Mapping Heritage Craft

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Mapping Heritage Craft

Mapping

Heritage Craft

The economic contribution of the Heritage Craft sector in England

October 2012


Creative & Cultural Skills supports the skills and training needs

of the UK’s creative and cultural industries.

We deliver through our Skills Academy, a growing network of

employers and training providers who are committed to the

provision of high quality, industry-relevant creative education

and training, apprenticeships and careers advice. We are

licenced as a Sector Skills Council by the UK Commission for

Employment and Skills.

For further information, please visit www.ccskills.org.uk

This research was sponsored by the Department for Business,

Innovation and Skills, which supports sustained growth and

higher skills across the economy.

www.bis.gov.uk

Creative & Cultural Skills

CEO

Pauline Tambling

Catherine Large

Trustees

Paul Latham

Ric Green

Keith Arrowsmith

Gillian Clipson

Jane Glaister

Rosy Greenlees

Brian Kelly

Roisin McDonough

Jayne Mee

Robin Millar

Martin Penny

Alison Wenham

David Worthington

Mapping Heritage Craft: the Economic Contribution of the Heritage

Craft Sector in England

Prepared by TBR’s Creative & Cultural Team

October 2012

To deliver this research, TBR worked in partnership with Qa Research

and independent consultants Victoria Pirie and Sara Selwood.

Please address enquiries about this report to:

Research Department

Creative & Cultural Skills

Lafone House

The Leathermarket

Weston Street

London SE1 3HN

Telephone: 020 7015 1800

Email: london@ccskills.org.uk

www.ccskills.org.uk


Table of Contents

Foreword 02

Executive Summary 04

1 Introduction 14

1.1 Aims of Mapping Heritage Craft 17

1.2 Structure of the report 17

2 Defining Heritage Craft 18

2.1 Existing definitions 19

2.2 A new definition 20

3 Methodology 26

3.1 Mapping the size of the sector 28

3.2 Qualitative consultation 31

3.3 Mapping supply 31

4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge 32

4.1 The size of the sector and its workforce 34

4.2 The nature of employment and the characteristics of the workforce 39

4.3 The economic value of the sector 49

5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge 66

5.1 The sector’s training requirements and habits 68

5.2 New entrants to the sector 75

5.3 The training available to the sector 79

6 The Future of Heritage Craft 88

6.1 The size of the workforce in ten years 89

6.2 The sector’s view on growth prospects 90

6.3 Legacy and passing on skills and knowledge 105

7 Conclusion 108

8 Appendix 110

8.1 Detailed methodology 111

8.2 Detail on practices and techniques used by group 121

8.3 Learning opportunities provided by guilds and associations by group 124

8.4 In-depth interview discussion guides 132

8.5 ‘Best -fit’ SIC definition 134

9 Acknowledgements 139

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Foreword

We are delighted to present Mapping Heritage Craft, a major piece of economic research to define and

measure the size and scope of work in the sector. It stems from ongoing dialogue with Heritage Craft

practitioners who felt very strongly that the sector needed to be better understood. This is an often

unclearly defined and sometimes hard-to-reach sector, made up of a proliferation of micro-businesses.

We are extremely pleased that, through innovative work conducted with the sector itself, we are able to

shed new light on this area of the economy.

We are grateful to the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), who were responsible for

sponsoring the research and who will be keen to hear recommendations from its findings, which is our

next stage of work. These recommendations will also build on the work conducted in 2009 to create

the Craft Blueprint – Creative & Cultural Skills’ original workforce development strategy for the sector –

which highlighted the need for further investigation into this area.

The research provides evidence on the size, shape and nature of work in the Heritage Craft sector, which

will engender a consistent approach to supporting its workforce in the future. Anecdotal and isolated

evidence has led to a lack of awareness of the challenges facing the sector and its real size and scale.

This new evidence base shows that over 169,000 people work within it, using traditional hand skills to

provide products and services in response to growing public demand. The sector is set to grow in the

future; we anticipate a 12% growth in employment in the period leading up to 2022.

For the first time, the research also highlights the significant economic impact of Heritage Craft, with

the sector as a whole contributing £4.4 billion in gross value added (GVA) to the UK economy. This is

striking for a set of skills and jobs which are often considered hobbyist occupations or lifestyle choices.

The work also uncovers major issues for the future of the sector which must be addressed. The sector

is ageing; however, the vast majority of practitioners state that they are not passing on their skills and

knowledge to a next generation. Young people will need entry routes and guidance into the sector if it

is to be sustainable. Creative & Cultural Skills is committed to helping this happen through programmes

such as the new Skills Academy for the Heritage sector, a new set of Craft Skills Awards, and new work to

support apprenticeships in Heritage Craft.

We believe that Mapping Heritage Craft has created a substantial body of evidence to inform future

work to support the sector. We look forward to a period of direct action planning around Heritage Craft,

involving as wide a network as possible. This report is now freely available and publicly accessible via

www.creative-blueprint.co.uk, along with the rest of our research. We hope that it will be widely used

by the sector and its representative associations to aid their case for support, and by policy makers and

stakeholders in order to respond appropriately.

Catherine Large and Pauline Tambling

Joint CEO, Creative & Cultural Skills


Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Those of us working in Heritage Crafts have been aware of a serious potential loss of skills for many

years. In the UK, we still have world-class craftspeople and there is strong demand for their products,

but many are approaching retirement without successors. The sector is characterised by large

numbers of micro-businesses and sole traders, and devoting time to training or employing assistants

is often difficult because of the need to prioritise craft work to make a living. Within the sector, we

have been aware of this through anecdotal evidence, and, since it was founded, the Heritage Crafts

Association has been calling for a survey to produce real data to confirm this. The quotations of working

craftspeople in the report give the true voice of those involved in Heritage Crafts, and this is the first

time that the anecdotal and qualitative evidence has been supported by hard facts and quantitative

research.

The overall figures are impressive. 83,490 firms in the sector employ 209,390 people in all, with a

turnover of £10.8 billion contributing £4.4 billion in gross value added (GVA) to the economy. The sector

is also predicted to grow, with employment rising by 12% over the period 2012-2022. These figures

again support anecdotal evidence which suggests that there is strong demand for these skills, with the

export market for heritage-branded luxury goods being particularly buoyant.

The skilled workforce is ageing, with approximately 50% of the workforce aged between 40 and 60

years old. There are also more people working in the sector over the age of 60 than under the age of 25.

This verifies anecdotal evidence from craftspeople and highlights the lack of training opportunities and

entry routes to the sector.

Respondents in the survey regard workplace learning as crucial to their current skills, with 73%

highlighting formal or informal apprenticeships, mentoring or on-the-job learning as being the most

important. However, 63% of the workforce have a level 2 or lower as their highest qualification, which

indicates that formal routes do not necessarily exist to train people. At a time of youth unemployment

and when many people are looking for more meaningful work, it would be a significant loss to future

generations if these businesses – almost all of which are viable and make a valuable contribution to the

economy – and the Heritage Craft skills used by them were not passed on to the next generation.

The Heritage Crafts Association looks forward to working with the government, Creative & Cultural Skills,

appropriate agencies and with the sector to secure the future of Heritage Crafts. In particular, we want

to enable the sector to pass on skills through apprenticeships and qualifications that are relevant for the

sector, primarily involving bench-side learning. It is crucial to address the issues highlighted in this report

and to create the conditions in which the best of British craftsmanship can flourish.

Robin Wood

Woodworker, Chair of the Heritage Crafts Association

and research steering group member

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

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Mapping Heritage Craft Executive Summary

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Executive Summary

Introduction

This is the first comprehensive study to define, categorise and examine the size and shape of the

Heritage Craft sector in England.

To date, Heritage Craft has been a largely under-examined area of the economy. This has been

driven by two main factors: the difficulty in identifying and measuring the proliferation of very small

businesses that make up the sector; and the challenge of reaching a common definition around what

constitutes Heritage Craft practice.

The research has been sponsored by BIS and called upon the expertise of individuals and organisations

from within the Heritage Craft sector to formulate and test ideas on an appropriate methodological

approach and to achieve clarity around the activities that should be encapsulated in a definition.

Definition

The phrase Heritage Craft means so many different things to different people and organisations,

depending on perspective, that arriving at an agreed definition of what constitutes Heritage Craft was

arguably the most difficult aspect of this research.

The starting point for the definition was the paper Towards a Definition of Heritage Craft 1 , which

provides a number of parameters that support the identification of a definition. Based on these

parameters, this research defines Heritage Craft as:

“Practices which employ manual dexterity and skill and

an understanding of traditional materials, designs and

techniques in order to make, repair, restore or conserve

buildings, other structures, modes of transport, or more

general, portable objects.”

In order to satisfy the dual needs of the project (firstly to find a definition that would be meaningful for

the sector, and secondly, one that can be measured) the research employs a two-tier definition:

1 A “paper” definition: a listing of the various practices that could be considered to be Heritage Craft,

providing specific detail on the nature of the activities and products/outputs/services. This describes

in detail the materials and practices used and the products/services created and/or delivered.

2 A “measured” definition: an aggregation of the detailed paper listing, bringing together practices

into manageable groups of activity in order that they could be measured.

A table showing the 16 groups of materials and composites in the Heritage Craft definition and 58

subgroups related to individual areas of activity can be found in Chapter 2. The paper definition is

available as an annexe to this report.

Method

The key challenge presented by this research was determining a method of measuring the economic

footprint of the sector. The method used employed six main steps as follows:

1 Creating a master database of Heritage Craft makers, practitioners and businesses using data

available from associations/guilds/membership bodies and online directories.

2 Utilising keyword searches on a business dataset 2 to identify Heritage Craft businesses and their

economic activity.

3 Applying weights to this “known universe” of businesses and makers to scale this up to a population

estimate.

4 Undertaking a survey of 762 Heritage Craft businesses in order to collect specific data on the nature

of activity, business performance and needs.

5 Modelling data from ONS data sources on GVA and workforce demographics.

6 Analysing historic trend data on employment and standard econometric forecasts of anticipated

performance in order to estimate a likely future employment footprint.

1 http://creative-blueprint.co.uk/library/item/towards-a-definition-of-heritage-craft1

2 The dataset used for the research was Trends Central Resource. For more information see

http://www.tbr.co.uk/pages/tbr-observatory/tcr-database.php


Mapping Heritage Craft Executive Summary

In addition to the core strand of quantitative research, the study also included:

• A series of 22 in-depth interviews with Heritage Craft businesses. Given the size of the sector, it was

not possible to undertake interviews with businesses in every craft group. As such interviews were

conducted in sets in order to deliver case study information on four craft groups: Stone, Wood & plant,

Guns and Instruments. These interviews provide illustrative evidence of the reality of operating in the

sector in order to complement (and in some cases contrast with) the quantitative evidence.

• Desk research to develop an understanding of the supply of training available to the sector. This

research focussed on the learning opportunities provided through trade associations/guilds and the

availability of (and participation in) apprenticeship frameworks allied to Heritage Craft.

Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

The workforce

The sector currently employs a workforce of 209,390 people. This covers all individuals employed

in Heritage Craft businesses. A total of 169,550 (81%) of these people use Heritage Craft skills and

knowledge for the majority of their working time (Heritage Craft Emp in the table below).

This varies across the different Heritage Craft groups, with businesses in the Paint and Plaster groups

stating that more than 90% of their workforce use Heritage Craft skills and knowledge intensively,

compared to approximately 70% in Animal and Jewellery.

Table 1: Heritage Craft firms and employment

Heritage % Heritage Avg Heritage Craft

Group Firms Total Emp Craft Emp Craft Emp Emp per firm*

Paint 21,460 40,990 37,210 91% 1.7

Wood & plant 16,400 34,710 30,710 88% 1.9

Metal 7,140 30,110 23,030 76% 3.2

Textiles 7,970 25,710 20,640 80% 2.6

Clay 4,370 16,550 8,100 49% 1.9

Plaster 11,460 15,600 14,760 95% 1.3

Glass 4,570 9,460 7,230 76% 1.6

Animal 1,030 8,790 6,210 71% 6.0

Stone 2,490 8,470 6,690 79% 2.7

Paper 1,670 7,900 6,160 78% 3.7

Instruments 2,130 3,730 2,910 78% 1.4

Precious metals 1,010 2,560 2,060 80% 2.0

Vehicles 900 2,530 2,010 79% 2.2

Guns 660 1,580 1,320 84% 2.0

Jewellery 120 450 300 67% 2.5

Toys & automata 100 250 210 84% 2.1

Total 83,490 209,390 169,550 81% 2.0

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S2)

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

In terms of distribution across England, the West Midlands has the highest absolute number of Heritage

Craft workers, with 37,220 of the workforce being employed in this region, followed by the North West

with 32,965. There is a significant gap between these and the next highest employer, Yorkshire and the

Humber, with 27,460 employees. Links to broader industrial concentrations in some regions are evident.

For example, a higher number of Textiles employees in the North West, East Midlands and Yorkshire

and the Humber, and Metal in the West Midlands and Yorkshire and the Humber.

Across the sector, workers tend to be employed in micro-businesses, with 96% of people in firms with

10 employees or fewer. This figure is driven by the fact that 78% of the workforce works independently/

is self-employed (i.e. is employed in a firm with only one employee – themselves). This is reflected in the

majority of the workforce (84%) being employed on a permanent, full-time basis 3 . A further 10.6% are

permanent, part-time and 5.4% are operating on a non-permanent basis (either a fixed-term contract,

casual employment or unpaid). Businesses do call upon this small non-permanent workforce, using an

average of 1.3 additional workers (on top of those currently working with this business) per firm in a

given year. Scaling these figures up, it is possible that, at any one time, up to 112,530 additional people

could be working in the sector.

The key demographic characteristics of the workforce are:

• The sector has a very small proportion of employees from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME)

backgrounds compared to the average for England; 95% of the workforce is white compared to 90%

across the economy as a whole.

• The workforce is predominantly male, 83% are male and 17% are female. This is in stark contrast to

the gender balance of England’s workforce as a whole, which is 54% male, 46% female.

• Employees in Heritage Craft are much more likely to have no qualifications or other qualifications in

comparison to the English workforce as a whole (14% compared to 6%, and 11% compared to 2%

respectively) and are also less likely to have a Level 6+ (postgraduate) qualification (2% compared to

10% in England overall).

• The workforce is older than the average for the rest of the economy. This is driven primarily by a lower

proportion of workers aged up to 34 (28.6% in Heritage Craft compared to 34.8% in England) and

proportionately more workers aged 60+ (11.6% in Heritage Craft compared to 8.5% in England).

Business Performance

Turnover

The total turnover generated by the sector is £10.8 billion, with £5.5 billion being directly attributable

to the Heritage Craft elements of the businesses. The turnover per firm generated by Heritage Craft

activity is highly variable across the different groups. However, the average turnover per firm that

is directly attributable to Heritage Craft is £65k. It should be noted that this is £12k below the VAT

threshold.

Animal and Paper generate the most Heritage Craft turnover per firm, with both having a high total

turnover and a large percentage directly attributable to Heritage Craft. Toys & automata and Precious

metals have the highest percentage (92% and 87% respectively) of turnover directly attributable to

Heritage Craft.

3 Self-employed sole traders would be included in this category of permanent employees, but could be employed full or part time in their business.


Mapping Heritage Craft Executive Summary

Table 2: Turnover across the sector

Turnover directly

attributable to Average

Heritage Craft % Heritage Heritage Craft

Group Firms Total turnover activity Craft turnover turnover per firm

Animal 1,030 £482,802,420 £384,436,060 80% £373,240

Paper 1,670 £552,255,170 £458,035,580 83% £274,270

Precious metals 1,010 £190,198,670 £166,028,230 87% £164,380

Metal 7,140 £2,206,303,620 £975,775,090 44% £136,660

Guns 660 £179,944,220 £84,926,720 47% £128,680

Stone 2,490 £646,808,380 £276,531,510 43% £111,060

Textiles 7,970 £1,115,642,080 £855,006,230 77% £107,280

Vehicles 900 £136,672,510 £75,384,960 55% £83,760

Wood & plant 16,400 £1,740,756,980 £1,324,177,450 76% £80,740

Toys & automata 100 £8,566,490 £7,896,780 92% £78,970

Glass 4,570 £613,829,890 £263,537,840 43% £57,670

Jewellery 120 £13,395,770 £5,896,320 44% £49,140

Instruments 2,130 £127,567,530 £82,395,790 65% £38,680

Clay 4,370 £1,178,538,050 £137,412,340 12% £31,440

Plaster 11,460 £541,239,890 £166,740,390 31% £14,550

Paint 21,460 £1,112,008,010 £217,082,530 20% £10,120

Total 83,490 £10,846,529,670 £5,481,263,810 51% £65,650

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S4)

In no single group does 100% of turnover come from Heritage Craft activity. This is not to say that no

single business takes 100% of turnover from Heritage Craft activity, rather that this is rare.

Across the sector there are four key activities that businesses engage in to generate revenue (businesses

may do one, some or all of the following):

• Making/reproducing things: where a new object or structure is created.

• Repairing/maintaining things: where repairing/maintaining means fixing an item in order to make it

functional again, not specifically taking into account the original design and using modern materials

alongside original materials.

• Restoring things: where restoring means returning something to a functional state, specifically taking

into account the original design and using original materials.

• Conserving things: where conserving means maintaining something to secure its survival, countering

deterioration, and preserving the object/building/structure’s history and value to the greatest extent

possible.

Approximately three-quarters of businesses provide goods/services that involve repairing/maintaining

or restoring things, and half of businesses make/reproduce or conserve things. However, this profile of

activity changes considerably when businesses are asked to specify the main activity undertaken. This

brings making/reproducing and repairing/maintaining to the top of the list.

In terms of reaching the market for these goods/services, the majority of the Heritage Craft sector sells

its products/services via word of mouth (73%), which 65% of businesses regard as the most important

route in terms of the total value of sales. The next two main methods used were advertising through a

directory (30%) or online through the business’s or individual’s own website (22%). However, these were

rarely viewed as the most important methods for contributing to the total value of sales (4% each).

The reliance on word of mouth as the most important method of generating income is reflected in the

data on location of customers: the sector is highly dependent on locally-based customers for generating

income; an average of 67% of income across the sector is generated from customers based in the local

area. However, this is variable by group.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Gross valued added

Across the sector as a whole, GVA is £4.4 billion, with £2.2 billion (50%) of this being directly

attributable to the Heritage Craft activities of businesses. Overall, Wood & plant has the highest

Heritage Craft GVA (£519m) and has a high proportion of its total GVA as Heritage Craft GVA (76%).

Jewellery has the lowest Heritage Craft GVA (£2.3m) and also a relatively low proportion of the total

GVA being attributable to Heritage Craft activity (44%).

GVA per head delivered by Heritage Craft employees working in the Heritage Craft aspects of the

business is highly variable, ranging from £32k in Guns to £2.8k in Paint. The average for Heritage Craft

employees is £12.8k. This compares to an average GVA per head in England of £30.9k.

Guns, Precious metals and Paper deliver the highest levels of GVA per head of the workforce,

demonstrating that employers in this group are able to generate the most value from their Heritage

Craft skills and knowledge.

Table 3: Gross value added across the sector

Heritage Heritage % Heritage

Average

Heritage Craft

Group Craft Emp Total GVA Craft GVA Craft GVA GVA per head

Wood & plant 30,710 £680,846,020 £519,110,600 76% £16,900

Metal 23,030 £785,541,350 £368,842,500 47% £16,020

Textiles 20,640 £408,957,460 £313,009,540 77% £15,170

Paper 6,160 £219,621,480 £190,720,090 87% £30,950

Animal 6,210 £151,797,360 £124,787,140 82% £20,090

Stone 6,690 £256,200,660 £109,384,770 43% £16,350

Paint 37,210 £546,847,780 £106,753,820 20% £2,870

Glass 7,230 £264,022,380 £104,345,500 40% £14,440

Plaster 14,760 £307,619,520 £94,768,700 31% £6,420

Precious metals 2,060 £73,201,760 £63,888,010 87% £30,960

Clay 8,100 £467,757,850 £55,692,220 12% £6,870

Guns 1,320 £89,536,930 £42,257,970 47% £32,000

Instruments 2,910 £59,777,320 £38,413,340 64% £13,190

Vehicles 2,010 £58,304,970 £32,659,030 56% £16,250

Toys & automata 210 £4,211,850 £3,882,570 92% £18,460

Jewellery 300 £5,437,890 £2,393,560 44% £7,990

Total 169,550 £4,379,682,590 £2,170,909,350 50% £12,800

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S4)

Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Training requirements and habits

The most popular forms of training and education undertaken to develop Heritage Craft skills and

knowledge are experience through working/learning by doing (43%), formal apprenticeships (30%),

and mentoring from an experienced craftsperson (21%). This reflects the skills profile of the workforce,

particularly the tendency towards either non-qualification based training/learning or vocational

qualifications.

Similar patterns occur when it comes to employers maintaining and improving the Heritage Craft

skills and knowledge used in the business. The method most commonly used was experience through

working/learning by doing (55%). Furthermore, very few pursued short courses, adult education classes,

mentoring, or free online tutorials. Of concern, though, is that a fifth of businesses actually do nothing

to maintain and improve their Heritage Craft skills and knowledge.

A potential explanation for this is that only one-third (33%) of businesses overall felt that there were

currently Heritage Craft skills and/or knowledge that they themselves or their team would like to

develop. Where businesses did note the requirement for further skills and knowledge development, this

most commonly related to additional skills working with a specific material related to their craft, or

formalising their skills through further study and/or qualifications.


Mapping Heritage Craft Executive Summary

New entrants

12% of the Heritage Craft workforce is made up of new

entrants who have been working for under a year.

A further 27% of the workforce has been in their current role for 1-5 years. Taking into account a

varying learning period of 3-6 years in order to establish skills and knowledge in a craft, it would be fair

to describe these two groups combined as “apprentice” workers. In which case, just under 40% of the

workforce is in the apprenticeship phase of developing their skills and 60% are established Heritage

Craft workers.

New entrants are most likely to be aged between 20 and 34. However, approximately one-third are also

likely to be aged between 35 and 49. This reinforces anecdotal evidence that, for many, the move into

Heritage Craft is a career change later in life, rather than a first career. It also adds further insight to the

age profile of current employees, highlighting the small proportion of young people choosing the sector

for their first job.

Training available to the sector

Training from guilds and associations

A review of the learning opportunities provided across Heritage Craft guilds and associations identified

that the main type of training provided is at entry level. The aim of this training is largely to support

members of the public to learn the basic skills and knowledge of a particular craft, in order to develop as

an amateur.

Following on from this, the “next step” of training provided by the guilds is a range of courses to support

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for professionals already operating in the sector. This type

of training is aimed at individuals who have already attained a specific level of skill in the craft and who

wish to specialise in a certain area. CPD courses are less extensively offered than entry-level courses, but

are a significant element of the training offer.

A key element of the offer from guilds in terms of the development of professional (rather than amateur)

skills is their engagement with and support of apprenticeships in the sector. The level of engagement

in the provision of apprenticeships appears to function at two levels: 1) the guilds act as a mediator for

connecting businesses (usually members of the guild) with apprenticeship vacancies to persons seeking

an apprenticeship in that craft; 2) a deeper level of engagement with the supply of apprenticeships,

including involvement in the design of the apprenticeships and acting as a governing body.

Informal learning and development opportunities – such as exhibitions and lectures, which do not have

specific learning objectives but provide the opportunity to keep up to date and network with peers –

are also a common feature of the landscape.

Apprenticeships

Mapping the availability of apprenticeships is not a straightforward task. Apprenticeships are

offered under a variety of frameworks according to the sector in which they are delivered and data

is usually reported at the framework level. Only limited data is available to describe the nature of the

apprenticeship and therefore it is not possible to determine the extent of relevant Heritage Craft activity.

However, data is available on the number of vacant apprenticeships currently advertised on the

National Apprenticeship Service website and the number of apprenticeships started and achieved in

frameworks allied to Heritage Craft between 2002 and 2012.

At the time of writing, there were only 221 vacant apprenticeships currently advertised on the National

Apprenticeship Service website in frameworks allied to Heritage Craft, the majority of which tended to

be in construction-related activities.

The data on starts and achievements shows a similar bias towards construction-related apprenticeships,

with 64% of all those started in the last ten years being in this field.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

The Future of Heritage Craft

The size of the footprint

Forecasted employment over the next ten years estimates

that the number of employees in the Heritage Craft sector

will have grown by 25,000 people (12%) to a total of 234,600

by 2022.

Overall, there is cautious confidence within the Heritage Craft sector for the forthcoming two to three

years; 34% of businesses expect some growth in demand, 38% expect that demand will remain at the

same level, and only 16% expect demand to decline.

Stone and Precious metals show a percentage change of almost 50%, with Stone also having one of

the highest levels of absolute growth. Metal and Paint, starting from some of the higher bases in 2012,

also make a significant contribution to absolute growth. Although small in numbers, growth is also well

above average in percentage terms in Vehicles and Guns. The forecast also predicts decline in a small

number of groups, with Jewellery seeing the largest decline in percentage terms and Wood & plant in

absolute terms.

Table 4: Heritage Craft employment forecast 2012-2022

Change 2012-2022

Group 2012 2017 2022 Absolute Percent CAGR*

Stone 8,470 10,255 12,380 3,910 46.2% 3.9%

Precious metals 2,560 3,070 3,665 1,105 43.2% 3.7%

Vehicles 2,530 2,895 3,300 770 30.4% 2.7%

Guns 1,580 1,775 1,990 410 25.9% 2.3%

Metal 30,110 33,090 36,300 6,190 20.6% 1.9%

Paint 40,985 44,115 47,355 6,370 15.5% 1.5%

Textiles 25,710 27,415 29,160 3,450 13.4% 1.3%

Clay 16,550 17,615 18,730 2,180 13.2% 1.2%

Toys & automata 245 260 270 25 10.2% 1.0%

Animal 8,790 9,140 9,450 660 7.5% 0.7%

Glass 9,465 9,725 9,995 530 5.6% 0.5%

Plaster 15,595 15,945 16,260 665 4.3% 0.4%

Paper 7,895 7,865 7,820 -75 -0.9% -0.1%

Wood & plant 34,710 34,410 34,065 -645 -1.9% -0.2%

Instruments 3,735 3,605 3,470 -265 -7.1% -0.7%

Jewellery 450 415 385 -65 -14.4% -1.5%

Total 209,810 221,585 234,600 25,215 12.0% 1.1%

Source: TBR Observatory 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S6)

* CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate


Mapping Heritage Craft Executive Summary

In terms of the drivers behind this anticipated growth, the most prominent causal factor noted by

businesses was changes in the state of the economy, followed by increasing awareness/recognition of

their brand. Comments around changes in the economy focussed on the positive impact of economic

growth and the recession lifting; people having more money to spend and the recession being “good

for business” – the latter particularly relating to customers seeking to restore or repair items, rather than

buy new.

When considering the changes required to the current workforce in order to meet an increase in

demand, three different types of action rise to the top, each noted by approximately one-third of the

businesses anticipating growth:

1 No action. Suggesting that some businesses are currently performing under capacity and the

increase in work would be met by fully utilising the resources available.

2 Increase working hours/improve use of working time. Just under a third of businesses felt that

they would need to either increase the number of hours their staff worked (22%) or increase the

productivity of their skilled craft workers (10%).

3 Recruit. Most commonly there was a need to recruit people into non-craft roles. When probed as to

which roles these might be, employers mainly commented on administrative functions or sales and

marketing.

In terms of the drivers of decline in demand, whilst only 16% of businesses are anticipating decline, this

is also mainly driven by the state of the economy. For these businesses the recession was anticipated to

continue to have a negative impact on the business, with people having less spending power.

Across the small proportion of businesses in the sector that felt that they were likely to experience

decreased demand, the most common response to this was to close the business (14%). Whilst 8% of

respondents with decreasing demand felt that they would not have to make any changes if demand

decreased, 12% felt that they would need to reduce the size of the workforce in some way, 6% would

not replace workers who left the business (either through retirement or leaving for other reasons) and

3% said they themselves would retire.

Legacy and passing on knowledge

Overall, the majority (77%) of businesses in the Heritage Craft sector do not undertake activities to pass

on craft skills and knowledge to people outside of the business. For those who do, the most popular

activity is to teach informally and free of charge, with 30% of respondents stating that they do this.

Of those who do not undertake any activities, 34% state that they would like to but either do not know

how to get involved in such activities, do not have the time, feel that cost would be a prohibiting factor

or perceive there to be a lack of interest in such activities.

For those who did not want to participate in such activities, they either did not see the need to (again,

there was a perceived lack of interest for such activities), did not have time or had concerns about

“training up the competition”.

Conclusion

Through this research, there now exists a detailed, robust evidence base that delves in-depth into

Heritage Craft activity across England, enabling a new understanding of the sector. The issues and

questions it raises will form the basis of debate and review in the next stage of action planning.

However, this is an important line in the sand, a grounding of evidence which both the sector and other

bodies can use as a starting point from which to move forward.

12

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Introd


Chapter 1 Introduction

uct on

14

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Introduction

1 Introduction

Mapping Heritage Craft, a research report sponsored by BIS, is the first comprehensive study to define,

categorise and examine the size and shape of the Heritage Craft sector in England.

To date, Heritage Craft has been a largely under-examined area of the economy. This has been

driven by two main factors: the difficulty in identifying and measuring the proliferation of very small

businesses that make up the sector, and the challenge of reaching a common definition around what

constitutes Heritage Craft practice.

Creative & Cultural Skills has had a long-standing involvement in measuring and defining areas around

craft practice, having developed previous methodologies to look in detail at the craft sector as a whole.

This has led to previous publications such as the Craft Blueprint and the Cultural Heritage Blueprint,

which represented action plans for workforce development in those sectors. Creative & Cultural Skills

therefore has a track record of working with organisations such as the Crafts Council, the Heritage

Crafts Association and others to provide strategic leadership within an often disparate sector.

Whilst other research has been undertaken on Heritage Craft, it has tended to focus on individual

elements of the sector. For example, the 2005 and 2008 research from the National Heritage Training

Group (NHTG) focusses solely on crafts allied to traditional building skills, and the 2005 research by EJT

Collins focusses on rural crafts. This study represents the first time the different elements have been

brought together in a single, inclusive definition.

The challenges associated with this research are numerous. Measuring the economic performance of a

sector that is mainly populated by self-employed individuals and micro-businesses (which, due to the

nature of their size, traditionally defy accurate measurement) has been a key difficulty to overcome

in this study. The research has therefore employed an innovative approach to delivering evidence on

current performance, drivers of economic success and the future economic profile of the sector.

In order to provide these solutions, the research has called on the expertise of individuals and

organisations from within the Heritage Craft sector to formulate and test ideas on methodological

approach and to achieve clarity around the activities that should be encapsulated in a definition. By its

nature, Heritage Craft may never have one specific definition, but this research presents a significant

benchmark in the discussion on what constitutes Heritage Craft activity.

The outcome represents a step change for the sector and policy makers, providing the opportunity

to make evidence-based decisions about the future strategic development of the sector and conduct

detailed action planning on the immediate interventions that can be made to support Heritage Craft.


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Aims of Mapping Heritage Craft

The fundamental aim of Mapping Heritage Craft was to arrive at an appropriate definition of what

constituted the Heritage Craft sector and determine a method by which the sector could be measured.

The research then mapped and profiled the economic performance of the sector in order to underpin

an understanding of the demand for and supply of Heritage Craft skills and knowledge. The report

provides evidence on:

• The economic profile of the sector, covering the number of businesses and turnover generated, the

number of people employed and the productivity of the workforce.

• The structure of the sector in terms of activities undertaken and the skills required to deliver them.

• The likely future employment footprint of the sector.

• The education and training required for the workforce, and from where the sector draws its workforce.

• The key drivers of performance, the actions taken and strategies pursued to ensure the success of

businesses.

1.2 Structure of the report

Mapping Heritage Craft is split into six chapters detailing the process and findings of the study.

Chapter 2 sets out the new definition of Heritage Craft, and summarises some of the key challenges

associated with its development, along with the parameters for the definition. This is informed

principally by the research paper Towards a Definition of Heritage Craft, which was produced during

the research.

Chapter 3 gives an overview of the methodology used to get to the core of Heritage Craft activity

in England. This details the survey process used, the econometric modelling employed for future

projections of the sector and the mapping of results back to comparable data for the rest of the UK

economy. Further technical detail is also provided in the appendix.

The final three chapters deal in detail with the findings. Chapter 4 looks at the demand for Heritage

Craft skills and knowledge, measuring for the first time the number of firms within the sector, the

employment footprint and demographic characteristics of the sector. The chapter also provides

detailed information on the value of work in Heritage Craft related to the UK economy as a whole.

Chapter 5 takes an in-depth look at the supply side of Heritage Craft skills and knowledge. In particular,

this focusses on the flow of new entrants into the sector, the training habits and requirements of those

working in the sector, and the availability of training to develop the workforce in England.

Finally, Chapter 6 looks at the future of the sector, incorporating projections of likely employment in the

sector over the next ten years. It also looks at perspectives on potential growth from businesses and the

overall legacy of Heritage Craft skills, as seen by practitioners.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Defining

Heritage

Craft


Chapter 2 Defining Heritage Craft

Defining Heritage Craft

2 Defining Heritage Craft

2.1 Existing definitions

The term Heritage Craft means so many different things to different people and organisations,

depending on perspective, that arriving at an agreed definition of what it constitutes was arguably the

most difficult aspect of this research. The problems involved in succinctly articulating what constitutes

Heritage Craft are reflected in the fragmented infrastructure supporting the sector, which is driven by its

multifaceted nature. Pertinent examples of this are:

• The range of Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) with an interest in Heritage Craft. To date, Heritage Craft

has featured to a greater or lesser extent in the remits of Creative & Cultural Skills, ConstructionSkills

(whose remit includes traditional building skills), Lantra (whose remit includes rural skills), Skillset

(whose remit includes fashion and textiles), Proskills (whose remit includes Glass, Ceramics and Paper)

and People 1st (whose remit includes Tourism). 4

• The proliferation of guilds, societies and livery companies associated with the various crafts and

trades. In addition to this, there are many geographically focussed organisations concentrating on

various crafts, rather than any one in particular.

• Established support from the government for contemporary craft as part of the creative industries,

in comparison to the limited support for Heritage Craft. The Crafts Council has a remit for

contemporary craft as a subset of the creative industries through funding from the Arts Council. This

contrasts with the recently formed Heritage Crafts Association, a voluntary organisation, the purpose

of which is to advocate traditional Heritage Crafts.

• Established support from charities (for example, the Heritage Lottery Fund, National Trust and the

Prince’s Charities 5 ) and English Heritage (an executive Non-Departmental Public Body) to preserve

the craft skills used to maintain our traditional/historic buildings and landscapes. However, the

support tends to be piecemeal rather than strategic, except where it focusses on craft which relates

to the fixed built environment.

Prior research into Heritage Craft tends to have been delivered by this type of supporting organisation,

with specific sectoral remits (or individuals with a particular research interest). Consequently, the

definitions used have tended to focus on what could be considered, in the context of this research, to be

a narrow range of sectors.

4 It should be noted that ProSkills ceased to operate as a licensed Sector Skills Council in summer 2012. However, it continues to operate as an

employer-led organisation that represents the interests of the industries that make up the process and manufacturing sector to government.

5 The Prince’s Charities are a group of not-for-profit organisations of which the Prince of Wales is Patron or President. For more information see:

http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/personalprofiles/theprinceofwales/atwork/theprincescharities/

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

2.2 A new definition

The creation of the BIS Craft Skills Advisory Board (CSAB) and the subsequent commissioning of this

research by BIS presented the opportunity to develop a new, broad and all-encompassing definition

of Heritage Craft. As such, in preparation for this research, the CSAB produced an initial definition that

could be used a starting point. This suggested that:

Heritage Craft activity:

• is taken to mean that which involves a high degree of hand skill and produces ‘useful’ objects, rather

than predominately machine-orientated/based activity (although the use of manufacturing-oriented

machinery does not necessarily rule out the inclusion of that type of activity within the project). This

also includes industrial town-based crafts where such hand skill is still a significant factor.

• includes those products associated with material culture through to the production of aesthetic

artefacts (for example, handmade jewellery and textile production), but excludes broader creative

activity such as music, dance and traditional painting.

• produces products that are in demand and in use for today, but the hand skill involved is often of the

traditional or heritage form, or derived from knowledge and application of that form.”

In considering this definition, it was necessary to:

• consider how it might sit within the context of other research on the craft sector, and the definitions

previously used, and

• take into account the views of key stakeholder organisations.

This would allow the drivers of differentiation in a new definition to be evident in comparison to those

used in previous research.

In order to do this, an initial phase of work was carried out separately to this report, to identify common

themes that might support an overarching definition. The research resulted in the publication of

Towards a Definition of Heritage Craft 6 , which provides broad framing and context, from which it is

possible to identify the parameters that define Heritage Craft as it currently exists in England.

Towards a Definition of Heritage Craft provided the following “cues” that were used to inform a

definition used in the mapping research.

The paper recognised that:

Craft practice defies easy categorisation because it ranges from innovative work that is experimental

both in terms of its vision and its use of material, to traditional craft that supports and preserves our

cultural heritage. It covers a spread of material disciplines from textiles to ceramics, woodwork to

jewellery, and a range of products from small, portable items to architectural structures of considerable

scale. It is exemplified by an engagement with material, form and function.”

However, it proposed that the research used a definition of Heritage Craft that broadly incorporated:

“Practices which employ manual dexterity and skill, and an understanding of traditional materials,

designs and techniques to make or repair useful things.”

Reviewing the existing definitions in detail, the paper noted variances, but also identified key elements

that are generally recognised as synonymous with craft making:

“Most craft practice will reflect some, if not all, of the following:

• Understanding of and engagement with materials

• The application of haptic 7 skills and hand-controlled tools

• The honing of skills learned over time

• One-off or relatively small batch rather than mass production

• Maker impact on conception, design and aesthetics of finished product

• Cultural embedding of finished product.”

6 http://creative-blueprint.co.uk/library/item/towards-a-definition-of-heritage-craft1

7 Relating to or based on the sense of touch.


Chapter 2 Defining Heritage Craft

Cheryl Mattey, Tutor, Building Crafts College

Photography by Briony Campbell

20

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Taking these key elements into account, the paper went on to describe a number of spectra within

which individual makers or items of craft can be placed. This enabled the development of a clear set of

guidelines on what constitutes Heritage Craft:

• “The initial focus should be on practice – intangible heritage skills. Product would be a secondary

consideration – however, there must be a product. Within practice, initial categorisation would be by

material used.

• Product could be fixed, portable, newly constructed product, or repair, restoration or conservation of

an existing product. It is most likely to be functional, traditional in design and could be decorative, but

should not be conceptually driven art.

• Whilst Heritage Crafts predominantly produce functional objects, they do include the applied arts

or decorative crafts such as lace making, calligraphy and marquetry – crafts that are concerned with

making functional objects beautiful.

• The level of hand skill and the knowledge of and the depth of engagement with materials is more

important in identifying the boundary between craft and industry than scale of production.

• The context of craft making is important if it is supporting or is practised as part of a heritage

building or environment – whether urban or rural.

• Using the UNESCO categories of intangible heritage and focussing on traditional craftsmanship

would exclude culinary craft, which is defined as social practice.

• All forms of Heritage Craft should be encompassed by the research including the heritage practice of

recent immigrants.”

The paper also noted that, “…Heritage practice can include for profit and for pleasure or voluntary

activity”. However, given the imperative of this study to consider economic impact, “…the former is

more important for the purposes of this research so will be the prime focus of measurement.”

2.2.1 Detailing the constituent parts of the definition

Building on Towards a Definition of Heritage Craft, the next stage was to develop a detailed definition

of the activities to be included. These needed to be both meaningful to the sector and measurable

quantitatively.

In order to satisfy this requirement, the research employs a two-tier definition:

1 A “paper” definition: a listing of the various practices that could be considered to be Heritage Craft,

providing specific detail on the nature of the activities and products/outputs/services. This described

in detail the materials and practices used and the products/services created and/or delivered.

2 A “measured” definition: an aggregation of the detailed paper listing, bringing together practices

into manageable groups of activity in order that they could be measured. With this in mind, whilst

the makeup of the subgroups takes the paper definition as its starting point, the actual definition is

driven by the method. The following chapter of the report goes on to describe the methodology in

more detail.

The remainder of this report focusses on the second of these. However, the full paper definition is

available as an annexe to this document.

In beginning to compile a list of practices, it immediately became clear that, as so many are material

specific, it made sense to use a definition that:

• has a primary type designated by the use of a particular material, or the production of a composite

item

• allocates materials/composites into a series of subgroups, according to the type of item produced or

process undertaken.


Chapter 2 Defining Heritage Craft

Beth Gilmour, Jewellery Designer

Photography by Briony Campbell

22

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

As such, the final definition used by the research was as follows:

Type Group Subgroup

Composite Guns Gunsmithing

Instruments Making and restoring clocks and barometers

Making and restoring musical instruments

Jewellery Jewellery making

Toys & automata Toys & automata

Vehicles Vehicle manufacture and restoration – boat

Vehicle manufacture and restoration – cars

Material Animal Equine leather

Leather clothing and accessories

Leather luggage

Leather preparation

Making, restoring and conserving other leather objects

Taxidermy

Clay Clay construction, building, restoration and conservation

Making, finishing, restoring and conserving clay objects

Tile installation

Tile making

Glass Decoration, e.g. engraving, painting

Glass construction, building, restoration and conservation

Making, fabrication and restoration of glass objects

Stained glass

Metal Architectural metalwork

Blacksmiths and forgers

Decorative and ornamental metalwork

Fabricated metalwork

Farriers

Foundries

Hand tools, e.g. knives, cutlery

Leadwork

Wrought iron

Paint Decoration

Paper Calligraphy and illumination

Papermaking and paper shaping

Printing, pressing and bookbinding

Plaster Plastering

Precious metals Engraving and finishing

Goldsmithing and silversmithing


Chapter 2 Defining Heritage Craft

Type Group Subgroup

Material Stone Bricklaying

Carving and letter cutting

Stonemasonry

Textiles Making, restoring and conserving clothing and accessories

Making, restoring and conserving furnishings

Making, restoring and conserving other textiles, e.g. felt, sails, nets, ropes

Making, restoring and conserving textile products

Spinning, weaving and dyeing

Tailoring and dressmaking

Wood & plant Antique restoration and repair

Basketry

Brooms and brushes

Carpenters and joiners

Furniture and cabinet makers

Furniture and cabinet repair/restoration

Ladder manufacturer

Making and finishing other wooden objects

Picture framing and restoration

Sculptors and wood carvers

Thatching

Woodturning

This means there are 16 groups of materials and composites in the Heritage Craft definition, and 58

subgroups related to individual areas of activity. Taking into account the variation in activities across

the groups, and for the purpose of having a single summary of the definition, the following overarching

statement was developed:

[Heritage Craft includes] practices which employ manual

dexterity and skill and an understanding of traditional

materials, designs and techniques in order to make, repair,

restore or conserve buildings, other structures, modes of

transport, or more general, portable objects.

Each subgroup represents occupations and business activities associated with its description. For

example, an upholsterer would be included in the Making, restoring and conserving furnishings

subgroup, a glass blower would be in the Making, fabrication and restoration of glass objects subgroup

and so on. Further detail on the activities of businesses in each group is available from the survey,

which collected a range of information about the practices and techniques used by the responding

organisations. This is available in the appendix (page 110).

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Metho


Chapter 3 Methodology

dology

26

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Methodology

3 Methodology

As noted in the introduction, a lack of economic data on the Heritage Craft sector presented the need

to conduct this research. The gap in data has been driven by the lack of a clear sector definition (as

discussed in Chapter 2), responsibility for the development and delivery of support for the sector falling

across different organisations and agencies, and the absence of a straightforward way to measure the

footprint of the Heritage Craft sector.

This chapter of the report deals specifically with the last of these challenges and provides an overview

of the methodology developed to map the size of the sector, before moving on to provide details on

the approach taken in other elements of the research – specifically the qualitative consultation and the

supply mapping.

An expanded version of this chapter providing further technical detail on the methodology is available

in the appendix (page 110).

3.1 Mapping the size of the sector

As shown in Chapter 2, Heritage Craft cuts across a number of industries/sectors and is typified by niche,

often small-scale, activity. This presents a number of challenges:

• The standard sources of secondary data 8 used to measure other sectors are not appropriate because

the Standard Industrial Classification/Standard Occupational Classification (SIC/SOC) systems are

not detailed enough. 9

• Many businesses are relatively informal and are combined with their proprietors’ other paid

employment or business activities. As such, they are often overlooked in secondary data sources/

databases.

• The nature of the sector is such that a high proportion of businesses are not visible in official data

sources. For example, they do not pay VAT, or are not PAYE registered.

• While a variety of guilds, livery companies and societies exist, take-up of these is patchy and multiple

memberships are possible and frequent. This means that it is not possible to use membership levels

as an accurate measurement of sector/workforce size.

The complexity of the Heritage Craft footprint also means that these challenges are not consistent

across the board, i.e. not every activity is subject to the same measurement challenges. However, it is

possible to follow a methodology founded on the principle of utilising a number of analytical steps in

order to generate the best estimate of the Heritage Craft population.

8 For example, Annual Business Survey (ABS), Business Register & Employment Survey (BRES), Annual Population Survey (APS), Labour Force Survey

(LFS), the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR).

9 However, it is important to note that this does not mean the SIC/SOCs are of no use – rather that they cannot be used alone.


Chapter 3 Methodology

The method for this research employed six main steps as follows:

1 Creating a master database of Heritage Craft makers, practitioners and businesses using data

available from associations/guilds/membership bodies and online directories.

2 Utilising keyword searches on a business dataset 10 to identify Heritage Craft businesses and their

economic activity.

3 Applying weights to this “known universe” of businesses and makers to scale this up to a population

estimate.

4 Undertaking a survey of 762 Heritage Craft businesses, and then weighting survey results to the

population in order to deliver specific data on the nature of activity, business performance and

needs.

5 SIC-based data (from ONS data sources) to model data on GVA and workforce demographics.

6 Using historic trend data on employment and standard econometric forecasts of anticipated

performance in order to estimate a likely future employment footprint.

It would not be possible to just use the database developed through executing steps 1 and 2 to

complete the analysis because, for some activities, even though businesses can be identified, there

is limited information about exactly what it does. This means there can be a level of uncertainty

regarding the extent to which it is actually engaged in Heritage Craft activity. For example, a business

operating in the Plaster group might simply describe its activity as “plastering services”, which provides

no information as to whether or not the services are relevant to this study. In addition, the database will

not capture “missing” businesses that are not registered with a guild, do not have a web presence or are

not on TBR’s own dataset, Trends Central Resource (TCR).

For these reasons, there was a need to: a) speak to businesses in order to validate whether or not they

are engaged in Heritage Craft activity; and b) estimate the number of missing businesses in order to

create a valid population estimate.

The latter was undertaken using the principles of an approach developed by TBR and applied to its own

dataset to estimate the number of businesses operating across the whole of the UK. The approach

draws on the BIS Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) statistics – the only statistics available that

attempt to cover the whole of the economy. Specific details on this are available in the more detailed

methodology in appendix (page 110).

In order to speak to businesses, a two-stage telephone survey was undertaken with a representative

sample of businesses. The two stages were as follows:

1 A series of questions to validate Heritage Craft activity/relevance to the study. In order to be

considered relevant, a business must be making money from the craft, use hand tools and/or

execute skilled, part-automated processes and create items that are functional, traditional in design

and/or decorative – but are not conceptually driven art. 11

2 For those businesses engaged in Heritage Crafts, a series of questions about the nature of business

activities, employees, markets and revenue, education and training provided/undertaken, and the

future prospects of the business.

In total, 2,478 businesses participated in the survey, with 762 participating in both stages one and two.

10 The dataset used for the research was Trends Central Resource. For more information see http://www.tbr.co.uk/pages/tbr-observatory/tcrdatabase.php

11 The respondent may combine conceptual art with one of the other three activities, but it must not be their sole activity.

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David Allison, Metal Spinner

Photography by Robin Wood/Heritage Crafts Association

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

“ 762 Heritage Craft

businesses were

surveyed during the

data gathering phase

of the research.”


Chapter 3 Methodology

A challenge presented by stage one of the survey was that some businesses might fulfil these criteria,

but still not be truly considered to be Heritage Craft. This was particularly the case in the crafts that are

construction trades, such as carpentry and joinery, plastering, painting, glazing, etc. One argument is

that however these skills are applied, the crafts are fundamentally Heritage. However, because of the

variability in the application of skill, it was decided for the purpose of this research that it was important

to verify the intent of these businesses with regard to Heritage Craft activity, i.e. is some or all of the

business activity specifically Heritage in its intent or application? For this reason, all construction-related

categories were first screened to determine the business intent.

When designing the questionnaire to be used in the survey, the decision was taken not to include

questions on the demographic characteristics of employees (age, gender, ethnicity, skills profile).

Instead, trend data was drawn from the Annual Population Survey (APS) and applied to final population

figures in order to estimate the demographic profile of the workforce.

A similar process was undertaken in order to provide an estimate of GVA. Data from the Annual

Business Survey (ABS) that describes the relationship between turnover and GVA by SIC was used to

calculate for every pound sterling of turnover the pounds sterling that are delivered in GVA. This ratio

was then applied to the turnover data generated from the survey.

It is important to note that in both of these approaches, the figures quoted are not drawn from the APS

or ABS; rather the trends from these data sets are used to model the data gained through the survey.

A list of the best-fit SICs used for the GVA calculation and the workforce demographics is available in

the appendix (chapter 8.5, page 134).

Finally, in order to deliver estimates on future levels of employment, an econometric model was

developed, drawing on historical data on employment change in Heritage Craft businesses between

1999 and 2009.

3.2 Qualitative consultation

Recognising that numbers alone often only tell half a story, the research incorporated a series of 22 indepth

semi-structured interviews with Heritage Craft businesses.

Given the number of different groups and subgroups operating in the sector, it was not possible to

undertake interviews across them all. As such, they were conducted in sets in order to deliver case study

information illustrating the reality of the sector’s ecology and business, and to consider perceptions of

its present and anticipated future prosperity.

Interviews were undertaken in the following groups:

• Stone, which predicted the highest increase in employment.

• Instruments, which predicted the second highest decrease in employment.

• Guns, which has the highest Heritage Craft GVA per head and predicted an increase in employment.

• Wood & plant – one of the largest groups, which predicted a decrease in employment.

The topic guide for the interviews is provided in the appendix (chapter 8.4, page 132).

3.3 Mapping supply

In order to gain an understanding of the training provision offered by or through Heritage Craft guilds,

a content analysis of their websites was undertaken. The content analysis considers the different types

of training and education offered via the website and the level of engagement the guilds have with

training delivery.

To develop an understanding of the supply of formal apprenticeships within the sector, data was

obtained from the National Apprenticeship Service website, using the apprenticeship search engine to

identify Heritage Craft apprenticeships that are currently advertised as vacant. Further data from the

National Apprenticeship Service on the number of people starting and achieving apprenticeships over

the last ten years was obtained from the data.gov.uk website.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Demand for

Heritage

Craft sk lls

and Knowled


ge

Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

32

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Demand for Heritage Craft skills and knowledge

4 Demand for Heritage Craft skills and knowledge

4.1 The size of the sector and its workforce

Overall, the Heritage Craft sector employs a workforce of

209,390 people; this includes all individuals employed in

Heritage Craft businesses regardless of their occupation.

A total of 169,550 (81%) of these employees use Heritage Craft skills and knowledge for the majority

of their working time (Heritage Craft Emp in the table below).

There is a variation across the different craft groups with regard to the proportion of people using

Heritage Craft skills and knowledge. Paint and Plaster groups state that more than 90% of their

workforce use Heritage Craft skills and knowledge intensively, compared to approximately 70% in

Animal and Jewellery. The lowest figure is in Clay, (49%) driven by low levels of employment of Heritage

Craft skills in Clay construction, building, restoration and conservation businesses. In terms of volume,

Paint and Wood & plant have the most Heritage Craft employment (37,210 and 30,710 respectively),

while Jewellery and Toys & automata are the two smallest groups contributing to the total (300 and

210 respectively).

Table 5: Heritage Craft firms and employment

Heritage % Heritage Avg Heritage Craft

Group Firms Total Emp Craft Emp Craft Emp emp per firm*

Paint 21,460 40,990 37,210 91% 1.7

Wood & plant 16,400 34,710 30,710 88% 1.9

Metal 7,140 30,110 23,030 76% 3.2

Textiles 7,970 25,710 20,640 80% 2.6

Clay 4,370 16,550 8,100 49% 1.9

Plaster 11,460 15,600 14,760 95% 1.3

Glass 4,570 9,460 7,230 76% 1.6

Animal 1,030 8,790 6,210 71% 6.0

Stone 2,490 8,470 6,690 79% 2.7

Paper 1,670 7,900 6,160 78% 3.7

Instruments 2,130 3,730 2,910 78% 1.4

Precious metals 1,010 2,560 2,060 80% 2.0

Vehicles 900 2,530 2,010 79% 2.2

Guns 660 1,580 1,320 84% 2.0

Jewellery 120 450 300 67% 2.5

Toys & automata 100 250 210 84% 2.1

Total 83,490 209,390 169,550 81% 2.0

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S2) * Heritage Craft Emp/Firms

The number of people employed in each firm using Heritage Craft skills for the majority of their working

time varies across groups, with businesses in the Animal group tending to employ the most Heritage

Craft workers. Paper, Metal and Stone all also employ an above average number of Heritage Craft

workers. The businesses in Plaster and Instruments tend to have the smallest average employment,

suggesting a high degree of self-employment in these groups, which is explored in Chapter 4.


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

4.1.1 The regional distribution of the workforce

The West Midlands has the highest absolute number of Heritage Craft workers, with 37,220 of the

workforce being employed in this region, followed by the North West with 32,965. There is a significant

gap between these and the next highest employer, Yorkshire and the Humber, with 27,460 employees.

Figure 1: Total employment across the regions

North

West

32,965

North

East

9,925

West

Midlands

37,220

South West

21,010

Yorkshire and

The Humber

27,460

East

Midlands

24,050

South East

25,115

London

13,455

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 and Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W2/S1aR)

East of

England

18,180

34

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Nationally, the Heritage Craft sector accounts for 0.9% of the

total English workforce.

Table 6 considers the distribution of employment across the regions by Heritage Craft groups.

It also shows the proportion of the total workforce in the region that Heritage Craft accounts for.

Nationally, the Heritage Craft sector accounts for 0.9% of the total English workforce. The largest

variation from this is the West Midlands, where 1.6% of the total regional workforce is employed

in Heritage Craft.

Table 6: Regional distribution of workforce

North North Yorks & East West East of South South

Group East West Humber Midlands Midlands England London East West England

Animal 80 985 365 2,995 1,110 760 785 695 1,020 8,790

Clay 995 2,635 2,235 1,405 4,795 745 575 1,405 1,760 16,550

Glass 545 1,170 860 990 1,250 1,210 1,000 1,440 1,000 9,465

Guns 30 235 285 125 300 140 70 225 160 1,580

Instruments 65 280 375 425 330 560 620 780 300 3,735

Jewellery 5 15 55 40 70 20 95 110 40 450

Metal 1,565 4,525 4,170 2,985 7,500 2,700 1,185 2,910 2,575 30,110

Paint 2,135 6,005 5,530 4,610 4,330 4,245 3,575 6,630 3,925 40,985

Paper 195 1,595 945 960 630 955 445 1,405 770 7,895

Plaster 1,205 2,055 1,860 1,655 1,525 2,215 1,290 2,265 1,535 15,595

Precious metals 45 230 285 140 515 245 535 320 245 2,560

Stone 270 1,565 660 945 545 1,635 430 1,590 830 8,470

Textiles 740 6,145 4,645 5,110 2,260 1,500 2,105 1,410 1,790 25,710

Toys & automata 5 60 15 25 20 15 25 45 40 245

Vehicles 95 235 90 385 375 185 125 725 315 2,530

Wood & plant 1,040 5,080 4,855 3,405 3,670 4,010 2,720 5,650 4,280 34,710

Heritage Craft 9,925 32,965 27,460 24,050 37,220 18,180 13,455 25,115 21,010 209,385*

% Distribution 5% 16% 13% 11% 18% 9% 6% 12% 10% 100%

Heritage Craft as

proportion of total

England workforce 12 0.9% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.6% 0.7% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 0.9%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W2/S1aR) * Variance to Table 5 due to rounding

12 Using 2011 data from the Annual Population survey, which puts the England workforce total at 24.1m


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Key features of the regional distribution of employment are:

• Glass tends to be relatively evenly distributed across regions. With the exception of the North

East (which has 545 employees), all other regions range between approximately 900 and 1,500

employees. Although the absolute numbers vary, the same pattern is replicated in Paint, Plaster

and Wood & plant.

• The Animal, Clay and Vehicles groups show the most extreme examples of employees being clustered

in one region, with the East Midlands, West Midlands and South East respectively accounting for a

significant amount of employment for each group.

• The West Midlands is home to some of the highest numbers of employees in four groups: Clay,

Metal, Precious metals and Guns – the latter three groups clearly showing a focus on the availability

of local materials.

• The South East and the North West appear to be strong locations for a number of different groups.

These are often not the most significant in terms of the highest level of absolute employment; rather

the region hosts a large number of employees from across various groups. The North West: Textiles,

Toys & automata, Paper, Stone, Metal and Guns. The South East: Vehicles, Jewellery,

Toys & automata, Instruments, Stone, Paper and Guns.

• There is a cluster of activity in the Instruments group in south eastern England, incorporating

London, the South East and East of England, with half of all employees in the group working

in these three regions.

• The North East and the South West stand out as not hosting a majority of employment in any single

group. The South West is home to the second largest number of employees in the Vehicles group,

but the tendency is more for the region to sustain a relatively similar proportion of employment

across each group. Excluding Vehicles, the range is no more than 5%, from 7% of total employment

in Textiles to 12% in the Animal group. The largest concentration of any group in the North East is

Plaster, with 8% of employment from that group in this region. However, with the exception of Metal,

the North East consistently employs the smallest absolute number of people in each group (London

employs the smallest number in Metal).

• Links to broader industrial concentrations are evident; for example, the higher number of Textiles

employees in the North West, East Midlands and Yorkshire and the Humber, and Metal in the West

Midlands and Yorkshire and the Humber.

36

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Gunsmithing in the West Midlands

The history of the gun trade in Birmingham dates back to the late 16th century. Its

The history of the gun trade in Birmingham dates back to the late 16th century. Its development

was made possible by development its system of turnpikes was made and possible canals, enabling by its system the city of to turnpikes import raw and materials canals, enabling the city

and export small manufactured to import raw goods, materials including and small export arms.

small manufactured goods, including small arms.

Gun manufacture in the West Midlands depended on the coal and iron ore deposits of the

Gun manufacture in the West Midlands depended on the coal and iron ore deposits of the Black Country,

and the conversion of Black watermills Country, (which and had the previously conversion been of used watermills to grind (which corn) to had industrial previously processes. been used to grind

corn) to industrial processes.

Birmingham had already supplied 15,000 swords to the Roundheads during the English

Civil War, and, by the late 17th century, began supplying the British Government

with small arms to use against the French in the War of the League of Augsburg. In the

early 19th century, the city’s gun manufacturing was dominated by the Government

and the East India Company’s procurements for the Napoleonic Wars, when 1.9 million

guns were produced by 125 firms – two-thirds of all the guns used by the British Army.

By the second half of the 18th century, the city was said to be the “foremost arms

producer in the world”. It supplied both the Crimean War and the American Civil War, the

Confederates in particular, when an estimated 800,000 weapons were shipped to the

States. In the 20th century, the government turned to Birmingham for arms manufacture

to support the First World War.

Gun manufacture in the West Midlands has always been collaborative; locks and

components were traditionally subcontracted from Black Country producers. The barrel

makers were located in Aston, Deritend, Smethwick and West Bromwich, where water

powered their boring and grinding machines. Showell’s Dictionary of Birmingham (1885)

lists around 60 specialist trades involved in gun manufacture. 13 In 1851, the trade is said

to have employed 2,867 people, over one-third of the total (7,731) workforce in England

and Wales. By 1868, there were 578 gun firms in the city.

The Proof House, which opened in 1813, was established by Act of Parliament at the

request and expense of the trade itself14 . It independently tests the weapons produced

and ensures their safety and standard of workmanship. It is still used and is one of only

two such proof houses in England. A report of 1883 accounted for over half a million of

barrels being proved annually. 15

Birmingham had already supplied 15,000 swords to the Roundheads during the English Civil War, and, by the late

17th century, began supplying the British Government with small arms to use against the French in the War of the

League of Augsburg. In the early 19th century, the city’s gun manufacturing was dominated by the Government

and the East India Company’s procurements for the Napoleonic Wars, when 1.9 million guns were produced by

125 firms – two-thirds of all the guns used by the British Army. By the second half of the 18th century, the city was

said to be the “foremost arms producer in the world”. It supplied both the Crimean War and the American Civil War,

the Confederates in particular, when an estimated 800,000 weapons were shipped to the States. In the 20th century,

the government turned to Birmingham for arms manufacture to support the First World War.

Gun manufacture in the West Midlands has always been collaborative; locks and components were traditionally

subcontracted from Black Country producers. The barrel makers were located in Aston, Deritend, Smethwick and

West Bromwich, where water powered their boring and grinding machines. Showell’s Dictionary of Birmingham

(1885) lists around 60 specialist trades involved in gun manufacture. 13 In 1851, the trade is said to have employed

2,867 people, over one-third of the total (7,731) workforce in England and Wales. By 1868, there were 578 gun

firms in the city.

The Proof House, which opened in 1813, was established by Act of Parliament at

the request and expense of the trade itself14 . It independently tests the weapons

produced and ensures their safety and standard of workmanship. It is still used and

is one of only two such proof houses in England. A report of 1883 accounted for over

half a million of barrels being proved annually. 15

Birmingham’s Gun Quarter is still associated with the manufacture of firearms. But, due to the UK’s

severely restrictive laws regarding gun ownership, including sporting arms, there is only a small

commercial market for firearms in the UK. According to one gun trade interviewee:

Birmingham’s Gun Quarter is still associated with the manufacture of firearms. But, due

“There are only 12 left to in the UK’s gun quarter. severely When restrictive I joined laws there regarding were 30-40. gun They’ve ownership, all including sporting arms,

died or retired. There’s there only is one only man a small here younger commercial than me; market he works for firearms with his dad.” in the UK. According to one gun

trade interviewee:

This is reinforced by the data later in the report, which shows that 40% of new entrants to the sector are aged 35-49.

“There are only 12 left in the gun quarter. When I joined there were 30-40. They’ve all

The current UK perception died or toward retired. guns There’s is an issue only for one this man group. here In younger 2011, Birmingham than me; he works with his dad.”

sought to rename the Gun Quarter because of its association with firearms and gun crime.

This is reinforced by the data later in the report, which shows that 40% of new entrants to

the sector are aged 35-49.

The current UK perception toward guns is an issue for this group. In 2011, Birmingham

sought to rename the Gun Quarter because of its association with firearms and gun crime.

13 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14472/14472-h/14472-h.htm

14 http://www.gunproof.com/

15 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14472/14472-h/14472-h.htm


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

4.2 The nature of employment and the characteristics of the workforce

4.2.1 Nature of employment

This chapter considers the ways in which businesses operating in the sector manage their workforce,

focussing on the different forms of employment.

78% of the workforce works independently/is self-employed

(i.e. is employed in a firm with only one employee –

themselves). This is a striking comparison to the national

average figure for self-employment, which is 14% of the

workforce in England.

Across the sector, workers tend to be employed in micro-businesses, with 96% of people in firms

with 10 employees or fewer. This figure is driven by the fact that 78% of the workforce works

independently/is self-employed (i.e. is employed in a firm with only one employee – themselves).

This is a striking comparison to the national average figure for self-employment, which is 14% of

the workforce in England 16 .

As might be expected, the proportion of self-employment varies. For example, 94% of those working

mainly in Taxidermy are self-employed, compared to 34% in Leather.

Table 7: Work type and self-employment

Group % of workforce self-employed

Taxidermy 94%

Plaster 91%

Clay 85%

Clocks and barometers 84%

Musical instruments 84%

Paint 84%

Glass 80%

Wood & plant 79%

Heritage Craft average self-employment 78%

Metal 70%

Precious metals 67%

Guns 65%

Textiles 65%

Stone 64%

Boats 61%

Cars 61%

Paper 61%

Toys & automata 60%

Jewellery 43%

Leather 34%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)

16 Annual Population Survey 2011

38

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Figure 2 below presents an overview of the types of employment contract used by businesses across the

sector, specifically for employees who use Heritage Craft skills and knowledge for the majority of their

working time. The majority of the workforce (84%) is employed on a permanent, full-time basis. 17

Figure 2: Breakdown of workforce using Heritage Craft skills and knowledge for majority of working time

by type of employment

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W7/C3)

Part-time permanent 10%

Fixed term staff 2%

Casual staff 3%

Unpaid workers 0.2%

Full-time permanent 85%

Of the remaining 16%, 10.6% of these are also permanently employed with only 5.4% of employees

operating on a non-permanent contract. This pattern is reflected across the total employment footprint

(i.e. all staff regardless of amount of time spent using Heritage Craft skills and knowledge) with minor

differences. 18

Although a small part of the current workforce, the survey also gathered data on the total number of

additional non-permanent workers (fixed-term staff 19 , casual staff 20 and unpaid workers undertaking

any work, not specifically Heritage Craft activity) a business might call upon in a given year. Figure 3

below shows that Heritage Craft businesses call upon an average of 1.3 additional workers (on top of

those currently working with this business) per firm in a given year.

There is very little difference between whether these additional workers would be given a fixed-term

contract or be employed for an undetermined period on a casual basis. However, it is less likely that they

would work on an unpaid basis. As might be anticipated, this varies by group, with Guns being the least

likely to call upon any additional labour, and Vehicles calling upon an average of up to approximately

4.5 additional staff. There is, however, a consistent trend not to use unpaid workers.

17 Self-employed sole traders would be included in this category of permanent employees, but could be employed full or part time in their business.

18 In the total footprint, 86% are permanent full time, 9% permanent part time, 3% fixed term, 2% casual and 0.3% unpaid.

19 For this research, “fixed term” was defined for survey respondents as meaning any employee whose employment has a defined end point.

20 For this research, “casual worker” was defined for survey respondents as meaning any employee whose employment is not formally contracted or

who is on a zero-hours contract.


Heritage Craft

Guns

Instruments

Precious metals

Clay

Textiles

Toys & automata

Metal

Jewellery

Animal

Wood & plant

Glass

Paint

Paper

Stone

Plaster

Vehicles

Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Figure 3: Average number of additional workers per firm, per year

0.03

0.15 0.18

0.09

0.12

0.18

0.45

0.42

0.42

0.46

0.42

0.45

0.63

0.45

0.70

0.83

0.70

0.18

0.40

0.25

0.73

1.50

0.58

0.30

0.16

0.33

0.25

0.43

0.91

1.77

1.06

0.13

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W07/C4)

Scaling these figures up, it is possible that, at any one time, up to 112,530 additional people could be

working in the sector 21 :

• 52,460 people on fixed-term contracts.

• 48,830 people working on a casual basis.

• 11,240 people working on an unpaid basis.

This tendency towards self-employment and somewhat limited used of temporary employment

contracts was reflected in the in-depth interviews where there was a general reluctance to employ

people. Whilst several referred to having employed people in the past, in general, it was unlikely that

they would do so again in the future. This was partly a matter of succession, but costs were also a major

inhibitor – exacerbated by the current state of the economy:

“We used to have eight or nine more people working for us. But the more people we employed, the less

money we had. Other companies have gone [bust] because of all the on-costs…public liability and

vehicle insurance, and the Hire Purchase costs on the van…” – Stone interviewee

“Large jobs need a lot of…work. We can’t take those on the basis of employing a lot of labour and then

sit around, waiting for more work to come in.” – Stone interviewee

It should be noted that both the Guns and Stones trade are predicted to increase employment

(see Table 28), the interviews may point to a more nuanced view that depends on where the business

is based – and, in the case of Stone, the type of business and market.

Where casual employees were used, they tended to be family members. Interviewees were wary of

training the competition by offering temporary employment while they were still active in the business

themselves (which is reflected again later in the report with reference to the legacy of Heritage Craft).

Consequently, the default for many small businesses is to work collaboratively with other businesses,

building a network of other self-employed craftspeople or businesses into a flexible team. However,

whilst the pooling of resources from a group of businesses does make the whole greater than the sum of

its parts, by definition, being a sole trader limits those companies’ capacities. This includes the scale of

work that practitioners can take on and constrains their potential turnovers:

21 These people could be in any role, not necessarily those specifically using Heritage Craft skills and knowledge

0.27

0.56

4.32

Fixed terms

Casual staff

Unpaid workers

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50

40

41


16.0%

14.0%

12.0%

10.0%

8.0%

6.0%

4.0%

2.0%

0.0%

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

“I have six to eight people that I use – a cabinet maker, an enamel dial restorer, a painted dial restorer,

a watch repairer for fine mechanisms, a metal gilder, a bevelled glass maker who bends glass (e.g. for

domes) and a company that does casting work for the antiques trade. I can send off a handle and

they’ll replicate it… They also have a catalogue.” – Clocks/antiques interviewee

“I use subcontractors on larger projects [all Wood & plant]… This all works well as they all have their own

businesses and I don’t get involved in PAYE.” – Wood & plant interviewees

4.2.2 Workforce characteristics

4.2.2.1 Age

As shown in Figure 4 below, the largest age bands in the Heritage Craft sector are 40-44 and 45-49

(approximately 30% employees). Only 10.5% of employees are aged 24 or younger. Comparing this

profile with the average for the total workforce in England highlights this issue of an older workforce.

A greater proportion than average of the Heritage Craft workforce is aged 60+ (11.6% compared to

8.5%) and a smaller proportion is aged below 34 (28.6% compared to 34.8%).

Figure 4: Age of Heritage Craft workforce, compared to national average

0.6%

1.2%

Heritage Craft total

England total workforce

1.9%

2.3%

7.9%

9.0%

9.6%

11.6%

8.5%

10.8%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W2: C4)

10.5%

11.3%

16 to 17 18 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65+

The loss incurred through retirement is not being compensated for by young people entering Heritage

Craft trades at entry level. An upholsterer who was interviewed pointed to the number of his peers who

were disappearing from the business:

“I started in 1995 and at that time there were five pages of upholsterers in Yellow Pages. Now there is

one column. A lot of old boys have retired.”

The general consensus amongst interviewees was that the younger generation seems to have no

interest in Heritage Craft and does not want “to get their hands dirty”. This is put down to various

factors: the absence of practical skills training at school; the fact that the younger generation prefer to

buy new and “don’t value old things, or get things repaired”; a fundamental lack of appeal:

“Young lads aren’t inspired by the romantic aspect of it – getting their hands dirty, or standing at a vice

all day. It doesn’t look sexy to a 16- or 17-year-old.” – Guns interviewee

15.1%

12.9%

13.7%

13.0%

11.0%

11.0%

9.5%

8.5%

7.6%

5.6%

4.1%

2.9%


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

More specifically, it is assumed that the disinclination to enter Heritage Crafts was attributable to the

tension between the desire to earn money and the time necessary to acquire skills, in particularly since

those skills will not necessarily guarantee a substantial income. The lack of status associated with

learning a trade is also considered to be a disincentive.

“…The lads aren’t earning any money when they’re training… They know that they could be earning

more if they were doing painting and plumbing. It’s always been the case, but now that there’s less

employment about, it’s becoming more of an issue.” – Stone interviewee

“Modern apprentices…expect to run before they can walk. In my first year as an apprentice,

I hardly did anything. I was the lowest of the low – then I got trusted to take on some minor things.

Youngsters these days aren’t prepared to work like that – but without it, they won’t get a feeling

for things.” – Stone interviewee

4.2.2.2 Ethnicity

The ethnic diversity of the Heritage Craft sector is limited, with 95% of the workforce being white and

the data showing some Heritage Craft groups only having employees of white ethnicity. 22 The sector

is therefore much less ethnically diverse than the rest of the economy, the average for England’s total

workforce being 90% white.

However, there are groups with a higher degree of ethnicity in their workforce, which include Textiles,

Instruments and Guns. In Textiles, 18% of the workforce is from a Black, Asian or Minority Ethnic

(BAME) background, with Instruments and Guns 14% and 12% respectively.

Table 8: Workforce ethnicity by group

% workforce

Group Total BAME

Textiles 82% 18%

Instruments 86% 14%

Guns 88% 12%

Glass 93% 7%

Animal 94% 6%

Paper 95% 5%

Paint 96% 4%

Wood & plant 96% 4%

Clay 96% 4%

Heritage Craft 95% 5%

Stone 97% 3%

Metal 99% 1%

Vehicles 100% 0%

Precious metals 100% 0%

Jewellery 100% 0%

Plaster 100% 0%

Toys & automata 100% 0%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W2/S5b)

22 It is highly unlikely that the groups showing 0% ethnic minority employees actually do not employ any people from a BAME background.

Rather, the sample size is likely to be so small that the figures have been suppressed by the Office for National Statistics.

42

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Katie Barton, Designer – Maker

Photography by Briony Campbell

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

44

45


100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

4.2.2.3 Gender

The workforce of the Heritage Craft sector is predominantly male: 83% are male and 17% are female.

This is in stark contrast to the gender balance of England’s workforce as a whole, which is 54% male,

46% female. Whilst there are some significant differences in the gender composition of the workforces

in particular groups – for example, in the Jewellery group, 76% of the workforce is female, and in Textiles,

48% – most groups are dominated by male workers. This was very evident from the Guns and Stone indepth

interviewees, in particular where the only women interviewed or referred to were in administration.

Figure 5: Gender composition and work type

2.5%

97.5%

Plaster

4.0%

96.0%

Paint

8.4%

91.6%

Vehicle

Source Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR: W2/C3)

4.2.2.4 Skills profile

8.8%

91.2%

Glass

9.9%

90.1%

Metal

Just under three-quarters of the workforce (71%) have either no qualifications or a highest qualification

up to NQF level 3 (equivalent to A-Level), with 33% of these people being qualified only to level 2.

Following this, 13% of the workforce is qualified to level 5 (equivalent to a bachelors degree).

However, it is interesting to note that a worker is more likely not to have any qualifications than

to have a degree-level qualification.

Table 9: Workforce skills profile

13.8%

86.2%

Stone

17.8%

82.2%

Wood & plant

England total

workforce

Qualification level Heritage Craft Total % distribution % distribution

No Quals 29,695 14% 6%

Up to NQF level 2 68,735 33% 28%

NQF level 3 50,255 24% 21%

NQF level 4 7,160 3% 6%

NQF level 5 20,870 10% 20%

NQF level 6+ 5,220 2% 10%

Other 23,250 11% 2%

Don’t Know 4,200 2% 6%

Total 209,385 100% 100%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W2/S7aR)

21.6%

78.4%

Clay

21.7%

78.3%

Guns

24.4%

75.6%

Paper

27.4%

72.6%

Precious metals

33.6%

66.4%

Animal

36.2%

63.8%

Toys & automata

37.3%

62.7%

Instruments

47.6%

52.4%

Textiles

76.0%

24.0%

Jewellery

17.6%

82.4%

Heritage Craft

Female

Male


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

The skills profile in Heritage Crafts shows a number of differences to the skills profile across the

total workforce in England. Heritage Craft workers are less likely to have a level 6+ (postgraduate)

qualification (2% compared to 10% in England overall). They are also much more likely to have no

qualifications or other qualifications (14% compared to 6%, and 11% compared to 2% respectively).

In-depth interviewees implicitly valued experience above qualifications. Several described coming into

the business because it was a family tradition; one interviewee was the sixth generation of joiners in

his family – something in which he took considerable pride. In general, their training was on the job;

the learning process being about tacit knowledge exchange through showing and doing, rather than

formalised teaching:

“I’ve spent 42 years repairing – that type of business you learn by doing and seeing. I started young with

my father.” – Instruments interviewee

Passing on those skills to the next generation was described in much the same way:

“My son started at 16 as an apprentice and learned the practice as well as theory. You need to be quite

bright to do all the estimates, handle the clients, decide which stone to use, sort out the delivery, carve,

and fix the stone, etc.” – Stone interviewee

Figure 6 shows the distribution of skills across each Craft group, highlighting Toys & automata and Clay

as having particularly different skills profiles. In both groups, the workforce is much more likely to have

a degree-level qualification and much less likely to be qualified only to level 2. Clay is also amongst the

groups with the highest level of workers with no qualifications. At the other end of the scale, Toys &

automata has one of the largest proportions of workers qualified to level 6 or above (postgraduate).

Figure 6: Distribution of skills across the workforce by group

Heritage Craft total 14%

33%

24%

3% 10%

11%

No Quals

Textiles

Plaster

23%

19%

32%

33%

15%

25%

3% 17%

5% 4% 11%

Up to NQF level 2

NQF level 3

NQF level 4

Animal 17%

21%

18% 2% 16%

11% 10% 6% NQF level 5

Clay

Jewellery

16%

16%

17%

16%

49%

2%

31%

9% 10%

15%

18%

NQF level 6+

Other

Don’t Know

Paint 15%

38%

30%

4% 8%

Instruments

Wood & plant

Metal

Paper

Precious Metals

Glass

Guns

Stone

Vehicle

Toys & automata

4%

11%

10%

10%

10%

10%

10%

8%

8%

14%

8%

23%

24%

33%

37%

38%

31%

35%

37%

37%

39%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W2/C6)

32%

32%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

The likelihood is that, in many cases, Figure 6 reflects the availability of training, in which case the high

proportion of many groups with other or no qualifications is perhaps of concern. 23 In the case of Clay,

Textiles, Plaster and Metal, approximately one-third of the workforce falls into this group. Instruments

and Animal also have just over a quarter of the workforce in this group. Textiles has the highest

proportion of workers with no qualifications, accounting for 23% of the workforce.

23 It is also important to note that the skills profile is likely to be somewhat skewed by the pre-existing qualifications of people who enter the sector as

a second career, which in many cases are likely not to be Heritage Craft related.

20%

6%

24%

25%

24%

27%

25%

27%

4%

5%

3%

5%

29%

9%

5%

5%

4%

4%

13%

4%

11%

7%

14%

7%

8%

8%

12%

7%

6%

22%

11%

11%

10%

15%

9%

6%

9%

12%

6%

5%

4%

6%

46

47


Claire Hoppit, Student, Building Crafts College

Photography by Briony Campbell

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Quite apart from whether colleges were offering relevant Heritage Skills training, interviewees expressed

some doubt as to how meaningful the qualifications that they offered were. One interviewee, the

director of a Stone business employing ten people, used training to market his company’s competences:

“We depend on quality, [since] work comes in by word of mouth and repeat business. All the lads do skills

training at NVQ level 2 in façade maintenance, cleaning and repairs. I’ve just done a level 6 myself. This

training is evidence of competence. …I’ve had some doubts about how useful it all is, but it seems to

count in terms of getting Heritage work.”

Aside from a concern about the potential for tokenistic training, a more general criticism from Heritage

Craft practitioners was that the standard of work of young people leaving college is not necessarily

guaranteed. Greater value is placed on experience than certificates:

“I sometimes take students from the college if I think they are up to the work. If they are not of a high

enough standard, they become a liability.” – Wood & plant interviewee

4.3 The economic value of the sector

4.3.1 Economic performance

Total turnover generated by the sector is £10.8 billion, with

£5.5 billion being directly attributable to the Heritage Craft

elements of the businesses.

Total turnover accounts for 0.3% of revenue generated by firms in England. 24 The turnover per firm

generated by Heritage Craft activity is highly variable across the different groups. However, the average

turnover per firm that is directly attributable to Heritage Craft is £65k. It should be noted that this is

£12k below the VAT threshold.

Animal and Paper generate the most Heritage Craft turnover per firm, with both having a high total

turnover and a large percentage directly attributable to Heritage Craft. Toys & automata and Precious

metals have the highest percentage (92% and 87% respectively) of turnover being directly attributable

to Heritage Craft.

Table 10: Turnover across the sector

Turnover Average

directly attributable to % Heritage Heritage Craft

Group Firms Total turnover Heritage Craft activity Craft turnover turnover per firm

Animal 1,030 £482,802,420 £384,436,060 80% £373,240

Paper 1,670 £552,255,170 £458,035,580 83% £274,270

Precious metals 1,010 £190,198,670 £166,028,230 87% £164,380

Metal 7,140 £2,206,303,620 £975,775,090 44% £136,660

Guns 660 £179,944,220 £84,926,720 47% £128,680

Stone 2,490 £646,808,380 £276,531,510 43% £111,060

Textiles 7,970 £1,115,642,080 £855,006,230 77% £107,280

Vehicles 900 £136,672,510 £75,384,960 55% £83,760

Wood & plant 16,400 £1,740,756,980 £1,324,177,450 76% £80,740

Toys & automata 100 £8,566,490 £7,896,780 92% £78,970

Glass 4,570 £613,829,890 £263,537,840 43% £57,670

Jewellery 120 £13,395,770 £5,896,320 44% £49,140

Instruments 2,130 £127,567,530 £82,395,790 65% £38,680

Clay 4,370 £1,178,538,050 £137,412,340 12% £31,440

Plaster 11,460 £541,239,890 £166,740,390 31% £14,550

Paint 21,460 £1,112,008,010 £217,082,530 20% £10,120

Total 83,490 £10,846,529,670 £5,481,263,810 51% £65,650

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S3)

24 Using 2011 data from the Inter-Departmental Business Register, which puts total turnover in England at £3.9 trillion

48

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Interviewees across the board tended to present themselves as having a vocation, rather than being

financially motivated. They prized personal satisfaction and regarded financial targets pragmatically –

needing to make enough to live on:

“I’ve never earned much. I’m 51 now and last year I had a profit of £16,000 – paltry for someone of my

age. I’ve become accustomed to the price we get for our services.” – Guns interviewee

“I don’t have any financial targets [for the business] as such. Any financial targets that I do have are

about a better standard of life than my [state] pension would allow for.” – Guns interviewee

On reflection, some thought that they could have earned more, but were insecure about the effect of

raising their prices. Others recognised the limitations to their potential to earn:

“Within the hand crafts, there is relatively little money to be made. Working by hand requires a high

input of time. There’s a limit to what you can charge per hour. It doesn’t matter how many hours you

put in – you only generate money when you’re making something. So different years’ incomes vary:

you might take a week off, be ill, or things might just go badly. The same is true of all hand workers.”

– Guns interviewee

The combination of Heritage Craft work with other activities is common. In no single group does

100% of turnover come from Heritage Craft activity. This is not to say that no single business takes

100% of turnover from Heritage Craft activity, rather that this is rare. This was reflected in the indepth

interviews. At one end of the scale, Heritage Craft was a minority interest for one stonemason’s

business, accounting for only 15-20% of their turnover. At the other end of the scale, a gunmaker

described his work as entirely based around Heritage Craft skills.

There are a few sectors where in excess of 80% of turnover comes directly from Heritage Craft. For example,

in Toys & automata, whilst there are only a small number of businesses, these tend to focus almost

exclusively on Heritage Craft. This is similarly the case in Precious metals, Paper, Animal and, to a certain

extent, Wood & plant and Textiles. Correlating with this, these groups also have amongst the highest

proportions of employees using Heritage Craft skills and knowledge for the majority of their working time.

With this in mind, one might expect that as the proportion of turnover generated from Heritage Craft

activity reduces, so too does the proportion of the workforce that uses their Heritage Craft skills and

knowledge for the majority of their working time. However, as shown in Figure 7 opposite, this is not

necessarily the case.

In fact, the proportion of workers using Heritage Craft skills for the majority of the time they are working

is far greater in many groups than the proportion of turnover that is generated from Heritage Craftspecific

work. This could suggest that the value of Heritage Craft-specific business is low compared to

the amount of human resource required to deliver it, i.e. it takes a large number of workers to deliver a

relatively low-value project/contract. Or, as is the case with the clock interviewees in the Instruments

group, repair and restoration work is both labour intensive and slow relative to the money to be made,

which is why they combine repair with retail.

“People are not willing to pay a fair rate for the job… They don’t realise how many man hours are

involved… I give people an estimate and they are shocked… [This is a] disposable society.”

“As repair work is slow to carry out, I am not taking any more work till February/March 2013. However,

retail is key for income and I need more retail.”

Workers are also likely to be using their Heritage Craft skills and knowledge on a much wider range of

work, beyond the scope of what is considered a Heritage Craft project/contract. For example, Paint

and Plaster show the most extreme gaps between percentage Heritage Craft turnover and percentage

Heritage Craft employment, and these groups are perhaps the most pertinent to fall into the category

of having fundamentally “Heritage” skills, regardless of the nature of the contract in which they are

applied. As such, whilst employees might be using Heritage Skills for the majority of their time, they may

not be working on what is considered to be a Heritage contract.


% Heritage

Craft Turnover

% Heritage

Craft Employment

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Figure 7: Comparison of % Heritage Craft turnover and % Heritage Craft employees

92%

Toys & automata

84%

87%

Precious metals

80%

83%

Paper

78%

80%

Animal

71%

77%

80%

Textiles

76%

Wood & plant

88%

Instruments

Vehicles

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/C3)

Whether large numbers of workers are used to deliver relatively low-value projects/contracts) can be

explored by considering GVA – a measure of the value generated once the cost of creating/delivering

goods and services has been accounted for.

Across the sector as a whole, GVA is £4.4 billion, with £2.2 billion (50%) of this being directly

attributable to the Heritage Craft activities of businesses. Total Heritage Craft GVA accounts for 0.6%

of GVA generated by businesses across England. 25 Overall, Wood & plant has the highest Heritage

Craft GVA (£519m) and has a high proportion of its total GVA as Heritage Craft GVA (76%). Jewellery

has the lowest Heritage Craft GVA (£2.3m) and also a relatively low proportion of the total GVA being

attributable to Heritage Craft activity (44%).

Across the sector as a whole, GVA is £4.4 billion,

with £2.2 billion (50%) of this being directly attributable

to the Heritage Craft activities of businesses.

GVA per head is more useful than total GVA when considering the relative value of goods and services

across the sector, providing a view on the productivity of the workforce in each group. The higher the

GVA per head, the fewer workers it is taking to deliver the value generated. The lower the GVA, the more

workers it is taking to deliver the value the business is creating. GVA per head delivered by Heritage

Craft employees working in the Heritage Craft aspects of the business is highly variable, ranging from

£2.8k in Paint to £32k in Guns. The average for Heritage Craft employees is £12.8k. This compares to an

average GVA per head in England of £30.9k.

Guns, Precious metals and Paper deliver the highest levels of GVA per head of the workforce,

demonstrating that employers in this group are able to generate the most value from their Heritage

Craft skills and knowledge.

25 Using 2011 data from the Annual Business Survey, which puts GVA in England at £7.4 trillion

65%

78%

55%

79%

47%

Guns

84%

44%

Jewellery

67%

44%

Metal

76%

43%

Glass

76%

43%

Stone

79%

31%

Plaster

95%

20%

Paint

91%

12%

Clay

49%

51%

Heritage Craft Total

81%

50

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Value in gunsmithing

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Table 11: Gross value added across the sector

Average

Heritage Heritage % Heritage Heritage Craft

Group Craft Emp Total GVA Craft GVA Craft GVA GVA per head

Wood & plant 30,710 £680,846,020 £519,110,600 76% £16,900

Metal 23,030 £785,541,350 £368,842,500 47% £16,020

Textiles 20,640 £408,957,460 £313,009,540 77% £15,170

Paper 6,160 £219,621,480 £190,720,090 87% £30,950

Animal 6,210 £151,797,360 £124,787,140 82% £20,090

Stone 6,690 £256,200,660 £109,384,770 43% £16,350

Paint 37,210 £546,847,780 £106,753,820 20% £2,870

Glass 7,230 £264,022,380 £104,345,500 40% £14,440

Plaster 14,760 £307,619,520 £94,768,700 31% £6,420

Precious metals 2,060 £73,201,760 £63,888,010 87% £30,960

Clay 8,100 £467,757,850 £55,692,220 12% £6,870

Guns 1,320 £89,536,930 £42,257,970 47% £32,000

Instruments 2,910 £59,777,320 £38,413,340 64% £13,190

Vehicles 2,010 £58,304,970 £32,659,030 56% £16,250

Toys & automata 210 £4,211,850 £3,882,570 92% £18,460

Jewellery 300 £5,437,890 £2,393,560 44% £7,990

Total 169,550 £4,379,682,590 £2,170,909,350 50% £12,800

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S4

Birmingham’s gun trade has always depended on overseas sales. This may be truer now than it has

ever been. Our research reveals that guns deliver the highest GVA per head of all the Heritage Crafts

surveyed and also having one of the highest rates of international exports. Interviewees described

relying on the export market for European luxury items, which includes cars and handmade guns in

particular. Hotspots were identified as the Middle East, China and India.

“These days guns are very expensive – they take hundreds of hours to build. Therefore they can be seen as

elitist. The trade tends to keep quiet about that. We don’t talk about exports much either. I only survive by

working for the US.

I’d only be able to scratch a living working for the UK market. The US has a different view of guns.

It’s perfectly OK to collect firearms. Some of the collectors are very wealthy and they can afford what

we make. Often they’re never even shot.”

It appears that the increased rarity of hand-carved wood stocks is also reinforcing

gunsmithing’s position within an already niche market. The value attributed to

these goods is synonymous with their being collectables:

“… As the market becomes more computerised and synthetic stocks proliferate…top range guns will

be [made] of real wood, which will increase in value.”

“…They’re perceived as a piece of fine art – they represent what can be achieved by hand… The kind

of thing that you’ll find in royal collections... We go for the best quality to be found in the market.”


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

The worth of these items is associated with a high level of craftsmanship and the investment of time:

“We’re paid enough to produce things that take time... It’s partly a function of the number

of hours you devote – you’ll be trying to reach as near to perfection as possible”.

One of our interviewees, a gunmaker with overseas clientele, was fortunate to have secured enough work to cover

the next two to three years:

“I could take on more, but I cherry pick what I want to do… I go for the more prestigious commissions

and those that motivate me. I tend to leave the more mundane stuff. I look to do work that’s unusual or

to build guns that haven’t been made for a couple of generations…”

In terms of this market, it could be argued that the gun trade punches way above its weight in

terms of generating value:

“How many other self-employed people bring the sort of currency into the country that we do? I’m talking about

new money. One customer alone has deposited £1.5m with me over the past decade. Sadly, it hasn’t all gone to me,

but my outworkers have been able to pay off their mortgages, sort out their kids, etc. on the back of the US trade

that we’ve attracted”.

Other interviewees described a more modest but nonetheless buoyant market at home. In stark contrast to the

luxury export market described above, the British gun market appears somewhat prosaic. Guns are said to be

regarded as tools or “as a form of sporting equipment – like golf clubs”. Interviewees’ turnovers appeared to be

based on the value of repair work. The fact that this has not dropped off was credited to the state of the economy:

“Like shoes, repair work has gone up. People are getting old ones repaired; they’re less likely to change guns in

this financial climate”.

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53


100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Toys & automata

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Returning to the question of whether, in some groups, it takes a large number of workers to deliver

relatively low-value projects/contracts, this can be explored through examining whether groups with a

high degree of Heritage Craft employment but a low proportion of Heritage Craft turnover also have

low GVA per head.

Figure 8 below replicates the previous chart (Figure 7), but includes a line on a secondary axis to

show GVA per head across the sector. Whilst there are some exceptions, most notably Guns, there is a

perceptible downward trend in the GVA per head figures as the proportion of Heritage Craft turnover

drops and is not matched by a drop in employment.

Figure 8: GVA per head compared to turnover and employment

Precious metals

% Heritage Craft Turnover % Heritage Craft Employment Heritage Craft GVA per head

Paper

Animal

Textiles

Wood & plant

Instruments

Vehicles

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/C4)78888U

If all of these people are employed to deliver Heritage Craft work, then this would indeed suggest

that, in some groups, a large number of workers are delivering relatively low-value projects/contracts.

However, an important caveat to this analysis is that the Heritage Craft GVA per head is based on the

assumption that Heritage Craft employees (i.e. those spending the majority of their working time using

Heritage Craft skills and knowledge) deliver Heritage Craft GVA (i.e. GVA produced specifically from

Heritage Craft activity). It may well be the case that not all such employees are always engaged in such

projects, in which case the GVA per head figures would rise. Conversely, they might also drop further if

non-Heritage Craft workers were also engaged in Heritage Craft projects.

An important consideration here is also the evidence from the interviews that, in some groups,

customers often do not recognise the value of Heritage Craft skill in monetary terms, which naturally

drives down the value of projects/contracts:

“Customers are not so interested in restoring old furniture and prefer to buy new from IKEA. There’s

a perception that old furniture isn’t good, and people are less likely to commission as well. Restoration

is labour intensive and involves a lot of hand skill, and people don’t want to pay. I can remember

people would pay to have a carver chair copied to make up a set. People don’t have the money now.

The removals side does sustain the restoration. At our peak, we had about eight people employed.”

– Wood & plant interviewee

Guns

Jewellery

Metal

Glass

Stone

Plaster

Paint

Clay

£35,000

£30,000

£25,000

£20,000

£15,000

£10,000

£5,000

£0


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Photography by Briony Campbell

54

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

4.3.2 Selling and markets

Across the sector there are four key activities that businesses engage in to generate revenue:

• Making/reproducing things: where a new object or structure is created.

• Repairing/maintaining things: where repairing/maintaining means fixing an item in order

to make it functional again, not specifically taking into account the original design and using

modern materials alongside original materials.

• Restoring things: where restoring means returning something to a functional state,

specifically taking into account the original design and using original materials.

• Conserving things: where conserving means maintaining something to secure its survival,

countering deterioration, and preserving the object/building/structure’s history and value

to the greatest extent possible.

Businesses may do one, some, or all of the above. Table 12 below shows that approximately threequarters

of businesses provide goods/services that involve repairing/maintaining or restoring things,

and half of businesses make/reproduce or conserve things. However, this profile of activity changes

considerably when businesses are asked to specify the main activity undertaken. This brings making/

reproducing and repairing/maintaining to the top of the list.

Table 12: Activities undertaken by businesses

% undertaking % stating

Activity activity main activity

Making/reproducing 56% 38%

Repairing/maintaining 76% 35%

Restoring 71% 25%

Conserving 56% 1%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S5)

Only 1% of the sector undertakes conservation as its main activity. Taxidermists are most likely to be

conserving something (16% identified conservation as their main activity), followed by businesses

working with paper (6%) and guns (3%).

In terms of reaching the market, the majority of the Heritage

Craft sector sells its products/services via word of mouth (73%),

which 65% of businesses regard as the most important route

in terms of the total value of sales.

This was echoed in a general consensus across in-depth interviewees; word of mouth is crucial for

attracting business. Some had tried advertising but found it expensive and some had stopped once

they had built up their client list. Other sales techniques mentioned included “good connections in

the industry” (a form of word of mouth) and websites.

Whilst word of mouth was recognised as being “slower” and conceivably “unbusinesslike” in that

“there’s no planning; I just muddle through”, generating “return business and existing customers

recommending me” was the dominant ethos. This was exemplified by one Wood & plant interviewee

for whom “the balance between new and repeat business is 50:50”. The implication of interviewees’

dependency on word of mouth is that quality is essential. In effect, you are only as good as your last job.


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Table 13: Selling methods

% rating

as most

important in

terms of total

Methods of selling % using method* value of sales†

Word of mouth 73% 65%

Advertising through a directory 30% 4%

Online through own website 22% 4%

Advertising in printed press 13% 5%

Commissions from businesses/institutions 10% 7%

Direct to public 9% 4%

Online through a third party website 6% 3%

Through craft retailers/shops 4% 2%

Other 4% 1%

Through galleries or exhibitions 2% 0.5%

Commissions from general public 2% 1%

Advertising through a trade association/guild 2% 0.2%

Leaflets and other direct marketing 2% 1%

Repeat business 2% 1%

Through craft fairs 1% 0.4%

Direct to retailers who sell to the public on my behalf 1% 0.5%

Through others in supply chain 1% 0.4%

Through an agent 0.2% 0.2%

Trade fairs 0.2% 0.1%

Direct to businesses 0.2% 0.1%

Through street markets 0.2% 0.01%

Specific sales team 0.2% 0.2%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S5)

* Total exceeds 100% as more than one method could be selected

† Sums to 100%, respondent required to select single most important in last year

The next two main methods used were advertising through a directory (30%) or online through own

website (22%). However, these were rarely viewed as the most important methods for contributing

to the total value of sales (4% each). There were a few exceptions to this amongst the interviewees.

In one instance, a clock and antique restorer was attracting international customers through their

website, which accounted for about a third of the business overall. The Wood & plant interviewee

quoted below had been in business for a year and had a very focussed approach to using the web

to generate business.

“I don’t pay for advertising. I have my own website and am on at least two dozen free directories.

I’ve worked at that. The majority of business has come through the website – say around 70%

– though it can be difficult to know whether people have come to my website from the directories’

web links.”

The extent to which word of mouth is used does vary by group, but remains dominant across the sector.

As shown in Table 14 below, the figure ranges from 51% in Textiles to 98% in Musical instruments. In

general, the top three selling methods across the sector (word of mouth, advertising through a directory

and online sales through the businesses’ own websites) are reflected at a group level. However, there are

some exceptions to this; the shaded cells in the table denote that craft retailers/shops and craft fairs are

more frequently noted as routes to market in Jewellery, Toys & automata, Clay, Leather and Precious metals.

56

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Method of selling

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Table 14: Selling methods by group

Heritage

Craft

Boats

Cars

Guns

Clocks &

barometers

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S1a) * = figure less than 0%, but not 0

NB: Totals exceed 100% as more than one method could be selected.

Jewellery

Musical

instruments

Toys &

automata

Word of mouth 73% 88% 79% 79% 69% 63% 98% 66% 69% 85% 65% 49% 78% 82% 88% 89% 51% 72% 77% 66%

Advertising through

a directory

Taxidermy

Clay

30% 12% 13% 71% 12% 47% 5% 16% 9% 28% 2% 36% 25% 1% 37% 24% 35% 24% 48%

Online through own website 22% 52% 32% 7% 33% 27% 41% 11% 6% 18% 44% 45% 40% 35% 17% 30% 26% 27% 5% 14%

Advertising in printed press 13% 3% 22% 4% 5% 1% * 8% 1% 3% 5% 1% 8% 23% 35%

Commissions from

businesses/institutions

10% 2% 2% 6% 11% 16% 1% 21% 6% 14% 5% 3% 8% 2% 7% 23%

Direct to public 9% 6% 4% 26% 17% 12% 23% 7% 16% 5% 18% 18% 11% 3% 11% 20% 15% 8% 12%

Online through a

third party website

6% 13% 1% 12% 5% 1% 17% 1% 23% 7% 3% 2% 4% 11%

Other 4% 13% 12% 1% 2% 1% 1% 13% 2% 1% 1% 11% 11% 1% * 12%

Through craft retailers/shops 4% 4% 33% 71% 15% 3% 15% * 71% 2% 7% 5%

Leaflets and other direct

marketing

2% 5% 4% 1% 1% 1% 3% 4% 2%

Repeat business 2% 9% 12% 11% 1% 1% 9% 1% 1% 1% 5% *

Advertising through a

trade association/guild

2% 6% 4% 9% 4% 13% 5% * 3% 3% 2% 28% 4% 2% 2%

Through galleries

or exhibitions

2% 5% 8% 1% 22% 5% 10% 6% 14% 3% 3% 1% 1% 2%

Commissions from

general public

2% 8% 5% 31% 1% 11% 2% 6% 2% 3% * 6% 1%

Through others

in supply chain

1% 2% 1% * 1% 1% 3% 9% 2%

Direct to retailers who sell

to the public on my behalf

1% 27% * 2% 5% 1% 3% 1% 5% 1%

Through craft fairs 1% 33% 71% 5% 1% 19% 1% 3% 1% 4% 1%

Specific sales team * 1% * * 1% * 1% 1% * *

Direct to businesses * 1% * 1% * 1%

Through street markets * 1% 1% *

Trade fairs * 6% 3% * 2%

Through an agent * 1% 3% * 3% 1%

Table 15 considers the same list of selling methods, but shows which have been most important in each

group in terms of the value of sales. Again, the shaded cells show the top three methods in each group.

Whilst word of mouth remains the top method, the broader distribution of shaded cells shows that

there are key differences in each group in terms of routes to market that return the most sales.

Glass

Leather

Metal

Paper

Precious

metals

Stone

Textiles

Wood &

plant

Paint

Plaster


Method most valuable

in terms of sales

Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Table 15: Selling methods most valuable in terms of value of sales by group

Heritage

Craft

Boats

Cars

Guns

Clocks &

barometers

Jewellery

Musical

instruments

Toys &

automata

Word of mouth 66% 87% 73% 74% 55% 30% 64% 69% 82% 64% 27% 50% 80% 80% 82% 47% 59% 77% 65%

Commissions from

businesses/institutions

7% 2% 2% 5% 16% * 2% 5% 5% 3% 3% 2% 1% 2% 21%

Advertising in printed press 5% 9% 5% 2% 1% 1% 1% 8% 2% 23%

Advertising through

a directory

4% 4% 16% 2% 5% 7% 1% 6% 1% 11% 7% 1%

Direct to public 4% 7% 3% 6% 1% 2% 3% 12% 8% 4% 5% 11% 6%

Online through own website 4% 5% 12% 3% 12% 23% 5% 4% 9% 9% 15% 7% 4% 3% 6% 3%

Online through a

third party website

3% 1% * 1% 6% 3% * 2% 11%

Through craft retailers/shops 2% 1% 27% 5% 6% 1% 7% * 5% 4% 5%

Commissions

from general public

1% 16% 10% 2% 1% 3% *

Leaflets and other

direct marketing

1% 1% 1% 2% 4%

Other 1% 3% 1% 2% * 2% 1% 1% 1% 11% *

Repeat business 1% 12% 11% 1% 1% 5% 1% 1% * 2% *

Advertising through a

trade association/guild

* 1% 1% 1% 1%

Direct to businesses * 1% * 1% * *

Direct to retailers who sell

to the public on my behalf

* * 5% 1% 1% 1% 1%

Specific sales team * 1% * * * 1% 1% * *

Through an agent * 1% 3% * 3% *

Through craft fairs * 21% 71% 1% 11% 1% 1% *

Through galleries

or exhibitions

* 5% 8% 10% 5% 14% *

Through others

in supply chain

* 2% 1% * 1% 2% 2%

Through street markets * *

Trade fairs * 6% * 1%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S1a) * = figure less than 0%, but not 0

NB: Total sums to 100%, respondent required to select single most important in last year

Taxidermy

Clay

The reliance on word of mouth as the most important method of generating income is reflected in the

data on location of customers: the sector is highly dependent on locally-based customers for generating

income; an average of 67% of income across the sector is generated from customers based in the local

area. However, this is highly variable by group.

As shown in Figure 9 below, there is a trend for limited exporting across most groups, with a small

number of exceptions. Paper and Toys & automata generate the most income from international

clients, perhaps a reflection of the nature of the goods being sold and relative ease of distribution. Guns,

Boats and Cars are the next most likely to export; Guns specifically are the most likely to sell outside of

Europe. Given the complexities associated with the shipment of these items, one must assume that this

level of income generation is driven by a niche market in the UK for these groups.

As previously noted, Guns interviewees suggested that the main market for gunmaking is in the US, that

the Middle East has been buoyant, and that China and India were both good markets for European

luxury items. In stark comparison, the market for repairs is UK based.

Glass

Leather

Metal

Paper

Precious

metals

Stone

Textiles

Wood &

plant

Paint

Plaster

58

59


Heritage Craft average

Paper

Boats

Taxidermy

Guns

Leather

Jewellery

Toys & automata

Clay

Cars

Stone

Wood & plant

Glass

Textiles

Precious metals

Metal

Paint

Plaster

Musical instruments

Clocks or barometers

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Figure 9: Proportion of income by location of customers and group

20.7

29.0

32.1

66.6

20.8

23.7

43.1

43.3

44.5

44.8

49.8

50.7

57.8

60.3

64.0

66.8

70.8

74.3

74.5

75.7

76.9

81.4

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/C3)

33.8

19.2

16.2

15.4

16.9

5.3

14.6

16.5

10.5

37.0

9.0

28.1

27.3

10.0

30.8

37.1

5.3

27.1

42.8

6.0 5.2

19.0

5.3

35.3

6.8

25.2

13.8

18.8

15.1

11.1

19.3

13.7

11.5

15.7

8.1

2.4

22.7

19.8

4.5

13.9 6.6

9.0 7.1

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

The variation in propensity to sell to clients based elsewhere in the UK, or even outside of the local

area but within the region, is also interesting. But again, this, to some extent, reflects the nature of the

activity group. Taking Instruments as an example (although these patterns are likely to be reflected

across a number of groups), in chapter 4.1.1, Table 6 showed a relatively even distribution of employees

in each region (with fewer in the North East). This, alongside the fact that such a large proportion of

business is done within the local area and surrounding region, suggests that businesses are likely to

have a base from which they operate; a workshop, perhaps, which contains all of the tools/equipment

they need – and customers living in the area come to them. The even distribution of such businesses

across the UK means that, generally, customers do not need to seek such an organisation outside of

their home region, but on occasion do – perhaps for very specialist requirements, hence 10% of revenue

from customers located elsewhere in the UK or internationally. For a Musical instrument interviewee,

business from outside the area reflects a decline in the number of workshops:

“There are fewer and fewer piano shops and workshops around, and recent customers have come from

Cardiff, Leamington, London, Worcester and Yorkshire. For the costs of repairing an instrument to a

good standard you can now buy a reasonable piano, so people are only getting the top makes restored

now – Steinway, Bechstein and Bluthner – or if it is a prized instrument. We recently restored an obscure

German make that was a treasured family piano. Most of our business comes through recommendation

or the internet.”

For a Clocks/Antiques interviewee, the web is bringing business from beyond the local area:

“Five years ago, people used Yellow Pages. Now it is the web

and I would say a third to half my business comes from the

web. Clients come from all over Greater Lancashire, some

from the rest of England, Scotland, America and New Zealand.

The website is key, and if an item is small enough to post,

people will send it.”

21.5

45.2

Local area

This region

Rest of UK

Rest of Europe

Rest of world


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

The use of digital technology in Heritage Craft

Although it might seem a contradiction, the research investigated the role that digital

technology might play in Heritage Craft – both in terms of the management of Heritage

Craft businesses and in the execution of Heritage Crafts themselves. The interviewees

provided evidence that a wide range of views exists as to the use and value of digital

technology even in the context of skills that have been honed over a long period of time.

“ I believe in technology...and while carpentry skills have been around for thousands of years

and are tried and tested, it’s also good to embrace the new.” – Wood & plant interviewee

A number of interviewees did not use technology: they were not attracted to the idea, felt that

they had neither the skills nor time to invest in it, and doubted that it would benefit the business:

“I have a computer but there’s no need for it [in the business] and I have no abiding interest in

using it. The paperwork’s very simple. I use a duplication book for invoices. My friends have found

using a computer less than reliable.” – Guns interviewee

Predictably, business administration is a common use of the technology. Interviewees reported using

computers for organising their finances, ordering materials, and for correspondence, in particular – sending

photographs of work, showing progress on restoration to clients – as well as undertaking research.

“Digital photography has made work easier and quicker. You can show work in progress… and can go out [to a

prospective client] and send back an image to the workshop for comment.” – Musical instrument interviewee

Marketing and selling is the most common use of technology. The survey for this research identified that 22% businesses

sell online through their own website and that 6% sell through a third-party website. For all Heritage Crafts, apart from

Guns, selling online is one of the top three retail methods. However, online sales are only rated as producing 7% of sales

values (4% own website, 3% third party).

“I recently re-did my website and have got it working more efficiently [using search engine optimisation]. This has brought

in work about every two months. I suspect the cost of setting it up isn’t justified by the return. But, the new website [gives

me] a higher profile and I’ve learnt a lot from the new people who are hosting it.” – Wood & plant interviewee

A few interviewees described using digital technology for production, where this saved time, money and, in one

instance, for the refurbishment of a musical instrument:

“The production of these guns hasn’t changed in 100 years – that’s part of the attraction. But [digital technology]

is something that we use on an outsourcing basis, when parts are machined. CNC [computer numerical control]

machining takes the hard graft out of what would take hours to do by hand.” – Guns interviewee

“Digital sound – [if] you can have an attractive old piano case with a mechanism that either can’t be

restored or isn’t economic to restore, we can convert it into a digital piano. I’m thinking about having

one of the technicians doing more on digital electronics.” – Musical instrument interviewee

Interviewees’ future plans for using digital technology tended to be conservative. Most people were satisfied

with their current uses of it. However, a few envisaged developing their websites and their use of social media.

“I know people who’ve developed sites and can use them for current projects and highlighting work in real time.”

– Wood & plant interviewee

With a few exceptions, most interviewees had no plans to develop their digital skills, and felt that

they had the basics for their business administration and website needs.

“I’ve been looking at my training needs and have looked at a six-week business development

course... The modules include IT… It’s not so much about a return on the money, but being able

to do something better. Instead of spending three hours on the computer, I could spend one hour

and have more leisure time.” – Wood & plant interviewee

As one can see from the above examples, while it is possible that the limited use of digital technology and limited

ambition to develop its use may reflect the predominantly older profile of the workforce and the importance of

word-of-mouth selling, there is scope for more businesses to effectively use digital technology.

60

61


Bartholomew Harris, Carpenter

Photography by Briony Campbell

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Figure 10 below considers the location of customers according to the main activity of the business.

Those who are conserving or restoring things as a main activity are far more likely to generate revenue

from customers based outside of the local area than those who are repairing/maintaining things. This

may reflect an implicit difference in the nature of the activity and the availability of the different skills

required for repair and maintenance versus restoration and/or conservation. The fact that almost 90%

of revenue comes from local customers in the repairing group suggests that customers do not need to

look much further than the immediate local area to find someone able to repair their item/building/

structure. However, the fact that restoration and conservation businesses generate just over half of

their income from customers based outside the local area suggests that people must look further afield

for specialist skills. This is reflected in the fact that so few organisations specialise in conservation, and

relatively few in restoration (see Table 12, page 56).

Figure 10: Proportion of income by location of customers and main activity

3.4

7.7

88.7

21.4

59.0

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/C1)

4.3.3 Driving economic performance

1.5 2.8 1.4

10.5

1.4

17.1

16.5

33.1

14.3

48.4

Repairing/maintaining Making/reproducing Restoring Conserving Heritage Craft average

One of the aims of the in-depth interviews was to gain insight from businesses on the approach to

driving the performance of the business through planning and setting financial targets and defining

measures of success and quality.

In the main, interviewees’ approach to business planning was non-existent or variable. However, it is

noticeable that where businesses have, or have had, employees, the approach is more systematic.

Most businesses do not have financial targets, but are conscious of cash flow. This partly reflects the

fact that the majority of interviewees were self-employed and wanted to remain in business but had no

desire to expand the business. Consequently, their approaches to planning tended to be linked to the

size and scale of what was feasible within those constraints:

“I do cash forecasting. As a small business, this can be in my head. You do need to keep an eye on things.

For example, if I have a big job coming up that needs 30 metres of fabric, have I got enough cash to

pay for it?” – Wood & plant interviewee

However, the current financial climate is making planning more difficult. Interviewees across the board

implied that neither current estimates nor the use of previous financial performance information were

necessarily helpful:

“I keep quarterly retail figures and have three years’ worth as an indication of what is happening. Going

forward, I have no idea as previous patterns have changed. Friday and Saturday used to be busy, but

no longer. It’s impossible to say how things will pan out at the moment and so planning is more difficult

because of these variations. The quarterly pattern has changed altogether.” – Clocks/antiques interviewee

28.4

14.8

45.0

14.6

66.6

Rest of world

Rest of Europe

Rest of UK

This region

Local area

62

63


Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

In terms of measuring business success, interviewees noted three particular factors which they

identifi ed with success:

1 Pride and self-respect in your work: “I get a great deal of satisfaction out of doing it and knowing

that I can provide people with what they want. [I also get satisfaction from:] [knowing] when

there’s enough work for the next year; having good publicity; and just being there – being able

to do what I do to earn a living.” – Guns interviewee

2 Making money to run the business, live comfortably and stay out of debt. Success is: “…Getting paid

(truly, it’s diffi cult when builders rip you off), being associated with quality, not having an overdraft,

knowing that you’ve done a good job and that your repair is going to last at least 100 years,

receiving awards and having a good share of the market.” – Stone interviewee

3 Customer and client satisfaction: “[Success is having a] good reputation. People have something

that’ll last a long time. We also have a very important role/responsibility if someone’s learning to

play. If the instrument’s not good quality, this affects their progress and perception of how they

are doing.” – Musical instrument interviewee

Without exception, quality was seen as an essential measure of success; crucial for both customer

satisfaction and repeat business.

“We depend on quality – work comes in by word of mouth and repeat business.” – Stone interviewee

As one can see from the above examples, while it is possible that the limited use of digital technology

and limited ambition to develop its use may refl ect the predominantly older profi le of the workforce and

the importance of word-of-mouth selling, there is scope for more businesses to effectively use digital

technology.

Quality is monitored and managed in various ways. Several interviewees spoke of the importance of

being aware of other practitioners’ work as a way of maintaining standards. Others, but notably not

all, had industry standards to which to refer. For example, the British Horological Institute’s Code of

Practice 26 was noted. The gun trade is particularly sensitive to standards:

“Our rule is that a job has to be right or it has to be done again until it is right. It’s crucial for shotguns;

if they go off, you’re going to be holding them in your hands, very near to your face. They have to be

sent to the proof house for testing.” 27 – Guns interviewee

“We know the standards we need to work to and we do so. [Our] staff are trained and we mix with

other restoration businesses and meet people and talk. If a business is isolated, standards can drop.”

– Musical instrument interviewee

In general, businesses have a self-set, in-house standard against which they monitor the quality

of work. This is often linked to considerations such as affordability, customer service and the needs

of the customer.

“We have our own in-house standards. This is most important and we try to maintain those

standards. As a small family business, once you lose your reputation, it is very diffi cult to get it back.”

– Wood & plant interviewee

Interestingly, clients’ awareness of quality or lack of awareness was also raised by a few interviewees.

For example:

“I often have to lead and show the architect, interior designer [and] client what this [quality] means.

I show them very high-quality work and then match their criteria and the budget. Sometimes there

is not enough budget for the amount of carving, and I prefer to do less carving and maintain a very

high quality. It is very important for the reputation of the business.” – Wood & plant interviewee

26 http://www.bhi.co.uk/Documents/Code.pdf

27 http://www.gunmakers.org.uk/proofhouse.html


Chapter 4 Demand for Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Blacksmith

Photography by Paul Felix

64

65


Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Supply of

Heritage Cra

Sk lls and Kn


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

ft

owledge

66

67


Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

5.1 The sector’s training requirements and habits

“My son is taking over and he has to learn everything from

me – skills I’ve acquired over 50 years. At school, he didn’t do

anything practical. They designed things, but weren’t allowed

to use the lathe in the workshop. The technician had to do all

the work on that. But we’re not all going to be designers…” –

Guns interviewee

The most popular forms of training and education undertaken to develop Heritage Craft skills and

knowledge are experience through working/learning by doing (43%), formal apprenticeships (30%), and

mentoring from an experienced craftsperson (21%). These figures reinforce evidence from the in-depth

interviews that learning in the sector is mainly a process achieved from doing – direct interaction and

experience – rather than institution-based learning (e.g. degree course at a college/university).

“If I was bit younger, I might have gone off and studied horology at West Dean or done a week-long

course at the Horology Institute at Newark. No doubt this would have improved my skills. Also I could

have had a fully equipped workshop with lathe, etc. – all this would cost about £30k. I know someone

who did this and it bankrupted them. My cabinetmaker went to West Dean, in contrast to a local

woodworker who makes kitchens and does much cruder work but makes 10 times more than him.”

– Clocks interviewee

Table 16: Education/training used and contribution made to current skills

% stating

method contributes

% stating most to current

Education/Training method used level of skill

Experience through working/learning by doing 43% 27%

Formal apprenticeships with a qualification attached 30% 20%

Mentoring from an experienced crafts person 21% 16%

Other vocational qualification 16% 10%

NVQ 15% 11%

Informal apprenticeships (e.g. a set period of time working with experienced crafts people) 14% 9%

Experimentation, deliberately trying new things to push the boundaries of skills and knowledge 5% 1%

Degree course at a college/university (BA, BSc) 4% 3%

Part-time or short course without a qualification 3% 2%

A-Level/O-Level/GCSE in a related subject 2% 0.3%

HNC/HND 2% 0.4%

Postgraduate degree at a college/university (MA, MSc, PhD) 1% 0.4%

Part-time or short course with a qualification 1% 0.1%

Adult education classes 1% 0.2%

Foundation degree course 0.3% 0.04%

Free online tutorials 0.2% 0.1%

Other28 7% 13%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)

28 City & Guilds was noted frequently as falling under specific “other” type of training used and valued by employers. A smaller number also noted

professional memberships as being useful, as well as opportunities to study abroad.


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

It is important to note that these forms of education and training reflect the range of activities all

employees have undertaken, not just new starters. For example, if someone aged 50 undertook an

apprenticeship when they were a teenager and believed that this made a contribution to their current

level of skill and knowledge, this would be recorded here.

The forms of training also reflect the data presented earlier in the report in the skills profile of the

workforce (Figure 6, page 47), particularly the tendency towards either non-qualification based

training/learning or vocational qualifications.

“People from colleges may have certificates, but they don’t have the experience.” – Stone interviewee

A number of businesses talked about the decline of apprenticeships in relation to young people’s

attitudes and the education system:

“Restoration is a core part of the business. It used to be larger and we had apprentices, but over the years

this became less popular and young people didn’t want to learn the skills. They were more interested in

IT and earning more money, so it’s declined. We started in 1986 and it is about 18 years since we had

an apprentice. The trainees used to do an apprenticeship in antique restoration and we sent them to

college as backup. But the courses changed – going into plastics and areas not relevant to our business.”

“I think my skills are becoming scarcer and nothing ever seems to happen to rectify that. It almost seems

that people are discouraged at school. It’s better to be a computer whizz or be in finance, and there’s a

negative attitude to people who want to work with their hands. I have friends in Germany, where joiners

and plumbers are revered people.” – Wood & plant interviewees

Table 17 (next page) presents the most common types of training undertaken across the sector and the

extent to which employers consider these types of training to have contributed to the current level of

Heritage Craft skill and knowledge in the business.

The colour coding on the table helps to identify groups where there are issues in the balance between

the types of training employers feel is relevant and that which workers have undertaken. Groups where

all of the highlighted cells are pale green are balanced: employers use these types of training regularly

and note them as being one of the top three in terms of developing current levels of Heritage Craft skill

and knowledge. Groups that have multi-coloured cells are imbalanced: employees have undertaken

training, but employers do not consider that type of training to contribute significantly to Heritage

Craft skills and knowledge. The dark green cell denotes one of the three types of training commonly

undertaken; the light green cell denotes the type that employers feel is more valuable (than the dark

green cell).

68

69


Group

Secondary

education

Higher

education

Vocational

qualifications

Unaccredited

training

Mentoring

Independent

experiential

learning

Type of

training

A-Level/O-Level/

GCSE in a related

subject

Degree course at a

college/university

(BA, BSc)

Foundation

degree course

Postgraduate

degree (MA,

MSc, PhD)

Formal

apprenticeships

with a

qualification

attached

Average

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Table 17: Education and training undertaken and contribution to current level of skill by group

Boats

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S6) * = figure less than 0%, but not 0

Key:

Cars

Guns

Clocks and

barometers

Jewellery

Musical

instruments

Toys &

automata

Taxidermy

Clay

2% 5% 9% 6% 1% 3% 4% * 13% 1% 2%

4% 1% 12% 6% 5% 73% 4% 13% 4% 3% 5% 1% 14% 6% 2%

* 8% 6% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

1% 9% 60% 7% 1% 1% 4% *

30% 25% 4% 52% 2% 2% 33% 29% 15% 31% 26% 13% 56% 5% 32% 28% 51%

HNC/HND 2% 13% 3% 11% 16% 1% 2% 1% 1% 3% 3% 1% 2%

NVQ 15% 8% 12% 7% 1% 5% 2% 17% 14% 1% 28% 24% 14%

Other vocational

qualification

Part-time or short

course with a

qualification

Adult education

classes

Informal

apprenticeships

Part-time or short

course without a

qualification

Mentoring from

an experienced

crafts person

Experience

through working,

learning by doing

16% 6% 13% 9% 2% 6% 23% 6% 2% 18% 14% 24% 1% 8% 15% 15% 24% 12%

1% 2% 1% 2% 1% 3% 1% 1% 4%

1% 1% 21% 11% 2% 3% 3% 1% 1%

14% 10% 9% 26% 3% 6% 25% 16% 5% 16% 5% 17% 1% 69% 12% 15% 27% 2% 12%

3% 27% 11% 33% 3% 2% 5% 3% * * 1%

21% 55% 16% 29% 19% 34% 27% 5% 5% 38% 15% 19% 15% 15% 14% 14% 7% 26% 35%

43% 70% 56% 60% 52% 39% 41% 27% 69% 48% 51% 64% 52% 23% 18% 34% 62% 46% 33% 39%

Experimentation 5% 10% 19% 9% 6% 3% 8% 6% 9% 2% 3% 13% 8% 2%

Free online

tutorials

* 2% 8% 1%

Other 7% 12% 24% 24% 6% 13% 5% 47% 3% 5% 17% 10% 6% 12% 19% 12% 1%

Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Method of training in the top three most commonly undertaken and is considered to have

contributed significantly to current level of skill and knowledge

Method of training in the top three most commonly undertaken but is not considered to have

contributed significantly to current level of skill and knowledge

Glass

Method of training not in the top three most commonly undertaken but is considered to make

significant contribution to current level of skill and knowledge

Leather

Metal

Paper

Precious

Metals

Stone

Textiles

Wood &

plant

Paint

Plaster


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Across the board, experience through work is used and also valued by employers as making a positive

contribution to current level of skill. Two slight variations in this can be seen in Precious Metals and Paint,

where employers note that either formal apprenticeships (Metal) or NVQs (Paint) have made a stronger

contribution to skills than experience through working.

There is an interesting cluster of green cells toward the top right of the table. Generally, these cells

highlight instances where employers state that their employees have undertaken some form of

experiential learning, but they feel that the qualification-based training would be more effective

in developing skills.

Attitudes towards apprenticeships

Heritage Craft businesses have an emphasis on learning by doing, including apprenticeships, but

attitudes amongst those businesses interviewed show an ambivalence. Many of the concerns are

shared across small businesses, as seen in the recent Holt review29 Heritage Craft businesses have an emphasis on learning by doing, including apprenticeships, . For example, but attitudes concerns about training

amongst those businesses the competition interviewed is noted show in an this ambivalence. research and Many in the of Holt the review concerns introduction. are shared Any across development small in the

businesses, as seen in provision the recent of apprenticeships Holt review needs to address these industry concerns.

Regulation and bureaucracy are seen as challenges:

29 . For example, concerns about training the competition is noted

in this research and in the Holt review introduction. Any development in the provision of apprenticeships needs

to address these industry concerns.

“The last government contrived to make it very hard for small businesses to take on apprentices

Regulation and bureaucracy for financial are and seen other as challenges: reasons. We previously had lads on work experience, but all the paperwork

and expensive insurance was a real burden.” – Gun interviewee

“I wouldn’t want to take anyone on… It’s very hard to do all the paperwork and sort it out for someone

“The last government else. contrived In the long to make term, it I very guess hard the for sector small will businesses just go. Sad to to take say, on there apprentices won’t be the for financial people to teach it.”

and other reasons. We – Stone previously interviewee had lads on work experience, but all the paperwork and expensive insurance

was a real burden.” – Guns interviewee

Costs and having sufficient business to generate work for an apprentice were concerns voiced by selfemployed

business owners:

“I wouldn’t want to take anyone on… It’s very hard to do all the paperwork and sort it out for someone

else. In the long term,

“I’d

I guess

have liked

the sector

to train

will

someone,

just go.

but

Sad

would’ve

to say, there

struggled

won’t

to

be

give

the

them

people

enough

to teach

work

it.”

to fully occupy them.”

– Stone interviewee

– Clocks interviewee

Negative attitudes towards young people are an issue, even if these are likely to reflect wider

generational attitudes towards young people amongst a predominantly older workforce:

Costs and having sufficient business to generate work for an

apprentice were concerns voiced by self-employed business owners:

“I don’t take on young people. 18-year-olds are not what they used to be! It’s not the same as when I

was young, when you expected to work and money was what it was. Now the issue is commitment. You

can invest time in someone who, a year in, may decide it is not for them. You need three to four years to

“I’d have liked to train someone, but would’ve struggled to give them enough work to fully occupy them.”

learn the trade.” – Wood & plant interviewee

– Clocks interviewee

Attitudes were more positive amongst businesses that currently or previously had young people in their

workforce.

Negative attitudes towards young people are an issue, even if these are likely to reflect wider

generational attitudes towards young people amongst a predominantly older workforce:

“We have one or two work experience placements a year… Students usually come for a week

and this year the girl asked to come back in the summer… I’d consider taking on an apprentice.”

– Musical instrument interviewee

“I don’t take on young people. 18-year-olds are not what they used to be! It’s not the same as when I was young, when

you expected to work and money was what it was. Now the issue is commitment. You can invest time in someone who,

a year in, may decide it is not for them. You need three to four years to learn the trade.” – Wood & plant interviewee

Attitudes were more positive amongst businesses that currently or previously

had young people in their workforce.

“We have one or two work experience placements a year… Students usually come for a week and this year the

girl asked to come back in the summer… I’d consider taking on an apprentice.” – Musical instrument interviewee

29 Department for Business Innovation and Skills 2012 Making Apprenticeships more accessible to small and medium-sized businesses BIS p4

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Similar patterns occur when it comes to employers maintaining and improving the Heritage Craft

skills and knowledge used in the business. The method most commonly used was experience through

working/learning by doing (55%). Furthermore, very few pursued short courses, adult education

classes, mentoring, or free online tutorials. Of concern is that a fifth of businesses actually do nothing

to maintain and improve their Heritage Craft skills and knowledge. Some of the veteran craftsmen

interviewed, who had racked up decades of experience, doubted that anyone could “provide the nextstep

training” for them:

“Not planning to develop skills further – have a lifetime of experience.” – Clocks/Antiques interviewee

Several had weighed up the cost benefit of acquiring new skills:

“One day I would like to learn about a style of rush seating that includes straw and gives a golden colour,

but it wouldn’t be economical to do as it would cost the customer more and they wouldn’t pay the price.”

– Wood & plant interviewee

Table 18: Maintaining and improving Heritage Craft skills and knowledge

Method % response

Experience through working/learning by doing 55%

Continuing work/commissions 14%

Experimentation, deliberately trying new things to push the boundaries of skills and knowledge 8%

Networking with other craft practitioners 5%

Adult education classes 2%

Mentoring from an experienced craftsperson 2%

Free online tutorials 2%

Part-time or short courses without a qualification 1%

Manufacturer/supplier training 1%

Part-time or short courses with a qualification 0%

Nothing 21%

Other 30 22%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)

There are few variations in the pattern by group, with the top four above being used by most businesses.

As shown in Table 19 below, the only exceptions to this are in Jewellery, Musical instruments and Leather

where part-time/short courses without a qualification are more commonly used, and Stone, where

employers note adult education classes.

30 The most common other activities were to read literature in various formats (books, magazines, newsletters) and to undertake research (often on

the internet) to keep up to date, undertaking specific training in-house or through information/activities from a professional body/guild.


Group

Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Table 19: Methods of maintaining and improving skills and knowledge by group

Experience

through working

Continuing

work/

commissions

Experimentation

Networking

with other craft

practitioners

Free online

tutorials

A number of interviewees spoke of the value of fellow craft practitioners and trade associations in

supporting learning:

“If I have a difficult problem or issue, I can pick up the phone and speak to colleagues.” – Wood &

plant interviewee

Mentoring

Interviewees referred to various associations, including the Pianoforte Tuners’ Association, the

Federation of Small Businesses, the Music Industries Association and the British Violin Making

Association. However, other interviewees were not so positive about the value of trade associations

(see page 104, Networks and Business Support).

When considering the maintenance and improvement of skill by business activity, there is very

little variation from the sector average for businesses for which the main activity is making/

reproducing things, or repairing/maintaining things. However, businesses which mainly restore

things are significantly more likely to do nothing to maintain and improve skills (46% compared

to an average of 21%), and businesses who mainly conserve things are significantly less likely to

do nothing (4% compared to 21%). Restoration-focussed businesses are also more likely to use

mentoring (28%) and seek specific learning opportunities from their continuing work/commissions

(41%) to maintain/improve skills.

Adult education

classes

Manufacturer/

supplier training

Part-time/short

courses w/o a

qualification

Part-time/short

courses with

qualification

Boats 48% 12% 23% 5% 5% 2% 37% 10%

Cars 49% 3% 8% 8% 4% 8% 8% 2% 12% 17%

Guns 88% 11% 13% 3% 9% 1% 3% 8%

Clocks and barometers 59% 28% 24% 12% 12% 12% 3% 3% 16% 2%

Jewellery 28% 6% 18% 21% 43% 12% 33%

Musical instruments 40% 2% 11% 11% 11% 11% 12% 60%

Toys & automata 23% 13% 5% 2% 5% 71%

Taxidermy 47% 16% 37% 16% 16%

Clay 50% 41% 4% 3% * 4% 1% 1% 0% 4% 15%

Glass 64% 3% 6% 10% * 8% 7% * 3% 3% 28% 4%

Leather 48% 11% 6% 2% 10% 14% 4% 25% 9%

Metal 52% 27% 12% 7% 1% 2% 2% 1% * 1% 19% 14%

Paper 56% 7% 37% 6% 9% 8%

Precious Metals 17% 10% 7% 1% 1% 1% 3% 2% 73%

Stone 41% 11% 10% 1% 9% 1% 17% 1% 2% 2% 27% 5%

Textiles 53% 15% 8% 4% 13% 1% 1% 1% * 8% 26%

Wood & plant 67% 19% 24% 8% 1% 0% * 1% 0% * 7% 27%

Paint 48% 7% 2% 2% 1% * 44% 27%

Plaster 60% 11% 15% 14%

Average 55% 14% 8% 5% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 0% 21% 22%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4) = figure less than 0%, but not 0

Nothing

Other

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

A potential explanation for this lack of engagement with specific types of training mechanisms versus

a high degree of experiential learning is that only one-third (33%) of businesses overall felt that there

were currently Heritage Craft skills and/or knowledge that they themselves or their team would like to

develop. This demand for new skills and knowledge varies across Heritage Craft groups. Approximately

half of businesses in Jewellery, Clocks and barometers, Textiles and Paint identified development needs,

compared to 15% or less in Stone, Plaster, Guns and Precious Metals.

Table 20: Presence of training needs by group

Group Yes No

Jewellery 54% 46%

Clocks and barometers 52% 48%

Textiles 46% 54%

Paint 44% 56%

Boats 40% 60%

Leather 38% 62%

Metal 38% 62%

Wood & plant 37% 63%

Musical instruments 36% 64%

Heritage Craft average 33% 67%

Taxidermy 31% 69%

Cars 29% 71%

Paper 26% 74%

Toys & automata 18% 82%

Clay 18% 82%

Glass 17% 83%

Stone 15% 85%

Plaster 15% 85%

Guns 14% 86%

Precious Metals 5% 95%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)

This pattern is replicated across the different activity types, with 37% of businesses making/reproducing

things, 28% repairing/maintaining, or 35% restoring things, noting that they had a current need for

new skills and knowledge development. This is in contrast to businesses which are conserving things,

where only 10% identified any current development needs.

Where businesses did note the requirement for further skills and knowledge development, this

most commonly related to additional skills working with a specific material related to their craft,

or formalising their skills through further study and/or qualifications.

Table 21: Type of skills, knowledge or training required

Skills, knowledge or training % response

Skills working with a specific material 21%

Undertaking formal study and/or qualifications related to personal/company skills 17%

Skills related to creating a specialist product 10%

Business skills 6%

Digital skills to support the process of designing and/or making products 4%

Skills related to using specific craft tools/equipment 3%

Collaboration work to learn from other craft designers/workers 1%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)


Heritage Craft

Guns

Stone

Paper

Precious metals

Instruments

Plaster

Wood & plant

Glass

Clay

Jewellery

Vehicle

Textiles

Metal

Animal

Toys & automata

Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

5.2 New entrants to the sector

In order to understand the profile of new entrants to the sector, Figure 11 below considers the length

of time people working in the sector have been in their current role. New entrants are considered to be

those who have been in their current position for less than one year.

Across the sector, an average of 12% of the workforce are new entrants. However, it is interesting to

note that the largest group is those who have been in their current role for 1-5 years; just over a quarter

of the workforce (27%) falls into this category.

The length of apprenticeship programmes and opinion as to the length of time required to establish

skills and knowledge in Heritage Crafts differ. However, taking into account a varying learning period

depending on the educational route chosen (perhaps anything from 1-6 or 7 years), it would be fair

to describe these two groups combined as “apprentice” workers. In which case, just under 40% of the

workforce is in the apprenticeship phase of developing their skills and 60% are established craft workers.

Figure 11: Length of time working in the sector

12%

9%

9%

9%

10%

10%

11%

11%

11%

12%

12%

12%

12%

13%

14%

14%

24%

21%

22%

15%

27%

30%

28%

30%

25%

37%

30%

29%

32%

28%

27%

35%

18%

24%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W09/C1)

18%

21%

20%

22%

18%

16%

24%

19%

21%

20%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

32%

16%

15%

22%

15%

25%

37%

18%

25%

21%

21%

17%

21%

17%

23%

21%

20%

14%

15%

34%

Less than 1 year

1 to 5 years

5 to 10 years

28%

23%

23%

19%

21%

21%

19%

21%

16%

18%

20%

16%

18%

15%

14%

10 to 20 years

20 years or more

Not known

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Photography by Robin Wood/Heritage Crafts Association

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

As might be expected, the pattern varies across groups:

• Employees in the Animal group tend to have been in their current role for a shorter period of time

than average, with 71% of employees having been in their current role for 10 years or less.

• Those employed in the Glass group tend to have been employed in their current role for a longer

period, with 48% of employees having been in their current role for 10 years or more.

• Employees in the Guns group are much more likely than average to have been in their role for

between 5-10 years (32%). They are also less likely to have been in their role for less than a year (9%)

or 10-20 years (14%).

• Those employed in the Instruments group are much more likely than average to have been in their

role for 20 years or more but much less likely than average to have been in their current role for 10-20

years.

• Jewellery group employees are much more likely than average to have been in their current role for

5-10 years, whilst none have been employed in their current role for 10-20 years.

• The Plaster group has the highest proportion of employees that have been in their current role for

more than 20 years (34%). However, the proportion that have been in their current role for between

10-20 years is lower than average (15%).

• Employees in the Stone group are considerably more likely than average to have been in their current

role for 5-10 years (37%).

• The Toys & automata group has a lower proportion of employees that have been in their current role

for 1-5 years (15%). However, employees in this group are more likely to have been in their current role

for less than a year (14%).

New entrants to the sector – those in the apprenticeship phase of development in their current role –

are most likely to be aged between 20 and 34. However, approximately a third are also likely to be aged

between 35 and 49. This reinforces anecdotal evidence that, for many, the move into Heritage Craft is a

career change later in life, rather than a first career.

Table 22: Age of new entrants

Time in current role

Age group Less than 1 year 1-5 years

16 to 19 13% 4%

20 to 34 43% 47%

35 to 49 30% 33%

50 to 59 12% 12%

60+ 3% 4%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W09/S5a)

With the exception of the Vehicles group and Precious metals, the groups most likely to be employing

young people from school leaving age (16-19) tend to be those with a strong link to construction

(Wood & plant, Clay, Metal, Plaster).


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Table 23: Age of new entrants by group

Less than 1 year & 1-5 years

Row Labels 16 to 19 20 to 34 35 to 49 50 to 59 60 +

Wood & plant 10% 49% 25% 13% 3%

Precious metals 8% 49% 22% 15% 6%

Vehicles 8% 39% 30% 17% 6%

Clay 7% 48% 36% 7% 2%

Metal 7% 46% 33% 12% 3%

Plaster 6% 53% 35% 1% 4%

Textiles 6% 41% 33% 16% 4%

Guns 5% 35% 40% 4% 15%

Animal 4% 42% 44% 5% 6%

Toys & automata 4% 44% 13% 19% 20%

Glass 3% 44% 35% 14% 4%

Instruments 3% 40% 35% 15% 7%

Paper 3% 43% 36% 14% 4%

Stone 3% 37% 26% 17% 17%

Jewellery 0% 32% 68% 0% 0%

Total 7% 45% 32% 12% 4%

Source: Annual Population Survey 2011 (TBR Ref: W09/S5a)

Again, the trend for people to move into the sector later in (or towards the end of) their career is evident,

particularly so in Toys & automata, Stone and Guns, where between 15% and 20% of new entrants are

aged 60+.

For those in-depth interviewees who came into the sector at a young age, the routes were generally

informal and often based on decisions made when young:

“The business just happened. My husband left school, where he had been encouraged to be a

stonemason. He’s done it all his life.” – Stone interviewee

“I started in 1977. I was ignorant of the trade then – ignorant of most things, actually. I was looking

for a job... Someone mentioned a job in the Gun Quarter. I got the job and I’ve been there ever since.”

– Guns interviewee

5.3 The training available to the sector

As detailed in Chapter 5.1, the most popular forms of training and education undertaken to develop

Heritage Craft skills and knowledge are experience through working/learning by doing (43%), formal

apprenticeships (30%) and mentoring from an experienced craftsperson (21%). With this in mind, the

focus of this element of the research was to gather information on the range of training opportunities

available to support these types of learning.

An obvious challenge is that much experiential learning is self-directed and mentoring relationships

are often informally arranged. As such, it was necessary to establish a more specific information

requirement related to experiential learning opportunities. The in-depth information provided by

interviewees fed back a number of positive comments about access to learning opportunities provided

by trade associations and guilds, and the value of interaction with peers in terms of skill development,

either through informal networks or, again, through an association/guild. With this in mind, the decision

was taken to undertake a review of the learning opportunities provided across Heritage Craft guilds and

associations to understand the “offer” to the workforce.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

5.3.1 Supply of training from guilds

The following chapter provides an overview of the types of training available across the sector from

the guilds reviewed. More detailed information by each Craft group is available in the appendix in

Chapter 8.3. Further detail on the approach taken is provided in Chapter 8.1.7.

Overall, the main type of training provided by the guilds is entry level. This training is largely designed

for members of the public to learn the basic skills and knowledge of a particular craft, which helps to

develop skills as an amateur. On the whole, the courses are short-term (i.e. less than a week) and are

provided by experienced and skilled members of the guilds. They take the form of classes or workshops,

with a demonstration from the expert and practical experience for those participating. The vast

majority of these courses do not result in the participant obtaining a qualification.

Following on from this, the “next step” of training provided by the guilds is a range of courses to support

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for professionals already operating in the sector. This type

of training is aimed at individuals who have already attained a specific level of skill in the craft and who

wish to specialise in a certain area. Again, the courses largely take the form of an expert or specialist

from the guild running a short-term class or workshop, with a demonstration from the expert and the

opportunity for practical engagement from the participants. CPD courses are less extensively offered

across guilds and associations than entry-level courses, but are a significant element of the training

offer for the development of skills at a professional level.

In order to encourage progression, some of the guilds provide taster courses, then signpost to other

organisations/institutions that offer more practical qualification-based training such as NVQs or

apprenticeships, or where speciality skills can be learned at higher education level or through CPD.

A key element of the offer from guilds is their engagement with and support of apprenticeships in the

sector. The level of engagement in the provision of apprenticeships appears to function at two levels:

1 The guilds act as a mediator for connecting businesses (usually members of the guild) that have

apprenticeship vacancies with persons seeking an apprenticeship in that craft. For example,

the guilds will provide a list of members with apprenticeship vacancies and those interested

in obtaining an apprenticeship can contact them (either directly or through the guild).

2 Some guilds have a deeper level of engagement with the supply of apprenticeships in the sector.

This involves the design of the apprenticeships and acting as a governing body. As a governing

body, the guild sets out the learning objectives and standards required for a successful candidate

to complete the apprenticeship.

As might be anticipated, given the limited use of higher education (HE) and the preference for

vocational qualifications, very few of the guilds had formal relationships with universities. Rather, they

tend to have links to further education (FE) institutions offering courses that are relevant to their craft.

In some cases, the guilds offer bursaries and grants for members that enrol in certain courses at FE

institutions. At this level, the most the guilds do is potentially offer financial incentives for members of

their guilds to enrol in these courses. There does not appear to be the same pattern for engagement in

FE curriculum as there is in apprenticeship design.

In addition to bursaries for study, some guilds also offer support to help craftspeople develop their skills

in other ways – for example, work-shadowing or studying abroad.

Informal learning and development opportunities – such as exhibitions and lectures, which do not have

specific learning objectives but provide the opportunity to keep up to date and network with peers – are

a common feature of the landscape. These experiences can be more intangible in terms of measuring

their contribution to skills and knowledge. However, as seen in the in-depth information provided by

interviewees, this access to the peer network is extremely valuable.

On the whole, access (in terms of geographical location) is dependent on the type/level of training. The

supply of entry-level training is dispersed broadly throughout England, meaning that people aiming to

learn basic skills should be able to find a short-term course relatively close by. The CPD courses provided

by the guilds are more geographically sparse and largely dependent on where the skilled craftsperson

with the specialist skill either lives or does business.


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Owen Wall, Ceramicist

Photography by Briony Campbell

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

There appear to be very few opportunities to access learning related to the more practical aspects of

running a Heritage Craft business through guilds. Some are proactive in this respect, offering courses

on business skills to aspiring craftspeople, advising on how to establish a company and earn a living

from the craft. Such courses include, for example, improving sales techniques, creating a customer

database and developing a business plan.

5.3.2 Supply of apprenticeships

Table 24: Regional distribution of apprenticeships

Mapping the availability of apprenticeships is not a straightforward task. Apprenticeships are

offered under a variety of frameworks according to the sector in which they are delivered, and

data is usually reported at the framework level. Only limited data is available to describe the

nature of the apprenticeship and therefore it is not possible to determine the extent of relevant

Heritage Craft activity. The occupation of the individual undertaking the apprenticeship is also

not available, as this level of data is suppressed in accordance with the Skills Funding Agency’s

data protection arrangements.

Given these restraints, it is very difficult to articulate a detailed view on the current supply of

apprenticeships. However, information is available to describe:

• Vacant apprenticeships currently advertised on the National Apprenticeship Service website.

• The number of apprenticeships started and achieved in allied frameworks up to April 2012.

This provides a useful indication of the apprenticeship opportunities available to the sector.

5.3.2.1 Vacancies with the National Apprenticeship Service

Table 24 presents data drawn from the National Apprenticeship Service vacancy search facility

using keywords associated with each group to identify relevant opportunities. Immediately

apparent is the paucity of formal opportunities. However, it should be noted that it is possible

to undertake apprenticeships in some of these groups (e.g. Jewellery), but at present there are

no advertised vacancies.

East of Yorks &

Group East Mids England London North East North West South East South West West Mids Humber England

Wood & plant 5 4 1 9 27 21 28 4 13 112

Paint 3 2 2 6 13 7 8 4 45

Generic 3 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 23

Clay 1 7 3 1 3 15

Plaster 2 1 4 1 4 12

Metal 3 2 1 1 1 8

Glass 1 2 3

Textiles 1 1

Animal 1 1

Stone 1 1

Vehicles

Guns

Jewellery

Toys & automata

Precious metals

Instruments

Paper

Grand Total 9 11 7 24 53 38 45 13 21 221

% Distribution 4% 5% 3% 11% 24% 17% 20% 6% 10% 100%

Source: National Apprenticeship Service, August 2012 (TBR Ref: W6/S4)


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

Key features of the current offer are:

• North West (23%), South West (19%) and South East (16%) are the three regions with the most

Heritage Craft apprenticeships currently available.

• Wood & plant is the group with the most current apprenticeships (112), which is explainable

through the relatively large amount of joinery and carpentry apprenticeship vacancies.

• Some apprenticeships can be considered to be “generic” and offer the trainee the opportunity to

learn Heritage Craft skills in a multitude of groups. These types of apprenticeships would usually

teach the trainee skills in carpentry, painting and decorating, and plastering.

• London and the East Midlands offer the smallest number of Heritage Craft-associated

apprenticeships, only contributing 3% and 4% respectively of the current offer.

Though limited, this data on the regional distribution of apprenticeships provides some insight to

compare with the regional distribution of the workforce. Table 25 below considers the regional

distribution of the workforce in the groups for which apprenticeships are available alongside the

distribution of current vacancies.

Table 25: Regional distribution of workforce and apprenticeships

% Distribution % Distribution

Group workforce 31 apprenticeships

North East 5% 11%

North West 16% 24%

Yorkshire and the Humber 13% 10%

East Midlands 13% 4%

West Midlands 14% 6%

East of England 10% 5%

London 7% 3%

South East 13% 17%

South West 10% 20%

England 100% 100%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 &

National Apprenticeship Service, August 2012 (TBR Ref: W6/S6)

It could be expected that the regional distribution of workforce would be similar to the regional

distribution of vacant apprenticeships. However, a comparison between the two demonstrates that

this is not necessarily the case and it is possible to classify the regions into three different groups:

• Surplus apprenticeships: geographical regions where the percentage distribution of vacant

apprenticeships exceeds the current percentage distribution of the workforce (by more than 5%).

At present, there are three regions within this category: North East, North West and South West.

• Surplus workforce: geographical regions where the percentage distribution of workforce exceeds

the current percentage distribution of the vacant apprenticeships (by more than 5%). At present,

there are two regions within this category: East Midlands and West Midlands.

• Matches: geographical regions where there is relative parity between the percentage distribution

of vacant apprenticeships and the percentage distribution of workforce (+/-5%). At present, there

are four regions in this category: London, Yorkshire and the Humber, East of England and South East.

Of course, this analysis does not take into account the number of apprenticeship vacancies

currently offered, which, at an extremely low 221, would make up only 0.1% of the total workforce.

This reinforces the importance of the work undertaken by associations and guilds to advertise and

facilitate apprenticeship opportunities, particularly those not related to Modern Apprenticeships.

31 Workforce only in Animal, Clay, Glass, Metal, Paint, Plaster, Stone, Textiles, Wood & plant

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

5.3.2.2 Apprenticeships started and achieved in allied sectors

As previously noted, only limited information is available on participation in apprenticeships. Data

on the number of people undertaking apprenticeships is reported at the level of “Sector Framework”,

which combines together the various apprenticeship programmes offered in that sector. This means

that it is not possible to provide accurate information on the number of people undertaking specific

apprenticeships related to Heritage Craft.

For the purpose of the research, data from the National Apprenticeship Service on the number of

people starting an apprenticeship in a given year and those achieving an apprenticeship has been

obtained for those sector frameworks most closely allied to Heritage Craft.

Table 26 below shows the number of people starting an apprenticeship in an allied framework over

the last ten years. Just under 250,000 people have started an apprenticeship in this time period –

222,000 of them either in construction or vehicle maintenance and repair. Across other frameworks,

the numbers are much smaller; in many cases they run in tens rather than hundreds.

Table 26: Apprenticeships started by year and sector framework

Sector Framework 02/03 - 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12* Total

Various Construction 81,600 20,400 16,790 14,070 15,590 11,460 159,910

Vehicles Vehicle maintenance

and repair 15,520 12,520 8,900 9,660 9,060 6,830 62,490

Glass Glass industry 2,700 410 380 480 1,430 1,560 6,960

Vehicles Vehicle fitting 1,870 1,430 530 630 980 550 5,990

Wood & plant Furniture industry 2,100 370 310 360 450 360 3,950

Paper Print and printed packaging 1,700 320 260 210 350 230 3,070

Textiles Textiles 2,670 180 40 - - - 2,890

Metal Farriery 270 140 100 120 100 120 850

Wood & plant Trees & timber 190 90 100 110 150 160 800

Metal Metals industry 380 40 30 30 20 - 500

Textiles Fashion and textiles - - - 20 90 150 260

Clay Ceramics 100 - - 10 10 60 180

Animal Footwear and leather 60 40 10 - - - 110

Textiles Apparel 60 - 10 - - - 70

Precious Metals Jewellery, silversmithing and

allied trades 10 - - - - 50 60

Animal Saddlery 30 - 10 - - - 40

Wood & plant Set crafts - - 10 - 10 - 20

Total 109,260 35,940 27,480 25,700 28,240 21,530 248,150

Source: National Apprenticeship Service 2012 (TBR Ref: W11/S1a) * Year to date, August to April


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

With the exception of 2010/11, the general pattern has been for the number of apprenticeship starts to

decrease from 2007/08 onwards. Given the overlap with the recession, this perhaps reflects a period in

which employers were more cautious about taking on apprentices. The increase in 2010/11 is likely to

reflect the impact of new policy from the Coalition government to increase apprenticeship numbers.

As might be anticipated, the data on achieved apprenticeships shows a similar pattern, with the majority

being completed in construction and vehicle trades and a decline in the number of achievements

since 2008/09.

Table 27: Apprenticeships started by year and sector framework

Group Sector Framework 02/03 - 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12* Total

Wood & plant Construction 32,100 12,850 14,250 11,790 9,250 4,020 84,260

Vehicles Vehicle maintenance

and repair 2,300 4,220 6,150 7,380 6,430 3,370 29,850

Vehicles Vehicle fitting 790 550 320 550 470 350 3,030

Glass Glass industry 1,220 270 340 250 340 490 2,910

Wood & plant Furniture industry 1,080 190 240 200 260 150 2,120

Textiles Textiles 1,430 80 70 10 10 - 1,600

Paper Print and printed packaging 740 130 150 180 140 100 1,440

Metal Farriery 130 60 80 90 100 90 550

Wood & plant Trees & timber 80 20 50 50 80 60 340

Metal Metals industry 150 40 30 30 20 10 280

Animal Footwear and leather 30 20 20 10 – – 80

Clay Ceramics 60 – – – 10 – 70

Textiles Apparel 50 – 10 – – – 60

Animal Saddlery 20 – 10 – 10 – 40

Textiles Fashion and textiles 0 – – – 10 30 40

Wood & plant Set crafts 0 – – 10 10 – 20

Precious Metals Jewellery, silversmithing and

allied trades 0 – – – – 10 10

Total 40,180 18,430 21,720 20,550 17,140 8,680 126,700

Source: National Apprenticeship Service 2012 (TBR Ref: W11/S2a) * Year to date, August to April

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


Chapter 5 Supply of Heritage Craft Skills and Knowledge

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The future

of Her tage

Craft


Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

The future of Heritage Craft

6 The Future of Heritage Craft

6.1 The size of the workforce in ten years

Forecasted employment over the next ten years estimates that the number of employees in the

Heritage Craft sector will have grown by 25,000 people (12%) to a total of 234,600 by 2022.

Stone and Precious metals show a percentage change of almost 50%, with Stone also having one of

the highest levels of absolute growth. Metal and Paint, starting from some of the higher bases in 2012,

also make a significant contribution to absolute growth. Although small in numbers, growth is also well

above average in percentage terms in Vehicles and Guns. The forecast also predicts decline in a small

number of groups, with Jewellery seeing the largest decline in percentage terms and Wood & plant in

absolute terms.

Forecasted employment over the next ten years estimates that

the number of employees in the Heritage Craft sector will have

grown by 25,000 people (12%) to a total of 234,600 by 2022.

Table 28: Heritage Craft employment forecast 2012-2022

Change 2012-2022

Group 2012 2017 2022 Absolute Percent CAGR*

Stone 8,470 10,255 12,380 3,910 46.2% 3.9%

Precious metals 2,560 3,070 3,665 1,105 43.2% 3.7%

Vehicles 2,530 2,895 3,300 770 30.4% 2.7%

Guns 1,580 1,775 1,990 410 25.9% 2.3%

Metal 30,110 33,090 36,300 6,190 20.6% 1.9%

Paint 40,985 44,115 47,355 6,370 15.5% 1.5%

Textiles 25,710 27,415 29,160 3,450 13.4% 1.3%

Clay 16,550 17,615 18,730 2,180 13.2% 1.2%

Toys & automata 245 260 270 25 10.2% 1.0%

Animal 8,790 9,140 9,450 660 7.5% 0.7%

Glass 9,465 9,725 9,995 530 5.6% 0.5%

Plaster 15,595 15,945 16,260 665 4.3% 0.4%

Paper 7,895 7,865 7,820 -75 -0.9% -0.1%

Wood & plant 34,710 34,410 34,065 -645 -1.9% -0.2%

Instruments 3,735 3,605 3,470 -265 -7.1% -0.7%

Jewellery 450 415 385 -65 -14.4% -1.5%

Total 209,810 221,585 234,600 25,215 12.0% 1.1%

Source: TBR Observatory 2012 (TBR Ref: W1/S6)

* CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Despite this positive forecast, most of the in-depth interviewees were pessimistic about growth. To

a certain extent the objective of the in-depth interviews was to provide contrasting information, so

this incongruity could perhaps be expected. However, that a number of them perceived the future to

be “gloomy” serves to demonstrate that the sector will need support to secure this forecasted growth.

Market conditions must be at least sustained, if not improved, in order to achieve these rates of growth.

The interviews highlight the challenges that supporting businesses face and identify potential market

failures that support organisations could intervene to resolve and/or prevent.

This challenge was exemplified in the interviews in Guns and Stone; based on historical trends and

forecasts, both of these groups are anticipated to grow. However, for some businesses, there are

prevailing conditions that will prevent this. For example, legislation was a major issue:

“Legislation has seriously challenged the trade. Hungerford in 1987, Dunblane in 1996 and more recently

the cinema shooting in Aurora, Colorado, all impact negatively on the trade. They shatter confidence

and cause the loss of jobs.”

There was a general consensus amongst Guns interviewees that “the trade is in decline [demonstrated

by] the lack of opportunity for training [and] the lack of skills amongst youngsters leaving school.”

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Forecasted growth in Stone

The highest increases in employment, suggested by survey forecasts, were in the Stone trade. However, interviewees’

anecdotal evidence suggests that the situation facing the Stone trade is more complex than is implied.

One contractor, whose business was in masonry and other stonework and for whom Heritage Craft represented a

minority interest, envisaged expanding:

“We’re likely to go on with the handcrafted work… We’re thinking of doing more architectural work,

windowsills and pillars. But we won’t be able to do it for a while.”

This plan depended on the company taking on an experienced craftsman, but they

were finding this difficult. This suggests that, at the time of our research (summer 2012),

few skilled stonemasons were looking for full-time employment.

However, this picture did not hold true everywhere. A major factor mitigating against

employment in stonemasonry is building trends:

“Very little new building uses natural stone now – it’s usually only for prestigious jobs.

The trade has been declining for a number of years… It will die.”

The low status attributed to stonemasonry is also considered

to be a disincentive to those potentially entering the trade:

“Sometimes we’re treated with contempt. Stonemasonry is dirty work. My husband’s not

been allowed to order in a pub; we’ve had a vicar assuming that my son was stripping the

church roof, when he was actually repairing it.”

In the time between the quantitative telephone survey and the qualitative interviews, another interviewee,

whose business specialised in stone cleaning and restoration work, had revised his opinion about future growth.

Having initially envisaged his workforce as likely to grow “slightly”, he now considered the nature of employment

in the sector to be “fragile”. The uncertainty of contracts mitigated against his taking on more employees:

“We can’t give people jobs that don’t exist. For example, we won a significant contract, we were ready to

start, and took on new people. We were due to begin on the Monday, but the previous Friday they rang to

say that they’d found someone else who could do it more cheaply. It meant not employing the new lads and

letting some of the others go.”

6.2 The sector’s view on growth prospects

Overall, the survey found that there is cautious confidence within the Heritage Craft sector for the

forthcoming two to three years; 34% of businesses expect some growth in demand, 38% expect that

demand will remain at the same level, and only 16% expect demand to decline.

Toys & automata have the most positive outlook on demand, with two-thirds of businesses anticipating

considerable growth in demand and only 5% anticipating any decline. Whilst Paint has the next highest

proportion of employers anticipating considerable growth in demand (42%), it is also the most mixed

group in terms of demand expectations: 21% anticipate a considerable decline and 24% cannot predict

a future. This, in addition to the fact that 75% of turnover comes from local customers (Figure 9, page

60), is likely to suggest a highly variable market, driven by localised conditions, such as variability in the

housing market and income levels.


Toys & automata

Paint

Boats

Leather

Glass

Heritage Craft

Taxidermy

Jewellery

Plaster

Metal

Stone

Textiles

Guns

Paper

Cars

Wood & plant

Clay

Clocks or barometers

Precious metals

Musical instruments

Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

The only sector to predict a greater level of decline in demand than growth is Plaster, where 25% of

employers anticipate a decline in demand and 12% anticipate an increase.

Most other groups are generally cautious about changes in demand. Very few note a below average

expectation for demand to remain the same (only Precious metals, where 79% anticipate slight growth

in demand and, as previously mentioned, Toys & automata and Paint) and most are more likely to

anticipate slight growth in demand, rather than considerable (exceptions other than Toys & automata

and Paint being Boats and Leather).

The two clockmakers who were interviewed, and whose businesses are based on retail and repair, reflected

this cautious approach. They associated the recession with changing attitudes to heritage objects. Even in

the period of this research (spring/summer 2012), some interviewees’ businesses had contracted:

“There’s been a notable decrease in footfall. Everybody I speak to [in other similar businesses across the

country] says the same. Why? The current economic climate makes people feel insecure – not wanting

to spend at the moment. People are very cautious with their money. A lot have no money full stop, and

those that have [money] are being cautious.”

“I’m not getting any enquiries from people wanting to buy clocks. People used to buy clocks for

weddings and anniversaries. The repair side is ticking along as it has always done. I can look three to

four weeks ahead and see no orders, and then something comes in. That hasn’t changed in 25 years.”

“The market itself is also changing: A lot of my customers are getting quite elderly... The younger

generation buy/value different things and don’t value old things or get things repaired. The older

generation invested in status objects.”

Figure 12: Demand expectations by group

6%

5%

4%

7%

7%

4%

11%

8%

12%

17%

16%

10%

20%

25%

24%

24%

19%

22%

22%

42%

28%

29%

33%

36%

43%

17%

66%

15%

31%

31%

45%

79%

2%

60%

10%

37%

45%

44%

77%

2%

38%

60%

45%

42%

42%

53%

36%

31%

21%

35%

27%

9%

18%

53%

8%

37%

11%

13%

6%

9%

7%

12%

8%

24%

9%

8%

10%

15%

4%

5%

11%

24%

3%

3%

18%

18%

4%

13%

12%

3%

13%

12%

12%

12%

5%

4% 2%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/C2)

1. Grow considerably

2. Grow slightly

3. Remain the same

4. Decline slightly

10%

6%

6%

8%

5%

7%

5. Decline considerably

6. Don't know

1%

2%

4%

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Liz Emtage, Ceramicist

Photography by Briony Campbell

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

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100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

The views on anticipated demand also vary depending on the size of the previous year’s turnover. Those

that had either had a small turnover (£50,000) or large turnover (£1m+) were more confident. Those

with a previous turnover of £500,001 to £1m were the most likely to anticipate that demand would

remain the same, and those with a turnover of between £50,001 and £100,000 were the most likely to

anticipate that demand would decline considerably.

Table 29: Anticipated growth and last year’s turnover

Between Between Between

Growth Sector Up to £50,001 and £100,001 and £500,001

expectation Average £50,000 £100,000 £500,000 and £1m Over £1m

Grow 17% 24% 10% 15% 14% 30%

considerably

Grow slightly 17% 13% 17% 27% 20% 26%

Remain 38% 35% 53% 30% 57% 35%

the same

Decline slightly 8% 6% 8% 8% 2% 2%

Decline 8% 11% 11% 2% - 2%

considerably

Don’t know 12% 11% 2% 18% 6% 5%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)

Views on the market position also differ depending on the main activity of the business. Particularly

interesting here is the proportion of businesses in conserving and restoring which are unable to predict

what the next two years will look like. Those repairing/maintaining things are significantly more likely to

anticipate considerable growth in demand (38% compared to 17%), and although some slight decline

is anticipated, no businesses with this as a main activity anticipated considerable decline.

Figure 13: Growth expectations by main activity

38%

14%

34%

12%

2%

8%

27%

41%

7%

5%

11%

2%

12%

38%

5%

42%

Repairing/maintaining Making/reproducing Conserving Restoring Heritage Craft total

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/C2)

1%

8%

38%

4%

22%

26%

1. Grow considerably

2. Grow slightly

3. Remain the same

17%

17%

38%

8%

8%

12%

4. Decline slightly

5. Decline considerably

6. Don't know

In terms of the drivers behind this anticipated growth, the most prominent causal factor noted by

businesses was changes in the state of the economy, followed by increasing awareness/recognition

of their brand.


Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

Market conditions in Wood & plant

For Wood & plant businesses, expectations of growth or decline as linked to the state of the

economy appeared to vary according to location and client and customers’ income brackets.

In the South West, for example, one interviewee described their main concern as surviving:

“It is very fraught at the moment and the recession has had a big impact on both sides of the business … Retail is

down 60% this year, and joinery [is] down 70%... Work I’ve estimated for is not being commissioned and [other] work

is being cancelled. When I ask people, they say that what I’m making isn’t essential (e.g. bookshelves) and they’ve got

less money coming in.

I’ve two types of client. Wealthy people, who aren’t affected [are] still buying when they see something they like. The

family side and middle-classes aren’t buying. I’m hearing this every day. Two years ago, people were buying.

I’ve also noticed a big move away from using credit cards to buy things – [people are paying by debit [card instead].

There’s less [buying] on a whim.” – Wood and plant interviewee

In contrast, two interviewees based in the South East and East of England noted that:

“The recession has had no impact and, if anything, business is growing… Over the last three years, I’ve taken

on large projects and subcontracted. This is to develop the business, so that there’s enough work for my son

and me when he joins the business.”

“East Anglia is a very good place to be for my work – there are a lot of large houses full of antique furniture,

and clients just go through the house having things restored and repaired.” – Wood & plant interviewees

The impact of the recession on the supply chain for Wood & plant businesses

is significant. Several interviewees associated the decline in their businesses

with those in the housing market and antiques trade. Some directly blamed

housing professionals:

“Business would be better – and there is business out there – if solicitors, banks and estate agents

would get their houses in order and get on with the job instead of delaying. This is affecting the

removals side, which has an impact on the restoration: when people move, they often decide to

have some restoration work done.” – Wood & plant interviewee based in the South East

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Photography by Robin Wood/Heritage Crafts Association

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

“ 47% of Heritage

Craft businesses that

anticipated growth

expected this change

to be caused by a shift

in the wider economy.”


Factor

Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

Table 30: Reasons for anticipating growth

Heritage

Factor Craft Average

Changes in the state of the economy 47%

Increased recognition/awareness of brand 18%

Changes in the market for Heritage Crafts and/or conservation 8%

The business will be reaching a wider domestic market 8%

Lack of competition from other similar businesses 6%

A diversification in our range of products/services 2%

Increased consumer demand for my products/services 2%

Marketing and advertising 1%

The business will be reaching a wider market through exporting 1%

Improved access to private finance *

Greater online presence *

Improved access to public funding *

Other 16%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S2)

* = figure less than 0%, but not 0

Businesses which stated that changes in the state of the economy would result in an increase in

demand were asked to specify what change would result in an increase. Almost half of these (49%)

felt that economic growth and the recession lifting would be positive for them. Other responses

included people have more money to spend (14%) and the recession being “good for business”

(7%) – the latter being related to customers seeking to restore or repair items rather than buy new.

Where respondents noted changes in the market for Heritage Crafts and/or conservation as a driver

of increased demand, they were also asked to expand on what changes they felt would occur. Answers

included: an increase in the popularity of Heritage Craft; general growth in demand for their products/

services; or, in some cases, the ageing workforce meaning that a smaller pool of individuals with

specialist Heritage Craft skills exists and therefore demand for their skills is increasing. Table 31 below

shows the variation in drivers of growth for the different Heritage Craft groups. The top drivers in each

group are shaded. This helps to demonstrate that, whilst the importance attributed to changes in the

economy having a positive impact can be seen across the board, the importance of factors can vary

by group.

Heritage

Craft

Table 31: Reasons for anticipating growth by group

Boats

Cars

Guns

Clocks and

barometers

Jewellery

Musical

instruments

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S2) * = figure less than 0%, but not 0

Toys &

automata

Changes in the state

of the economy

47% 32% 33% 8% 48% 6% 40% 34% 17% 47% 82% 53% 37% 72% 48% 9%

Increased recognition/

awareness of brand

Changes in the market for

18% 35% 10% 6% * 2% 11% 1% 4% 3% 48%

Heritage Crafts and/or

conservation

8% 21% 4% 10% 2% 9% 1% 15% 18% 11% 17% 6% 23%

The business will be reaching

a wider domestic market

8% 10% 46% 33% 36% 39% 11% 2% 15% 7% 14% 6%

Lack of competition from

other similar businesses

6% 16% 33% 27% 7% 7% 4% 9% 7% 68% 9% 4% 15% 6%

A diversification in our

range of products/services

2% 8% 10% 4% 1% 18% 1% 3% * 1%

Increased consumer demand

for my products/services

2% 26% 8% 44% 1% 6% 6% 3% 13% 1% 6% 1%

Marketing and advertising

The business will be

1% 7% 3% 2% 6% 5% *

reaching a wider market

through exporting

1% 29% 4% 3% 2% 4%

Improved access

to private finance

* 27% 1%

Greater online presence * * 5% 2%

Improved access

to public funding

* 2%

Taxidermy

Clay

Glass

Leather

Metal

Paper

Precious

metals

Stone

Textiles

Wood &

plant

Paint

Plaster

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Only 16% of businesses are anticipating a decline in demand for their products/services. Where this

is the case, it is mainly driven by the state of the economy. For these businesses, the recession was

anticipated to continue to have a negative impact on the business, with people having less spending

power. A small proportion noted that the increase in VAT would continue to have an impact.

Table 32: Reasons for anticipating decline

Heritage Craft

Factor Average

Changes in the state of the economy 42%

Pro-actively reducing workload as near retirement 36%

Too much competition from other similar businesses 10%

Changes in the market for Heritage Crafts and/or conservation 9%

Competition from international businesses 8%

Decrease in the level of lottery funding 5%

Reduced access to finance 1%

The business will not be able to reach a wider market through exporting 1%

Reduced availability of materials *

Reduced access to public funding *

Lack of diversification in our range of products/services *

Other 13%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S2)

* = figure less than 0%, but not 0

The issue of international competition was identified specifically by one piano business:

“We are losing a lot of specialist manufacturers. China has taken a lot of the custom away from this

country. We made better quality [instruments] that lasted longer. We don’t make pianos in this country

anymore. Yamaha closed their workshop which was very efficient. Someone should step in… We need a

viable business… It should be looked at.”

Although of limited interest to this research, one Stone interviewee also referred to the impact of

reductions in public funding:

“Restoration and conservation have been supported by funding from English Heritage and the National

Trust. The work benefitted quarries and created many jobs on churches and big country houses. But lots

of that money has now gone to the Olympics – so people in the trade who benefitted are being laid off.

The trade is unlikely to get those people back.”


Supply of raw materials

Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

Materials have a fundamental impact on the values and skills of Heritage Crafts

Materials have a fundamental as well as the impact sustainability on the values and and resilience skills of Heritage of Heritage Crafts Craft as well businesses. as the sustainability and

resilience of Heritage Craft businesses.

Gun trade interviewees identified issues of quality, availability, cost and regulation – matters that were also raised

Gun trade interviewees identified issues of quality, availability, cost and regulation –

by other craft sectors.

matters that were also raised by other craft sectors.

The source of materials alone highlights international connections across the sector:

The source of materials alone highlights international connections across the sector:

“It’s becoming harder to get the quality of steel required from the Eastern Bloc, China and India.

Everything else is “It’s within becoming my control harder – but not to get that.” the quality of steel required from the Eastern Bloc, China

“Problems with steel and quality India. and Everything consistency else may is be within to do my with control steel being – but recycled. not that.” These

problems didn’t occur previously. Since we [as a trade] only use small amounts, the [steel]

industry isn’t going

“Problems

to address

with

that.”

steel quality and consistency may be to do with steel being recycled.

“We have difficulties These with problems lubricants – didn’t these occur are very previously. old-fashioned. Since We we are [as now a trade] falling only use small amounts,

foul of laws because of their chemical content, and we suffer from what the EU calls the

the [steel] industry isn’t going to address that.”

“precautionary principle” 32 , and materials are banned as a matter of course.”

“We have difficulties with lubricants – these are very old-fashioned. We are now falling

Stonemasons also foul commented of laws on because the import of their of, for chemical example, content, granite from and China we suffer and India. from In what the the UK: EU calls

the “precautionary principle”32, and materials are banned as a matter of course.”

“Suppliers, including Stonemasons quarries, have also closed.” commented on the import of, for example, granite from China and

“Quarries are having India. planning In the problems: UK: government legislation is a real problem.”

“Suppliers, including quarries, have closed.”

Environmental protection is a particular issue for crafts that use wood and plant materials:

“Quarries are having planning problems: government legislation is a real problem.”

“Saltwater rush is now no longer available and I have to use freshwater [from Portugal], which is

not such good quality. Environmental This is because protection the areas is where a particular it’s grown issue are for protected crafts that as national use wood nature and plant materials:

reserves. Germany and Holland were the main sources.”

“Saltwater rush is now no longer available and I have to use freshwater [from Portugal],

which is not such good quality. This is because the areas where it’s grown are protected as

Overseas economic national development nature policies reserves. are also Germany impacting and on Holland supplies: were the main sources.”

Overseas economic development policies are also impacting on supplies:

“The Indonesian Government has just put a ban on the export of rattan to protect their

own furniture industry. Most rattan was being exported to China for furniture. Indonesia

grows about 80% “The of supplies, Indonesian with 20% Government from elsewhere, has just which put is a not ban of on such the good export quality. of rattan to protect their

There was already own an environmental furniture industry. issue with Most deforestation rattan was and being so less exported land [is to available] China for furniture. Indonesia

for growing rattan.” grows about 80% of supplies, with 20% from elsewhere, which is not of such good quality.

There was already an environmental issue with deforestation and so less land [is available]

for growing rattan.”

Far from operating within a narrow, heritage context, Heritage Crafts are clearly subject to current

industrial processes Far and from policies. operating The implications within a narrow, include heritage questionable context, business Heritage sustainability, Crafts the are clearly subject

potential loss of skills and that Heritage Craft sectors perceive they are too small or not significant

to current industrial processes and policies. The implications include questionable business

enough to have any control or impact on wider economic policy decisions.

sustainability, the potential loss of skills and that Heritage Craft sectors perceive they

are too small or not significant enough to have any control or impact on wider economic

policy decisions.

32 The precautionary principle or precautionary approach states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to

the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those

taking the action. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle)

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6.2.1 Changes to the business driven by demand

6.2.1.1 Increased demand

When considering the changes required to the current workforce in order to meet an increase in

demand (Table 33 below), three different types of action rise to the top, each noted by approximately

one-third of businesses:

1 No action. Just over one-third (34%) of businesses felt that they would not need to make any

changes. This would suggest that these businesses are currently performing under capacity and the

increase in work would be met by fully utilising the resources available.

2 Increase working hours/improve use of working time. Just under one-third of businesses felt that

they would need to either increase the number of hours their staff worked (22%) or increase the

productivity of their skilled craft workers (10%).

3 Recruit. Whilst there are variations in what type of employee would be recruited, just over a third

(34%) would need to undertake some form of recruitment. Most commonly there was a need to

recruit people into non-craft roles. When probed as to which roles these might be, employers mainly

commented on administrative functions or sales and marketing.

Given the previous comments from the in-depth interviews about the challenges associated with

employing staff, it is perhaps surprising that recruiting features so highly. However, it is interesting

to note that appointments are more likely to be to support non-craft activities, which (one assumes)

would enable craft workers to increase input into craft tasks.

As previously noted, interviewees were reluctant to take on employees and were more likely to

subcontract. This allowed one Wood & plant business to deal with increased demand while avoiding

the perceived bureaucracy of employing staff:

“In the town, there are six or seven other woodworking businesses. We all know each other. Last year

I had a very large contract for architectural work in a hotel in Paris that had to be completed in a month.

I did some of the work and subcontracted the rest.”


Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

Table 33: Actions required to meet increased demand

Actions % Response

Will not need to make any changes 34%

Need to increase the number of hours that staff work 22%

Need to recruit additional people into business functions other than craft 17%

Need to recruit additional permanent paid full-time skilled craft workers 10%

Need to increase the productivity of my current skilled craft workers 7%

Need to collaborate more with other craft businesses to deliver work 5%

Need to recruit additional permanent paid part-time skilled craft workers 4%

Need current skilled craft workers to develop new Heritage Craft skills and knowledge 3%

Need to use additional casual skilled craft workers 2%

Change premises to create more space 2%

Need to recruit additional fixed-term skilled craft workers 1%

Need to recruit to replace skilled craft workers who are likely to retire soon 1%

Need current skilled craft workers to multi-task across different craft skills 1%

Changes/improvements to machinery 1%

Reactively reduce commitments at peak times 1%

Recruit additional skilled craft workers (unsure as to type of employment) 1%

Need to use additional unpaid skilled craft workers *

Need current skilled craft workers to develop new non-Heritage Craft skills and

knowledge in other business functions *

Need current non-craft workers to develop new skills and knowledge in other business functions *

Need to recruit to replace skilled craft workers who leave to work elsewhere *

Need current skilled craft workers to multi-task across business functions *

Need current employees to develop new skills and knowledge *

Don’t know 2%

Other 9%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S3)

* = figure less than 0%, but not 0

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In general, this pattern of response (no action, increase working hours and productivity/recruitment) is

replicated across the different groups, with a few exceptions:

• Businesses working in the Vehicles group are also likely to note that a change in premises to create

more space will be required.

• Businesses in Guns, Toys & automata and Wood & plant have a higher tendency to note the need for

collaborating with other businesses.

• Jewellery and Leather businesses note that they will need their current skilled craft workers to develop

new Heritage Craft skills and knowledge.

• Taxidermy businesses are more likely to reduce commitments reactively at peak times.

However, having to deal with employment legislation and concerns about inconsistent income are key

barriers to expanding the workforce:

“I have considered expanding the business and taking on people. I have tried taking on people a few

times over the years. However, it needed a step change and involved understanding things I don’t

understand, and a commitment to paying a weekly wage regardless of business. There have been

times when I have had barely enough to live on so it frightens me to take on that responsibility.”

– Clocks interviewee

6.2.1.2 Decreased demand

Across the small proportion of businesses in the sector that felt that they were likely to experience

decreased demand, the most common response to this was to close the business (14%). Whilst 8% of

respondents with decreasing demand felt that they would not have to make any changes, 12% felt that

they would need to reduce the size of the workforce in some way, 6% would not replace workers who

left the business (either through retirement or leaving for other reasons) and 3% said they themselves

would retire. This pattern of response was replicated across the different Heritage Craft groups.

Two of the Wood & plant interviewees described responding to the fall in demand by diversifying and

carrying out extra marketing:

“We have diversified into hotels, as there are fewer private clients than [there] used to be. In the

recession, hotels have been having a lot of restoration work done. It’s not always the sort of work we like,

but it pays the bills.”

“A year ago, I made up packs saying what I did with images and distributed them to about 300 people.

I’ve had a small percentage take-up, mainly from interior designers and shops.”


Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

Table 34: Actions required to counter decreased demand

Actions % Response

Will have to close the business 14%

Will not need to make any changes 8%

Will have to reduce the amount of work I do in the business and find another source of income 6%

Will not seek to replace skilled craft workers who are likely to retire soon 5%

Need to reduce number of permanent paid part-time skilled craft workers 3%

I will retire 3%

Need to collaborate more with other craft businesses to deliver work 2%

Need to reduce number of permanent paid full-time skilled craft workers 1%

Need current skilled craft workers to develop new Heritage Craft skills and knowledge 1%

Need current skilled craft workers to develop new non-Heritage Craft skills and

knowledge in other business functions 1%

Will not seek to replace skilled craft workers who leave to work elsewhere (but do not retire) 1%

Need to reduce the number of hours that staff work 1%

Need to reduce number of fixed-term skilled craft workers *

Need to reduce number of casual skilled craft workers *

Don’t know 1%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W4/S3)

* = figure less than 0%, but not 0

Business succession is an important aspect of the continuation of skills. Many interviewees predicted

that their retirement will be synonymous with closing down their businesses, since there is no-one to

take over the running of it or to purchase it. With a few exceptions, their children have not chosen

to come into the business: this includes those businesses that have been in the family for several

generations. Equally, parents are concerned that their children will not be able to earn a living in

Heritage Crafts.

“The business is 55 years old and was started by my father. I won’t be handing it on as there

is no-one to hand on to. No-one’s interested in taking it on.” – Clocks interviewee

“I am the sixth generation to work in wood and it would be nice if my sons or daughter followed. I have

my doubts as to whether they will and I wouldn’t foist it on them. I don’t want to be the last in the

family working with wood. On the other hand, I wouldn’t necessarily encourage them. The job isn’t what

it used to be. The IKEAs and B&Qs have knocked the industry to bits. The quality isn’t there. People buy

a £60 bookcase in IKEA. When it doesn’t fit the alcove at home they come to me and baulk at £400 for

labour and quality. People don’t understand what’s involved.” – Wood & plant interviewee

“I decided not to involve my son: this wasn’t the environment or the future that I wanted for him. I worry

that, in 20 years, there will be no living to be made from it.” – Guns interviewee

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Networks and business support

Across the wider cultural and creative industries, networks are regarded as integral to

Across the wider cultural and creative industries, networks are regarded as integral to economic development.

economic development.

Most businesses have Most informal businesses networks have across informal similar businesses networks across and other similar trades businesses – for example, and across other furniture trades – and

antique restoration, suppliers, for example, architects across and furniture interior and designers, antique and restoration, their clients. suppliers, These informal architects networks and can interior be local,

regional and national. designers, They provide and a their source clients. of knowledge These informal and support networks business can development. be local, regional and national.

They provide a source of knowledge and support business development.

Being part of a formal trade association or professional network brought business

benefits to members, Being including part professional of a formal development, trade association promotion, or professional access to network brought business

advice, the ability to benefits represent to group members, interests, including and skill professional recognition. development, promotion, access to advice,

the ability to represent group interests, and skill recognition.

“We have trade membership “We have of trade the British membership Association of for the Shooting British Association and Conservation for Shooting and The Gun and Trade Conservation

Association. This is useful and The in terms Gun of Trade knowing Association. where to go This for is help useful and in advice terms on of legal knowing matters, where importers, to go etc. for help

They represent us at and government advice on level.” legal – Guns matters, interviewee importers, etc. They represent us at government level.”

– Gun interviewee

“I am a yeoman of the “I am Worshipful a yeoman Company of the of Worshipful Basketmakers. Company I was very of pleased Basketmakers. to be nominated. I was very

You can also apply and submit work for assessment.” – Wood & plant interviewee

pleased to be nominated. You can also apply and submit work for assessment.”

– Wood & plant interviewee

However, not all interviewees recognised the value of memberships.

However, not all interviewees recognised the value of memberships. Their main issues

Their main issues were relative cost and insufficient support.

were relative cost and insufficient support.

“I’m not a member of any trade association. I don’t think they are of any

“I’m not a member of great any trade use as association. far as I can I don’t see: think you they pay are a large of any subscription great use as and far as get I can a magazine.” see:

you pay a large subscription and get a magazine.” – Wood & plant interviewee

– Wood & plant interviewee

Around half of the interviewees were aware of non-specialist business support

Around half of the interviewees organisations. were Their aware views of non-specialist about these business were mixed support – organisations. mainly to do Their with views relevance about and these

were mixed – mainly eligibility to do with for relevance support. and The eligibility Federation for support. of Small The Businesses Federation of (FSB) Small was Businesses viewed (FSB) positively. was

viewed positively. One interviewee suggested that Heritage Craft should have a higher profile within that organisation.

One interviewee suggested that Heritage Craft should have a higher profile within

that organisation.

“It’s run by people who “It’s have run been by people in business… who have [It is] been useful in because business… [it is] [It a large is] useful organisation because [it is] a large

and has the opportunity to speak to ministers and get things done.” – Clocks interviewee

organisation and has the opportunity to speak to ministers and get things done.”

– Clock interviewee

“I’m a member…and “I’m use their a member…and legal advice service, use their which legal is good. advice I use service, other FSB which members’ is good. businesses I use other FSB

– for example, a computer person in town, although I haven’t said to him that that’s why [I use him].”

members’ businesses – for example, a computer person in town, although I haven’t

– Wood & plant interviewee

said to him that that’s why [I use him].” – Wood & plant interviewee


Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

A number of interviewees were, or had been, involved in local trade and business organisations,

also reflecting the businesses’ view of being part of and contributing to a wider community:

“I’m a member of the local Chamber of Commerce, which is in its infancy… The benefit is…that they’ll

have more influence than I would on my own. For example, I suggested we go to the council and ask

them to have free parking in December. The council wouldn’t entertain [the idea] if it was just me.”

– Wood & plant interviewee

Heritage Craft businesses appear to be aware of the opportunity to get financial support,

and a small number of interviewees had taken advantage of this. But most interviewees

were wary of taking out loans and getting into debt.

“I used a start-up scheme. It helped me a lot.”

“The bank supported me with an overdraft... That’s the only kind of financial support that I’ve received.”

“I wouldn’t do it again. You can’t do it if you can’t predict how much is going to come in on a monthly basis.”

– Guns interviewees

Unsurprisingly, networks and business support are of value and

benefit if they are regarded as being relevant and responsive.

6.3 Legacy and passing on skills and knowledge

Overall, the majority (77%) of businesses in the Heritage Craft sector do not undertake activities to pass

on craft skills and knowledge to people outside of the business. 33 The number of people working in the

business appears to be a determining factor regarding the transfer of craft skills and knowledge to other

people, with the larger firms (51+ employees) more likely than smaller firms to undertake activities to

do so.

Table 35: Transferring skills and knowledge to people outside of the business

Participates in activities to People working in the business

transfer skills and knowledge to 1 2-10 11-50 51+

people outside of the business % response 100% 100% 100% 100%

Yes 23% 22% 29% 33% 50%

No 77% 78% 71% 67% 50%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4)

33 “People outside of the business” was specifically defined in the survey as anyone who is not currently working in any capacity (paid or unpaid) for

the business.

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This is perhaps to be expected, as anecdotal evidence suggests that sole traders find it difficult to create

the time for such activities. In order to explore the reasons for not doing additional work to promote the

transfer of Heritage Craft skills, those who did not participate in any such activities were asked whether

they would like to do so. Table 36 below shows that 27% of businesses feel that lack of time prevents

them from engaging in such activities. Interestingly, time is less of a factor for sole traders than for

larger businesses.

Table 36: Reasons for not transferring skills and knowledge to people outside of the business

Would you like to do any activities Number of people working in the business

to pass craft skills and knowledge

on to other people outside of Heritage

the business? 1 2-10 11-50 51+ Craft Total

Yes, I just don’t know how 9% 9% 1% 9%

to get involved/what the

opportunities are

Yes, I just don’t really 5% 18% 9% 24% 7%

have the time

Yes, but the cost would 3% 3% 6% 3%

be prohibitive for us

Yes, other 17% 8% 14% 15% 15%

No, I don’t see the need to 17% 15% 25% 35% 17%

No, I know I don’t have time 20% 19% 16% 8% 20%

No, other 29% 28% 30% 19% 29%

Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S7)

The majority of “other” responses from those who would like to undertake this kind of activity noted

that they were planning to do so in the future, or that they would be happy to do so but they perceived

there to be a lack of interest in such activities. For those who did not want to participate in such

activities, “other” responses were overwhelmingly focussed around concerns about “training up the

competition” or, again, a perceived lack of interest for such activities.

The extent to which activities are undertaken varies considerably across the different Heritage Craft

groups, ranging from 0% in Clocks and barometers to 77% in Toys & automata.


Heritage Craft

Toys & automata

Jewellery

Taxidermy

Musical instruments

Plaster

Wood & plant

Textiles

Leather

Glass

Metal

Clay

Guns

Paper

Stone

Cars

Precious metals

Boats

Paint

Clocks or barometers

Chapter 6 The Future of Heritage Craft

Figure 14: Businesses undertaking activities to pass on skills and knowledge by group

7%

5%

8%

17%

16%

14%

18%

23%

25%

22%

32%

31%

30%

30%

39%

43%

54%

53%

77%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/C5)

The most popular method of passing on skills and knowledge is to teach informally and free of charge,

with 30% of respondents stating that they do this. Another popular practice is to provide formal

apprenticeships (18%).

Table 37: Activities taken to transfer sector’s skills and knowledge

Activities undertaken % respondents

Teach informally on an individual basis, free of charge 30%

Providing formal apprenticeships 18%

Providing work experience/placements 11%

Teaching classes with accredited qualifications 11%

Paid tuition without qualifications 7%

Providing informal apprenticeships 5%

Participating in shows and events where the public can see/participate in the craft 5%

Participating in informal sharing/demonstrations at events organised by

craft guilds and societies that are not open to the public 2%

Other 26%

Source: Heritage Craft Mapping Survey 2012 (TBR Ref: W3/S4, Q28)

100%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

“Other” activities included teaching family members, offering informal mentoring or ad-hoc advice,

and providing workshop tours and open demonstrations.

92%

93%

95%

83%

84%

86%

82%

77%

75%

78%

68%

69%

70%

70%

61%

57%

46%

47%

23%

Yes

No

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Conclus on


Chapter 7 Conclusion

Conclusion

7 Conclusion

Heritage Craft constitutes a broad range of activities and work and, as such, has proven difficult to

define, either through top-down economic intervention or by the sector itself. As there has previously

been no set definition for Heritage Craft, and no way to measure it, there has been no economic or

demographic data by which to judge performance, benchmark the sector or examine its characteristics.

Through Mapping Heritage Craft, there now exists a detailed, robust evidence base that delves in depth

into Heritage Craft activity across England, enabling a new understanding of the sector, its workforce

and potential future importance.

The sector provides employment for 210,000 people, delivers just over £10 billion in revenue and

£5 billion in GVA. These businesses employ 170,000 people who use Heritage Craft skills and knowledge

for the majority of their working time and most are optimistic that demand for their products,

goods and services will either grow or remain stable in the short term.

There are challenges, though, to maintaining stability and enabling growth, and the in-depth interviews

highlighted the difficulties businesses face in planning beyond the very short term. Employment

legislation is a significant barrier, with many preferring to subcontract or collaborate and split the

value of a contract/project which requires a greater capacity than that currently available in the

business, rather than taking on the permanent commitment of additional staff.

Despite this, one-third of employers anticipating growth do expect that they will need to recruit in order

to meet this increased demand. This outlook is reinforced by the forecasting data, which estimates that

the sector’s employment footprint will grow by 12% over the next ten years, with an annual growth rate

of 1%. 34

The research has underlined the value and importance of apprenticeships to the sector, which relies

heavily on the process of learning by doing. At some point in their lives, 30% of those currently working

in the sector have undertaken an apprenticeship and these are highly valued in terms of providing skills

and knowledge. However, concern is expressed about declining interest (particularly amongst young

people) in apprenticeships as a route into the sector, which is further compounded by a perceived

“negative attitude to[wards] people who want to work with their hands”.

In order to address issues such as this, raise the profile of the sector and ensure its legacy, a number of

businesses participate in activities that specifically pass on their skills and knowledge to people outside

of the organisation (for example, by teaching informal classes, or providing tuition). The number of

businesses engaged in these activities could be higher as many were unaware of the demand for them,

or did not know how to get involved.

As noted in the introduction, this report is the first stage in a process designed to support the strategic

development of the sector. The issues and questions it raises will form the basis of debate and review

in the next stage of action planning by Creative & Cultural Skills, in partnership with the sector and

government. However, this is an important line in the sand, a grounding of evidence which both the

sector and other bodies can use as a starting point from which to move forward.

34 Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

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Append x


Chapter 8 Appendix

Appendix

8 Appendix

8.1 Detailed methodology

As noted in the introduction, a lack of data on the Heritage Craft Sector presented a need to conduct

work on economic data within this field. This was partially the result of the lack of a clear definition (as

discussed in Chapter 2), responsibility for the development and delivery of support for the sector falling

across different organisations and agencies, and the absence of a straightforward way to measure the

footprint of the Heritage Craft sector.

This chapter of the report deals specifically with the last of these challenges and the methodology

developed to address it, before moving on to provide details on the approach taken in other elements of

the research, specifically the qualitative consultation and the supply mapping.

8.1.1 Mapping the size of the sector

As shown in Chapter 2, Heritage Craft cuts across a number of industries/sectors and is typified by niche,

often small-scale, activity. This presents a number of challenges:

• A traditional economic map of a sector or industry would usually employ the secondary data and

statistics produced by the Office for National Statistics or specific government departments 35 .

However, the standard sources of secondary data used to measure other sectors are not appropriate

because the Standard Industrial Classification/Standard Occupational Classification (SIC/SOC)

systems are not detailed enough. 36

• Many businesses are relatively informal and are combined with their proprietors’ other paid

employment or business activities. As such, they are often overlooked in surveys such as the Labour

Force Survey or Annual Population Survey which are based on main profession and earnings.

• The nature of the sector is such that a high proportion of businesses are not visible in official data

sources. For example, they do not pay VAT, are not PAYE registered, are not a formally registered

business or do not list their business in a directory. As such, they are often excluded from secondary

data sources 37 or do not appear on business listings/databases that can be used to substitute SIC/

SOC-based secondary data.

• Whilst a variety of guilds, livery companies and societies exist, businesses and practitioners are not

required to register with them in order to practise. As such, take-up is patchy and multiple memberships

are possible and frequent. In addition, membership of organisations tends to be for the individual

rather than the business, and as such is open to amateur as well as professional members. This means

that it is not possible to use membership levels as an accurate measurement of sector/workforce size.

35 For example, Annual Business Survey (ABS), Business Register & Employment Survey (BRES), Annual Population Survey (APS), Labour Force Survey

(LFS), the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR).

36 However, it is important to note that this does not mean the SIC/SOCs are of no use – rather that they cannot be used alone.

37 For example, the ABS does not count sole traders in its employment data.

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The complexity of the Heritage Craft footprint also means that these challenges are not consistent

across the board, i.e. not every activity is subject to the same measurement challenges. However, it is

possible to follow a methodology founded on the principle of utilising a number of analytical steps in

order to generate the best estimate of the Heritage Craft population, which is valuable and helpful

when there is no single technique for estimating the population.

The method employed six main steps as follows:

1 Creating a master database of Heritage Craft makers, practitioners and businesses using data

available from associations/guilds/membership bodies.

2 Utilising keyword searches on a business dataset to identify Heritage Craft businesses and their

economic activity.

3 Applying weights to this “known universe” of businesses and makers to scale this up to a population

estimate.

4 Undertaking a survey of 762 Heritage Craft businesses, and then weighting survey results to the

population in order to deliver specific data on the nature of activity, business performance and

needs.

5 Using SIC-based data (from ONS data sources) to model data on GVA and workforce demographics.

6 Using historic trend data on employment and standard forecasts of anticipated performance in

order to estimate a likely future employment footprint.

To successfully execute the methodology, the research had to follow a set process so that the

information produced at each stage could feed into the next. The process for the research is

summarised in the following flow diagram:

Figure 15: Method flow diagram

Determine paper definition

Undertake steps 1 & 2 to develop a database of as many of these types of business as possible

Review outputs from steps 1 & 2 and rationalise paper definition based on what it is possible to capture

Undertake step 3 to create a population estimate based on the measured definition

Undertake step 4 to validate the population estimate and gather data from businesses

Review outputs from steps 3 & 4 to produce the final population estimate for the sector

Undertake step 5 using final population estimates to produce data on workforce demographics and GVA

Undertake step 6 using final population estimates to produce future employment forecast

Each of these steps is explained in more detail in the following chapters.


Chapter 8 Appendix

8.1.2 Creating a master database of businesses

Steps 1 and 2 of the process are concerned with drawing together as much data as possible on “visible”

craft practitioners and businesses. “Visible” in this study refers to those businesses that have a presence

that can be picked up through their membership of a trade association/guild, advertising with a generic

craft association/website, or are captured on a business database.

Step 1 was delivered by undertaking a process of web harvesting to identify businesses and makers

engaged with both generic craft organisations/associations and those that are practice/material based.

The harvesting process involved first identifying a detailed list of websites providing lists of businesses/

professional practitioners and then running the various websites through harvesting software to draw

out information on business activity, location and contact details.

Step 2 utilised TBR’s unique business dataset Trends Central Resource (TCR) 38 , a longitudinal dataset

of 2.5 million businesses operating across the UK. Each record on TCR contains a textual description

of business activity. As such, the process involved using a series of keywords developed from the paper

definition in order to identify relevant firms amongst the 2.5 million records.

There are a number of limitations of these steps, which require input from other strands of the method

in order to estimate the size of the population:

• For some activities, even though businesses can be identified, in some cases there is limited

information about exactly what it does, which means there can be a level of uncertainty regarding

the extent to which it is actually engaged in Heritage Craft activity. For example, a business operating

in the Plaster group might simply describe its activity as “plastering services”, which provides no

information as to whether or not the services are relevant.

• A further complexity is that the definition excludes businesses/practitioners who only produce

“conceptually driven art”. Where people are making specific objects, it is virtually impossible to

understand whether this is the case from the business listings.

• This exercise will always have a missing tier: it will not capture businesses that are not registered with

a guild, do not have a web presence or are not on TCR.

For these reasons, there is a need to a) speak to businesses (or a representative sample of them) in order

to validate whether or not they are engaged in Heritage Craft activity, and b) estimate the size of the

missing tier in order to create a valid population estimate.

38 For more information see http://www.tbr.co.uk/pages/tbr-observatory/tcr-database.php

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Wheelwrights

Photography by Robin Wood/Heritage Crafts Association

Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft


Chapter 8 Appendix

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8.1.3 Validating the population estimate

Whilst steps 1 and 2 develop a more detailed database of potential Heritage Craft businesses than

previously available, it is not a census of all businesses operating across the sector. It is effectively a

sample of the Heritage Craft sector, and the function of steps 3 and 4 (arguably the most important in

the methodology) is to use this sample in order to estimate the actual size of the sector.

Step 3 uses the principles of an approach developed by TBR and applied to its own dataset (TCR) to

estimate the size of the missing tier. This is described in the box below.

TBR’s approach to estimating the missing tier

Managed and developed by TBR’s in-house data and statistics team (the TBR Observatory), TCR is one of the

most extensive bodies of information on UK enterprise. It contains data on 2.5 million live firms in the UK and their

performance histories, meaning it can be used to understand the structure and dynamics of any part of the UK

economy – any location (down to specific streets), any sector (down to specific products and services) and any size

(from micro to conglomerate).

Whilst TCR has superior coverage when compared to official sources such as the Inter-Departmental Business

Register (IDBR) 39 , it is not a census of all businesses operating across the UK. As such, the Observatory team carries

out a “gap-filling” exercise on TCR in order to produce a view of the whole economy.

The only statistics available that attempt to cover the whole of the economy (and can therefore be used to understand

the gap) are the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) statistics produced by the Department for Business, Innovation

& Skills (BIS). 40 These statistics are only available at the level of two-digit SIC code and for Government Office Regions,

and as such cannot be used for detailed sectoral analysis.

TCR represents a “near census” of UK business activity for those businesses employing five or more people. However,

there is a “missing tier” of businesses: the zero class and micro (or non-VAT) enterprises 41 . This gap is to be expected.

Many very small businesses do not appear regularly on private sector monitoring databases as a) they often have

low turnover and therefore are not required to register for VAT 42 and b) they are not required to submit full accounts

to Companies House. 43 This requirement to understand this missing tier drives the need to estimate.

In order to deliver the estimation, all firms on TCR are allocated an employment size band, which allows figures to be

weighted to the SME statistics through a grossing procedure. To produce the estimate for the missing tier, given the

near census nature of TCR, it is assumed that records which do not have an employment figure generally fall into the

zero class category.

The businesses with missing employment data that are placed in this zero class category are assigned an estimate

of employment based on their legal status. If a business is registered as a partnership, limited partnership or limited

liability partnership, it is generally given an employment figure of 2. For other legal statuses, businesses are given an

employment figure of 1.

This procedure allows the comparison of TCR against the SME statistics for each two-digit SIC code across all size

bands and then determines the relationship between the business counts of each dataset. This relationship is

calculated as a grossing factor, which is then used to weight the businesses on the TCR dataset that are in a particular

SIC or size band so that TCR is more like the SME statistics and more representative of the whole economy.

For example, if TCR had one business in a certain SIC and size band, but BIS SME statistics showed five businesses in

the same SIC and size band, then the grossing factor would be five (i.e. five divided by one) because the TCR number

should be five times higher. Given the “near census” flag, it is only the smaller companies on the TCR dataset that are

weighted, namely the zero class (or non-VAT enterprises). Once this process has been completed, the TCR dataset is

then ready to carry out analysis across all industries and geographies.

TCR contains site employment both for branches and HQs. Therefore large multisite firms have their employment

distributed appropriately, with only HQ site employment being recorded at the HQ location (rather than total company

employment). This removes the potential for any double counting.

39 The IDBR only covers VAT and PAYE registered businesses, which means that a significant proportion of sole traders and micro businesses are not

covered within these statistics.

40 http://stats.bis.gov.uk/ed/sme/

41 These non-VAT enterprises are generally self-employed sole traders or partnerships but can also be self-employed people operating under a limited

company legal status.

42 http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/vat/start/register/when-to-register.htm

43 http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1073791254&type=RESOURCES


Chapter 8 Appendix

For this research, the master database is used as the sample and the grossing factors are applied to

that in order to estimate the size of the total population. However, because the database includes

businesses that may not be Heritage Craft, this is an estimate of the potential size of the sector. Step 4

is required to validate the sample and subsequently produce the final population estimate.

In order to deliver step 4, a two-stage telephone survey was undertaken with a representative sample of

the potential population. The two stages were as follows:

1 A series of questions to validate Heritage Craft activity/relevance to the study.

2 For those businesses engaged in Heritage Crafts, a series of questions about the nature of business

activities, employees, markets and revenue, education and training provided/undertaken, and the

future prospects of the business.

The outcomes of stage one of the survey were used to moderate the population estimate. Proportions

for exclusion were calculated by employment size, group and subgroup, and applied to the original

potential population estimate.

In total, 2,478 businesses participated in the survey, with 762 participating in both stages one and two.

A copy of the survey is available as an annexe to this report.

8.1.3.1 Stage one validation tests

In order to validate whether a business should or should not be included, the first stage of the

survey included a series of questions that would identify non-Heritage Craft businesses and use this

information to moderate the estimates of sector size. The validation tests applied were as follows:

The respondent must:

• Make money from their craft

• Use hand tools and/or execute skilled, part-automated processes

• Create items that are functional, traditional in design and/or decorative – but are not conceptually

driven art. 44

This created a problem in some areas where businesses might fulfil these criteria, but still not be truly

considered to be Heritage Craft. This was mainly the case in the crafts that are construction trades,

such as carpentry and joinery, plastering, painting, glazing etc. One argument is that however these

skills are applied, the crafts are fundamentally Heritage. However, because of the variability in the

application of skill, it was decided for the purpose of this research that it was important to verify the

intent of these businesses with regard to Heritage Craft activity, i.e. is some or all of the business activity

specifically Heritage in its intent or application? For this reason, all construction-related categories were

first screened to determine the business intent.

44 The respondent may combine conceptual art with one of the other three activities, but it must not be their sole activity.

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The final aspect of stage one was to ask all respondents who declined to participate if, before closing

the call, they would be willing to confirm whether they would consider their business to be part of the

Heritage Craft sector according to the definition statement.

Naturally there are always some respondents who refuse to provide information of any kind. However,

the detailed nature of stage one of the survey, plus the structuring of the sample 45 meant that it was

not necessary to adjust for non-response bias.

The call outcomes summary for the survey is as follows:

Table 38: Call outcomes summary

Call outcomes

Number of

businesses

Attempted calls 9,984

No outcome46 5,566

Refused to provide any information 1,940

Participated in stage one 2,478

Participated in stage two

(TBR Ref: W13/S1)

762

The following table provides details on the number and source of business records involved in the

process of determining the final population estimate and the final number of firms in the footprint.

Table 39: Business records used in determining population record and source

Firms after

Firms after applying exclusions

Firms on TCR de-duplicating rules developed

Group Firms on TCR + web harvest and weighting from survey

Animal 1,193 1,600 2,495 1,030

Clay 2,252 3,187 9,711 4,370

Glass 4,309 5,154 16,127 4,570

Guns 393 393 1,489 660

Instruments 994 1,429 3,302 2,130

Jewellery 195 195 497 120

Metal 5,468 7,417 16,437 7,140

Paint 12,410 13,370 70,520 21,460

Paper 2,014 2,123 6,770 1,670

Plaster 4,686 4,830 22,952 11,460

Precious metals 526 1,204 1,433 1,010

Stone 1,543 1,968 5,868 2,490

Textiles 7,769 8,381 21,289 7,970

Toys & automata 487 496 853 100

Vehicles 475 481 1,041 900

Wood & plant 9,190 9,843 25,966 16,400

Total 53,904 62,071 206,750 83,480

Source: TCR 2012 and multi-source web-harvest data (TBR Ref: W12/S1)

45 The survey sample was structured by size and activity, and weighting was carried out on this basis. Quotas were set and monitored to ensure

confidence that the results sufficiently reflected the population.

46 These are calls which did not deliver any information of use to the survey. This might be for a number of reasons.

For example, answering machines, person not present for call back, wrong numbers, busy lines or unanswered lines.


Chapter 8 Appendix

8.1.4 Modelling demographic and value added data

In designing the questionnaire to be used at step 4, the decision was taken not to include questions

on the demographic characteristics of employees. Whilst sole traders would have been able to answer

these questions accurately, such information gathered from employers can be unreliable and based on

guesswork. In addition, respondents often decline to provide such information.

There was also concern that, as it would be challenging to collect relatively straightforward data on

turnover through the survey, the string of financial information required to calculate GVA would be

provided by so few respondents that the return of information would not justify the cost of collecting it.

As such, an alternative method was used to model data.

Step 5 is therefore based on the methodology employed in developing Creative & Cultural Skills’

footprint statistics and uses best-fit SICs to understand trends in employment demographics and GVA,

and to model data obtained through the survey.

8.1.4.1 Workforce demographics

This approach uses trend data from the Annual Population Survey in order to disaggregate the

workforce according to a range of demographic variables:

• Gender

• Age

• Ethnicity

• Disability

• Qualification levels

• Occupational group

Trends are determined using breakdowns of the workforce profile for each variable by the SICs that are

the closest match to the groups. These trends are then applied to final population figures in order to

estimate the demographic profile of the workforce.

A list of the best first SICs used in this process is available in the appendix (chapter 8.5, page 134).

8.1.4.2 GVA

In order to provide an estimate of the GVA produced by the sector, data is used from the Annual

Business Survey (ABS) that describes the relationship between turnover and GVA by SIC.

Turnover is a key element of the GVA calculation; as such, a ratio between levels of turnover and GVA

can be determined. The ABS provides a detailed breakdown of the GVA to turnover ratios for all SICs.

Using this data and the best-fit SICs for each group, it is possible to take proxies for each group and

calculate for every pound sterling of turnover the pounds sterling that are delivered in GVA. This ratio

can then be applied to the turnover data generated from the survey.

It is important to note that in both of these approaches, the figures quoted are not drawn from the

APS or ABS; rather the trends from this data are used to model the data gained through the survey.

The same list of best-fit SICs was used for the GVA calculation as for the workforce demographics.

The list is available in the appendix (Chapter 8.5, page 134).

8.1.5 Modelling employment forecasts

Step 6 again calls on TCR, this time using historical data on employment change in Heritage Craft

businesses between 1999 and 2009 in order to forecast employment patterns going forward.

The database developed and validated in steps 3 and 4 was matched to TCR in order to deliver

the backward employment trend. The backward trend was then used to develop a projection of

employment, which was moderated according to the growth expectations forecast by the Office

for Budget Responsibility.

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8.1.6 Qualitative consultation

Recognising that numbers alone often only tell half a story, the research incorporated a series of 22 indepth

semi-structured interviews with Heritage Craft businesses. These interviews were conducted in sets

in order to deliver in-depth information to support the quantitative analysis, to illustrate the reality of the

sector’s ecology and business, and to consider perceptions of its present and anticipated future prosperity.

Responses to the survey questions provided a basis for the selection of the case studies:

• Stone, which predicted the highest increase in employment.

• Instruments, which predicted the second highest decrease in employment.

• Guns, which has the highest craft GVA per head and predicted an increase in employment.

• Wood & plant – one of the largest groups, which predicted a decrease in employment.

Interviewees were selected according to an urban/rural split. This had the advantage of allowing us to

explore how things work in different locations.

• Stone – drawn from across England, but not from the South East or South West.

• Instruments – drawn from across England, but not from the South East or South West.

• Guns – drawn from across England, but not from the South East or South West.

• Wood & plant – urban interviews from the South East region and rural interviews from the South West.

The interviews were intended to extend our understanding of businesses’ perceptions of drivers, their

markets, and how they approach planning and resources – in particular their supply chains, skills, access

to finance and business development support, networks and technology.

The topic guide for the interviews is provided in the appendix (Chapter 8.4).

In the next stage of research, in order to further explore issues related to supply chains and markets, a

further 16 interviews will be undertaken with suppliers, exhibitors, retailers and stakeholders, drawn

from contacts provided by the business/practitioner interviewees.

8.1.7 Mapping training supply from guilds

In order to gain an understanding of the training provision offered by or through Heritage Craft guilds,

a content analysis of their websites was undertaken. The content analysis considers the different types

of training and education offered via the website and the level of engagement the guilds have with

training delivery.

The content analysis was split into two main stages. First, from the previously established list of Heritage

Craft websites (used to create the master database, see chapter 8.1.2), a sub-list was composed of those

guild websites that contained some information on training or education related to their craft. For example,

if a guild’s website contained information about apprenticeships, this would be included in the sub-list.

Secondly, the websites on the sub-list were then revisited and examined to retrieve information about

the specific type of training being provided (or advertised) through their websites. An overview of the

results of this research is provided in the main body of the report and a detailed summary of findings at

group level is provided in the appendix.

8.1.8 Mapping apprenticeships

To develop an understanding of the supply of formal apprenticeships within the sector, data was

harvested from the National Apprenticeship Service website, using the apprenticeship search engine

to return Heritage Craft apprenticeships that are currently advertised as vacant. To harvest the website,

keywords were used to return relevant apprenticeships. The apprenticeships harvested from the

National Apprenticeship Service website were then segmented into their relevant groups (e.g. Metal,

Wood & plant) to enable a snapshot analysis of apprenticeships currently available.

A similar validation test was used in the search for apprenticeships as that used in the survey –

specifically, the level of hand skill. For example, textile apprenticeships where the training was primarily

machine based were not included in the analysis.

Further data from the National Apprenticeship Service on the number of people starting and achieving

apprenticeships over the last ten years was obtained from the data.gov.uk website.


Chapter 8 Appendix

8.2 Detail on practices and techniques used by group

Group Practices/techniques noted by survey respondents

Work mainly

with leather

Work in

taxidermy

Work mainly

with clay

Work mainly

with glass

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve

guns

• Popular responses with regard to which practices and techniques craftspeople

working with leather used were the cutting of leather and making up of leather

goods.

• Sewing and stitching, completed either by hand or machine, were also

common responses from those working within this sector of Heritage Craft.

• Other recurrent responses stated riveting as a practice used within their trade.

• Less common answers included the attachment of metal fixtures to leather

goods and digital printing.

• The majority of those working within this field employ traditional taxidermy

skills and techniques. It should, however, be noted that there were a few

responses which cite the use of modern materials for model making and

various other practices. This included the casting of fibreglass and the use of

silicon and rubber.

• Besides the actual practice of preserving specimens, a number of those within

this craft have diversified their business to incorporate the production of

display cases and mounts for their goods.

• A common practice amongst those working predominantly with clay was

sculpting.

• Walling was also a very common technique used amongst those involved in

this Heritage Craft, along with moulding solid objects, decorating, firing and

throwing.

• Other associated practices included welding, woodworking and steel

fabrication.

• Respondents also listed the extraction and processing of clay for use.

• There was a lack of continuity between those using hand- or combined

machine-based techniques according to whether their craft involves restoring,

repairing, making or reproducing.

• Cutting, polishing, etching and drilling were commonly noted.

• Glassblowing was less common, along with glass engraving and furnace

working.

• Glass restoration, stained glass working and glass painting were all relatively

common.

• Whilst often using modern tools, techniques were still hand based rather than

computer controlled and, as such, demand a high level of dexterity.

• It is interesting to note that glassworking is often not an isolated practice;

rather, it is often done in conjunction with other crafts such as carpentry and

joinery.

• Most respondents were engaged in gunmaking, with some repair, restoration

and conservation.

• Whilst respondents highlighted alternative practices and methods such as

woodworking, metalworking and engraving (all of which fundamentally

contribute to the production and assembly of guns), they are identified as

individual practices.

• Techniques such as carving, filling, sanding, pinning and boxing are also

mentioned.

• From the responses provided, it appears as though both hand and machine

tools are used across the piece.

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Group Practices/techniques noted by survey respondents

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve

musical

instruments

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve

instruments,

e.g. clocks &

barometers

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve

jewellery

Work mainly

with metal

Work with

paint

Work mainly

with paper

Work with

plaster

• The majority of craftspeople in this group are involved in the repairing and

maintaining of instruments.

• Woodworking and carving were common practices.

• Tuning instruments and working with string instruments was also regularly noted.

• A significant number of those within this group are involved in clock restoration.

• There is little difference apparent between techniques used by those involved

in repairing and maintaining and those restoring instruments. Practices such

as carving, woodturning and cleaning are used by both.

• A combination of hand tools and machines are used to conduct the trade.

However, whilst most use traditional techniques regardless of tool type, a

few have now incorporated new methods into their work, e.g. using ultrasonic

cleaning tanks.

• There is a high degree of crossover between the practices noted in Jewellery

and Precious metals.

• Goldsmithing and silversmithing are practised by the majority of this group.

• Restoration of jewellery, bead threading and bead making are also practised.

• Other techniques include sawing, soldering, milling and polishing, all of which

contribute to the manufacturing of the final product.

• Enamelling is also quite a common technique amongst those making and

reproducing things.

• The most common technique employed in this category is blacksmithing.

• No respondents cited using the following techniques: etching metal,

tinsmithing, coppersmithing and engraving. Therefore, despite a diverse

number of techniques that could be utilised by those working in metal, there is

a far smaller range actually in use.

• It appears as though more craftspeople involved in restoring practices use

hand tools and techniques as opposed to those making and reproducing

products.

• Practices such as marbling, leafing in gold and silver and wallpapering were

commonly noted.

• A moderate proportion of this Heritage Craft sector is also involved in gilding.

• Work is conducted using a variety of materials including wood and glassware.

• Restorative work commands only a small proportion of activity within the

group.

• The practices most commonly used are illumination, papermaking and paper

shaping.

• Calligraphy and lithographic printing are also used by craftspeople within this

group.

• A small number of craftspeople use the practice of lime mortaring to complete

their work. Respondents highlight the fact that it is not a principle technique –

rather, it is employed only when specifically requested by the client.

• Other practices and techniques used include tiling, manufacturing plaster,

making moulds used for plaster, and rendering.


Chapter 8 Appendix

Group Practices/techniques noted by survey respondents

Work mainly

with precious

metals

Work mainly

with stone

Work mainly

with textiles

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve

toys, games

and/or

automata

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve

boats

Make, repair,

restore,

conserve cars

Work mainly

with wood

& plant

materials

• Silversmithing and goldsmithing are by far the most popular practices and

techniques within this group.

• A moderate number of craftspeople answered that they use other techniques

besides those listed. These include French polishing, casting of bronze

sculptures and producing trophies.

• Gold finishing and gilding are less frequently used.

• There is some overlap between craftspeople included in the Precious metals

category and other groups, e.g. Jewellery.

• Work with precious metals is occasionally done in conjunction with the use of

other, less valuable materials, e.g. wax.

• Bricklaying, roofing, stonemasonry, letter cutting and carving stone are utilised

across the group, with bricklaying being the most common.

• There is no real continuity between those using hand tools or machines

depending on whether making, producing, conserving or restoring.

• Upholstery and other manipulated thread works, e.g. sewing.

• Glove making, hand knitting, spinning and dyeing are all practised, though to a

lesser extent.

• The majority of craftspeople working within this group are involved in

woodworking and metal working, both of which are relatively equal in terms of

the number of people practising such skills.

• There is a particularly low proportion of people working with textiles and

assembling ready-made parts.

• A small number of people noted painting and decorating.

• Unlike most other Heritage Crafts, this group also uses electronics.

• A large number of craftspeople are still constructing and producing their goods

by hand.

• All respondents are involved in making or reproducing toys, games and

automata as opposed to restoration.

Craftspeople within this sector appear to specialise either in the manufacture

or repair of one or two components of boats.

• Mechanical engineering skills were widely used amongst those involved in

restoring and manufacturing/reproducing boats.

• Woodworking skills are heavily utilised by those involved in boat building.

• Metalworking and painting are also used, though less frequently.

• Panel beating and painting are commonly used by this group.

• Those craftspeople involved in restoring cars all tend to use similar skills, e.g.

panel beating, hammering, metalwork, whereas there is greater contrast in

techniques used amongst those making or producing goods.

• The most commonly used practice in this group is carpentry, which is used

significantly more than all other practices and techniques in this group.

• Others include caning, thatching, woodturning, marquetry and lacquering.

• A small number of respondents within this Heritage Craft are reliant on “other

skills”, e.g. drawing, which is preliminary to the manufacturing of a large

number of goods in this group.

• A large proportion of work is completed by hand using traditional methods.

However, modern technology, e.g. CNC milling, is also used in some subgroups

to prepare materials for assembly.

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8.3 Learning opportunities provided by guilds and associations by group

Group Overview Nature of provision

Animal • There are two main associations

of saddlers: the Society of Master

Saddlers and The Worshipful Company

of Saddlers.

• Associations offered a variety of

training opportunities, with the Society

of Master Saddlers providing a more

progressive pathway of training that

culminates in the award of formal

qualifications.

• Apprenticeships and scholarships are

available for those wishing to enter into

the profession, combining study with

employment and periodic assessments.

• Whilst there is no specific age of

recipients for the Society of Master

Saddlers, preference is given to young

saddlers by The Worshipful Company

of Saddlers to support their progression.

• The British Footwear Association has

developed a foundation course in

footwear technology for those entering

the footwear trade.

• Online taxidermy tuition is available

to members of the UK Guild of

Taxidermists; there is an additional

annual seminar and conference.

• Formal apprenticeships are provided by the

guilds for saddlers. There is also the opportunity

for modest funding from the guild for these

apprenticeships.

• There is financial support for companies that

employ people within that group type to help

with training. However, the type of training is not

specified.

• In addition, there is a formal training scheme for

saddlery that offers various levels (from beginner

to advanced) to develop skills.

• In terms of the provision of training and educating

saddlers, the guilds are active in formal training

schemes that cover different levels of expertise,

from beginner to advanced.

• The guilds are also used as a mediator to connect

those wanting to be trained with those providing

the training. For example, the Society of Master

Saddlers provides the contact details of members

offering apprenticeships. They also act as

governing body for the apprenticeship to judge

whether the apprenticeships are being delivered

correctly and whether the candidates are meeting

the expected standards.

• There are potential funding opportunities for

candidates provided by the guilds for training

related to the supply of associated Heritage Craft

skills and training.

• The guilds also provide regular short courses (1-4

days) that enable members to participate in

modules to inform them of relevant contemporary

issues in their trade. These modules cover

topics such as health and safety issues and

understanding the supply chain.

• Some of the short-term courses are restricted to

one particular geographical location by the guilds.

The result is that some members might find it more

difficult to attend these courses and modules that

can inform them about important issues.

• The guilds make little use of online training and

education, which could be a potential means to

overcome/mediate the geographical fixity of some

courses.

• The provision of apprenticeships is widespread

throughout England and dependent on the

number of employers in the craft trade willing to

provide these apprenticeships.


Chapter 8 Appendix

Group Overview Nature of provision

Clay • There are a number of guilds, societies

and associations, not confined

to merely one central body, i.e.

represented in regions and counties.

• A large number of organisations host

exhibitions rather than workshops and

“hands-on” training activities.

• A few websites have sections for

advertising courses and workshops but

have none listed at present, suggesting

that training is not always available.

• Classes and workshops offered are for

hobbyists rather than for professional

development, with none of those

advertised resulting in a formal

qualification being awarded.

• The provision of training and education provided

by the guilds associated with the Clay group are

predominantly short-term courses (1 to 4 days).

• The short term courses are mainly entry-level

courses and are given by members of the guilds for

a small fee (£20 to £150).

• The method applied in the short term courses

is usually experienced members providing a

demonstration and the participants attempting to

copy them.

• Talks and presentations are also a popular

educational activity in the Clay group. These

provide the opportunity for more informal and less

structured learning of the craft.

• Exhibitions are also common.

• The supply of training in the Clay group is relatively

strong for short-term courses aimed at entry level.

• The guilds offer many opportunities to those

wanting to learn the craft at entry level. Interested

parties should be able to find a short course nearby.

• The guilds lack the provision of longer-term

educational training that would enable members

to learn the craft as a profession.

• There is an absence of the guilds providing

apprenticeships in the craft.

• There are no qualifications in the crafts awarded by

the guilds.

• The short-term courses are geographically

dispersed throughout England and (potentially)

reflect the popularity of pottery as a hobby.

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Group Overview Nature of provision

Generic • Courses/workshops are available,

covering a whole spectrum of Heritage

Crafts, which generally seem to be

short term and evening based, with the

additional option of private tuition.

• Courses do not seem to result in a

qualification; they are just for pleasure.

• Some guilds provide practical

demonstrations where artists take

students through the experience of

producing their craft objects.

• Some websites have sections for

the listing of training courses, but at

present do not have any available to

attend.

• Exhibitions are commonplace but it

is questionable as to whether this

constitutes education/training.

• Financial grant support is available for

some Heritage Craft apprentices or

trainees.

• Workshops that have business

development training sessions are

available.

• Some of the guilds take Heritage Craft

education to the schools. Artists of the

guilds visit schools and work with the

pupils to create craft objects. This is an

opportunity to disseminate Heritage

Craft skills to young people and

stimulate their interest. At present, this

is not extensively done by guilds. For

example, Suffolk Craft Society is one of

the few guilds that offer this training

activity.

• Few guilds offer qualifications that are

connected with long (1+years) parttime

courses.

Glass • In terms of information relating to

education and training provided

on surveyed websites, a significant

number of courses seem to culminate

in formal qualifications at educational

institutions, e.g. National Diploma,

Higher National Diploma, BTEC, BA

and MA.

• Long listings of short-term courses

and private tuition for individuals and

groups (just for hobbyists).

• Shows and exhibitions, which are common, provide

the opportunity for informally networked learning

that is less structured and is developed through

encountering and exchanging workers within the

Heritage Craft sector.

• Education from the guilds, to a certain extent, is

dependent upon a volunteer ethic where members

give up spare time to run one-off or short-term

courses or lectures.

• Members of guilds that run courses and classes

sometimes charge for their services.

• The generic guilds are strong in supplying entrylevel

educational experiences for Heritage Craft

skills. Overall, these courses are based on an

informal structure with little emphasis on providing

qualifications for participants.

• There are relatively few instances of web-based

learning for developing Heritage Craft skills.

• There is the provision of funding, mentoring,

“professional development” to support craft makers

in their business and practice, as well as internships.

There is some business development support from

generic craft guilds, but these are relatively few in

comparison to the predominance of informal types

of learning. Training is also more aimed at shortterm

courses/workshops.

• Short-term courses are the mainstay of the

education and training provided by the guilds in

the Glass group.

• Classes are aimed at the entry and intermediate

levels to learn and develop the craft.

• The main technique of training in the Glass group

is done by demonstrating and experiencing (e.g.

learning from an expert and attempting to copy

their skills).


Chapter 8 Appendix

Group Overview Nature of provision

Guns • There is only one principle organisation

for gunsmiths. A search revealed plenty

of active gunsmith branches but no

other governing bodies/guilds.

• The aim is to maintain a high level

of craftsmanship through mentoring

provided by members of the Livery –

resulting in admission to the society

and earning trainees the Freedom

of the Gunmakers’ Company (not an

official qualification).

• There were no details of official course

dates or event information.

• The organisation provides small grants

for the education and training of

gunmakers.

Instruments • Making and restoring clocks and

barometers. All but one organisation

surveyed offered some form of

educational programme, either in the

form of a lecture series or structured

training.

• Courses may lead to an official

examination prior to the awarding of

a certificate and qualification. Various

levels of award are available, e.g. the

British Horological Institute offers

training that is examined and leads to

the awarding of a certificate.

• Making and restoring musical

instruments: this seems to have fewer

current opportunities for training.

Whilst web pages have sections for

education and courses, no ongoing or

upcoming events were listed.

• The guild offers an apprenticeship scheme, with

the potential for funding, which aims to improve

the skills of the craft.

• The guild also provides a limited amount of funds

for supporting the training of persons already

employed within the craft.

• The apprenticeship is business oriented and

recognises that the skills required to be a

professional gunmaker need to preserve the

traditional skills and inform the trainee of the

modern-day techniques necessary to make the

craft products competitive in the marketplace.

• The supply of training is aimed at producing

professionals in the craft or increasing/developing

the skills of those persons already in the craft.

• There is nothing provided at entry level for this

craft. This could cause a potential barrier for

capturing persons that are interested in the craft

but unable to commit to a long-term course initially

(e.g. an apprenticeship).

• No information about the geographical location of

the courses was provided by the guild.

• Seminars and workshops are predominantly the

training supplied from the guilds in the Instruments

group.

• The seminars and workshops are practical, with

demonstrations from experts in the craft.

• Lectures are also on offer from the guilds, with an

emphasis on learning the knowledge and history

of the craft (i.e. knowledge-based rather than

practical-based training).

• The guilds also provide some bursaries for

participants for longer-term courses at university.

• The guilds are mediators (i.e. they provide links) for

the supply of apprenticeships and link the demand

with the supply.

• The short-term seminars and workshops supply

entry-level training in the craft(s).

• There is a lack of training supplied by the guilds

that would be classified as “next-step” training for

the craft.

• The guilds are active as mediators in providing

apprenticeship training schemes in the craft.

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Group Overview Nature of provision

Jewellery 47 • Lots of jewellery making courses are

listed on websites. These are organised

and run via external organisations and

companies.

• The majority of courses do not lead to

a formal qualification being awarded

following the completion of courses.

• However, certain companies listed on

the main websites surveyed that offer

courses also run a number of one-day

sessions which result in certification,

e.g. art clay certification.

Metal • Lots of training opportunities are

available within this group, either

in the form of adult evening classes,

workshops or lecture series (not

leading to qualifications, just for

hobby and interest).

• Different lengths of courses are

available, e.g. a weekend or longer,

weekly classes.

• There is a list of institutions offering

formal qualifications, e.g. in the

stained glass window trade, students

can complete courses which lead to

National Diploma, Higher National

Diploma, BTEC, BA and MA.

• Both short-term and long-term courses

are available.

• Scholarships and work placements

are also awarded to students within

this field.

Paper • Multiple courses, workshops and

exhibitions are available, covering

a range of different paper-based

activities, e.g. medieval manuscript

illumination, Persian biomorphic design.

• There are extensive lists of training

providers nationwide.

• Courses do not seem to lead to formal

qualifications. However, there are

various different competency levels

available, for different durations.

• Residential courses are also available

(calligraphy) but once again do not

lead to formal qualifications.

47 See Precious metals for training activity strongly related to Jewellery.

• Short-term courses are the main supply of

education and skills training provided by the

jewellery guilds.

• Some of the courses are business oriented and

aimed at improving the business skills of those in

the craft, with a focus on topics such as marketing

skills, finance, selling techniques, using social media

and building a client database.

• Members of guilds offer courses/workshops that

are short-term, with a main focus on establishing

entry-level skills.

• Some workshops offered by the guilds and their

members are tailored to the needs and skills of the

individuals participating on the course. Therefore,

if the individuals want to obtain advanced training,

then this is possible.

• The guilds offer support for training by providing

discounts to courses in jewellery making.

• It is recognised that craft skills training also

needs to be supplemented with business training

for the profession.

• Some courses are tailored to the specific

requirements of the recipient of the training.

• Entry-level courses are relatively widely available.

• Courses for more advanced or next-step training

are more remote.

• The supply of skills training is a mixture of formal

education with recognised qualifications, and

informal training in the form of introduction

classes and workshops.

• There are also apprenticeships in the Metal groups.

The guilds do not provide the apprenticeships but

are important mediators that connect the suppliers

with those persons demanding the training.

• Metal is one of the few groups where the guilds

provide training that covers a range of levels, from

entry-level to next-step and advanced training.

• There seems to be an absence of online training,

which could represent a lack of demand for this

type of training.

• Courses do exist, but few offer formal qualifications.

These courses cater for new and existing Paper

workers. Many courses are provided by existing

Paper workers. Signposting also exists via some of

the guilds. The guilds within the Paper group offer

good provision of informal workshops, courses and

exhibitions.

• There are few formal relationships with education

providers.

• Courses are available in the Midlands, Cornwall

and East of England, and signposting highlights

opportunities across the country.


Chapter 8 Appendix

Group Overview Nature of provision

Plaster • There is a central guild for plasterers.

• No courses are mentioned specifically.

However, given that bursaries and

scholarships are available to contribute

to “fees for existing courses where no

other support is available”, there clearly

is educational training available in this

trade.

Precious

metals

• Lots of courses are available which

offer the chance to achieve a formal

qualification in a variety of fields within

this subgroup, e.g. jewellers’ diploma

and business diploma.

• Courses are also available which

cater for all abilities, either to provide

basic knowledge or to build on

existing knowledge gained from the

undertaking of a previous course.

• “Drop-in” classes are on offer for those

who have already completed a six-week

tuition course.

• Details of further education institutions

were provided.

Stone • The Dry Stone Walling Association

offers regular educational day events

to increase awareness about the trade.

• There are a range of methods through

which training is delivered, ranging

from one- or two-day courses, lasting

3-12 months, to studying combined

with apprenticeships delivered by

employers.

• Courses are offered which build on

existing knowledge gained from

elementary-level training. The

Worshipful Company of Masons works

in close alliance with The Building

Crafts College and City and Guilds of

London Art School – the first of which

provides courses for the carpentry

trade.

• A wide number of bursaries and

scholarships are available across the

subgroups to those wishing to study a

Heritage Craft where a qualification

will be awarded, e.g. City & Guilds

qualification, NVQ3, etc. in stone

carving.

• There is no signposting and no courses are offered

by the one central guild for plasterers. A bursary

is offered to help people access training abroad,

wage subsidy and mentoring.

• Seminars and workshops provide informal training,

whilst diplomas provide a qualification. The

diplomas are offered by the National Association

of Goldsmiths and are formal qualifications. There

are also apprenticeships available, although these

are currently under development.

• There is more formal training provision available

here than in other groups. There are also links

to apprenticeships and training providers to

help those looking at more formal routes into

the Precious metal trade. The training available

appears to bridge the gap between informal and

short courses to more formal development of

people’s skills.

• Workshops, seminars and lectures are the most

popular form of provision within Stone craft.

Practical work, apprenticeships and certificates

are also available. However, these are not as

widespread as the informal opportunities that exist.

• The workshops and seminars are more likely to be

offered as CPD to build the skills of stoneworkers.

As a result, progression routes are not as apparent.

There is some information, such as City & Guilds,

NVQ and apprenticeship information, but this is

outweighed by the CPD that is available.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Group Overview Nature of provision

Textiles • Both non-award short courses and

qualification-level courses are offered

across the different subgroups.

• Ongoing development of a syllabus for

formal qualifications is to be offered

at training centres. The aim will be

to maintain the high standard of

craftsmanship across the trade (The

Worshipful Company of Upholders of

the City of London).

• Within the weaving subgroup,

scholarships and other forms of

financial support are available to

students wishing to attend specific

educational institutions to study

approved courses.

• Individual tuition is available for

upholstery trades. Such training

appears to be for hobbyists and

personal interest purposes rather than

for professional development.

Toys &

automata

• Only one organisation was researched

for this subgroup.

• There is no particular education/course

programme. However, the Bespoked

Bristol festival provides an opportunity

for bicycle fanatics to socialise with

fellow artisans and discuss ideas.

• There is an exhibition of various

heritage bicycle makers at the

cycling event.

Vehicles • Searches of the internet revealed very

few vehicle-related organisations.

Of those identified, none offered

educational activities/courses.

• Scholarships are available for young

students identified as being gifted in

this area of craftsmanship.

• Occasional meetings are organised, e.g.

rallies, which are often held as part of

larger events.

Wood & plant • Some larger organisations that might

be expected to offer educational

activities did not do so, such as The

Worshipful Company of Basketmakers.

• By contrast, certain subgroups, such

as woodturning and carpenters &

joiners, were well represented in terms

of education provision; both national

and regional bodies provide details of

courses and workshops.

• Carpentry has its own institution

for training, providing formal

qualifications via the Building Crafts

College. All courses work towards

either diplomas, NVQ awards,

or are apprenticeship schemes.

• There is a lot of provision for training in Textiles;

this includes taster courses, formal qualifications,

informal qualifications and CPD.

• As such, there is a clear progression route for those

that would like to develop their skills and become

involved in the sector. Many of those that operate

in the sector also appear to be part of the learning

environment and support the progression of others

within the industry. This progression also supports

those in higher education through funds and

bursaries.

• Strengths exist in the provision of training across

the country and the ability of the guilds to provide

signposting.

• Very little information is available for this subgroup

and, as such, it is difficult to provide an overall

perspective on the training opportunities available.

• From what information is available, it is clear

that little training is offered and there is not a

lot of information for those wanting to develop

their skills.

• There is very little information available for this

subgroup and, as such, it is difficult to provide an

overall perspective on the training opportunities

available.

• From what information is available, it is clear

that little training is offered and there is not a

lot of information for those wanting to develop

their skills.

• Seminars and workshops are predominantly the

type of training supplied by the guilds within the

Wood & plant group. But because of the number

of guilds, there are also opportunities for online

learning and qualifications.

• Much of the training provision is practical-based,

with demonstrations from experts in the craft.

• Seminars and workshops provide entry-level

training in the Wood & plant crafts. There is also

training available at other levels and bursaries for

those wanting to study at more advanced levels.


Chapter 8 Appendix

Mike Turnock

Photography by Robin Wood/Heritage Crafts Association

Interviews with Heritage

Craft practitioners focused

on their perceptions of

business drivers, the

market for Heritage Craft

and their approaches to

planning and resources.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

8.4 In-depth interview discussion guides

The discussion guides were designed to probe further into themes covered in the survey to extend our

understanding of businesses’ perceptions of drivers, their markets, and how they approach planning

and resources – in particular their supply chains, skills, access to finance and business development

support, networks and technology.

Drivers

The questions below are intended to pursue a number of issues raised in the survey – to flesh out,

validate and extend our understanding beyond conclusions that might be drawn from the desk research.

It should, for example, provide us with perceptions of whether and how government policies, economic,

social, technological, legal, or environmental drivers are expected to impact on jobs/occupations and

skills needs.

• What drives your business now and will these drivers be the same or different in the next two to three

years? What are your priorities? (PROMPTS: government growth initiatives, regulation, environmental

sustainability, historic environment and landscape conservation and management)

• Who is your market, where are they and how do they know about you?

• What would you say are the current and future opportunities and challenges of the market?

Strategy and planning

We’re interested in how you think about the future of your business and its sustainability:

• How do you go about planning for your business?

• Given the drivers that we’ve just discussed, do you anticipate that how you plan for the future is going

to be different to how you currently plan? If so, why?

• How does the business meet its financial targets and what role do Heritage Craft skills play in this?

• How do you build a reputation for delivering quality – indeed, how do you define quality? (i.e. do they

have BSI kitemarks, is it about the service alongside the product, all about word of mouth, or is it

through pricing?)

• What does success look like – now and for the future?

• What are the values that motivate your practice/business? (PROMPTS: financial, cultural,

environmental). Which value is most important to you?

• Are you planning to develop the use of digital technologies for your business? If so, how and why?

(e.g. digital technology can be important to businesses in various ways: improving communications,

marketing, retailing, management, design and production, skills training.)


Chapter 8 Appendix

Supply chain

We’re interested in your supply chain partly because of how sourcing materials may contribute to the

viability of your work, and partly because of its impact on the environment and local economy.

• Where are your suppliers based? (e.g. local, regional, national and international)

• Do you have current or future concerns about suppliers of materials or equipment for your business?

(e.g. cost, lack of availability, competition for materials and the market, quality of materials,

environmental considerations, e.g. production of materials, transport, health and safety, etc.

Skills supply

A key aspect of this research is to understand current and future skills and workforce needs and issues

around Heritage Crafts:

• What are the likely future challenges and opportunities with respect to your workforce skills, training

and development?

• For a one-man business only: Are you planning to train people to succeed you in the business?

• What are your views on the future of your craft?

Access to finance and business development support

It’s often difficult for small businesses to access funding or various kinds of support.

• Are you aware of support and services available to you, such as that provided by Business Link,

local advice websites (e.g. Norfolk Rural Business Advice Service), or craft/creative industry-specific

services (e.g. Crafts Council website, Creative & Cultural Skills business survival toolkit or local creative

industries agency)?

• Have you used or are you intending to use these? If so, which, when and why?

Networks (not explored in survey)

We’re interested in how businesses can, and do, benefit from contact with others: access to information,

shared resources, etc.

Are you involved in any informal networks, formal business or craft guilds, or other networks and

organisations locally or nationally that promote and support business and craft development (e.g. local

Chambers of Commerce; the Federation of Small Businesses; the Heritage Crafts Association; guilds;

cultural and creative industries networks, e.g. Creative North Yorkshire; online networks, e.g. Sustainable

Craft Networks, or online networks, such as LinkedIn)?

• What are the benefits to your business of being involved in these?

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

8.5 ‘Best-fit’ SIC definition

Sector Sub-Sector UKSIC07 SIC description

Animal Equine leather 1511 Tanning and dressing of leather; dressing

and dyeing of fur

Leather clothing and

accessories

1520 Manufacture of footwear

Leather luggage 1512 Manufacture of luggage, handbags and

the like, saddlery and harness

Leather preparation 1511 Tanning and dressing of leather; dressing

and dyeing of fur

Making, restoring and

conserving other leather

objects

1511 Tanning and dressing of leather; dressing

and dyeing of fur

Taxidermy 3299 Other manufacturing not elsewhere

classified (n.e.c.)

Clay Clay construction, building,

restoration and conservation

2331 Manufacture of ceramic tiles and flags

Making, finishing, restoring and

conserving clay objects

2331 Manufacture of ceramic tiles and flags

Making, finishing, restoring and

conserving clay objects

Making, finishing, restoring and

conserving clay objects

2341 Manufacture of ceramic household and

ornamental articles

9529 Repair of other personal and household

goods

Tile installation 4339 Other building completion and finishing

Tile making 2331 Manufacture of ceramic tiles and flags

Glass Decoration, e.g. engraving,

painting

9003 Artistic creation

Glass construction, building,

restoration and conservation

4334 Painting and glazing

Making, fabrication and

restoration of glass objects

2312 Shaping and processing of flat glass

Making, fabrication and

restoration of glass objects

2313 Manufacture of hollow glass

Making, fabrication and 2319 Manufacture and processing of other

restoration of glass objects

glass, including technical glassware

Stained glass 2312 Shaping and processing of flat glass

Stained glass 2313 Manufacture of hollow glass

Guns Gunsmithing 2540 Manufacture of weapons and

ammunition

Gunsmithing 3311 Repair of fabricated metal products


Chapter 8 Appendix

Sector Sub-Sector UKSIC07 SIC description

Instruments Making and restoring clocks

and barometers

Making and restoring clocks

and barometers

Making and restoring clocks

and barometers

Making and restoring musical

instruments

Making and restoring musical

instruments

Making and restoring musical

instruments

2651 Manufacture of instruments and

appliances for measuring, testing and

navigation

2652 Manufacture of watches and clocks

9525 Repair of watches, clocks and jewellery

3220 Manufacture of musical instruments

3319 Repair of other equipment

9529 Repair of other personal and household

goods

Jewellery Jewellery making 3213 Manufacture of imitation jewellery and

related articles

Metal Architectural metalwork 2511 Manufacture of metal structures and

parts of structures

Architectural metalwork 2512 Manufacture of doors and windows of

metal

Blacksmiths and forgers 2562 Machining

Decorative and ornamental

metalwork

Decorative and ornamental

metalwork

Decorative and ornamental

metalwork

Decorative and ornamental

metalwork

2451 Casting of iron

2512 Manufacture of doors and windows of

metal

2550 Forging, pressing, stamping and rollforming

of metal; powder metallurgy

2572 Manufacture of locks and hinges

Fabricated metalwork 2591 Manufacture of steel drums and similar

containers

Farrier 162 Support activities for animal production

Foundry 2550 Forging, pressing, stamping and rollforming

of metal; powder metallurgy

Hand tools, e.g. knives, cutlery 2571 Manufacture of cutlery

Hand tools, e.g. knives, cutlery 2573 Manufacture of tools

Hand tools, e.g. knives, cutlery 3311 Repair of fabricated metal products

Leadwork 4391 Roofing activities

Leadwork 4399 Other specialised construction activities

n.e.c.

Metal furniture makers 3101 Manufacture of office and shop furniture

Metal furniture makers 3109 Manufacture of other furniture

Wrought iron 2512 Manufacture of doors and windows of

metal

Wrought iron 2812 Manufacture of fluid power equipment

Paint Decoration 4334 Painting and glazing

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Sector Sub-Sector UKSIC07 SIC description

Paper Calligraphy and illumination 9003 Artistic creation

Papermaking and paper

shaping

Papermaking and paper

shaping

Papermaking and paper

shaping

Printing, pressing and

bookbinding

Printing, pressing and

bookbinding

Printing, pressing and

bookbinding

1712 Manufacture of paper and paperboard

1724 Manufacture of wallpaper

1729 Manufacture of other articles of paper

and paperboard n.e.c.

1812 Other printing

1813 Pre-press and pre-media services

1814 Binding and related services

Plaster Plastering 4331 Plastering

Precious metals Engraving and finishing 1814 Binding and related services

Engraving and finishing 2561 Treatment and coating of metals

Engraving and finishing 3109 Manufacture of other furniture

Engraving and finishing 3212 Manufacture of jewellery and related

articles

Engraving and finishing 9525 Repair of watches, clocks and jewellery

Goldsmithing and

silversmithing

Goldsmithing and

silversmithing

3212 Manufacture of jewellery and related

articles

9525 Repair of watches, clocks and jewellery

Stone Bricklaying 4399 Other specialised construction activities

n.e.c.

Carving and letter cutting 1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials

Dry stone walling 4399 Other specialised construction activities

n.e.c.

Stonemasonry 4399 Other specialised construction activities

n.e.c.


Chapter 8 Appendix

Sector Sub-Sector UKSIC07 SIC description

Textiles Making, restoring and

conserving clothing and

accessories

Toys &

automata

Making, restoring and

conserving clothing and

accessories

Making, restoring and

conserving clothing and

accessories

Making, restoring and

conserving clothing and

accessories

Making, restoring and

conserving furnishings

Making, restoring and

conserving other textiles,

e.g. felt, sails, nets, ropes

Making, restoring and

conserving other textiles,

e.g. felt, sails, nets, ropes

Making, restoring and

conserving textile products

1413 Manufacture of other outerwear

1414 Manufacture of underwear

1419 Manufacture of other wearing apparel

and accessories

9529 Repair of other personal and household

goods

1392 Manufacture of made-up textile articles,

except apparel

1394 Manufacture of cordage, rope, twine and

netting

3319 Repair of other equipment

1399 Manufacture of other textiles n.e.c.

Spinning, weaving and dyeing 1310 Preparation and spinning of textile fibres

Spinning, weaving and dyeing 1320 Weaving of textiles

Spinning, weaving and dyeing 1330 Finishing of textiles

Tailoring and dressmaking 1413 Manufacture of other outerwear

Toys & automata 3240 Manufacture of games and toys

Vehicles Vehicle manufacture

and restoration – boat

Vehicle manufacture

and restoration – boat

Vehicle manufacture

and restoration – boat

Vehicle manufacture

and restoration – cars

Vehicle manufacture

and restoration – cars

3011 Building of ships and floating structures

3012 Building of pleasure and sporting boats

3315 Repair and maintenance of ships and

boats

3099 Manufacture of other transport

equipment n.e.c.

3317 Repair and maintenance of transport

equipment n.e.c.

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Appendix

Sector Sub-Sector UKSIC07 SIC description

Wood

& plant

Antique restoration and repair 9529 Repair of other personal and household

goods

Basketry 1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials

Basketry 9529 Repair of other personal and household

goods

Brooms and brushes 3291 Manufacture of brooms and brushes

Carpenters and joiners 1623 Manufacture of other builders’ carpentry

and joinery

Carpenters and joiners 4332 Joinery installation

Carpenters and joiners 4399 Other specialised construction activities

n.e.c.

Furniture and cabinet makers 3101 Manufacture of office and shop furniture

Furniture and cabinet makers 3109 Manufacture of other furniture

Furniture and cabinet repair/

restoration

9524 Repair of furniture and home furnishings

Ladder manufacturer 1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials

Making and finishing other

wooden objects

1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials

Picture framing and restoration 1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials

Picture framing and restoration 4778 Other retail sale of new goods in

specialised stores

Sculptors and wood carvers 1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials

Thatching 4391 Roofing activities

Woodturning 1629 Manufacture of other products of wood;

manufacture of articles of cork, straw and

plaiting materials


Chapter 9 Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments

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Creative & Cultural Skills Mapping Heritage Craft

Acknowledgements

9 Acknowledgements

Creative & Cultural Skills would like to thank everyone who was involved in the research for Mapping

Heritage Craft. In particular, we would like to thank our sponsors BIS, and the hard work and dedication

of the research steering group. We would also like to thank all of the Heritage Craft practitioners that

gave their time to either the research survey or in-depth interviews.

Steering Group

• Robin Wood – Heritage Crafts Association

• Greta Bertram – Heritage Crafts Association

• Emily Cherrington – Assistant Private Secretary to

TRH The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall

• Jo Reilly – Heritage Lottery Fund

• Lee Bryer – ConstructionSkills

• Joy Russell – English Heritage

We would also like to thank:

• Peter Martin – Lantra

• Jonathan Yewdall – BIS

• Dr James Evans – CFE Research

• Fiona Dodd – TBR

• Anna Morgan – TBR

• Sara Selwood – Pomegranate

• Victoria Pirie – Pomegranate

• Nick How – Qa Research

• Hilary Jennings – Independent Consultant

• Maryanne Murray – Project


This research has been led by Fiona Dodd, Head of Research at TBR, in association with Qa research

and POMEGRANATE.

TBR is an economic development and research consultancy with niche skills in understanding the

dynamics of local, regional and national economies, sectors, clusters and markets. TBR has a wealth of

experience in delivering mapping and skills based research in the creative and cultural industries and

related sectors. TBR celebrated its 25th year in business in 2011 and is proud to continue providing

invaluable evidence and knowledge, from which strategic decisions can be made.

www.tbr.co.uk

POMEGRANATE works across the cultural industries by providing research and analysis, and supporting

organisational change and development. We help our clients make effective use of their resources and

data in order to plan and deliver successfully, and become more resilient.

Partners: Sara Selwood & Victoria Pirie

www.pomegranateseeds.co.uk

Qa Research is an award winning full service social and market research agency specialising in a range

of sectors including travel and tourism, education, healthcare, business and skills.

We provide a wide range of innovative qualitative and quantitative research techniques, tailored to the

needs of the audience in order to build trust, encourage openness & honesty therefore providing high

quality and accurate data. We are accredited to ISO:20252 and are a Market Research Society (MRS)

Company Partner.

www.qaresearch.co.uk

Published in October 2012

Creative and Cultural Industries Ltd is registered in England as a Charity No. 1105974

and as a limited company by guarantee No. 5122855 at Lafone House, The Leathermarket,

Weston Street, London SE1 3HN.

All photography © Briony Campbell, except images by Robin Wood/Heritage Crafts Association

and Paul Felix

Design by Project

www.thisisproject.com


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