 4 Flam-



Introd. ad

Ver. Aftro.

Mom. in




F L A T M A N.

Flamfteed, that " with indefatigable pains for mere than for-

*' ty years, he has watched the motions of the Stars ; and

*' has given us innumerable obfervations of the Sun, Moon,

*' and Planets, which he made with very large inftruments

*' exaftly divided by moft exquifite art, and fitted with te-

*' lefcopical fights. Whence we are to rely, fays he, more

*' on the obfervations he hath made, than on thofe that went

*' before him, who made their obfervations with the naked

*' eye, without the affiflance of Telefcopes. The faid Mr.

'« Flamfteed has likewife compofed the Britifh Catalogue of

" the fixed Stars, containing about three thoufand Stars,


*< which is twice the number that are in the Catalogue of

*« Hevelius; to each of which he has annexed its longitude,

F L E C H I E R. 121

He publlQied al-

worth 100 1. for his pains and ingenuity. '

fo in 1685, two Pindaric Odes : one on the death of prince

Rupert, the other on the death of king Charles IT.

In the year 1660, came out under the letters T. F. a colledion

of poems, intitled, *' Virtus kediviva : A panegy-


F L E C K N O E.

Niceron, vignon upon the lothofjune 1632. He was educated un-

Memoircs, ^^j. gj, uiicle, who was a man of note, and who cultivated

c. o-"'»-jj^ j^jjjj (}^^^ genuine eloquence, and love of polite literature,

^ for which he was naturally formed, and became afterwards

famous. He was firfl: known at Paris, by a Defcription of a

Carroufal in Latin verfe, and by fome French poems, which

gained him great reputation. His Carroufal, intitled, Curfus

Regius, was printed at Paris in 1669, by itfelf, and among

bis Mifcellaneous Works in 1612, 1 2mo. People wondered

to fee a thing of this nature, fo little known to ancient Rome,

exprefled with fuch eafe and elegance in Latin. His firft

Sermons were taken great notice of, and his Funeral Orations

were admired to the higheft degree. He feems to have pitched

upon an odd method of forming a true tafte, and of acquiring

a beautiful and correal way of writing : and th.,t was,

it feems, by reading authors who had none of thefe qualities.

If his judgment had not been naturally good, fuch a pra6tice

muft have corrupted, inilead of confirming it. The duke de

Montaufier was his great friend, and chofe him to make a

Funeral Oration for his Lady in 1672 -, when he difcovered

for the firft time his very uncommon talent for thefe fort of

works. He was received a member of the French Academy

in 1673. One of the fchemes contrived for the education

of the dauphin was to write the Hiftory of the Illuftrious

Chriftian Princes. Flechier was appointed to write the

Hiftory of Theodofius the Great, which he did with uncommon

eloquence and exadnefs, and publiftied it in 1679.

He was nominated to the biihopric of Lavaur in 1685, and

tranflated to that of Nimes in 1687. His affection for the

Belles Lettres was not at all leflened by his advancement.

He founded an Academy at Nifmes, and took the prefident-

(hip upon himfelf. His own palace was indeed a kind of Academy,

where he applied himfelf to train up Orators and

Writers, who might ferve the church, and do honour to the

nation. He died upon the i6th of February 17 10, in the

78th year of his age. His works confift of Panegyrics,

Sermons, Funeral Orations, Pailoral Letters, Latin and

French Poetry, Letters, Sec. He wrote the Hiftory of Car-

dinal Ximenes, which was publifhed at Paris, 1693, in 4to.

and in two volumes 12 mo. He alfo tranflated fome pieces of

Antonius Maria Gratian.

FLECKNOE (Richard), an Englifti poet and dramatic

writer in the reign of Charles U. but more remarkable

for having given a name to a fatire of Mr. Dry den's, than



for all his own works. He Is faid to have been originally a

Jefuit, and to have had connexions in confequence thereof,

with fome perfons of high diftin






voj, i.




ed by the audience ; which Mr. Flecknoe fliles the people,

and calls them judges without judgment. He owns, that

his play wants much of the ornaments of the ftage ; but

that, he fays, may be ealily fupplied by a lively imagination.

Our author's other works confift of Epigrams and Enigmas.

There is a book of his writing, called, " The I>iarium, or

*' Journal, divided into twelve jornades, in burlefque verfe."

It is to be hoped, that the character Mr. Dryden gives of Mr.

Flecknoe's works, in the two following lines, is fomething

beyond their proper defert

** In profe and verfe was own'd without difpute

*' Thro' all the realms of nonfenfe abfolute."

We know not when Mr. Flecknoe died. Perhaps Dryden's

fatire had rendered him fo contemptible, that no body

gave themfelves the trouble to record any particulars either of

his life or death. Pope feems to have taken the hint of his

Dunciad from Dryden's Mac Flecknoe.

FLEETWOOD (William), an eminent EngliOi

lawyer, and recorder of London in the reign of queen Eli-

zabeth, was defcended from an ancient family in Lancafhire,

and a natural fon, as Mr. Wood fays, of Robert Fleetwood,

efq; of Hefketh in that county. He had a liberal education,

and was for fome time a member of the univerfity of Oxford i

but whether of Brazen-nofe College, or Broadgate hall, Mr.

Wood does not inform us. He went from thence to the

Middle-Temple in London, to ftudy the law ; and having

quick as well as ftrong parts, became in a ftiort time a very

diftingulflied man in his profeffion. His reputation was not

confined to the Inns of Court ; for it having been thought

neceilary to appoint Commiffioners in ^the nature of a Royal

Vifitation In the diocefes of Oxford, Lincoln, Peterborough,

Coventry and Lichfield, Mr. Fleetwood was of the number.

In 1569, he became recorder of London. It does not appear,

whether his intereft with the earl of Leicefter procured

him that place or not ; but it is certain, that he was con-

fidered as a perfon entirely addicted to that nobleman's fer-

vice, for he is ftiled in one of the bittereft libels of thofe

times, " Leicefter's mad Pvccorder:" with an infmuation,

that he was placed in his office, to encourage thofe of this

lord's fdiVion in the city. He was very zealous againft the

Papifts, a


fo zealous, that once rufhing in upon mafs at the Portuguefe

arnbafTador's houfe, he was, for breach of the ambaiTador's

privilege, committed prifoner to the Fleet, though foon re-

leafed. In 1580, he was made ferjeant at law, and in

1592, one of the queen's ferjeants; in which poft, however,

he did not continue long, for he died about a yeaV after^ and

was carried to Great M.flenden in Buckingharafliire, where

he had purchafcd an eftate, to be buried. He was married,

and had children. Mr. Wood fays, that " he was a learned

*' man, and a good antiquary, but of a marvellous, merry,

'' and pleafant conceit." He was farther efteemed a (hrewd

politician ; and indeed, that character was moft likely to recommend

him to his patron Leicefter. He was a good popular

fpeaker, and wrote well upon fubje6ts of government.

He made a great figure in his profeffion, being equally celebrated

for his eloquence as an advocate, and for his judgment

as a lawyer.

His occupations hindered him fram writing much, yet there

are fome fmall pieces of his in being: as, i. '* An Oration

" made at Guildhall before the iVIayor, &c. concerning the

** late attempts of the Queen's Majefties feditious fubjedls,

** October the 15th, 1571.'' i2mo. 2. Annalium tam Regum

Ed vardi V. Richard in. et Henrici VII. quam Henrici

VIU. titulorum ordine alphabetico multo jam melius quam

ante digeftorum Elenchus : that is, " An Index of the Year

*' Books, as well during the reigns of Edward V. Richard

" III. and Henry VII. as of Henry VIII. digelicd under

'* titles in an Alphabetical order, in a much better method

" than before;" 1579 and 1597. 3* " A Table to the Re-

" ports of Edmund Plowden ;'* i2mo. this is in French.

4. *' 7'he Office of a Juftice of Peace : together with in-

'' ftru6tions how and in what manner Statutes fhall be ex-

'' pounded i" 1658. 8vo. this is pollhumous.

FLEETWOOD (William), a very excellent Eng-

Jilh divine and bilhop, was defcended from the fame ancient

family in Lancafliire with the Fleetwood juft mentioned, his Life and

and born in. the Tower of London on the ift of January Writings,

1656. He had his fchool learning at Eaton, from whence P^^^^j!*^°

he was ele£led to King*s-coIIege in Cambridge. About thetionof his

time of the Revolution, he entered into holy orders ; and was Sermons and

confidered as a celebrated preacher, from his firil: fetting out. Jff^^^"

Having preached the Anniverfary Sermon on the Founder's

day, before the Univerfity in his own College Chappel, March

the 25th, 1 689, it fell to hi^ tuFn to preach before them on



the Sunday following at St. Mary's; when the Vice-Chan-

cellor and Heads of Colleges defired him to print both Sermons

: but he, declining one part of the honour,, printed

only the firft. He was footi after made chaplain to king

William and queen Mary ; and by the intereft of Dr. Godolphin,

at that time vice-provoft of Eaton, and refidentiary

of St. Paul's, he was made fellow of that college, and rec-

tor of St. Auftin's, London, which is in the gift of the

dean and chapter of St. Paul's. Soon after, he obtained

alfo the lecture of St. Dunftans in' the Weft, probably by

virtue of his great reputation and merit as a preacher.

In the year 169!, he gave a proof of his love for letters,

and efpecially for antiquities, by publifhing, i. Infcriptionum

Antiquarum Sylloge, &c. in 8vo. This colle6lion of an-

tient infcriptions confifts of two parts ; the firft containing

remarkable Pagan infcriptions colle6led from Gruter, Reine-

fius, Spon, and other writers ; the fecond the ancient Chrif-

tian monuments : the whole illuftrated with very fhort notes

for the ufe of the young antiquarian, in ufum juventutis, &c.

In 1692, he tranflated into Englifti, revifed, and prefixed a

preface to, 2. " Mr. Jurieu's Plain Method of Chriftian

** Devotion, laid down in Difcourfes, Meditations, and

*' Prayers, fitted to the various occafions of a religious life :"

the 27th edition of which was printed in 1750. In the mean

time he was chiefly diftinguiflied by his great talents for the

pulpit, which rendered him (o much and fo generally ad-

mired, that he was frequently called upon to preach in the

moft public places, and upon the moft folemn occafions ;

fuch as, before the king, queen, lord mayor, &c. and boF-

fore the year i/oi, he had publifhed no lefs than ten of

thefe Occafional Sermons, befide the above fermon preached

at Cambridge. In 1701, he publifhed, 3. '• An EfTay upon

*' Miracles," in 8vo. This work is written in the way of


** never to enter into controverfy, for which he had an ex-

*' treme averfion : the acrimony with which difputes were

'* carried on, being not at all agreeable to the calmnefs and

'' meeknefs of his temper : for which reafon, he would not

'' be drawn to defend what he had written. 1 write my own

*' fenfe as well as 1 can, was his faying upon fuch occafions :

" if it be right, it will fupport itfelf; if it be not, it is fitf^''°p"*'.

*' it fhould fmk." This EiTay upon Miracles is faid to contain

the fubftance of what he would have preached at Mr.

Boyle's Ledurcs, in cafe his health vi'ould have permitted

him to have undertaken that tafk, when it was offered him j

which, it feems, it did n6t.

About a week before king William's death, he was nominated

to a canonry of Windfor; but the grant not having

pafTed the feals in ti:rie, the houfe of commons addrefled the

queen to give that canonry to their chaplain. His patron,

lord Godolphin, laid the matter before the queen, who faid,

that if king William had given it to Mr. Fleetwood, he

(hould have it; and accordingly he was inftalled in 1702,

In .1704, he publiftied without his name a piece, intitled,

4. *' The Reafonable Communicant; or, An Explanation

" of the DotS^rine of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper."

This book, of which there have been feveral editions, has,

in the catalogue of the trails diAributed by the Society for

propagating Chriilian knowledge, been given to another perfon

; but it is agreed, at l.ngth, to be Mr. Fleetwood's, who

in his preface affigns this caufe for writing it, viz. " That

*' he might not be obliged to repeat continually, the contents

*^ of it to fuch of his parifhioners, as from time to time

" came to be inftrufted hov/ to become worthy partakers of

*' the facrament." In 1 705, he publiftied in two volumes,

8vo, 5. *' Sixteen Pradlical Difcourfes upon the relative

" duties of Parents and Children, Hufbands and Wives,

" Mafters and Servants ; with three Sermons upon the cafe

•* of Self-murder." About this time he took a refolution of

retiring from the noife and hurry of the town ; much to the

concern of his friends and admirers there. His pariftiioners

of St. Auftin's were fo deeply afFeded with it, that they offered

to keep him a curate» among other temptations : but

nothing could divert him from his refolution ; fo that he gave

up his preferments, and withdrew to Wexham, a fmall rectory

of about 60 1. a year in Buckinghamfhire. Here he enjoyed

the tranquillity and pleafure of that privacy, which he

had fo much longed for, in a commodious houfe and gardens ;

and what made this retirement more agieeable, was its near-




iicfs to his beloved Eton. Here he indulged himfelf in his

natural inclination to the ftudy of Britifh hiftory and antiquities,

which no man underilood better : and in 1707, he

gave a fpecimen of his great (kill therein, in his, 6. '' Chro-

*' nicon Preciofum : or, an account of the Englifli money,

*' the price of corn, and other commodities, for the laft 600

*' years. In a letter to a Student of the Univerfity of Ox-

" ford ;'* vi^ithout his name.

He did not remain long in this retirement : for In 1 706,

upon the death of bifhop Beveridgc, he was nominated by

the queen of her own accord to the fee of St. Afaph, without

any follicitation, or even knowledge of his own ; fo that,

as he afiured a friend, the firft intelligence he had of his promotion

was from the Gazette. He was but juft gone out

from waiting as chaplain, when his predeceflbr died : upon

which one of the ladies of the bedchamber afking the queen,

whom fhe intended to make bifliop of St. Afaph ? her majefly

replied, *« One whom you will be pleafed with ; whom

*' you have lately heard preach : I intend it for Dr. Fleet-

*' wood." It was this circumftance, namely, the queen's

doing it of herfelf, that helped to reconcile him to the

Account, world again 3 for, it ftems, bethought he faw the hand of

&c. p. 4. God in ir, and fo was confecrated June the 6th, 1708. In

this ftatlon he a6led in the moft exemplary manner. The

author of the account of his life tells us, that " he had a

" very difficult part to ad, coming into this diocefe but juft

'* before that fpirit of rage and madnefs broke out in 17C9,

" which continued to the end of the queen's reign; v^'hen

" party-rage ran higher, and the fpirit of jacobitifm was

*' more infolent and barefaced, than in any former time,

" fmce the Revolution, and more in that part of the king-

" dom than in moft others. Yet his great and clear repu-

" tation, his uncommon abilities and unblemiftied life, which

*' fet off the epifcopal character with fo much luftre, his

*' obliging and eafy deportment, free from the leaft tindure

** of pride, or fhew of fuperiority, did not only place him

*' above all indecent treatment, which was a great point

•' gained In thofe unequal times, but procured much revc-

*' rence and affection to his perfon from a clergy, that al-

ibld. " "^o^ to 2 man differed from him in principle."

In the mean time he preached often before the queen, and

feveral of thofe fermons were printed. He attended the

houfe of lords conftantly, and afied there with dignity and

fpirit. He vifited his diocefe ; and his incomparable charge

to his clergy, publiftied in 17 lO, fhews, that he was a zea-



Jous, but hot a furious, churchman. Neverthelefs, he was

highly difgufted with the change of the miniflry that year*

and withdrew from court. He could not be drawn to give

any countenance to the meafures of the new miniftry, though

endeavours had been ufed, and intimations given by the queen

herfelf, who had a great value for him, how pleafing his frequent

coming to court would be to her. The fame year, he

publiihcd without his name a piece, intitled, 7. " The

** Thirteenth Chapter to the Romans, vindicated from the

*' abufive fenfes put upon it. Written by a Curate of Salop,

*' and difC^Sted to the Clergy of that County, and the rieigh-

*' bouring ones of North Wales, to whom the author wifh-

" eth patience, moderation, and a gopd underftanding iof

" half an hour.'* Upon the pretended authority of this

very chapter, the regal power had been magnified in fuch a

manner, that tyranny might feeai the ordinance of God, and

the moll: abjeft flavery to be founded in the principles of re-*

^igion. The bifhop was highly offended with this do(^rine;

and in this pamphlet endeavours to fhew, that '' this chapter

*' of St. Paul requires of no people any more fubmllHon to

'* the higher powers, than the laws of their feveral coun-

*' tries require -, that it exadis no other obedience, than the

" laws exa£l ; that it forbids no other refiftance, than the

** laws of that country forbid j and, that it damns no mart

*' for making fuch refiftance, as the laws of his country al-

" low him to make, be it more or lefs j" or, as he exprefles

it at the conclufion of his tradl, that " the word of God

" oblijes all fubjeds to fuch obedience, and no other, as thd

*' laws of their country have obliged them to, and forbids

*' fuch refiftance and no other, as the laws of their country

*' have forbidden.'*

Notwithftanding his diff*erence with the prefetit tniniftty^

when a faft was appointed to be kept on January the i6thi

1711-12, he was chofen by the houfe of lords to preach be-»

fore them on that occafion : but by fome means or other get-

ting intelligence, that he had drawn his pen againft the peace^

they contrived to have that houfe adjourned beyond that day*

This put it indeed out of our prelate's power to deliver hi^

fentiments from the pulpit ; yet he put the people in poffeffion

of them, by fending them from the prefs. Though

without a name, yet from the fpirit and language it Waa

eafily known, whofe fermon it was. It gave offence to fom«

great miniftcrs of ftate, who now only v/aited for an opportunity

to be revenged on our prelate : and this opportunit/

he foon gave them, by publifliing, 8. " ^o\xt Sermons* viz*

Vol. V, K « ort


voi. V.


^* on the death of queen Mary, 1694 ; on the death of the

'* duke of Gloucefter, 1700; on the death of king William,

" 1 701; on the Queen's accellion to the throne, 1702.

*« With a Preface." Lond. 1712. 8vo. This preface bearing

very hard upon thofe, that had the management of pub-

lic affairs, hold was laid of it j and upon a motion made for

that purpofe in the houfe of commons, an order was made

to burn it, which was accordingly done upon the 12th of

May I7i2» The bifhop knowing it to be the effe6l of

party rage was very little affeded with this treatment ; but

rather pleafed to think, that the very means they had ured,to

fupprefs his book was only a more effectual way of publifti-

ino;, and exciting; the whole nation to read it. Lt was owingr

(.Q ji^jj, certainly, that it was printed in the Spectator, and

thereby difperfed into feveral thoufand hands. This fame

year, and indeed before his fermons, hepublifhed, but without

his name, 9. " The Judgment of the Church of Eng-

** land in the cafe of Lay-Baptifm, and of DifTenters Baptifm :

** by v^hich it appears, that flie hath not, by any public aft

^' of hers, made' or declared Lay Baptifm to be invalid.

" The fecond edition. With an additional letter from Dr.

*' John Cofin, afterwards bifhop of Durham, to Mr. Cor-

*' del, who fcrupled to communicate with the French Pro-


^ee ; and he was accordingly, without the Jeaft applicat'oa

from himfelf dire6ily or indirectly, nominated thereto, and

tranflated the i8th of December the fame year. His new

preferment had no other effe

lin F L E T C H E R.


great work, intitled, Linguarum Veterum Septentrionalium

Thefaurus; and Mr. Hearne often confeiTes himfelf much

obliged to bifliop Fleetwood, for many fingular inftances of

his friendfliip. This (hews our prelate to have been no

party-zealot, fince we find he was ready to entertain a free

correfpondence with men of real merit, how different foever

their political principles might be from his own ; as in both

thefe cafes it is well enough known they were. Mr. Whifton,

a man of great probity, and a free fpeaker, admired our

prelate as a prfeacher, when he was a young man at the uni-

verfity ; and he admired him too as a bifliop, as we learn

°^from the following ftory. After having mentioned feveral

Life, inftances of the danger, which the beft men run of being

p. 305' corrupted in courts, he proceeds thus : " It puts me in mind

*' of what that excellent preacher and liver bifhop Fleet-

*' wood, as I have been informed, faid upon the like occa-

'' fion. This good bifhop once came to the houfe of lords

*' a little too early, and overheard certain perfons debating

" this queftion. Whether a Courtier could be a Chriftian or

" not ? and when at length the company perceived he was

** there, they would needs have his opinion. He replied,

*' he was no Courtier, nor would determine that queftion

^' but he acknowledged he had learned fo much by their dif-

*' courfe, that it was not very fit for a good Chriftian to go

" fo Court."

It has often created w^onder, that bifliop Burnet is filent as

to our author, in his hiftory : but whether he had not a fair

opportunity of mentioning him, or whatever was his reafon,

it is certain that he had the higheft opinion of, and the great-

eft efteem for, him.

FLETCHER (John), an eminent Englifh dramatic

writer, was born in Northamptonfiiire in the year 1576; and



was the fon of Dr. Richard Fletcher,

whom we fliall fay fomething by and

bifliop of London, of

by. He was educated


^" ^^^ univerfity of Cambridge,

college, fince his father, it feems,

and probably at Bennet-

by his laft will and teftament

was a benefa£lor to it. He wrote plays jointly with

Mr. Beaumont ; and Wood fays, that he aflifted Ben Johnfon

in a comedy, called, " The Widow." After Beaumont's

death, which happened in 1615, he is faid to have

confulted Mr. James Shirley, in forming the plots of feverai

of his plays 5 but which thofe were, we have no means of

difcovering. Beaumont and Fletcher, however, wrote plays

m concert, though it is BOt known what (hare each bore



in farming the plots, writing the fcenes, &c. and the general

opinion is, that Beaumont's judgment was ufually em-

ployed in corre6^ing and retrenching the fuperfluities of Flet-

cher's wit. Yet, if Winftanley may be credited, the former

had his fliare likewife in the drama, in forming the plots, .

and writing the fcenes : for that auihor relates, that our^'^^j^.^^^^*

poets meeting once at a tavern, in order to form the rudepocts.

draught of a tragedy, Fletcher undertook to kill the king;

and that his words being overheard by a waiter, they were

feized and charged with high-treafon : till the miftake foon

appearing, and that the plot was only againft a theatrical king,

the affair ended in mirth. Fletcher died of the plague at

London in 1625, and was interred in St. Mary Overy's

Church in Southwark, on Auguft the 29th of that year.

Sir Afton Cockaine among his poems has an epitaph on our

author and Mr. Philip Malfinger, who, as he tells us, lie both

buried there in one grave j though Mr. Wood informs us,

from the parifh-regifter of that church, that Maffinger was

buried not in the church, but in one of the four yards belonging

to it. For a judgment upon our author, Mr. Edward

Philips obferves, that '* he was one of the happy tri-

" umvirate of the chief dramatic poets of our nation in the

'* laft foregoing age, among whom there might be faid to be

" a fymmetry of perfedion, while each excelled in his pe-

'' culiar way : Ben Johnfon in his elaborate pains and know-

** ledge of authors -, Shakefpear in his pure vein of wit and

«' natural poetic height j and Fletcher in a courtly elegance

*< and gentile familiarity of ftyle, and withal a wit and in-

*« vention fo overflowing, that the luxuriant branches there- Thcatrum

" of were frequently thought convenient to be lopped off by /'^^^g""*



Oxon *


" ages ;" 1678. 8vo. and being a critic devoid of goodnature,

has laboured to expofe their faults, without taking

the leaft notice of their beauties. Neverthelefs, they have

ever been allowed to have much merit ; and it is fufficient to

fay, that among their admirers are the illuftrious names of

Denham, Waller, JohnTon, Dryden, &c. Some of Beaumont

and Fletcher's plays were printed in 4to. during the

lives of their authors; and in 1645, twenty years after i'letcher's

death, there was publiflied a folio collection of them.

The firft edition of all their plays, amounting to upwards of

fifty, was publiihed in 1679, in folio. Another edition was

publifhed in 171 1, in fcven volumes 8vo. and another in

175 I, in ten volumes 8vo.

We promifed to fay a word or two of our author's

father. Dr. Richard Fletcher ; not indeed, that he is memorable

for wit, or learning, or in truth for any thing more

than being a bifhop, which alone ought to render him little

worthy of remembrance. However, out of pure refpe6t to

his fon, we proceed to obfe'rve, upon the authority of Mr.

Anthony Wood, that he was a Kentifh man born, and edu-

cated at Bennet college in Cambridge, of which he was fel-

low. He became dean of Peterborough in 1583; and in

1586, attended Mary queen of Scots at Fotheringhay-caftle,

at the time of her execution. He prefTed her very importu-

nately, certainly very unfeafonabiy, to change her religion :

but /he defired him three or four times over, not to give him-

felf or her any more trouble ; " for, fays fhe, I was born in

Strype's ** this religion, I have lived in this religion, and am refolved

Annals, 44 ^^ ^jg -p^ ^^jg religion." In 1589, he was made bifhop of

p° 'gg" Briilol : and we are told, that he leafed out the revenues of


this bifhopric in fo extravagant a manner, that he left little

to his fuccefTors ; infonnich, that after his removal from

thence, it lay vacant ten years. Sir John Harrington mentions

this ; and fays of him at the fame time, that ** he was

" a well-fpoken man. and one that the queen gave good

'• countenance to, and dlfcovered her favour to him even in

^^^ reprehenfions : for Ihe found fault with him once for

of the


decent for an elderly clergyman, a bifhop, and one that had

already had one wife, to marry a fecond : and (he gc^ve i'ach a

locjfe to her indignation, that not content with fbibidding

him to come into her prefence, ihe ordered archbijQiop Whit-

gift to fufpend him from the exercife of his epifcopal function,

which was accordingly done. He was afterwards reftored to

his bifhopric, and in fome mCvifure to the queen's favour

neverthelefs, the difgrace fat fo heavy on his mind, that it is

thought to have haftened his end. He died fuddenly in his

chair, at his houfe in London, upon the 15th of June, 1596 ;

being to all appearance well, fick, and dead, in a quarter of

an hour. He was an immoderate taker of tobacco ; the qua-

lities of which being then not well known, and fuppoi'ed to

have fomething poifonous in them, made Mr, Camden im aJ ann.

pute his death to it, as he does in his Annals of queen Eliza- ^^^^^

beth's reign.

FLETCHER (Giles), brother to Fletcher bifliop ofp^jl,,,^ London juft mentioned, was a very ingenious and able man, Worthies,

and born in Kent alfo. He received his education at Eaton -"^ ^

I^S F L E U R Y.


'^ fancy UlyfTes more glad to be come out of the den of Poly-

•' phemus, than he was to be rid of the power of fuch a

** barbarous prince : who counting himfelf, by a proud and

^' voluntary miftake, Emperor of all Nations, cared not for

** the Law of all Nations ; and who was fo habited in blood,

*' that had he cut off" this embaffador's head, he and his

*' friends might have fought their own amends, butthequef-

*' tion is, where he would have found it.*' Shortly after his

return, he was made fecretary to the city of London, and

^ mafter of the Court of Requefts : and in June 1 597, con-

itituted treafurer of St. Paul's. This worthy perfon died in

London in 1610, in the parifh of St. Catherine, Coleman,

and was probably buried in that church. From the obfervations

he had made during his embafTy into Ruffia, he drew

up a curious account, '' Of the Rufle Commonwealth : or

*' manner of Government by the Rufle Emperor, common-

*' ly called the Emperor of Mofkovia, with the manners and

** fafhions of the people of that country." Lond. 1591. 8vo.

This work was quickly fuppreffed, .

left it might give offence

to a prince in amity with England: but it was reprinted at

J>ondon in 1643, i2mo. and is inferted in Hakluyt's Navigations,

Voyages, &c. vol. i. only a little contracted. Mr.

Camden fjjcaking of this book fiyles it, libellum in quo plu-

/T!' sd rima obfervanda ; that is,

*'• a book in which are many things

%M. 1583. ,( worthy of obfervation."

He left two fons, both learned men, Giles and Phinea$.

The latter wrote feveral books; particularly, De literatis antiquse

Britanniae, praefertim qui do6trina claruerunt, quique

Collegia Cantabrigiae fundarunt : that is, " Of the learned

*• men in Britain, thofe cfpecially who have been more than

f? ordinarily famous, and who have founded Colleges at

*' Cambridge.'' Cant. 1633. i2mo.

P^LEURY (Claude), one of the befl French critics

9nd hiftorians of his age, was the fon of an advocate, and

born at Paris upon the 6th of Decerijber, in the year 1640.

f^e difcovered in his infancy a ftrong inchnation for letters,

fnd afterwards applied himfelf particularly to the law. He

was made advocate for the parliament of Paris in the year

1658, and attended the bar nine years. Then he took holy

prders ; and in the year 1672, w;js made preceptor to tHe

princes of Conti. In the year 1680, he had the care of the

education of the count de Vermandois, admiral of France.

After the death of this prince, which happened in about four

years, the kirg prcfentd him to the abbey pfLoc-Dieu, be-


F L E U R Y. 137

longing to the Clftercians, and in the diocefe of Rhodes.

In the year 1689, the king made him fub-preceptor to the

dukes of Burgundy, Anjou, and Berry, In the year 1696,

he was admitted a member of the French academy. In the

year 1706, when the education of the three princes was

finifhed, the king gave him the priory of Argenteville, belonging

to the Benedi(5tines in the diocefe of Paris, upon

which promotion he refigned the abbey of Loc Dieu. In the

year 17 16, he was chofen confeflbr to Lewis XV. and upon

the 14th of July, 1723, he died, being full eighty-two years

of age.

He was the author of a great number of excellent works,

all in French, and very well written. In the year 1674, he

printed a " Hidory of the French Law :** which was afterwards

prefixed to the Inftitutes of the French Law, writ-

ten by Monf. Argoud, advocate to the parliament. In the

year 1681, he publiftied his traft, intitled, *^ 1 he Manners

*' of the Jews," which is a good introduction for underftanding

the Old Teftament ; and afterward, " The Manners of

*' the Chriftians," in which he gives an account of the primitive

ChriHians way of living. In the year 1&83, he publifhed

an *' Hiftorical Catechifm," to inftrudl the iefs know-

ing of his communion in the principles of their religion.

This book was tranflated into Latin, and printed at BrufTels-

In the year 1684, he wrote the life of madam d'Arbouze,

who reformed the abbe of Valde Grace. In the year 1686,

he printed his trat^ for *' The Method of Study i" and the

year after, " The Inftitutes of the Ecclefiaftical, or Canon

*' Law,'* in which he explains the church regulations for

difcipline, with regard to the prefent ufages of France. In

the year 1688, he publiflied, '* The Duty of Matters and

'* Servants, &c." and lafHy, he undertook what is juftly

efteemed not only his principal work, but a mafterpiece in its

way, an " Ecclefiaftical Hiftory.** This confifts of twenty

volumes in 4to. and contains a hiftory of the church, froDi

the beginning of chriftianity to the year P414. Befides a

general preface, there are fevcn prefatory dilcouifes upon

ccclefiadical hidory, in different parts of the work, Thefe,

with it, were publiflied in a feparate volume by themfelves at

Paris, in 1708, and they breathe a fpirit truly philofophic.

For Fleury, though an ecclefiaftic of the church of Rome,

was very far from being affected with thofe principles of

bigotry and perfecution, which hold in fubjediion the generality

of his order. He was indeed a philofopher as well a

divine, ^nd, what very few are, a philofopher in pradice'



F L O R A.

as well as fpeculation. He is faid to have taken an extreme

delight in reading Plato ; and, after the example of this great

ancient, would often have private conferences with focieties

of the learned. He was a great lover of folitude, yet was

not referved, but would fpeak his mind freely upon the moft

important and even the moft delicate fubjedts. Conftantly

attentive to, and pun(5^ual in the difcharge of his duty, he

took no fteps to be rich or great, cheriflied no principles of

ambition, but preferred the glory of doing ufeful fervices to

his country to any honors, which his uncommon talents and

merit might juftly have claimed. A noble example to his

brethren ; and happy would it be both for themfeives and

others, if it were followed more thin it is.

FLORA, according to a general opinion founded upon


1 r"* 20

authority of Lad^antius, was a lady of pleafurc ; who

having gained large fums of money by proftitution, made the

Roman people her heir, and ordered, that the produce of a

certain fund which (he eftabliftied ftiould be employed in folemnizing

her birth-day. She defigned, that that day fhould

be remarkable every year by the games, which fhould be ex-

hibited to the people, and which from her Ibould be called

Floralia. They were celebrated in a very fcandalous lewd

manner, and were in fome fenfe the Feflival .of the Courte-

fans. The fevere Cato being once at thefe games, the people

were afhamed to afk the a^lrefles to undrefs : of which Cato

being informed by a friend who fat near him, withdrew from

the theatre, that he might not be a hinderance to the cufto-

Valer.Max.j^^^y ftiews. This, no doubt, was paying a vail compliment

*^' ' *to Cato j but, as Martial, who has ridiculed this condudl in

Cato, very well afks, '* Why did he go to thofe games, fince

*' he knew what was pra6tifed there ? Did he go only with

Epig. 3. " a defign to come away?" It feems< indeed, that Cato

*• *•

fhould either not have gone at all, or (houid have ftayed it

out, that his prefence might reform fo bad a cuftom. Lac-

tantius adds, that the fenate endeavoured to hide from the

people, how a feftival, which had fuch a (hameful origin,

came to be eftablifhed ; faying, that Flora was the Goddefs

who prefided over Flowers, and that in order to have a good

crop, it was necefTary to honour the goddefs every year, by

way of rendering her propitious.

FLORA, a famous Roman courtefan, was tenderly beloved

by Pompey ; and had fo much regard for him, that (he

never would yield to the importunities of another lover, till


F L O R I O. 139

Pompey himfelf defired her to do it. Germinius was thatP'"tarch.in

lover, and defired Pompey, who was his friend, to intercede

for him to Flora. Pompey did fo, and 1 lora confentcd :

neverthelefs, Pompey was fo much difguiled with this compliance

in Flora, that he never vifited her any more ; and

this threw her into fuch a melancholic way, that fhe did not

recover of a long time. In her old age, flie took great delight

in tallying of the agreeable hours, fhe had pafTed with

Pompey; and even ufed to obferve, that fhe never retired

from his embraces, without being bit by him. This fhews

the great Pompey not in a great light. It reminds us alfo, of

thofe fine lines in Lucretius, where fpeaking of the rage of

^''^: ^°"^"

love, he fays, *' It makes men wound and bite thofe' they lib. iv.

" love moll:,'* &c. The poets mention thefe bitings every

where : nor are the poets the only authors who mention them.

Cicero himfelf fpeaks of them, even before the fenate, in

his fifth oration againfl Verres : and affirms, that if the criminal

would fhew his breaft, they would not fee upon it

thofe glorious marks of wounds, which men receive in battles,

but of fuch as lafcivious men get in their obfcene pleafures.

But to return, and to conclude with Flora. Plutarch fays,

file was fo beautiful, thatCecilius Metellus caufed her pi

X40 F L O R I O.

ward the Vlth died, and the Proteftant Religion became op-

prefTed under queen Mary, they Jeft Kngland, and went to

Ibme other country, where our John Florio received his ju-

venile hterature. Upon the re-eliabhfhment of proteftancy

by queen Ehzabeth, they returned j and Florio for a time

lived in the univerfity of Oxford. About the year 1576,

Barnes, bifhop of Durham^ fending his fon to Magdalen-

college, Florio was appointed to attend him as tutor in the

French and Italian tongues : at which time wearing a gown,

he was admitted a member of that college, and became an

inftru£l:or and tea' her of thofe languages in the univerfity.

After king James came to the crown, he was appointed tutor

to prince Henry in thofe languages ; and at length made one

of the privy- chamber, and clerk of the cbfet to queen Anne,

to whom he was alfo tutor. He was a very ufeful man in

his profcfTion, zealous for the Proteftant religion, and much

devoted to the Englifli nation. Retiring to Fulham in Middlefex,

to avoid the plague which was then in London, he

was overtaken and carried off" by it in 1625, when he was

about eighty years of age.

He was the author of feveral w >rks, i. " Firft Fruits,

*' which yield familiar fpeech, merry proverbs, witty fen-

'* tcnces, and golden fayings." Lond. 1578. 4to. and 1591.

8vo. 2. " Perfeci: Introdudion to the Italian and Englifli

" Tongues." Printed with the former, and both dedicated

to Robert earl of Leicefter. 3. " Second Fruits to be gather-

*' ed of twelve trees, of divers but deHghtfome taftes to the

" tongues of Italian and Englifh men," Lond. 1591. i^vo.

4. '• Garden of Recreation, yielding fix thoufand Italian

'•« Proverbs." Printed with the former. 5. '* Didionary

'' Italian and Englifh " Lond. 1 597. fol. It was afterwards

augmented by him, and publiflied in 161 1 in folio, by way

of compliment to his royal miflrefs, under this title, " Queen

*' Anna's New World of Words." This was a work of

great merit, being at that time by far the mofl perfed work

of Ihe kmd. Our author, however, laboured to make it ftill

more perfe6l, by colleif^ing many thoufand words and phrafes,

to be added to the next edition : but not living to do this,

the care of it fell to one Gio Torriano an Italian, and pro-

feflbr of the Italian tongue in London, who, after revifing,

corrcvfiing, and fupplying many more materials out of the

Dictionaries of the Academy della Crufca, printed them in

1659, in folio, all in their proper places. 6. " The EfTays

*' of Montaigne." IVanflated into Englifli, and dedicated to

^ueen Anna. Lond. 1603. 1613. 1632. in fol. Prefixed tp


F L O R U S. J4I

this work, we find a pretty long copy of verfes, addrefled

to him by Samuel Daniel, the poet and hiftoriographer, whofp

fifter Florio had married. Mr. Wood fays, our author wrote

other things, but that he had not feen them.

FLORUS (Lucius Annjtus), an ancient Latin hiftorian

of the fame family with Seneca and Lucan, flourifhed in

the reigns of Trajan and Adrian, and wrote an abridgement

of the Roman Hiitory in four books. It is believed, that the

poet Florus, whofe verfes Spartian quotes in the life of the

emperor Adrian, is the fame with our hiftorian. Florus fays,

*' Ego nolo Casfar efle,

** Ambulare per Britannos,

*' Scythicas pati pruinas :

To whom the Emperor pleafantly replied,

*' Ego nolo Florus efle,

" Ambulare per tabernas,

*' Latitare per popinas,

" Calices pati rotundos.

What makes it more reafonable to fuppofe them the fame,

is, that the phrafe of the hiftorian favours ftrongly of the

poet, is full of flowers and exuberant, and not altogether free

from the fabulous. Thus in the 17th chapter of the 2d

book, where he relates the expedition of Decimus Brutus

along the Celtic, Gaulic, and Portuguefe coafts, he affirms,

that Brutus never flopped his victorious courfe, till he beheld

the fun fall into the ocean, and with horror heard its fire ex*

tinguifti in the waters. He is noted for having aflumed another

poetic licence, and that is in regard to Chronology; where

he has obferved fo little accuracy, that it is not fafe for any

one, who would be truly informed, to take him for their guide

in that matter,

Neverthelefs, it is agreed on all hands, that whatever imperfe


F L U D D.

lowed by the hiflorian being very different from that of an

epitomizer. More ridiculous are they, who have accufed

Horub of contriving the lofs of Livy's Hillory, for the fake

of enhancing the value of his own abridgment : as if it

could have been in the power of any fingle man, or indeed

any body of men whatever, to produce an effect of fo extenfive

a nature, had they been ever fo wilhng.

Others again have made Seneca the author of this hiftory

of Florus upon the authority of La6tantius. 7'his Father

has afcribed to Seneca as the inventor, a divifion of the Ro-

VhAn^' man Empire into the four different ft afons of Infancy, Youth,

lib. vii. Maniiood, and Old Age: and, becaufe a divifion of the

«'i5» fame nature is fcen in Florus's preface, they concluded Sene-

ca to have been the author, and Florus nothing more than a

fictitious n ;me. But Seneca and Florus have differed in this

matter enough, one would think, to prevent their being confounded.

Seneca makes the Youth of Rome, as he terms

it, reach to the end of the lafl Punic war ; while Florus continues

it only to the lir(K Seneca begins its Old Age, when

the civil wars broke out between Casfar and Pompey ; whereas

Florus only reckons it from the eftablifhment of Auguflus

in abfolute monarchy. It is probable indeed, that Florus

made ufe of Seneca's thought ; but then, we fee, he has al-

tered it agreeably to his own judgment. Another circumflance

is, that Florus and

has given room to this conjecture -, which

Seneca being of the fame family of the Annaei, their names

may have been confounded, and Florus be called Seneca, as

it is faid that he is in fome few copies : but this is not thought

of any weight againft the far greater part, who have given

the name of Florus. It may not be amifs to obferve, that

the very high praifes, he has given in many places to Spain,

have made fome think, that the love of his country, for he

is fuppofed to have been a Spaniard as well as Seneca, has

fometimcs carried him to trangrefs the bounds of truth

particularly, when he treats of the warlike exploits of Scr-


There have been feveral editions of this author. Madam

Dacier, then madamoifelle le Fevre, publifhed him in 4to.

for the ufe of the dauphin, at Paris 1674. Graevius gave

another edition of him in 1680. 8vo. which was afterwards

republifhed at Amfterdam in 1702, with great improvements

and ornaments, in two volumes 8vo.

FLUDD (Robert), a vary famous philofopher, was

the fon of Sir 1 homas Fludd, knight, fometime treafurer of



F L U D D. 143

war to queen Elizabeth in France and the Low Countries ;

and was born at Milgate in the parilh of Bearfted in Kent,

in the year 1574. He was admitted of St. John's college Wood's

in the univerlity of Oxford in 1591 ; and, having taken botii^^^^"'

the degrees in arts, applied himfeU to the ftudy of phyfic.

Then he fpent fix years in travelling through France, Spain,

Italy, and Germany: in niofl: of which countries he not only

became acquainted with feveral of the nobility, but even

read leclures to them. After his return, being in high re-

pute for his chymical knowledge, he accumulated the de-

grees of bacbeior and do6^or of phyfic. This was in tlie

year 1605 ; about which t^me he practiced in London, and

became fellow of the College of Phyficians. He did not

begin to publifh books till the year i6i6, but afterwards became

a moft voluminous writer, being the author of about

twenty works. He was eiteemed a prodigious philcfopher,

and certainly was pod'efTed of both parts and learning : but

then he was perfeiViy eftranged from common fenfe, and

owed the greateft part of his reputation to that paffion in

human nature, which is apt to make us admire moft what

we leaft underftand. He was a zealous brother of the order

of Rofa-Crufians, in whofe defence he drew his pen. Hs

doated fo exceedingly upon the wonders of chymiftry, that

he derived every th:ng, not excepting even the miracles and

myfteries of religion, originally from it: and in doing this,

he fo much prophaned and abufed the word of God by ridiculous

and fenieleis applications and explications, that he

often drew upon himielf the fevereft cenfure from others.

His books are written moftly in Latin, and are as dark and

myfterious in their language, as in their matter : on w^ich

account they were greatly admired and fought after, as they

probably may be to this day, by Alchymifts, Allrologers,

fearchers after the philofophers-ftone, and, in fhort, by all

the madmen in the Republic of Letters, both at home and


Some of his pieces were levelled againft Kepler and Merfennus

; and he had the honour of replies from both thofe

jlluftrious philofophers. He wrote two books againft Merfennus,

thus intitled ; the firft, Sophise cum Moria certamen,

in quo lapis Lydius, a falfo ftru(Store Patre Marino Merfenno

iMonacho reprobatus, celeberrima voluminis fui Babylonici

in Genefim figmenta accurate examinat. Franc, 1629.

fol. The fecond, Summum Bonorum, quod eft verum Magias,

Cabalae, Alchymife, Fratrum Rofeae Crucis Verorum,

fubje6tum : in

H4 F L U D D.

lumniatoris Fr. Mar. Merfenni dedecus publicatum, per Joachim.

Frizium. 1629. folio. MeiTennus defiring Gaflendu3

to give his judgment of thefe two books of Fludd againft

him, that great man drew up an anfwer divided into three

parts : the firft of which fifts the principles of Fludd's whimfical

philofophy, as they lie fcattered tliroughout his works;

the fecond is againft Sophias cum Moria certamen, &c. and

the third againft Summum Bonorum, &c. This anfwer,

called, Examen Fluddana? Philofophi*-, is dated February ^,

1629: and is printed in the third volume of Gaflendus's

works in folio. In the dedication to Merfcnnus, there is the

following paflage, which is very much to our prefent purpofe:

quanquam longe abfim, ut ilium tuum antagoniftam

ex a^quo tecum fentiam, nihilominus negari non poteft, quin

ille revera multifcius fit ; quin omnibus viris literatis hoc

faeculo innotuerit; quin Bibliothec^e celebres multis magnifque

quse ab ipfo prodeunt voluminibus brevi fmt complendae,

Hifce accedit argumenti genus, de quo vos inter controverfia

fit. Cum Philofophiam enim apertam et fenfibilem ipfe pro-

fequaris, ille tamen fic philofophatur, ut velit femper deli-

tefcere, atramentum off'undendo, fub quo hamum eftugiat.

The fubftance of which is this : " although I am far from

*' thinking your antagonift a match for you, yet it muft be

" owned, that he is really a man of various knowledge,

'' known to all the learned of the age, and whofe voluminous

'' works will fhortly have a place in moft libraries. And in

*' the prefent difpute, he will have one great advantage over

** you : namely, that whereas your philofophy is of a plain,

'' open, intelligible kind, his on the contrary is fo very ob-

*' fcure and myfterious, that he can at any time conceal him-

*' felf ; and by diff'ufmg a darknefs round him, hinder you

*' from difcerning him fo far, as to lay hold of him," much

lefs to drag him forth to convLdion.

This philofopher, fuch a one as he was, died at his houfe

in Coleman-ftreet, London, in the year 1637, and was fent

to Bearfted to be buried. The reader may fee a catalogue

of all his works in Mr. Anthony Wood, if he fhall fo chufe

in the mean time, to gratify his prefent curiofity, without

impofmg upon ourfelves the difagjceable ta(kof tranfcribing a

great many tedious unentertaining unintelligible titles, we

will fubjoin the few following, by way of fpecimen. Utri-

ufque Cofmi, Majoris & Minoris, Metaphyfica, Phyfica, ct

Technica Hiftoria.—De Naturae Simia, feu Technica Macrocofmi

Hiftoria.—De Supernaturali, Naturali, Praeternaturali^

€t Contranaturali Microcofmi Hiftoria.—^Medicina Ca-



F O M 1. 145

Ilea, feu Myflerium Artis Medicandl SacraHurtl.—Pulfus^

feu nova et arcana pulfuum hifloria, c facro fonte radicaliter

cxtradta, &c.

FOESIUS (Anutius), a very learned and celebrated

phyfician of the faculty of Paris, was born at Metz in the

year 1528, and became extremely (killed in the Greek and

Latin tongues. He tranflated into Latin the whole works of

Hippocrates, and judicioufly corre6led the Greek text, as he

went along. Monfieur Huet, in his book, De claris inter-

pretibus, places him among the better fort of tranflatorsj

and affirms him far fuperior to all, who had attempted to

tranflate Hippocrates. He joined to the works of Hippo-

crates, the Scholia of Palladius upon his treatife of Frac-'

tures, which was tranflated by St. Albin, a phyfician of Metz.

He compofed a kind of Dictionary to Hippocrates, intitled,

Oeconomia Hippocratis, in an alphabetical order ; and was

the author of fome other works. He tranflated, moreover^

the Commentaries of Galen, upon the fecond book of Hip-

pocrates, *' concerning vulgar maladies." Foefius praftifed

phyfic a long time at Lorrain, and in other places with high

reputation and fuccefs^ and died in the year 1596.

FOHI, the firfl: king of China, is faid to have founded

this empire about two hundred years after the deluge. Hecouplet's

was originally of the province of Xen Si, from whence heConfufius^

removed the feat of empire to Chin Cheu. He was the firft,^^*

who taught the Chinefe the advantiges of civil fociety. He

invented inftruments of nniflc, and eftablifhed laws and ordinances.

He regulated the commerce between male and

female, which before was promifcuous ; and fufFered none of

the fame name and family to intermarry, which cuftom is

obferved to this day. He inftituted religious fervices and fa-

crifices, fome of which were dedicated to the Sovereign Spirit,

who governs Heaven and Earth, others to Inferior Spirits,

whom he fuppofed to prefide over mountains, rivers, and

particular countries. This prince is faid to have reigned no

lefs than a hundred and fifteen years. The Chinefe impute

to him the invention of feveral things, which at this day are

much revered among them : but there is probably fo much

fable in the hiftory of this Fohi, that it is not worth while

to be particular about them.

FOLARD (Charles), an eminent Frenchman, famoagi

for his (kill and knowledge in the Art Military, was born at

Vol, V» L Ayignon,

146 F O L A R D.

Avignon, upon the 13th of February 1669, of a noble

family, but not a rich one. He difcovered early a happy turn

for the fcicnces, and a ftrong palTion for arms ; which laft,

was fo inflamed bv his reading Casfar's Commentaries, that he

a6tually hfted at fixteen years of age. His father got him off,

and (hut him up in a monaflery: ^ut he made his efcape in

about two years after, and entered himfclf a fecond time in

qua'ity of cadet. His inclinaiion for military affairs, and the

great pains he took to accomplifii himfelf in that way, recommended

him to notice ; and he was admitted into the

friendfliip of the firfl-rate officers. Monfieur de Vendome,

who commanded in Italy in 1702, made him his aide decamp,

having conceived the higheft regard for him : and

foon after fent him with part of his forces into Lombardy.

He was entirely trufted by the commander of that army;

and no meafures were concerted, or fleps taken, without

tonfulting him. By purfuing his plans, many places were

taken, and advantages gained ; and fuch, in fhort, were his

fervices, that he had a penfion of four hundred livres fettled

upon him, and was honoured with the crofs of St. Lewis.

He diftinguifhed himfelf greatly, on the 15th of Auguft,

1705, at the battle of Caflano ; where he received fuch a

wound upon his heft hand, as deprived him of the ufe of it

ever after. Monfieur de Vendome, to make him fome amends,

tried to have him raifed to be a colonel, but did not

fiicceed. It was at this battle, that Folard conceived the firft

idea of that fyftem of columns, which he afterwards prefixed

to his Commentaries upon Polybius.

The duke of Orleans fending monfieur de Vendome again

into Italy, in the year 1706, FoJard had orders to throw hirnhlr

into Modena, to defend it againft prince Eugene : where,

though he acquitted himfelf with his ufual (kill, he was very

hear being afTafTinated. The defcript!on, which he has given

of the condu6i: and chara

F O L I E T A. ''/

with the popes Julius II. Leo X. and Clement VII. The^^*

troubles, which agitated his country at that time, induced

him to undertake a work, with a view of appeafing them

and that was, his book upon the diftindtion between the

noble and the plebeian families. Rut happening here to paint

the ambition of the nobility in too lively colours, he was

banifhed his country ; which ill treatment made him take

this for his motto, Officio mihi officio, that is, " by endea-

*' vouring to ferve others, I injure myfelf." He retired to

Rome, and fpent the reit of his life under the patronage of

cardinal Hippolyte d' f^ft. He was, fays 7 huanus, vir in ^*

literario otio elati animi : he bore his exile with courage and

firmnefs, and devoted himfelf to letters. Far from refenting

the ill ufage of his country, he meditated feveral works in

its honour, and executed fome. He died upon the 5th of

September 1581, at the age of 63 years. His Works are all

in Latin. A colledion of part of them was printed at Rome

^*^ 1579J 'n 4to. under this title, Uberti Folietae Opera fub-

feciva, Opufcula varia, De Linguae Latinse ufu & prseftantiay

L 2; ClarOruBRl



Clarorum Ligurum Elogia. The piece, De linguae Latinse

ufu & pratftantia, was publifhed afterwards at Hamburg,

1723, in 8vo. by Laurence Mofhelm, who added notes, a

difTertation upon the manner and neceffity of cultivating the

Latin tongue, and the life of Folieta. As to his Clarorum

Ligurum Elogia, Mafcardi charges him with having been

partial in his charafters ; but Vv^e know not how juftly.

Befides this collection, there remain the following works

of Folieta: viz. i. De caufis magnitudinis Turcarum im-

perii, printed firft in Italy, afterwards in Germany, 1594,

in 8vo. under the care of the learned David Chytraeus, who

commends it highly. 2. De Sacro foedere in Selimum libri

iv. nee non variae expeditiones in Africam cum Melitae obftdione.

Genuae, 1587, in 4to, 3. Conjuratio Joannis Ludovici

Flifci ; Tumultus Neapolitaiii ; C^edes Petri Ludovici

Farnefi, Placentiae Ducis. Neap. 1571, in 8vo. Thefe

two laft works are but portions of that hiftory of his own

times, which he began, but did not finilli. 4. Hiftorise Genuenfium

Hbri xii. Genuas, 1585, in folio. All the foregoing

pieces are inferted by Graevius, in the firlt volume of

his Thefaurus Italix. There is one more work, viz. 5. De

Philofophiae & Juris Civilis inter fe comparatione Jibri tres,

which was printed at Rome, 1586, in 410.

FONTAINE (John DE la), a very celebrated French

poet, and one of the fineit genius's of his age, was born at

Chatteau-Thierry upon the 8th of July 1621 : juft a year

after the birth of the famous Moliere. He was liberally edu-

cated; and at the age of nineteen admitted among the fathers

of the Oratory : but left them in a little time. His

father, who was fupervifor of the water-courfes and forefts

in this duchy, put his fon into the place, as foon as he ap-

peared capable of managing it : but Fontaine had no relifh

for bufinefs, his talents lying altogether to poetry. It is very

remarkable, however, that he did not make this difcovery in

himfelf, till he was got into his tv/enty-fecond year : and

then hearing accidentally an ode of Malherbe read, he found

himfelf affeded with furprife and tranfport j and the fame

poetic fire, which had lain concealed in him, was kindled in-

to a blaze by that of Malherbe. He immediately applied

himfelf to the reading this poet; he ftudied, and at length

imitated him. The firft fruits of his pen he ufed to commu-

nicate to a near relation, who encouraged him, and frequently

read with him the beft Latin poets and critics, as Horace,


irgil, Terence, Quintilian, &c. He paiTed from thence




to acquaint himfelf with fuch French and Italian writers, as

excelled in that way, to which his genius led him; particu-

larly Rabelais, Marot, Ariofto, Boccace, &c. Rabelais

was ever after his favourite and idol. He had recourfe alfo to

the Greek authors, and efpecially to Plato and Plutarch

from whom he drew thofe fine moral maxims, with which

he has enriched his Fables.

Though his humour was exceedingly averfe to confinement,

or reftraint of any kind, yet, to oblige his parents, he

fuffered himfelf to be married : and though the mod unfeel-

ing and infcnfible of mortals, was yet fo far captivated hy the

wit and beauty of his wife, that he never performed any confiderable

work without confulting her. The duchefs of Bouillon,

niece to cardinal Mazarine, being baniflied to Chat-

teau-Thierry, Fontaine was prefented to her, and had the

happinefs to pieafe her: and this, with a defire of converfing

with the wits, tempted him to follow her, when {he was re-

called to Paris. Here the intendant Fouquet foon procured

him a penfion, which he enjoyed very happily, without

troubling himfelf at all about his wife, or, perhaps, even re-

flecting that he had one. Upon the difgrace of this minifter,

he was admitted as gentleman to Henrietta of England ; but

the death of this princefs put an end to all his court-hopes,

if, indeed, he was fufceptible of hope. After this, among

other favours from the mod illuflrious pcrfons in the kingdom,

the generous and witty madam de la Sabliere furnifhed

him with an apartment and all neceflaries in her houfe ; who,

one day having turned away all her fervants in a pet, declared

that (he had kept but three animals in her houfe, which were

her dog, her cat, and La Fontaine. In this fituation he

continued twenty years, during which time he became perfeClly

acquainted with all the wits of his time, with Moliere,

Racine, Boileau, Chapelle, &c.

The delights of Paris, and the converfation of thefe gentlemen

did not hinder him from paying Mrs. la Fontaine a

vifit every September ; but that thefe vifits might turn to fome

account, he never failed to fell a houfe, or piece of land, fo

that, what with his wife's oeconomy ?nd his own, a handfome

family eftate was well nigh confumed. His Parifian

friends urged him frequently to go and live with Mrs. la Fontaine,

faying, that it was a (hame to feparare himfelf from a

woman of her merit and accomplifliments :

and accordingly,

he fet out with a purpofe of reconciling himfelf to her, and

arriving at the town, enquired at his houfe for her. The

fervant not knowing him faid, {he was gone to church: upon

L 3





SlTv"!.: p^s Savans.


which, he immediately returned to Paris, and when his

friends enquired about his reconciliation, anfwered, that " he

^' had been to fee his wife, but was told Ihe was at church."

Upon the death of madam de la Sabliere, he was invited into

England by the duchefs of Mazarine, and the celebrated

St. Evremond, who promifed him all the comforts and fweets

pf life : but the difficulty of learning the Englifh language,

together with the liberality of fome great perfons at home,

jnade him lay afide all thoughts of fuch a journey.

In the year 1692, he was feized with a dangerous illnefs :

and when the prieft came to talk to him about religion, con-

.cerning which he had lived in an extreme carelefsnefs, though

he had never been either an infidel, or a libertine, Fontaine

told him, that " he had lately beftowed fome hours in readhe

thought a very good

*' ing the New Teftament , which

f^ book." Being brought to a clearer knowledge of religious

truths, the prieft reprefented to him, that he had intelligence

of a certain dramatic piece of his, which was foon to be

a£ted ; but that he could not be admitted to the facraments

of the church, unlefs he fupprefled it. This appeared too

rigid, and Fontaine appealed to the Sorbonne ; who conr

firming what the prieft had faid, this fmcere penitent threw

the piece into the fire, without keeping even a copy. The

prieft then laid before him the evil tendency of his " Tales,"

which are written in a very loofe and wanton manner : told

him, that while the French language fubfifted, they would be

a moft dangerous feducement to vice ; and further added,

that he could not jqftify adminiftering the facraments to him,

unlefs he would promife to make a public acknowledgment

of his fault at the time of receiving, a public acknowledgment

before the academy, of which he was a member, in cafe

he recovered, and to fupprefs the book to the utmoft of his

power. Fontaine thought thefe terms very hard, but at

length yielded to them all. On thefe accounts fome have

compared him to the noted Peter Aretin, who, though the

moft libertine of all writers, became at laft a very faint, and

wrote nothing but books of piety. But it is certain, that

Fontaine did not refemble Aretin in writing pious books;

and many, among whom is Baillet in particular, doubt the

^'"^^ o^ ^'f^^^*^ ftories, which are related concerning his re-

pentance. It is true, he feems to repent a little, and to renounce

his libertine manner, in a dedication to his patronefs

madam de la SabHere: but notwithftandingthis, he ran riot

again, writing Tales with his ufual gaiety ; and the excufe he

fnakes for this inconftancy, when he calls himfelf, «' The

" Butterfly


'^ Butterfly of Parnafius," favors more of the poet tlian the

chriifian. He did not die till the 13th of April 1695

if we believe fome, he was found with an hair (h'ln on,

: when,

Befide " Tales," he was the author of *' Fables :" and in

both he has merited the title of an original writer, who is,

and is ever like to be, fingle in his kind. Not fo much an

original in his fentiments, for he has made great ufe of the

Greek, and Latin, and French, and Italian authors ; but an

original in his manner, which is fo eafy, fo natural, fo

fimple, fo delicate, that it does not feem pofiible to exceed

it. His compofitions have a great deal of nature without the

leaft affedation : his wit feems unftudied, and fo much plea-

fantry is hardly to be met with. He never grows languid, or

heavy, but is always new and furprifing. His '* Tales " are

faid to have kept him a great while from being admitted a

member of the French Academy ; but at laft upon his writing

a letter to a prelate of that fociety, wherein he declared

his difTatisfadiion for the liberties he had taken, and his refo-

lution that his pen fliould never relapfe, he was received into

that body with marks of eftcem. His firft " Fables" are

more valued than his laft : he feems to have thrown the bed

of his fire and force into them ; and both the one and the

other are thought to have more fobriety and corrednefs than

his " Tales." An edition of thefe was publifhed at Paris \n

1743, with fhort no:es by Mr. Cofte :, and four volumes of

his " Mifcellaneous Works*' were printed therein 1744..

Fontaine's life had as little affedlation in it as his writings :

he was all nature, without a o^rain of art. He had a fon, it

feems, whom after keeping a Ihort time at home, he recommended

to the patronage of the prefident Harlay. Fontaine

being one day at a houfe, where this fon was come, did not

know him again, but obferved to the company, that he

tho ght him a boy of parts and fpirit. He was told, that

this promifing youth was no other than his own fon, he anfwered

very unconcernedly, *' Ha ! truly I am glad on't."

This apathy, which fo many philofophers have vainly affe6^-

ed, was perfe6ily natural to Fontaine: it run through every

part of his behaviour, and fcemed to render him infenfible to

every thing without. As he had a wonderful facility in compofmg,

fo he had no particular apartment for that purpofe,

but fell to work, wherever the humour came upon him.

One morning, madam de Bouillon going to Verfallles, fpied

him deep in thought under a tree ; and, when fhe returned in

the evening, there was Fontaine in the fame place and atti-

tude, though the day had been cold, and much rain fallen,

L 4




It has been obferved, that the fineft writers, and the deepeft

thinkers, have ufually been but indifFerent companions.

This was Fontaine's cafe : for having once been invited to

dine at the houfe of a perfon of diftindtion, for the more

elegant entertainment of the gueits, though he eat very

heartily, yet not a word could be got from him, and when,

rifing fJon after from the table, on pretence of going to the

Academy, he was told he would be too foon, '' Oh, then, faid

*^ he, I'll take the longefl way/'

Racine once carried Fontaine to the Tenebras, which is a

fervjce in the church of Rome, in reprefentation of our

Saviour's agony in the garden ; and perceiving it too long for

him, put a bible into his hands. Fontaine, happening to open

it at the prayer of the Jews in Baruch, read it over and over

with fuch admiration, that he could not forbear whifpering to

Kacine, '* This Baruch is a fine writer : do you know any

*^ thing of him ? " and for fome days after, if he chanced to

meet with any perfon of letters, when the ufual compliments

were over, his queftion was, *' Have you ever read Baruch ?

** there's a firft rate genius :" and this fo loud, that every

body might hear him.

Being one day with Boileau, Racine, and other men of

note, among whom were ecclefxaftics, St. Auftin was talked

of for a long time, and with the higheft commendations.

Fontaine liftened with his natural air, and at laft, after a pro^

found filence, afked one of the eccIefialHcs with the moft unafFe6ied

ferioufnefs, " Whether he thought St. Auftin had

^^ more wit than Rabelais ? " The doctor, eying Fontaine

from head to foot, anfwered only by obierving, that ** he

*« had put on one of his ftockings the wrong fide outward ;'*

which happened to be the cafe

7 be nurfe, who attended Fontaine in his illnefs, obferving

the fervor of the prieft in his exhortations, faid to him,

" Ah, good Sir, don't difturb him fo ; he is rather ftupid than

^ *' wicked:" and at another time, '* God won't have the

" heart to damn him," Thefe, and many other ftories, are

told of Fontaine, which either are, or as we fuppofe might

have been true. One thing, however, muft be mentioned

to his honour: it is, that his widow being molefted about the

payment of fome public money, the Intendant gave orders,

that no tax or impoft ftiould be levied upon his family ; nor

has this diftinguiihing favour ever been revoked by any fucr

Ceediiig Intendants?



FONTE-MODERATA, a celebrated Venetian lady,

whofe real name was Modefta Pozzo, was born at Venice

in i^SS* and loft her father and mother the firft year of her

life. In her younger days, fhe was put into the monaftery

of the nuns of St. Martha of Venice ; but afterwards quitted

it, and was married. She lived twenty years with her hufband

in nreat union, and then died in childbed on the ift of

November 1592. She learned poetry and the Latin tongue

with the utmofteafe; and is faid to have had fo prodigious a

memory, that when fhe had heard a fermon but once, (he

could repeat it word for word. She is the author of a poem

intitled, II Floridoro, and of another Italian poem on the

Paffion and Refurredion of Jefus Chrift. Befides thefe and

other poems, fhe publifhed a book in profe, De Meriti della

Donna, in which fhe maintains, that the female fex is not inferior

in undtrftanding and merit to the male. This book

upon " The Merit of Women," was printed immediately

after her death. The reverend father Ribera has made an

elogium of this learned heroine, in his " Theatre of Learn-

*« ed Women 3" and Doglioni wrote her Life in Italian in

the year 1593.

FONTENAY (John Baptist Blain de), an eminent

French painter of fruits and flowers, was born at Caeii

in 165^. He was employed by Lewis XIV. had an apartment

in the galleries of the Louvre, and a penfion. Nothing

is finer than his fruits and flowers. They have all the frefh-

nefs and beauty imaginable; and the very dew feems to

trickle down the ftalks of them with all the luftre and tranf-

parency of a diamond. The infedls too upon them appear

perfectly alive and animated. This ingenious painter was

nominated counfellor of the Academy of Painting, and died

at Paris in the year 1715.

FONTENELLE (Bernard de), a celebrated French

author, who died in the year 1756, when he was fomewhat

above an hundred years of age. Mr. Voltaire declares him

to have been the moft univerfal genius, the age of Lewis the

XlVth produced : and compares him to lands fituated in foSiedede

happy a climate, as to produce all forts of fruits. Before be^^^]^-^

was twenty years of age, he had

Tragic Opera of " Bellerophon :"

wrote a great part of the

and fome time after his

Opera of *' Thetis and Peleus" appeared, in which he had

clofely imitated Quinaut, and which met with great fuccefs.




F O N T E N E L L E.

That of " lEnezs and Lavinia," did not fucceed fo well.

He tried his genius in tragedy- writing : and helped mademoifelle

Bernard in fome of her dramatic pieces. He wrote

two of thefe, one of which was a6ted in the year itSo, but

was never printed. He was too long, and too unjuftly cen-

fured on account of this piece : for he had the merit to dif-

^oyer, that though his genius was unconfined, yet he did not

poflefs thofe talents, which fo greatly diftinguifhed his uncle,

Peter Corneille, in the tragic way. He wrote feveral little

pieces, in which one might already obferve that delicacy of

wit and profoundnefs of thought, which difcover a man to

be fuperior to 1 own works. In his poetical performances,

and " Dialogues of the Dead," the fpirit of Voiture was

difcerned, though more extended and more philofophical.

His " Plurality of Worlds," is a work fingular in its kind ;

his defign in which was to prefent that part of philofophy to

view in a gay and pleafing drefs ; for which purpofe he has

introduced a lady, and drawn up the whole in a mod agreeable

as well as inftru6^ing dialogue. In the fame manner he

made an entertaining book out of *' Vandale's Oracles.*'

The tender matters treated of in this work, for he went upon

Vandale's fcheme of exploding the Oracles for Human Impofturesj

raifed him fecret enemies, whofe malice he had

the good fortune to difappoint. He found, fays Voltaire,

how dangerous it is for a man, though in the right, to differ

in opinion from thofe-, whofe judgment receives a fanction

from authority.

He now applied himfelf to Geometry and Natural Philofophy

: nor was he lefs fuccefsful in the Itudy of thefe fciences,

than he had been in that of polite literature. Having

been appointed perpetual fecretary to the Academy of Sci-

ences, he difcharged that truft above forty years, fo as to

meet with univerfal applaufe. His " Hiftory of the Acade-

'* my of Sciences," often throws. a great light upon their

memoirs, which are very obfcure. He was the firft that introduced

elegance into the fciences. If he fhould fometimes be

thought to have interwoven more beauties, than the nature

of the fubjed would admit of, we muft look upon it as on a

plentiful crop, where flowers naturally grow among the corn.

• His *' Hiftory of the Academy," would be equally ufeful,

as it is well performed, had it given us an account cf truths

difcovered : but he was obliged to explain opinions, raifed to

overthrow one another, muft of which are now thought




The " Eloges," which he fpoke on the deceafed members

of the Academy, have this peculiar merit, that they excite

a re(ve6k for the fciences, as well as for the author. In

vain did L' Abbe Des-Fontaines, and others of his ftamp,

endeavour to hiemifh his reputation. In his more advanced

years he publiflied " Comedies," which though they (hewed

the elegance of Fontenelle, were little fit for the ftage; and

an '' Apology for Des Cartes's Vortices." Voltaire fays, we

mi ft excufe his comedies, in confideration of his great age;

and his Cartefian opinions, » as they were thofe of his youth,

vhich were at that time almoft univerfally received in


Upon the whole, he was looked upon as the great maftcr

of the new art of treating abftradled fciences in a manner,

that mad« their ftudy at once ea!y and agreeable: nor are any

of his works of other kinds void of merit. All thefe natural

parts were aili.ied by a knowledge of the languages and

hiftory and he certainly furpafles all men of learning, who

have not had the gift of invention.

This account of Fontenelle, which is critical as well as

hiftorical, is Voltaire's ; and may be found at the end of the

fecond volume of his ** Age of Lewis XIV.'*

FORB FLS (Patric), an eminent perfon of the Scottifh

nation, was born in the year 1564, when the affairs of the

Church of Scotland were in great con fufion. He was diftin-

guiflied by his family, as well as by his uncommon merit, be-

ing himfelf lord of Corfe, and baron of O'Neil, in the fhire

of Aberdeen. He was liberally educated both at Aberdeen

and St. Andrews; and having a plentiful eftate, a noble alli-

ance, and great credit in his country, he contributed very

much towards fettling the affairs of religion, by encouraging

pious and peaceable minifters, and by in(fru6ting the people

in fet conferences as well as occafional difcourfes ; efpecially

the Papifts, who would hear nothing from the pulpit. In

this laudable manner he aded as a layman ; and his abilities

became fo very confpicuous, that he was often follicitcd to

enter into the miniftry by many very eminent perfons both in

church and ftate. He at length fubmitted to their judgments,

and was ordained a Prefbyter, when he was forty-eight years

of age. He was admitted minifter of Keith, where he continued

with the higheflapplaufe till the year 1618 ; and then

at the earneft defire of the clergy and laity in the diocefe of

Aberdeen, as well as at the exprefs command of the king,

was promoted to the biftiopric of Aberdeen, which he held




about flventeen years. " It was, fays Dr. Burnet, with great

'' difficulty, that king James made him accept that dignity;

" and for feveral months he refufed it, having propofed to

** himfelf to live in a lefs confpicuous ftate. It was foon

'' feen, how much he deferved to be a biihop ; and that his

*« refuial was not counterfeit, but the real efFeft of his hu-

*« mility. In all -his behaviour he has difplayed the character

Burnet's " ^^ ^ ^^^^y Apoftolic man. He vifited his diocefe without

Preface to " pomp and Hoifc, attended only by one fervant, that he

the Life of *( might more eafilv be informed of what belonged to his

^'^^^^ « care," &c.

This excellent man died on the 28th of March 1635,

aged feventy-one, after having two days before fent for all

the clergy in Aberdeen to receive the facrament with him.

His Funeral Sermon was preached by Dr. Baron before a numerous

auditory, who lamented the death of fo exemplary a

prelate. His " Commentary upon the Revelations,'* was

printed at London in the year 1613. He was a great promoter

and guardian of learning, as well as of religion, " He

*' took fo much care of the two colleges he had in his diocefe,

" that, as Burnet fays, they foon diftinguifhed themfelves,

ibid. 44 and became famous all over Scotland." As he was chan-


cellor of the univerfity of Aberdeen, he improved that feat

of learning, by repairing the fabric, augmenting the library,

reviving the profeflions of Divinity, Canon-Law, and Phyfic,

and procuring another profeflbrfhip in Divinity to be added.

FORBES (John), a perfon of great parts and learning,

and made bifhop of Aberdeen in Scotland by king James VL

He was the fon of Patric Forbes, juft mentioned, but, fays

Dr. Burnet, " of much more extenfive learning than his

** father, in which perhaps he was excelled by none of that

^' age. Thofe who fhall read his book of Hiftorical and

' Theological Inftitutions, will not difpute this title with

^' him J for it is fo excellent a work, that if he had been left

*' in quiet, in the retirement he had chofe, to apply himfelf

*' to his ftudies, and could have finilhed it by a fecond

" volume, it would, perhaps, have been the moft valuable

*' treatife of divinity, that has yet appeared in the world.

*' He filled the profeiTor's- chair, which his father had found-

" ed," in the univerfity of Aberdeen; '* when the Cove-

^' nanters expelled him, and forced him to fly beyond fea."

Having continued in Holland fomewhat above two years, he

returned to his own country ; where he fpent the remainder

of his life at his eftate of Corfe, and died on the 29th of



April 1648. An edition of all his works was publlflied at

Amfterdam in 1703, in two volumes folio; with his life.

Written by George Gordon.

FORBES (William), a very eminent man, and bifliop

of Edinburgh, was born in the year 1585, at Aberdeen in

Scotland, where he went through his claffical learning, andp j^.^

a courfe of philofophy. He was admitted matter of arts at Did.

the age of fixteen, and immediately after made profeflbr of

Logic. He applied himfelf ftrenuouHy to fupport Ariftotle's

Logic againft the cavils of the Ramifts. Afterwards he went

to travel, and made a very great progrefs in divinity and the

Hebrew language, in the univerfities of Germany, during

the four years he fpent in that country. He then vifited the

univerfity of Leyden, where he was greatly efteemed. His

ill ftate of health not permitting him to undertake a journey

into France and Italy, as he would willingly have done, he

went over to England. The fame of his learning foon made

a great noife there, fo that the univerfity of Oxford offered

him a profcflbrfhip of Hebrew ; which, however, he did not

accept, becaufe the phyficians advifed him to return to his

native country. The magiftrates of Aberdeen expreffed a

particular efteem for him. He recovered his health, and ac-

cepted at firft a private cure ; but afterwards, being ftrongly

follicited by the inhabitants, went to be a preacher in his native

city. He was admitted do6tor of divinity, when king

James among other regulations had fettled it with the deputies

of the clergy, that the academical degrees and dignities (hould

bereftored to their ancient courfe. The labour of preaching

hurting his health, they gave him a lefs painful employment,

making him principal of Marilhal-college. He was afterwards

declared dean of the Faculty of Divinity, and then

redor of the Univerfity : a poft immediately under the chancellor.

He became afterwards paftor at Edinburgh, and was

received there with all poffible marks of friendibip ; but

people*s difpofitions being changed, on account of their warm

attachment to the anti-epifcopal difcipline of Geneva, he

withdrew himfelf from that flock, and retired to his own

country. He was fent for feme years after by king Charles 1,

who had caufed himfelf to be crowned at Edinburgh with

extraordinary pomp in 16335 and he preached before that

monarch with great eloquence and learning. That prince,

having founded an epifcopal church at Edinburgh, found none

more worthy to fill the new fee than our Forbes. He was

confecrated with the ufual ceremonies, and applied himfelf


£8 F O R B E S.

wholly to the funflions of his dignity : but he fell fick Toon

after, and died the ift of April 1634, aged forty-nine years,

having enjoyed his bifhopric only three months.

Though very able and very learned, he had publifhed nothing,

and compofed very litle. He wrote a treatife tending

to pacify controverfies, which was printed at London in 1658,

with this tide, Confiderationes modeftae & paciiicae controverfiarum

de juftificatione, purgatorio, invocatione San6torum,

Chrifto Mediatore, Euchariftia. " This pofthumous

** work," fays the author of his life, " is a fignai fpecimen

" and proof of a pacific temper, and a moderate mind

*' wherein, like a fecond CafTander, and catholic moderator,

*' he endeavours to compofe, or at leaft to mitigate, the rigid

'' and auflere opinions, in certain points of religious con-

'* troverfy, both of the Reformed and of the Popifh party.

" How greatly he regarded moderation, appears from that

Elench. " ufual faying of his, viz. if there had been more Caflan-

Y*^* . _. " ^er's and Wicelius's, there would have been no occafion

G. Forbefii.

for a Luther, or a Calvin." He had another faying concerning

letters, as good as this concerning religion : it was.

Lege plura Sc fcribe pauciora, " Read more and write lefs."

It was a piece of advice he gave to one, who ufed a great

deal of paper ; and the refult of a refolution, which he himfelf

had made, not to write much. " The number of ex-

'' cellent writers (fays Mr. Bayle) would not be fo fmall as it

«' is, if they, who at length acquire the talent ofi writing

*' well, would refolve to publilh but once in four years ;

*' whereas they abufe the facility they have attained of writ-

*' ing well, and their reputation ; they heap volume on

*' volume, without taking the trouble to revife and polifh,

** and no longer produce any thing of value, or which comes

*' near the merit of their firfl performances/' What muft

we think therefore of Mr. Bayle, who knew how to write

as well, and yet who fcribbled as much as any man ? Why,

that the hard neceffity of maintaining himfelf by the fale of

his works, conftrained him to aft againft his judgment. But

to return. Mr. Bayle is of opinion, that if the man, who

wrote fo much, had afterwards come and faid to Forbes,

*' I have followed your advice, I have read a great deal,"

that Forbes would then have given him this further counfel,

viz. " to read lefs for the future, and meditate more :" and

this, indeed, would have been no lefs edifying, for certainly,

there cannot be a more ufelefs member of fociety, nor a lei's

accomplifhed creature, than one of thofe helluones librorum,

who read for ever, without digefting any thing.



FORD. 153

Dr. Burnet fays, that " while king Charles was in Scot-

*' land, Forbes was promoted to the biihopric of Edinburgh,

" which that prince had then founded ; and this gave him

'* occafion to fay, how he had met with To excellent a cler-

" gyman, that he deferved to have a new epifcopal fee ere6l-

'* ed for him : and indeed, adds the do6lor, he was a great Preface, &c.

*^ and fublime divine."

FORD (JohnI, a gentleman of the Middle Temple,

who wrote plays in the time of Charles I. He was not only

a partner with Rowley and Decker in a play or two, but

likewife wrote feven plays himftlf. He died about the

year 1656.

FORTESCUE (Sir John), an eminent Englifli lawyer,

and fcholar, and ftatefman, in the reign of Henry VLpj.j^^g,g

was defcended from an ancient family in Devonfliire : but we Worthies of

cannot learn either the place, or time of his birth. We areDevonfhire.

likewife uncertain as to the univerfity he ftudied in, or whe-

ther he ftudied in any : though the author ju-ft referred to,

fuppofes him to have been educated at Oxford, and bKhopgjjjj ^^.j^.

Tanner fixes him to Exeter college ; and, indeed, the greatHibem,

learning, every where fhewn in his writings, make thefe conjectures

probable. When he turned his thoughts to the municipal

laws of the land, he fettled at Lincoln's-Inn in London,

where he quickly diftinguifhed himfelf in a very extra-

ordinary manner, and acquired a high reputation in the civil

as well as the common law. The firft date, that occurs with

refpedl: to his preferments, is the fourth year of the reign of

Henry VI. when, as Sir William Dugdale informs us, heOrlglnesjuwas

made one of the governors of Lincoln's-Inn, and was''^'^^'^^*^^^'

honoured again with


the fame employment three years after.

In 1430, he was promoted to the degree of ferjeant at law .D^laudibus

and, as he himfelf tells us, kept his feaft upon that occafion n^^'J^ap. col

with very great fplendor. In 1441, he was made one of the ^

king's ferjeants at law ; and, the year after, conftituted chief

juftice of the King's-Bench at Weftminfter. He is highly

commended by fome of our moft eminent writers, for the

wifdom, gravity, and uprightnefs, with which he prefided in

that court for many years. He remained in great favour with

the king, of which, in the 20th year of his reign, he re-

ceived a fignal proof, by an unufual augmentation of his

falary. He held his office throughout the reign of his mafter

king Henry VI. to whom he fteadily adhered,^ and ferved him

faithfully in all bis troubles : and for this, in the firft Parliament



ment under king Edward IV. which began at Weftminfter,

on the 4th of November 1461, he was attainted of hightreafon

by the fame a£i:, in which king Henry VI. queen

Margaret, Edward their fon, and a great number of perfons

of the firft diftinftion were Jikewife attainted. After this

misfortune, king Henry flying into Scotland, it is generallybelieved,

that he made Sir John Fortefcue, chancellor of

England. His name, indeed, upon this occafion is not found

recorded in the Patent Rolls ; becaufe, as Mr. SelJen fays,

^h'^Reader ** prefixed to

being with king Henry VI. driven into Scotland by the

*' fortune of the wars with the Houfe of York, he was

his Notes

F O R T E S C U F. iSt

Ous and concife vindication, as well as elogium, of our laws,

was received with great efteem and credit, immediately upon

its being communicated to the learned men of that profeflion,

then flourifhing in the kingdom : yet, it was not publiflied

till the reign of Henry VIlI, Several editions have been

given of it fince, with different titles each time : yet none

of them fuitable to the value of the performance, till that

printed in folio at London in 1732 ; again in 1 741, with a copious

preface,with large, learned, arid ufeful annotations, an ac-

curate index, and whatever elfe is neceflary to fatisfy a curioui

and inquifitive reader.

The Houfe of Lancafl-er having afterwards a ptofpc5t of

retrieving their defperate fortunes, the queen and the prince

went over to England, Sir John Fortefcue with many others

accompanying them. They did not fucceed, fo that our

chancellor was forced to reconcile himfelf as well as he could

to the vi

i62 F O S T E R.

fucceflione regnorum fupremorum, that is, " A fhort trea^

*' tife of the nature of the Law of Nature, and its influ-


years of age he was put to the free-fchool in that town, where

the foundation of a friendfhip between him and Dr. Conybcare,

afterwards biOiop of Briftol, is faid to have been

laid : and from thence was removed to an academy in the

iame city, where he iinifhed his fludies. He difcovered early

natural abilities fuperior to moft : a quick appreheniion, a

folid judgment, a happy memory, and a free commanding


He began to preach in the year 171$ : foon after which a.

flrong and general debate arofe among the dlffenters, con-

cerning the docirine of the Trinity, and a fubfcription to

certain tefts. 7 he difpute was fiercely carried on among

them in the Weft of England ; and particularly at Exeter,

where he then refided. His judgment determining him to

embrace the obnoxious opinions, the clamour foon ran liigh

againft him; and he was prevailed upon to quit the county

of Devon, and to accept of an invitation to Melborne in

Somerfetfhire. Here he continued, till feme of his^ orthodox

hearers, not underftanding their own profefled principles,

which are certainly againft tefts of any kind, had caught the

common infeftion, and made the place uneafy to him. Then

he removed to Afhwick, an obfcure retreat under the hills of

Mendip in the fame county ; where he preached to two poor

plain congregations, one at Colesford, the other at Wookey

jiear Wells, both of which together did not raife him more

than a falary of 15 1. per annum. It feems to have been

here, that he wrote his celebrated *• EiTay on Fundamentals,"

and like wife his fermon, '* On the Refurre6lion of Chrift ;"

for they were both printed in the year 1720.

From hence he removed to Trowbridge in Wiltftiire,

where he boarded with Mr. Norman, a reputable glover.

Here his congregation did not confift of more than twenty,

or thirty perfons ; and his finances in this place were fo very

infufficient for his fupport, that he began to entertain thoughts

of quitting the miniftry, and of learning the glove-trade of

Mr. Norman. His chufmg rather to betake himfelf to fome

fecular employment, than to feek for fuccour in the eftablifh-

ed church, is an early inftance of his fteddinefs in the prin-

ciples of non-conformity ; of which, however, he gave later

leftimonies, in declining the large offer made him by Dr.

Randal, biftiop of Derry. About this time he was convinced

by reading Dr. Gale, that baptifm of the adult by immerfion

was the true fcripture-doArine, and accordingly was

baptifed that way in London : but this did not make any dif-

ferense between him and his Prefbyterian congregation.

M 2


i64 F O S T E R.

While he was meditating on the poverty of his Con(3icion,

and looking abroad for fome better means of fubfiftancc,

Divine Providence,' as if defigning him for greater fervices,

raifed him up a friend in Robert Houlton, Efq; who took

him into his houfe as a chaplain, and treated him with much

hurhanity. And this feems to have opened his way to public

notice ; for in the year 1724, he was chofen to fucceed

Dr. Ga]e at Barbican, where he laboured as a paftor above

twenty years.

In the year 1731, he publifhed a " Defence of the Ufe-

*' fulnefs, Truth, and Excellency of the Chriftian Revela-

** tion," againft Tindai's famous book, called, *' Chriftiani-

*' ty as old as the Creation." This Defence is written with

great force of argument, and great moderation ; has been

well accepted, and much efteemed by the candid and judicious

of all parties ; and, as is faid, was fpoke of with

great regard by Tindal himfelf. In the year 1744, he was

chofen paflor of the independent church or Pinners Hall ;

and there preached his firft fermon upon the 6th of January

1745. -f" December 1748, the univerfity of Aberdeen conferred

on him the degree of dodror of divinity : for the Scotch

divines feem to have had the higheft opinion of his merit.

Dr. Thomas Blackwell, in a letter to him dated Marifchal-

college, Aberdeen, December the &th, 1748, has the follov/ing

paffage : " I rejoice in an opportunity of fhewing my

*• regard for your pirfon and chara£ier. For this end I

** chofe, that a diploma, creating Mr. Fofter doiSlor in

*' divinity, fhould be the firft deed and inftrument, I ihould do

*' and fign as principal of this univerfity." This is the fame

Blackwell, wha has diftinguifhed himfelf by his " Life of

*' Homer, Letters on Mythology, Court of Auguftus, &c."

ProfcfTor David Fordyce writes thus on the 1 5th following :

*' We beg you will be fo good to accept of the diploma, as a

** fmall mark of the fincere veneration we have for you, and

*• of the fenfe we entertain of the eminent fervices, you

*' have done the caufe of liberty, religion, and virtue, by

" your writings, as well as public inii ructions." And in

another, he fays, " I am glad that by our difpatch of what

" ought to have been difpatched long ago, we prevented Mr.

*' Foftcr's declining what fo well becomes him to receive,

'' and us to confer. I afllire you fmcerely, we rather feek to

•* reflect: honour on ourfelves, than to do you honour, by

*' rightly placing the academical dignity : the principal value

*< of which, is the being at once highly merited and entirely

«* unfolkited/*



Tn Auguft 174.6, Mr. FoRer attended the unhappy lord

Kilmarnock, who was concerned in the rebellion the year

before ; and they who lived with him imagined, that this

attendance made too deep an impreflion on his tender fympathizing

fpirit. His vivacity, at leaft, was henceforward obi'erved

to abate till the year 1750; when in April he was

vifited with a violent diforder, of which he never thoroughly

recovered, though he continued to preach more or lefs till the

5th of January 1752. Three days after, he had another

ihock, which is fuppofed to have been of the paralytic kind,

and which impaired his underllanding fo, that he never poffefTed

it rightly afterwards. About ten days before his end,

a dead palfy feized him : but he did not lofe his fenfes, till

he breathed his laft, which was on the 5th of November

1753. Befides the pieces already mentioned, he publifhed

** Tra



It would be wrong; to clofethis article, without taking

notice of his talent for preaching, which was, indeed very

His voice was naturally fweet,

rare and extraordinary. ,

llrong, diftin6^, harmonious : and his ear enabled him to

manage it exacSlly, as his matter required. He was alfo a

perfedl maHer of action, another quality no lefs efl'ential to

a good orator. His a6^ion, however, was grave, expreflive,

natural, free from violence, free from diftortions : in fbort,

fuch as became the pulpit, and was neced'ary to give force

and energy to the truths there delivered. Add to thefe, that

he had a fine genius, a lively imagination, great fprightli-

nefs and vivacity of addrefs, an eafy flow, marterly expref-

fion, fublime ideas ; and it cannot be matter of furprife,

that he (hould attain nqarly to perfedion in preaching. We

are told, that it was a phyfician of rank and eminence in the

city of London, who firft threw him on the wings of fame as

a preacher : for this gentleman, catching a few fentences, as

he happened to ftop near the houfe where he was holding

forth, was fo extremely charmed with them, that he went

in, ftaid the whole time of fervice, and upon all occafions

called him emphatically. The Preacher. The Lord's-

Day Evening Le£lure, begun in 17.8, which he carried on

at the Old Jewry above twenty years, fhewed indifputably,

that no body ever went beyond him, for popularity in this

refpe6l. For hither reforted perfons of every rank, ftation,

and quality ; clergy, wits, freethinkers: and hither curiofity

might probably draw the celebrated Mr. Pope himfelf, who,

in the Epilogue to his Satyrs, has taken occafion to praifc

him for this very quality in the following lines :

" Let modeft Fofter, if he will, cxcell

*' Ten Metropolitans in preaching well.

Pope's Works, Vol. IV. edit. 1753- i2mo.

His Commentator, indeed, has fubjoined to this pafTage a

note, which looks at firft a little ungracious : he f:iys, •' This

^' confirms an obfervation made by Hobbes long ago, that

" there be very few bifhops, who act a fermon fo well, as

*' divers Prefbyterians and Fanatic preachers can do.'' But

the Commentator, though he might like to bring forth a

bon mot of Hobbes, did not mean, that this fhould be taken

for his real fentiment ; as appears by his figning this note

with ScRiBLERUS. He knew intirely well, that rofler was

f4r enough from being a fanatic ; far from pretending to inrpirations,

viftons^ ^nd revolutions 3 far from dealing in my-


flerious and unintelligible dodrines. On the contrary, no

man toolc more pains than this preacher, to feparate Chriflianity

from Enthufiafm, to reconcile it to reafon and common

{enfe, and to banifli from it every jargon and myftery


infomuch, that he is commended fomewhere by lord dolingphj]"^

broke, for this memorable aphorifm, ** Where myf^ery be- Works.

" gins, religion ends."

FOSTER (Samuel), an eminent Englifli mathematician,

and ailronomy profcflbr of Greiham-collcge,

J^^""'^ ^

was born

in Northamptonfliire ; and fent to Emanuel college in Cam-Crefham


bridge in April 16 16. He took the degree of bachelor of artsProfeirors,

in 1619, ^^^ of mafter in 1623. He applied himfclf ear-?' ^5-

ly to the ftudy of the mathematics, and attained to great pro-

ficency in that kind of knowledge, of which he gave the iirft

fpecimen, as will be feen juft now, in the year 1624. He

had an elder brother at the fame college with himfelf, w^ho

prevented him in a fellowfhip : however, to make amends

for this, he offered himfelf a candidate for the proftfTorfliip

of Aftronomy in Grefham- college, in February 1636, and

was eleded the 2d of March following. He quitted it again,

it does not appear for what reafon, on the 25th of November

the fame year, and was fucceeded therein by Mr. Mungo

Murray, who w;js profefibr of philofophy at St. Andrews in

Scotland. Mr. Murray marrying in 1641, his profeflbrfhip

was thereby vacated ; and as Mr. Fofter had befoe made

way for him, fo he at prefect made way for Mr. Fofter, who

was re-ele(^.1ed on the 22d of May the fame year. The civil

war breaking out very foon after his being made a fec6nd

time profefibr of Grefham, he became one of that worthy

and learned fociety of gentlemen, who had ftated meetings

for cultivating the new Philofophy, and afterwards were

eftablifhed by charter in the reign of Charles 11. In 1646,

Dr. Wallis, another member of that fociety, received from

Mr. Fofter a mathematical 1 heorem, which he afterwardsCh. v.

publifhed in his *' Mechanics." Neither was it only in thisP^"°P' -4branch

of fcience that he excelled, but he w=is likewife well

verfed in the ancient languages ; as appears from his revifmg

and correcting the Lemmata of Archimedes, which had

been tranflated from an Arabic manufcript into Latin, but not

publifhed, by the learned Mr. John Greaves. He made alfo

feveral curious obfervations upoa Eclipfcs, borh of the Sua

and Moon, as well at Grefham-coHege, as in his native

county of Northamptonfhire, at Coventry, and in other

places ; and was particularly famous for inventing, as well as

M 4





improving aflronomical, and other mathematical inftruments.

After a long declining iHte of health, he departed this life in

July 1652, in his own apartment at Grefham- college, and

was buried in the church of St. Peter le Poor in Broad ftreet.

Here follows a catalogue of Mr. Fofter's works. I. " The

^' defcription and ufe of a fmail portable quadrant, for

** the more eafy finding of the hour of Azimuth." 1624.

4to. This treatife, which has been reprinted feveral times,

js divided into two parts, and was originally publifhed at the

end of the ingenious Mr. Edmund Gunter's "Defcription

^' of the Crofs Staffe in three books," to which it was in-

tended as an Appendix. II. " The Art of Dialling." 1638.

4to. Reprinted in 1675, with feveral additions and variar

tions from the author's own manufcript, as alfo a fupplement

by the editor William Leybourne. Our author himfelf publiihed

no more, yet wrote many other treatifes, which,

though not finilhed for the prefs in the manner he intended,

were publifhed by his learned friends after his death : as,

III. " Pofluma Fofteri : containing the defcription of a

*' Ruler, upon which are infcribed divers fcales," &c. 1652,

4to. This was publiflied foon after our author's death by

Edmund Wingate, Efq; IV. " Four Treatifes of Dialling.'*

1654. 4to. V. '* The Sedor altered, and other fcales add-

*' ed, with the defcription and ufe thereof, invented and

F O U Q^U I E R. 169

'* the Sun and Moon." 5. Ratio facillima computandi alti-

tudinem Solis, Sic. that is, *' An eafy way to calculate tables

*' of the Sun's Horary Altitude for any Latitude." 6. Problemata

Geometrica Varia : that is, " Geometrical Propo-

*' fitions of divers kinds." 7. De conftrudlione Canonis

Sin. Tang, et Secantium : that is, " Of the conftru61:ion of j

** the Canon of Sines, Tangents, and Secants." 8. Quadrantis

Horometrici demonftratio : that is, " A Demonftra-

•' tion of an Horometrical Qijadrant." 9. Epitome Ariftarchi

Samii de magnitudine Solis et Lunae: that is, *' An Epi-

" tome of Ariftarchus Samius concerning the magnitude of

" the Sun and Moon." 10. Lemmata Archimedis, &c.

that is, *' The Lemma's of Archimedes, not extant eithei:

*« in Greek or Latin, tranflated from an old Arabic manu-

*' fcript, by John Greaves, and now firft publifhed with

*' the Scholia of a learned Arabian. Revifed and correded

J70 F O U R M O N T.

difFerencc of their pidures confifl, rather in. the countries re-

prefented, than in the goodnefs of the pieces. The princi-

ples they went upon are the fame, and the colouring alike

good and regular. He painted for Rubens, of whom he

learned the eflentials of his art. The Eleftor- Palatine employed

him at Heidelberg, and from thence he went to Paris

where, though he worked a long time, and was well paid

for what he did, he yet grew poor for want of conduct, and

died in the houfe of an ordinary painter called Sdvain, who

Jived in the fuburbs of St. Jaques. The many inftances of

this kind among painters almoit inclines one to think, that

want of oeconomy is fomewhat peculiar to that order of


FOURMONT (Stephen), profefTor of the Arabic

and Chinefe languages at Paris, and one of the moft learned

men in France, was bern at Herbelay near Paris, on the

13th of June 1683, of a good family. He learned the fiift

elements of the Latin tongue from the curate of the place

but lofmg his father, when he was very young, he fell to the

care of an uncle, who had him to Paris at his houfe, and

overlooked his ftudies. He went through the courfes of Logic,

Rhetoric, and Philofophy, in different colleges^ and

happening to meet with the abbe Sevin, who loved ftudy as

well as himfelf, they formed a fcheme of reading all the

Greek and Latin poets together. But as the exercifes of the

fociety they were in employed moft of their hours by day,

they found means to continue this tafk fecretly by night

and this being confidered as a breach of difcipline, the fuperior

thought lit to exclude them from the community. Fourmont

retired to the college of Montaign, and there had the

very chambers, which formerly belonged to Erafmus, and

which conftantly brought in;o his remembrance the image of

that great man. Here the abbe Sevin continued to vifit him ;

and they went on with their work without interruption. Mr.

Fourmont joined to this purfuit the ftudy of the oriental

tongues, in which he made a very uncommon progrefs.

He afterwards was employed in reading ledlures : he explained

the Greek fathers to fome, and the Hebrew and Syriac

languages to others. Afier that, he undertook the edacati(

n of the fons of the duked' Antln, who were committed

to his care, and ftudied in the college of Harcourt. He was

at the fame time received an advocate : but the law not being

fuited to his tafte, he returned to his former ftudies. He contraded

then an acquaintatice with the abbe Bignon, at whofc




inftigation he applied himfelf to the ftudy of the Chinefc

tongue, in which he fucceeded beyond his expe6tations : for

he had a prodigious memory, and a particular turn for thfe

fludy of languages. He became very famous. He held con-

ferences at his own houfe, once or twice a week, upon fubje

172 F O W L E R.


Sampfon Dean of Chrift-Church in Oxford; and epigrams,

and other verfes. He alfo tranflated from Latin into Englifti,

" The EpifHe of Oforius," and " The Oration of

" Pet. Frarin of Antwerp,- againft the unlawful infurrec-

" tion of the Protefiants, under pretence to reform Reli-

" gion." Antwerp, 1566. This was anfwered by William

Fulke, divinity-profeffor in Cambridge. Fowler died at

Ncwmark in Germany, on the 13th of February 1578.

FOWLER (Christopher), a man of fome parts and

learning, but an unhappy inftance of the weaknefs of the

human underftanding, v/as born at Marlborough in Wilt-

ftiire, about the year 1611; and at the age of fixteen became

a member of Magdalen- College in Oxford, but afterwards

retired to St. Edmund's-hall. He entered into holy

orders, and behaved himfeif for fome time as a clergyman of

the church of England ; but upon the turn of the times in

1641, he clofed with the Prefbyterians, having before been

puritanically affected, took the Covenant, and " became,

" fays Mr. VVood, a very conceited and fantaftlcal preacher

*' among them. For by his very many odd geftures and

*' antic behaviour, unbefeeming the ferious gravity to be

" ufed in the pulpit, he drew contlantly to his congrega-

*' tion a numerous crowd of filly v/omen and young people,

'' who feemed to be hugely taken and enamoured with his

*' obftreperoufnefs and undecent cants." After rambling

from place to place, he became vicar of St. Mary's-churcli

in Reading, and at length fellow of Eaton College. He

was an ailiftant to the commiilioners of Berkfhire, for the

ejedlion of fuch, as were then called by the godly party fcandalous,

ignorant, and infufficient minifters. In 1655, he

pubiiflied, '* Dsemonium Meridianum : Satan at noon, or

'« Antichriftian Blafphemies, Anti-fcriptural Devilifms, 5cc.

** evidenced by the light of truth, and punifhed by the hand

*' of juftice. Being a fmcere relation of the proceedings of

*' the Commiffioners of the County of Berks againft John

*' Pordage, late Rector of Bradfield in Berks." This minifter

was ejected by the faid commiffioners for *' being conver-

*« fant, as they faid, with evil fpirits, and for blafphemy,

" ignorance, fc^ndalous behaviour, devilifm, uncleannefs,"

&c. After the Reftoration of Charles IL our author loft his

preferments, retired to London ; and afterward to Kennington,

carrying on the trade of conventicling to the laft. He

f- died at Southv*^ark on the 15th of January 1676; and, like


his fellow-labourer in the fame vineyard, .Mr. Francis Chey-



nell, was efteemed little better than crazed and dlftracSted for

ibme time before his death. He wrote feveral other pieces,

but we do not think it worth while to tranfcribe even their

titles. Indeed, the few lines we have here (pent upon Mr.

Chriftopher Fowler, was not fo much for his fake, as the

reader's ; whom, confidering the age we write in, we cannot

remind too ofte i, how eafy it is for a man to run mad

with religion, who has once difcarded all ufe of his reafon.

FOWLER (Edward), an eminent Englifli divine,

and bifhop of Gloucefter, was born in the year 1632, at

Wefterleigh in that county; of which place his father was

minifter, but was eje6led for non- conformity after the Re- qxou/

ftoration. He was educated in Grammar- learning at the

College- fchool in Gloucefter, and became clerk of Corpus

Chrifti College in Oxford in 1650. Being looked upon,

fays Mr. Wood, as a young man well endowed with the

fpirit, and gifted in extemporary prayer, he was admitted

one of the chaplains thereof in December 1653, and the

23d of the fame month took a batcheior of arts degree, as a

member of Trinity- College ; and in 1656, was incorpo.

rated in the fame at Oxford. About that time he became

chaplain to Arabella countefs dowager of Kent, who prefented

him to the redtory of Northill in Bedfordfliire. Hav-

ing been educated in the Prefbyterian way, he fcrupled for

a while embracing the terms of conformity at the Reftora-

tion ; but he conformed afterwards, and became a great ornament

to the church. His excellent moral writings rendered

him fo confiderable, that archbifhop Sheldon, in order to

introduce him into the metropolis of the kingdom, collated

him, in Auguft 1673, to the redtory of All-hallows, Breadftreet.

In February 1675, he was made prebendary of

Gloucefter; and in March i68i, vicar of St. Giles's, Cripplegate.

In June following, he accumulated the degrees of

bachelor and dodor of divinity. During the fi:rugg!e between

Protefl:anifm and Popery in this kint^dom, he appeared

to great advantage in defence of the former, as we fhall fhew

more particularly juft now. But this rendered him obnoxious

to the court and its adherents, and in all probability

caufed an ill-natured profecution againfi: him, in 1685, by

feme of his parifhioners ; who alledged, that he was guilty

of whiggifm, that he admitted to the communion excommu-

nicated perfons before they were abfolved, &c. We are

told, this matter was carried fo far, that December the 9th,

after a trial at Doctors Commons, our author was fufpended,




174 F O W L E R.

under the pretence of having afled in feveral refpeiSls con- •

trary to the canons of the church. However, this afFront

did not intimidate, or difcourage him from doing v/hat he

thought his duty : for he was the fecond, who in 1688, fighed

a refolution entered into by the principal of the London

clergy, not to read king James's new declaration for liberty

of confcience. He was rewarded for this, and other fervices

at the Revolution ; for, in 1691, he was preferred to the

fee of Gioucefter, in which he continued till his death ; and

this happened at Chelfea on the 26th of Auguft I714, when

he was in his 8 2d year.

He was the author of many excellent works : as, I. " The

'' Principles and Practices of certain moderate Divines of

'' the Church of England, abufively called Latitudinarians,

'' greatly mifunderdood, truly reprefented and defended,"

&c. 1670. 8vo. This is written in the way of dialogue.

II. *' The Dcjlgn of Chriftianity : or, a plain demonftra-

*' tion and improvement of this proportion, viz. that the

** enduing men with inward real righteoufnefs and true holi-

** nefs, was the ultimate end of our Saviour's coming into

" the world, and is the great Intendment of his bleffed

" Gofpel." 1 67 1. 8vo. John Bunyan, the author of the

Pilgrim's Progrefs, having writ againft this book, the author

vindicated it in. III. *' Dirt wiped out : or, a manifeft dif-

'' covery of the grofs ignorance, erroneoufnefs, and moft un-

*' chriftian and wicked fpirit of one John Bunyan, Lay-

•* Preacher in Bedford," &c. 1672. 4to. IV. Libertas Evangelica

: or, " a Difcourfe of Chriftian Liberty. Being

*' a further purfuance of The Defign of Chriftianiiy." 1680.

8vo. V. Some pieces againft Popery: as, i. " 1 he Refo-

V ** lution of this cafe of Confcience, whether the Church of

" England's fymbolizing fo far as it doth with the Church of

'' Rome, makes it lawful to hold communion with the

" Church of Rome ? " 1683. 4to. 2. *' A Defence of the

F O X.

'* Together with a defence of them," &c. 1694. 4to. 2.

«« A Second Defence of the Propofitions," &c. 1 695. ^to.

Yll, Nine Occafional Sermons : one of which was on '' The

'* great wickednefs and mifchievous effects of Slandering,

" preached in the parifli-church of St. Giles's, Nov. 15,

*' 1685, on Pfalm ci. 5. with a large preface of the author,

'• and conclufion in his own vindication." 1685. 410. VIII.

An Anfwer to the Paper delivered by. Mr. A(hton at his

execution." 1690. 410. IX. " A Difcourfe on the great

difnigenuity and unreafonablenefs of repining at affli6ting

Providences, and of the influence which they ought to

have upon us, publiihed upon occafion of the death of

*' queen Mary : with a preface containing fome obfervations

" touching her excellent endowments and exemplary life."

1695. 8vo.

This worthy bifhop was twice married, and had by his

iirft wife feveral childrei].

FOX (Edward), an eminent flatefman, almoner to

Henry VIII. and biihop "of Hereford, was born at Durfleyp^jig^.^

in Glouceflerfliire; but it is not mentioned in what year. Worthies

After pafling through Etofi-khool, he was admitted of*^^^"g^*"'^*

King's-College in Cambridge, March the 27th, 1512, and^' ^'*^*


176 F O X.

as to the politic and prudential part of it ; being of more ac-

tivity and no leis ability than Cranmer iiimfelf : but he a

FOX. 177

to oppofe the errors of the church of Rome. His father dy- Life of Fox

iiiff when he was very youns;, and

o. , - -^

,, , / P r

again, he fell under the tutelage or

whom he dwelt till the a^e of fixteen.

of Brazen Nofe Colleae^n Oxford j

1 /-111 r

took the degree of batchelor of arts.

his mother marrying written by

• r L 1 -^u his fon, and

a tather-m-law, with^^.^^^^^


Then heVas entered the Afts

and, in May i5'^8,^"'i Mcn"-


i;^ FOX.

cd of herefy, expelled his college, and thought to have been

favourably dealt with, that he efcaped with his life. This

was in 1545.

His frietfds were greatly difpleafed at him, and afraid (o

countenance or protect one condemned for a capital offence ;

and his father-in-law took a handle from hence, to with-hold

Mr. Fox's paternal e(late from him, thinking probably that

he, who flood in danger from the law himfelf, would with

difficulty find relief from it. Being thus forfaken by his

friends, he was reduced to great dillrefs ; when he was taken

into the houfe of Sir Thomas Lucy of Warwickfhire, to be

tutor to his children. Here he married a citizen's daughter

of Coventry, and continued in Sir Thomas's family, till his

children were grown up ; after which he fpent fome time

with his wife's father at Coventry. Fie removed to London

a few years before king Henry's death; where having neither

employment nor preferment, he was again driven to great

neceffities and diftrefs. Fie was relieved, however, frorri

LIfcofFjr.this in a mofl: ii range manner. His fon tells us, that, as he

was fitting one day in St, Paul's church, almoft fpcnt with

long fafting, his countenance wan and pale, and his eyes hollow,

there came to him a perfon, whom he never remem-

bered to have (cen before, who fitting down by him, accoffed

him very familiarly, and put into his hands an untold fum of

money ; bidding him to be of good chear, to be careful of

himfelf, and to ufe all means to prolong his life, for that in

a few days.jiew hopes were at hand, and new means of fub-

fiftence. Mr. Fox tried all methods to find out the perfon,

by whom he was fo feafonably relieved from extreme necefli-

ty, but in vain ; however, the predi6lion was fulfilled, for

within three days he was taken into the fervice of the duchefs

of Richmond, to be tutor to her nephew the earl of Surrey's

"children; who, upon the commitment of the earl and his

f;ither the duke of Norfolk to the tower, vjere fent to be

educated under the care and infpe6lion of the duchefs of


I« this family Mr. Fox lived at Ryegate in Surrey, during

the latter part of king Henry*s reign, the five years

king Edward VL and part of queen Mary's reign ;

reign of

being at

* this time protec^ied by one of his pupils, then duke of Nor-

folk. Gardiner, bifliop of Winchefler, was however de-

termined to have him feized, and laid many fnares and firatagems

for him. The bifhop was very intimate with the duke

of Norfolk, often vifited him, and frequently defired to fee

his tutor. The duke evaded the requeff, one while alledging


FOX. 179

his abfence, another while that he was indlfpofed, ftill pretending

fome reafons to put him off. At length it happened,

that Mr. Fox, not knowing the bifhop to be within the

houfe, entered the room, where the duke and he were in dif.

courfe; and feeing the bifliop, with a fhew of baflifulnefs,

withdrew himfelf. The bifhop afking who he was, the duke

anfwered, his phyfician, who was fomewhat uncourtly, being

newly come from the univerfity. " I like his countenance

*' and afpedt very well, replied the bifhop, and upon occa-

*' fion will make ufe of him." The duke perceiving from

hence, that danger was at hand, thought it time for Mr. Fox

to retire, and accordingly furniflied him with the means to go

beyond fea. He found, before he could put to fea, that Gardiner

had iflued out a warrant for apprehending him, and was

caufing the moff dih'gent fearch to be made for him ; nevefthelefs,

he at length efcaped, with his wife then big with

child, got over to Newport Haven, travelled to Antwerp and

Franckfort, and from thence to Bafil in Germany, where

great numbers of Englifh fubje£ls reforted in thofe times of

perfecution. He maintained himfelf and family in this city,

by correcting the prefs for Oporinus, a celebrated printer

and it was here, that he laid the plan of his famous work,

intitled, '* The Hiftory of the A6ls and Monuments of the

" Church." He had publiftied at Strafburgh in 1554, in

8vo. Commentarii Rerum in Ecclefia geftarum, maximarumque

per totam Europam perfecutionum a Wiclavi ternporibus

ad banc ufque jetatem defcriptarum, in one book

to which he added five more books, all printed together at

Bafil 1559, ^" fo^^

iSo FOX.

Church " piety might give the greater countenance to conformity :*'

Hift, b. ix. upon which, the old man producing the New Teftament in

^* ^ • Greek, " To this (fays he) will 1 fubfcribe." And when a

fubfcription to the canons was required of him, he refufcd it,

faying, " I have nothing in the church favc a prebend at