Aviation Civile


Aviation Civile



A publication of the Directorate General for Civil Aviation

N° 358 June 2011 / 3,05 e


AIR Show

Le BouRget

07- Environmental


17- International


23- Aeronautics




2 3

Special Issue

Paris Air Show

Le Bourget 2011


IntErVIEws wIth… sustAInAblE dEVElopmEnt: whAt progrEss?

04- Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet,

minister for Ecology, Sustainable Development,

Transport and Housing.

05- Thierry Mariani,

secretary of State for Transport.

06- Jean-Paul Herteman,

chairman of the GIFAS,

organiser of the Paris Air Show Le Bourget.

Aviation Civile, publication of the Directorate General for Civil Aviation, Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable development,

Transport and Housing, 50 rue Henry-Farman, 75720 Paris cedex 15. Tel.: switchboard 01 58 09 43 21 - Editorial

01 58 09 44 27 - fax 01 58 09 38 64 - http:/www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr. Director of Publication: Patrick Gandil.

Editor in chief: Daniel Bascou. Design and production: . Technical editor in chief: Nesma Kharbache.

Artistic director: Éric Daumont. Picture research: Marion Capera. Layout: Isabelle Tho. Editorial

secretary: Florence Violet. Production manager: Marie-France Fournier. Cover photo: Marie-Ange

Froissart/Photothèque STAC. Printing: Imprimerie de Montligeon. Joint Committee: 0510B07366.

Legal deposit: June 2011. Reproduction authorised subject to permission from the editor. A single

issue e3,05, subscription e26.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011


The Council for civil aeronautics

research is designing the aircraft

of the future.

10- SeSAR

The SESAR programme

delivers its first tools.

11- eTS

Reduction in emissions

of CO 2 in sight.


An exemplary approach.

14- eNeRgY

Alternative fuels given

full-scale tests.


Airports in the era of the

Grenelle Forum.


The vice-president of

the European Commission

for transport emphasises

the importance of European


_The Franco-Russian

SaM146 engine,

which powers the

Sukhoï Superjet 100.



VEry ACtIVE IntErnAtIonAl CoopErAtIon


The “aeronautics” ambassadors.


French style engineer training.


India is betting on French know-how.

AEronAutICs Industry At

thE lEAdIng EdgE


A tight schedule for the new aircraft.

25- ATR

2011, the year of the -600 series.



The Falcon “EASy II”, compatible with EGNOS.

27- LUTz BeRTLINg,

chairman of Eurocopter, presents

the prospects in the Chinese market.


Chairman of the avionics business at Thales.

29- C919

The Chinese medium-haul carrier

powered by CFM.

30- SAM146

The Franco-Russian engine comes into service.

31- SR305-230e

The new diesel engine developed by SMA.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© G. Crossay/MEDDTL



Design the green

aircraft of the future

In 2008, the aviation sector signed

a agreement with the ministry for

sustainable development which

commits it to reducing noise and air

pollution. what is your assessment

of the extent to which these

commitments, made within the

framework of the grenelle Environment

Forum, have been honoured?

I would first like to remind you that the

aviation sector has been the first to make

such commitments. Moreover, it should

be recognised that today we are already

noticing the first results. In the field of air

navigation, new flight procedures have

been designed to reduce noise and gaseous

emissions around airports and to

improve the quality of life of those living

around on in their vicinity.

Continuous descent procedures also

came into force at Orly in October 2010

and are being assessed at Roissy. Ultimately,

they will be applied at the ten

major French airports. With the elimination

of level flight phases this type of

descent means not only a reduction in

noise but also in the fuel consumption

and gas emissions of aircraft.

Projects for raising arrival paths are

underway to reduce the noise perceived

on the ground. The project concerning

Orly is the subject of discussions that

should soon be concluded. In the case

of Roissy/Charles de Gaulle, the project

to modify arrival procedures has been

the subject of a public enquiry that was

held between the 2 nd of March and the

1 st of April 2011. We are analysing the

results at the moment. The consultation

process will then proceed by seeking the

views of the Environmental Consultative

Commission of the airport and the

ACNUSA. Ministerial decisions will then

be made, taking into account the results

of the discussions.

The Union of French Airports has made

explicit the commitments of the airport

players in a “Guide for good environmental

practice”, which has, in particular,

undertaken a 10% reduction in aircraft

taxiing time by 2015. The airlines have

signed a charter to improve their environmental

performance. For example,

Air France is pursuing an ambitious programme

to renew its fleet, introducing

aircraft that are more fuel efficient and

less noisy. Finally, the measure providing

grants for sound proofing the homes of

those living in the vicinity of airports

was improved in 2009. The increase in

the noise related tax has shortened the

queues at Orly and Nantes.

_Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet,

minister for Ecology, Sustainable

Development, Transport and


However, bearing in mind the forecasts

of growth in air traffic, these actions will

have to be strengthened.

Industry is also contributing in terms

of aeronautic research. what progress

has been made?

Aeronautic research has to make a

technological breakthrough to design

the “green” aircraft of the future, that

is less noisy and polluting, while traffic

continues to increase. The government

has decided to support its efforts

by granting a credit of 1.5 billion euros,

in relation to the development investments

for the future. This shows that it

recognises the significance of the strategic

issues at stake and the economic

weight of the French aeronautics industry.

This funding is going to contribute,

in particular, to the setting up of a demonstration

programme, propose in the

CORAC roadmap, for projects that are

devoted, in particular, to composite

materials and new engines. Actions to

coordinate research, conducted by the

CORAC, will enable us reaching not only

the Grenelle objectives but also those set

by the Consultative council for European

aeronautical research (ACARE): reducing

CO 2 emissions by 50% and nitrogen

oxides (NOx) emissions by 80% and

halving the level of perceived noise, all

by 2020.

what is the scope of the resolution

of the ICAo Assembly in the autumn of

2010 to fight against climate change?

This is the first sectorial agreement to

reduce greenhouse gas emissions that

has been reached at the global level. This

resolution enshrines the commitment of

the international civil aviation community

to the fight against climate change.

It includes a CO 2 emissions limitation

objective, capped as from 2020, and

authorises nation States to use market

mechanisms to limit them. Its adoption,

at last, is a matter of great satisfaction for

France, having been particularly active

in favour of this agreement at the ICAO


Interviewed by daniel bascou

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© MEEDDM/B. Suard

Aircraft manufacturing industry,

top French export sector

what are the issues in aeronautic

research being coordinated by

the CorAC?

The technological demonstration programme

proposed by the CORAC is

going to contribute to achieving the

targets for reducing the environmental

impact of air transport, as recalled

by Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet. These

targets are both economic and social.

Remember that the aircraft manufacturing

industry is the top French export

sector, employs 400,000 people and represents

2% of the GNP. This position is

attributable on the commercial success

of manufacturers like Airbus, Dassault-

Aviation and Eurocopter as well as the

vitality of the industrial network of the

engine and equipment manufacturers

and French aeronautic SMEs. The 1.5 billion

euros of credit, part of the budget

for investments in the future, will support

research into designing the “green”

aviation of the future and will help the

French aeronautic industry to maintain

its fore position in the face of new

international competition.

whilst awaiting this future

“green” aviation, what actions

is the government taking to help

the aeronautic industry make

its aircraft cleaner and

more economic?

The government has supported the

development of the ATR-600 series,

which comes into commercial service

this year, with a repayable advance.

This new range of twin-turboprops,

benefiting from the latest technologies,

boasts environmental performance

higher than those of regional jet

aircraft, in terms of fuel consumption

and CO 2 emissions. Moreover its commercial

launch has been successful. In

a little more than two years time, the

Airbus A350 XWB, the other ecologically

efficient aircraft that is being supported

by the government, will start its commercial

career. So, the government is

supporting the efforts of industry by

encouraging it to develop products that

satisfy environmental requirements.

_Thierry Mariani,

secretary of State for Transport

to the minister for Ecology,

Sustainable Development,

Transport and Housing.

the first concrete results of

the sEsAr programme, the

technological part of the single

European sky, are to be delivered

in 2011, particularly in France.

what are the next steps at

the European level?

The European commission has created

a working group devoted to the organisation

and financing of the deployment

of the SESAR programme. The Commission

will make its proposals once

this work has been completed. This

deployment is to be oriented toward

an improvement of performance, in

terms of cost and sustainable development,

on the basis of robust technical

and financial analyses. I would like to

emphasise that the French air navigation

services are important partners

in the SESAR joint undertaking, as are

Airbus and Thales. The development

and deployment phases are therefore

important for France.

Interviewed by daniel bascou

© S. de Bourgies/Abaca Press



Jean-paul herteman is chairman of the GIFAS 1 , organiser

of the 49 th Paris Air Show Le Bourget. He has drawn up a generally

quite positive assessment of the French aeronautics, space

and defence and security electronics sectors.

A center of excellence

for the national economy

how healthy is this sector of French


The sector remains a center of excellence

centre for the national economy.

It is the largest export sector and also

the foremost in terms of trade surplus.

The results for 2010 in this field show a

recovery, even if the effects of the crisis

have not been totally eradicated.

Thanks to the dynamism of the air

transport market, with an increase of

27% in registered orders, 71% of which

are in the civil sector. For the seventeenth

consecutive year the total value

of orders is greater than the turnover. It

is true that equipment suppliers’ turnover

has slightly decreased but the strong

growth in orders taken (+34%) indicates

that their situation will improve.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

I would also like to highlight the supportive

attitude of the prime contractors

towards their suppliers and sub-contractors,

the effective intervention of

the government to help SMEs and the

efforts made to reinforce the supply

chain. These actions have been crucial

in mitigating the effects of the crisis.

what are the challenges that will

need to be taken in the future?

I think that there are three main ones.

Firstly, mastering of the future technologies

necessary to respond to the

development of air transport, requirements

of air carriers, environmental

regulations and increase in oil prices.

Next comes employment. The technological

challenges that we are going to



Top French exporter in the sector

(73% consolidated turnover)

Top French trade surplus

(18 billion euros)

157,000 jobs

27,000 recruitments since 2008,

8000 of which in 2010

face will mean that we have to develop

our skills. We need to recruit highly

qualified staff, acquire new know-how,

provide training support, etc.

Finally, we will need to go and find

the growth wherever available and

that could be anywhere in the world. A

number of countries are now creating

their own aeronautics industry; they

offer of development opportunities for

French industry. The setting up of local

sites, particularly in emerging countries,

is becoming a necessity. Working

for large foreign programmes will also

increase the competitiveness of the

equipment suppliers. This globalisation

and the reinforcement of the domestic

aerospace industry are complementary.

It should be remembered that every year

in France we are investing 1 billion

euros in production capacity.

what are you expecting from

the paris Air show le bourget?

I think that this 49 th air show will mark

the recovery. There will be 2000 exhibitors

from 42 countries and 150 aircraft

at the renovated exhibition site. Yet

again the SIAE 2 has confirmed its place

as the number 1 air show.

Interviewed by béatrice Courtois

1/ GIFAS: French aeronautic and space

industries group.

2/ SIAE: French international Air Show

at Le Bourget.

© H. Goussé/Airbus S.A.S.

In January 2008, on the eve of the

financial and economic crisis, the French

aviation sector made significant

commitments by signing an agreement

with the minister for sustainable

development, as part of the dynamic

created by the Grenelle Forum for

the Environment. other crises have

followed in succession, shaking the air

transport sector: accidents, attempts

at terrorism, volcanic eruptions

and very bad weather. All of these

events have tested the firmness of

the commitments that have been

made. However, the French aviation

sector, which seems to be recovering

well from the crisis, has maintained

them and has started to implement

them. For example, the CoRAC,

which in 2010 drew up a demonstration

plan to bring to maturity

the technologies for the aircraft

of the future, or SESAR, the European

programme to develop the future

tools for air traffic control, which should

lead to very direct improvements

in environmental matters. There is also

the AIRE initiative, for assessing more

environmentally friendly transatlantic

flight procedures. Another commitment

is the implementation in 2012

of market mechanisms to limit Co 2

emissions. The conditions under which

such mechanisms can be considered

were specified in an ICAo resolution,

in the autumn of 2010, which includes

an objective to limit international civil

aviation Co 2 emissions with a ceiling

imposed as from 2020. As for the

European Commission, it is federating

the energy of the member states

to promote the green aviation of

the future, particularly with the ACARE

technological platform, towards

which the CoRAC is orientating its work.

Seeing that the French aviation

sector has been able to maintain

its commitments during the crisis,

it will be all the more able to do

so during the recovery.

Pascal Luciani

Directorate general for Civil Aviation

Directorate of Air Transport

Deputy director for sustainable


Commitments upheld

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011



performance Launched just after the Grenelle Forum for the environment,

the CORAC aims to optimise the efforts of the air transport sector in

the field of research and innovation. It enters in an operational phase based

on an ambitious technological demonstration programme.

The CORAC is designing


green aircraft

set up in July 2008, and with a strength of seventeen

partners, the French strategic council for

civil aeronautics research—the CORAC—has

now reached its cruising speed. In the spring

of 2009 the CORAC presented its technological

roadmap for achieving its extremely ambitious

objectives: reducing CO 2 emissions by half, reducing

emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 80% and halving

the level of perceived noise, all by 2020.

This roadmap opened the way, in 2010, to the

operational initiation of a technological demonstration

plan. Accordingly, seven demonstrators are to

establish the technological maturity of the solutions

selected for the aircraft that will come into service

between 2020 and 2025. The demonstrators proposed

in 2010 include:

– a modular avionics project to reduce consumption by means of trajectory optimisation,

CLoSe uP oN…


To summarise,

the aircraft that is going

to be taking off in fifteen

years time should be

more efficient, lighter,

more intelligent

and more electrical.

Performance, explains

Fabrice brégier, director

general at Airbus,

will be improved

especially by ”changes

toward open-rotors,

which are engines

with rapid propellers

making possible

a reduction of 10 to

15% in consumption,

and so in CO 2 emissions”.

This aircraft will also

be lighter, consuming

less fuel, thanks

to the increased use

of composite materials.

This has already been

started with the new

A350. The aircraft

of the future will also

have a “higher

intelligence” that will

mean more fluid traffic.

This assumes,

emphasises Fabrice

brégier “a better control

over aircraft trajectories

in four dimensions

and also advances

toward the cockpit of

the future”. We are also

expecting the “electricity

fairy” to make this

aircraft very ecological,

gradually replacing

hydraulic and pneumatic


“All these technologies

should be ready by 2025.

They will bring about

a 20 to 25% reduction

in consumption

compared to the A320,”

predicts Fabrice brégier.

– a project on the optimised management of onboard


– a project to develop electrical landing gear,

– a project devoted to the cockpits of the future.

Composite materials

Two other demonstrators are currently well

advanced. Firstly, the project aiming to extend the

use of composite materials, supported by Airbus

and Dassault: “We are starting to master this technique.

An aircraft like the A380 already includes a large

percentage of composite materials. While Boeing’s

Dreamliner project and that of the Airbus A350 XWB

demonstrate that these will soon become the majority

part of the aircraft we do now need to face up to ‘real

life’. We need to develop this technology in all of the

stages—from design to operational use—so that it can

fit in with high production rates and be included in the

most widely sold aircraft,” explains Pierre Moschetti,

deputy director of aeronautical construction at the

DTA (air transport directorate).

The demonstrator for an EPICE is also expected

to be one of the first to appear. The design for a new


_Vela (Very Efficient Large Aircraft) flying wing. This European project, lead by Airbus,

is also studying the architecture, aerodynamics and mechanics of future aircraft.

engine and a new generation power plant to succeed

the CFM 56 will reduce CO 2 emissions by 15% as well

as cutting noise levels by at least 5 dB by 2016.

In parallel with the demonstrators, several

research directions have been decided, in 2010, in

order to understand better the interactions of air

transport with climate phenomena. “While it is easy

to evaluate the CO 2 emitted by air transport, the question

of how it affects the climate is more complicated.

We are now only at the beginning of research into this

area,” points out Pascal Luciani, deputy director for

Sustainable Development at the DTA.

The work will concentrate on subjects such as new

fuels, condensation trails and ways to detect zones

that are the most likely to generate these trails so that,

ultimately, they can be included in flight control.

To support the financing of these demonstration

platforms over the next five or six years (with

an estimated cost of around 1 billion euros), the

government is going to make available a budget of

500 million euros, from a large bond issue launched

in 2010—an effort commensurate with the ambition

of these projects to create tomorrow’s green aircraft.

henri Cormier


Integrated propulsion

unit in composite

materials for

the environment.






what is the level of involvement of the dgAC

in the CorAC?

The DGAC has been, along with the GIFAS 1 , an initiator

of the CORAC approach at the ministry for sustainable

development. It has positioned itself as a major player

in its setting up and has taken on the leading role.

Today, this work to organise and structure the actions

has fallen on me, as an aide to the chairman of

the steering committee of the CORAC, Marc Ventre.

do other departments of the dgAC get involved

in CorAC bodies?

As an example, the teams of the DSNA 2 are working

with scientists, aircraft builders, airlines and airports

on key questions such as low-noise approach and

take-off trajectories or interactions between aviation

and atmospheric phenomena.

Representatives of the DSNA are also very active in

maintaining the CORAC roadmap, given their knowledge

of the SESAR 3 project (read p. 10). Finally, the deputy

directorate team for Sustainable Development, lead

by Pascal Luciani, is obviously among the first to be

interested in the work being done by the CORAC.

what does this work need in particular?

A great deal of effort is needed in demonstration and

in focusing on certain sticking points, and this means

coordinating the work of the players in their particular

fields of expertise. But it is just as important to work

at the interfaces between what everyone is doing,

as it is there that the greatest progress can be made.

1/ French aeronautic and space industries group.

2/ Air navigation services directorate.

3/ Single European Sky ATM Research.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© Airbus

© MEEDDM/B. Suard

© Photothèque STAC/T. Jullien



Evaluation 2011 is a decisive year for the SESAR 1 programme

with the first concrete results expected from its research and

experimental campaigns.

SeSAR delivers

its first tools

It is only when a project demonstrates conclusive

results at the end of testing, conducted under realistic

conditions, that it is approved, emphasises

Thierry Liabastres, former deputy director

for planning and strategy at the DSNA 2 . This

approach is consistent with the operational and

pragmatic orientation of SESAR, aiming to provide

effective and long-lasting tools.”

This year, fifty or so projects will be ready for

approval. With the results obtained, decisions can

be taken about whether or not to “industrialise” the

new technologies or procedures. Moreover, “green”

commercial flights—conducted as part of the AIRE

programme (read pp 12-13)—provide a platform for

evaluating the new measures envisaged and drawing

attention to them.

“In fact, 80% of SESAR projects have environmental

performance targets. Anything that improves the trajectory

of aircraft or the fluidity of the traffic has an impact

on the environment. The others are related to control

techniques themselves,” explains Patrick Ky, director

of the SESAR JU (read boxed text).

_Athis-Mons control centre (91).


Single European Sky

ATM Research aims

to modernise and

harmonise the air

traffic control system

in Europe, respecting

the principles of green

growth and meeting

the objectives of cost

reduction and safety.

Of the ten experiments for operational approval

conducted this year by DSNA, extremely active in

SESAR, there are two new inter linked procedures

whose effects seem to be promising:

– the PMS-TE (Point Merge System-Terminal

Extended), the first procedure, is designed to deal

with the approach of several flights at the same aerodrome.

It consists in sequencing the arrival of several

converging routes at a high altitude focal point. This

year, DSNA is experimenting with this procedure,

already approved in simulation, in its Paris region

control centres. Its potential benefits would be in the

areas of safety, the environment and the workload

of air traffic controllers.

– continuous descent (CDA 3 ), the second procedure,

takes over at this focal point. It prevents go-arounds

for intermediate level flight phases and so immediately

reduces fuel consumption. Noise and gaseous

emissions are thus also reduced. régis noyé

1/ Single European Sky ATM Research.

2/ Department of air navigation services.

3/ Continuous Descent Approach.

CLoSe uP oN…



Patrick Ky, director of the european joint undertaking

(JU) in charge of the direction of SeSAR projects.



synergy The European AIRE agreement promotes an environmental

approach in the air transport sector. The exemplarity of the actions

undertaken and the success of their evaluations are built on a total

mobilisation of human resources and services.


an exemplary approach

setting up a programme of evaluation

flights to accelerate the

development, approval and use

of procedures consistent with

sustainable development? This

is the objective of the agreement, signed

in June 2007, between the European

Commission and the American Federal

Aviation Authority (FAA), in order

to launch the Atlantic Interoperability

Initiative to Reduce Emissions (AIRE).

The SESAR joint undertaking (Single

European Sky ATM Research) (read also

p. 10) is the technological part of the

future single European sky. It is also

managing the AIRE initiative.

In France DSNA 1 , ADP (airports of

Paris) and Air France are working

together to conduct the necessary

assessments in French airspace. This

is enable by the contracts that have

been co-financed by the SESAR joint

undertaking and these three partners

(Air France is working with the others

for the oceanic flights). These are fullsize

evaluations, conducted in realtime,

with real traffic, and not mere


Hence close cooperation is absolutely

necessary between the partners and

all of the services concerned: “At DSNA

the evaluations made in 2009 on transoceanic

flights 2 out of Roissy/Charles de

Gaulle to Miami involved the tower and

the approach to the airports of departure

and arrival in France (Paris-CDG), and

also the North, West and South-West

CRNA 3 , explains Alain Bourgin, assistant

to the head of Environment mission

head at DSNA. Similarly for the evaluation

flights between Orly and the West Indies,

in 2010 and 2011, under the responsibility

of Air France.”

Aiming for the optimum

In the latter case, by reducing the

vertical separation standards for aircraft

over the Atlantic, using on-board

© Photothèque STAC/T. Jullien

technologies, we can fly closer to the

optimum altitudes, and so less fuel is

consumed. “Effectively a flight that is

fixed at 3,000 feet below its optimum

means a 4% overconsumption of fuel,

emphasises Laurent Renou, ATM (Air

Traffic Management) Manager at Air

France. In this example, being able to

fly at this level saves 1.6 tonnes of fuel

from the 40 tonnes for a crossing, and so

5 tonnes of CO 2 .”

For AIRE II, the second edition, eighteen

projects have been selected by

SESAR. Four involve French organisations.

There are three RANCs (regional

air navigation centres) and three Air

Navigation Services (ANS) involved.

Other than the liaisons between

Orly and the West Indies, there is a programme

for the daily “shuttle” flights

between Orly and Toulouse. There is

another for the continuous decent

approach to CDG (up to 200/300 kg less

fuel per flight for long haul aircraft).

At CDG, optimisation of the vertical

profiles of arrivals, and operations in

degraded conditions, are also being


This time we try to make best use of

the concept of A-CMD (Airport-Collaborative

Decision Making), set up at CDG

airport 4 in 2010. The concept optimises

the use of capacity and resources and

reduces taxiing time by better coordination

between the players of the platform.

So once again, fuel consumption

and pollution can be reduced. This was

evaluated in 2009-2010. “This was a challenge

for a large airport like CDG, notes

Olivier Delain, head of the air navigation

mission at ADP. It would not have been

possible without the total commitment

of the staff, particularly the air traffic


This finding can be applied all the

players: “With AIRE, a citizen aware of

environmental issues can be in complete

agreement with how the technician

is doing his daily work,” reflects

Laurent Renou.

germain Chambost

1/ Department of air navigation services.

2/ Read Aviation Civile No.353.

3/ Air navigation regional centre.

4/ Read Aviation Civile No.356.

3 4

1_Guidance on a parking area.

2_Refuelling an aircraft.

3_Control tower of Roissy/Charles de Gaulle airport.

4 _Air France aircraft at Toulouse airport .

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011



© ADP/P. Sroppa/Studio Pons © ADP/P. Sroppa/Studio Pons

© P. Garcia/Aéroport Toulouse-Blagnac


and comfort

the AIrE programme procedures

get the best from aircrafts’

on-board resources, ground

equipment, and the men and

women that use them.

“AIRE is not really a revolution, points out Laurent

Renou, Air Traffic Manager (ATM) at Air France.

It consists in the first place in using the existing

technology better: the equipment on the aircraft, air

traffic control systems and the ground infrastructures.

In a way, it is all about looking for the economic

optimum with the resources at our disposal

and minimising fuel consumption which ipso facto

means an ecological optimisation. And finally, this

approach will make the work of the teams easier.”

The air traffic controllers are being directly asked

to authorise monitored continuous descent

approaches to the airport (CDG, Toulouse, Orly),

but without giving any sort of priority to those

approaches nor disturbing the other arrivals.

“We have to make gains without causing problems

elsewhere,” summarises Laurent Renou.

As a result, pilots and passengers both win.

The passengers can enjoy an uninterrupted

descent, and the pilots are spared from

the constraints of an arrival in successive flight

levels. They are thus becoming more aware

of these daily constraints and see that they can be

eliminated, if the circumstances allow.

Result: there is a better mutual understanding

between air transport players, and of their

respective roles and functions.


Signed on 18th of June 2007, the AIRe agreement

was initiated in 2009. During that year seventeen

partners—airlines, air navigation service providers,

industrial firms, airport operators, etc.—were involved

in the evaluation flights (1,152 in total).

For 2010-2011, AIRE II has forty-two partners,

with eighteen distinct projects. In total eleven countries

are involved: Austria, belgium, Canada, the Czech

Republic, Germany, Morocco and Switzerland

have now joined the four of AIRE I (France, Portugal,

Spain and the united States).

© Véronique Paul - Graphix/STAC



Initiatives Fossil-fuel energy is becoming scarce while environmental

constraints are increasing. In this context the air transport sector is widening

its researches. It has one ambition: to set up sustainable sources of aviation

fuels. Interim report.

_Refuelling an aircraft with a hydrant system.

Alternative fuels

Time for full-scale tests

Against the background of

steady increases in the price

of a barrel of oil and kerosene,

+27% in just one year, the air

transport industry is redoubling

its efforts to find new generation

alternative sources of kerosene. Especially

as the experimental period, which

saw a number of experimental flights,

was crowned with success.

The time has now come for commercial

flights, starting with Lufthansa.

From Spring 2011, the airline will be flying

an Airbus A321 with 50% of the fuel

supply to one of its two engines being a

biofuel produced by NESTE Oil, based in

Helsinki. Used on the Hamburg/Frankfurt

shuttle, the commercial test on this

aircraft will last six months.

As for Air France, it is involved in

a project to create the first industrial

BTL (Biomass to Liquid) demonstrator

to produce biofuel on the site of the

CEA (Atomic and alternative energies

Commission) at Bure-Saudron (Haute-


Operational as from 2014, this plant

will be producing both biokerosene for

air transport and biodiesel for road

transport. Biomass, the raw material,

will be composed exclusively of forest

waste. In the meantime, “the company

wants to conduct a series of flights with

a biofuel, either BTL or HVO (hydrogenated

vegetable oil), to test, in particular,

all the logistic aspects associated with

the provisioning of our aircraft,” explains

Pierre Albano, delegate director for the

environment at Air France.

Aircraft manufacturers are not far

behind, like Airbus, which has replied to

a proposal from the Brazilian company

TAM. Airbus has been the coordinator

of a project aiming to establish a value



In parallel with the emergence

of alternative fuels, air transport

will continue to benefit from aircraft

with energy performance that is

constantly being improved. Launched

at the end of 2010, the new A320neo

family (neo = new engine option)

has now established its credibility.

Virgin America has made a firm

commitment for 30 aircraft, and

an Indian company has concluded

a memorandum of understanding

for 150 aircraft.

Powered by LEAP-X engines from

CM International or Pure Power 1100G

engines from Pratt & Whitney,

and fitted with “sharklets” (large

additions to the wing tip), these aircraft

will consume up to 15% less fuel.

chain in Brazil, associating the airline

with farmers and a local refinery.

Nevertheless, as Christian Dumas,

director for Environment at Airbus,

makes clear, “the difference in price

between the conventional Jet A-1 kerosene

and the biofuels is going to have to

be reduced. This is why it is important to

set up industrial demonstrators. They will

enable us to validate the processes and,

equally, determine better, then reduce, the

production costs of these biofuels, after

identifying any possible technological

hitches that will need to be dealt with”.

olivier Constant

*Also read Aviation Civile No.355, pp. 10-14.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011


best practices The air transport sector has made the commitment

to limit its impact on the environment. A convention signed on the

28 th of January 2008 between the major players and the government

reinforces this strategy. Illustration with the airports.

Airports in the era of the grenelle

since the 1990s CO 2 emissions

from air transport activities

have increased by 87%. They represent

3.5% of the total impact

of human activities on climate

change. This proportion is expected to

reach a global 5% by 2050 according to

the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC).

To reverse this trend French airports

have, following the Grenelle Forum on

the Environment, signed an agreement

with the government by which they

make a commitment to act. The Union

of French Airports (UAF) has therefore

written a “Guide to good environmental

practice at the airport”, in the form of

seven sheets. The objective of this management

tool is to help airports control

their energy consumption and to integrate

environmental requirements into

their activities. Concrete areas for action

are suggested.

The first deals with reducing CO 2

emissions by modernising the vehicle

fleets and the runway machinery, and

converting to electrical power. The

guide asks the airports to see to it that

car-pooling is used by their personnel.

The third element is the use of secure

ground electrical sockets by aircraft

rather than APUs (Auxiliary Power Units)

for electricity supply. Finally, the guide

recommends that every airport sets up

an Environmental Management System

(EMS) for the airport platforms.

Finally, the members of the UAF are

committed to introducing carbon footprint

monitoring and to measuring air

quality, conducted by an approved independent


A geothermal plant at orly

As for ADP, the main airport player in

France, which manages Roissy and Orly,

it has made several commitments:

– reducing aircraft taxiing time by 10%

by 2015;

– reducing internal company energy

consumption by 20% per passenger by

2020 (compared to 2004), then by 40%

by 2040.

ADP also intends to integrate the environment

component into the construction

of its new terminals, S4 and T2G, as

well as in the design of the future business

district Cœur d’Orly, which will be High

Environmental Quality (HQE) certified.

The operator has also undertaken

to launch a study on the installation of

renewable energies (biomass, geothermal

energy, etc.) at its two airports. At

Orly the project has had results. Since

the end of 2010 a geothermal energy

plant—which draws naturally hot water

(74%) from 1,750 metres underground—

provides one third of the hot water needs

at the West and South terminals. In total

ADP will have invested 12.7 million euros

for this installation.

Annette leroy



Train/aircraft intermodality for access to

airport platforms has already been shown

to be of value. “Since 1999 the number

of TGV/aircraft passengers has tripled

at Paris-CDG. It has increased from

900,000 to almost 3 million in 2010!” pointed

out Élisabeth bouffard-Savary, head of the

office for Planning, Forecasting and business

Intelligence at the DTA.

Train journeys to and from the airport are

now, in 2/3 of the cases, for long-haul flights.

Result? A reduction of around 10% in Co 2

emissions from internal air traffic.

Intermodality, an objective of the Grenelle

Forum for the Environment, represents

therefore one of the major aspects of the TGV

project for orly, currently being studied.

ultimately this connection will carry more

than one million people intending to travel

by air!

© J. Denier/Médiathèque Europa



siim Kallas, vice-president of the European Commission for

Transport, reminds us of the importance of European research

in the development of the air transport sector. Objective: to

reconcile economic competitiveness and the environment.

european research

emphasises its coherence

what approach is Europe prioritising

in terms of the sustainable

development of air transport?

The European Union is trying to reduce

aviation’s carbon footprint in four ways.

The first consists in creating new international

standards for aircraft and

engines. Substantial amounts of money

will then be made available to encourage

the development and use of green

technologies, such as biofuels.

Air traffic control is also to be modernised,

with the measures contained

in the European Single Sky legislative

package and the SESAR* programme

(read pp. 10-11). This modernisation

will help us to achieve our objectives, in

particular a reduction in CO 2 emissions

of 10% per flight, a necessary measure

while waiting for the real technological

breakthrough in aircraft and aeroengine


The fourth element is the inclusion of

“we have to focus research

on promising technologies

to make production more

economic while boosting

our competitiveness”

aviation in the European Union’s emission

quotas trading market.

what is the role of ACArE, the

Advisory Council for Aeronautics

research in Europe?

This technological platform has contributed

to defining the strategic agenda for

European research. Such coherence at

the European level, between the priorities

of the different member states,

industry and research, is unprecedented.

We are sharing a set of objectives in

order to concentrate an important part

of research on flagship projects such as

Clean Sky and SESAR.

The Commission is also preparing a

strategic programme for transport

technologies. It will focus the research

on promising technologies to make

our production more economic in

its use of resources while boosting


I have also invited a group of representatives

of the major sectors of aviation,

aeronautics and research to develop a

“Vision for 2050”.

what progress has been made with

the Clean sky technological initiative

that you’ve mentioned?

This is one of our biggest projects.

Launched in 2005, its aim is to develop

a new generation of aircraft that are

more environmentally friendly, quieter

and also competitive. The work brings

together the 122 founder members and

400 partner organisations.

Clean Sky tackles technological questions

that have political repercussions.

For example, the design of engines that

reduce greenhouse gas emissions and

noise pollution. The “integrated technological

demonstrators” and the scientific

tests have now been started, both on the

ground and in the air. I am, furthermore,

convinced that the European aviation

industry will be able to use the results of

Clean Sky in its marketing strategies.

what is your reaction to the ICAo

resolution on limiting the Co 2

emissions of international civil


It is a major success that a resolution on

such a tricky subject has been adopted by

190 countries. Aviation is the first transport

sector where this has happened.

The ICAO resolution, with the support

of industry, shows the commitment of

the international aviation community

to developing sustainable air transport.

Interviewed by henri Cormier

*Single European Sky ATM Research.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© Thinkstock 2011

The central mission of the DGAC is

to improve the safety of air transport.

International cooperation work

contributes fully to this, consisting

in providing foreign civil aviation

authorities with technical support

and undertaking training programmes

at their request. Through this approach,

the DGAC ensures not only the promotion

of its know-how but also that of French

and European industry, thanks to the

International cooperation mission team.

This unit works closely with the experts

of the DGAC, the National Civil Aviation

School (ENAC), the Civil Aviation Safety

Research and Analysis office and

the General Council of the Environment

and Sustainable Development.

The mission also relies on a network

of aeronautics attachés at the French

embassies in brazil, China, Russia

and India. With permanent links with

the International Cooperation mission,

these aeronautics “ambassadors”

are in daily contact with their local

interlocutors. They have precious

knowledge of the organisation and

functioning of the foreign

administrations and markets and this

is vital for the success of DGAC technical

support operations and informing

French industry. The Sino-European

institute of civil aviation engineering

of Tianjin, set up in 2007, and

the introduction in India of new flight

procedures are good examples of

the results.

Élisabeth Dallo

Directorate general for Civil Aviation

Directorate of Air Transport

Director of the International

Cooperation Mission

A network of expertise

© DR



First-hand accounts Ensuring an active presence of French players

in countries where there are major opportunities in the field of aeronautics;

that’s the mission of the aeronautic attachés present in Brazil, India,

Russia and China.

The “aeronautics”


Although they are part of the

embassies’ economics service,

the four aeronautics attachés

appointed today are unique

in that they concentrate their

action on that single sector, working

for three entities: they come under the

DGAC, but also the Ministry of Economy

and Industry, because they report to the

head of the embassy’s economics service,

as well as the Ministry of Foreign

Affairs, because they work within the




“Generally speaking, these attachés

are the DGAC’s eyes and ears and play the

part of its contact with the local authority

in civil aviation matters, explained Élisabeth

Dallo, director of the international

cooperation mission at the DGAC. They

also support the sector’s businesses by both

providing them with accurate information

about future opportunities and helping

them to make their local contacts.”

These aeronautics attachés, paid

by the DGAC, have very varied profiles.

They are appointed for three years, with

“Dealing mainly with

institutional tasks”

One of the main missions of Hervé

Coulomb, an engineer by training,

is to establish the best possible

contacts between French civil

aviation and the Brazilian

aeronautics authorities. Appointed

since February 2007, he has seen

his function evolve towards

mainly institutional tasks:

relations with the institutions

and monitoring large contracts

in particular, because the

commercial side is now

the responsibility of UBIFRANCE.

“Brazil has experienced

unprecedented growth in both

aircraft building and air transport,

a possible one year extension. What

skills are required? Five or six years

experience at the DGAC and knowledge

of the country’s language, except

in India where English is widely spoken.

A quick trip to the four corners of the

world in the company of these civil aviation


sylvie mignard

he pointed out. So I have had to

establish close relations with

the institutions and the main

placers of orders so that

Franco-Brazilian relations are

as rewarding as possible.”

Other priorities: setting up

cooperation agreements between

the two nations’ competitiveness

clusters as well as preparing for

and accompanying official visits,

such as those that occurred

following the accident on flight

AF447, or the DGAC one,

in April 2011, about the

privatisation of airports.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© DR

“In China,

decisions are

often taken

at the last minute”

Based in Beijing since September 2010,

Raphaël Guillet concentrates his work

on cooperation between the DGAC

and the Civil Aviation Administration

of China (CAAC) and on information


“I study the press everyday and pick out

everything about aeronautics. Then,

I try to get more information from my

Chinese contacts and French companies

present in China. If we take the example

of the new Beijing airport, my aim is

to find out about the planned schedule

and see how we can help French

companies to take part in this project.”

Like his counterparts, this aeronautics

engineer is also responsible

for preparing for official visits

and in particular “aeronautics”

meetings with the Chinese authorities.

A sometimes difficult task because

decisions are often taken at the last

minute in China… “Often, the Chinese

are late in replying to our requests.

But, once the decision is taken, they work

much faster than us! he laughed.

So you have to be ready all the time








Bringing the A380 into service

on routes to Asian destinations

at the end of 2010 required long

discussions between the French

and Russian civil aviation authorities

(read Aviation Civile No.357). Flights

from Western Europe to China, Korea

and Japan cross the Russian airspace,

which is under high surveillance.

“My role in the negotiations held

between the Russian and French

authorities was to make it easier

to organise meetings. I also supplied

the French party with the information

necessary for good communications,

especially about the strategies of the

local airlines and those of the competent

authorities on the Russian side,” said

Thibaut Lallemand, civil aviation

attaché in Moscow.

To perform this task, the former

management controller at the DGAC,

and HEC graduate, had to adapt

to a new culture. “In Russia, personal

exchanges are important, he noted.

It is true that you have to establish

personal relationships but you also need

some realism—even some hardness—

in business: a tricky balancing act, but


© DR


relations and

trust above all”

For Arnaud Toupet, the air show

organised at Hyderabad, a town

in the south of India, in spring 2010,

was a major task! France was the air

show’s partner country, the DGAC,

the French Aeronautics and Space

Industries Group and UBIFRANCE

were the priority contacts with India

for the air show. “During the whole

setting up of this event I provided

the interface between the Indian

authorities and the French

stakeholders, the civil aviation

engineer (IEEAC) told us. In practice,

the main difficulty arose from the fact

that I had to take into account both

the needs of the French business

delegation and those of the official

delegation. Finally, I was able

to organise the meetings that were

wanted.” This difficulty added to

the experience of this former member

of the Investigations and Analyses

Agency (BEA) in post in New Delhi

since the 1 st of July 2009. “Working

in India is exciting, he said. Here,

what counts above all is human

relations and trust. So, when you are

doing business, you have to be careful

to judge people correctly.”



© DR



partnership French presence in China does not manifest itself

solely through the various companies in the aeronautics sector but

also by the presence of the Sino-European Civil Aviation Engineering

Institute, the SIAE. It was set up in Tianjin in 2007, thanks to

the support of several graduate schools and industrial companies.


French-style engineer


tianjin, in north-west China.

This metropolis of 12 million

inhabitants is also home to an

Airbus A320 assembly line and

the Civil Aviation University of

China (CAUC). Since 2007, the latter has

housed the Sino-European Civil Aviation

Engineering Institute.

Today, the SIAE has 379 students. In

2013, the first class of 100 Chinese engineers,

inducted in September 2010 by

Dominique Bussereau, then Secretary of

State in charge of transport, will graduate.

They will take up posts in the aeronautics

and air transport industry.

An appropriate training system

This institute’s origins date back

to 2004 when the Chinese Minister of

Education wanted to create engineering

institutes within the universities.

China, which had embarked on ambitious

aircraft building programmes,

wanted to improve the training of its

engineers. “Its objective is to take third

place as an aircraft builder in the world

market and compete with Boeing and Airbus,”

stated Emanuela Gellini, responsible

for cooperation in the Asia-Pacific

region at the DGAC.

Naturally, the Chinese authorities

contacted the two French schools that

already had a partnership in the aeronautics

field in China, the ENSICA and

the ENAC. The latter was already known

to the University of Tianjin: within the

framework of a European programme,

with the support of Airbus, the ENAC had

set up a masters course. The Chinese

Minister of Education wanted to include

an engineer training system similar to

the French model based on two years of

preparatory classes then a three year

cycle for engineers.

The Sino-European Institute was created

in 2007. Today, it is jointly run by

two directors, Mrs Lijun Yu for the Chinese

part and Thierry Liabastres, who

just took over the job of Michel Martin,

her French counterpart. “The Chinese

leaders consider that the engineer training

system in France is very well suited to

the expectations of the industrial world.

Here, there is no engineer training as

such. There are masters in engineering in

all of the industrial fields, but they are not

_The first graduation class of the Sino-European Institute (2007).

very focussed on the technical aspects,”

explained Michel Martin.

A transversal approach

Therefore, what they want from

France is for it to train engineers able

to adapt very quickly to the professional

environment, a considerable

advantage when compared to the other

countries which mainly dispense university

type training. Another feature:

immediately on joining the institute,

students devote themselves to learning

French. On request from the Chinese

authorities, some of the classes

are given in the language of Molière. “A

distinctive aspect of French type training

© DR

is its multidisciplinary approach to problems,

which favours conceptual innovation.

It deals with the economic, social

and financial aspects. It also introduces a

pedagogical approach using case studies.

We give greater space to analysis and reasoning

than the Chinese method. Several

placements in a professional environment

(read boxed text) are planned, which

is not the case in China,” commented

Michel Martin.

SUPaéro and the ENSICA (which have

now become the ISAE) and the ENSMA

joined with the ENAC to create this

Institute. They formed the Aeronautics

Schools Group in order to better respond

to the Chinese request. In April 2007 an

agreement setting up the Institute, with

_buildings of the SIAE in Tianjin .

France’s support and cooperation, was

concluded with China.

The project’s total cost up to 2013 will

be 11 million euros, of which 4.8 million

have been invested by the French part,

with the joint support of the Ministries

involved in the project—Foreign Affairs,

Defence, Education and Transport—and

industrial companies, Airbus, Thales,

Safran and Eurocopter.

This involvement has many advantages.

It closely ties in the aeronautics

industry. Its members have seats on a

committee that is regularly consulted

on the contents of the course and will

be the future employers of the engineers

who graduate from the Institute.

Antony Angrand

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© DR

Did you know?

“Civil aviation is entering a golden age.”

According to Li Jiaxiang, the General Director of the Chinese General

Civil Aviation Administration, the government considers the reform of its

air space to be an essential part of the XII th five year plan (2011-2015).

It provides for investments of more than 1,500 billion yuan for

increasing the number of general use aircraft, which is 50% more

than in the XI th plan. The number of airports in the country will reach

220 with a fleet of 5,000 aircraft.

Source: www.french.china.org.cn/lianghui2011/2011-03/04/content_22054665.htm


million euros

That’s the total cost

of creating the

Sino-European Institute.


That’s the current

number of students

at the SIAE.


The first class of Chinese engineers

will graduate in July 2013. The students

will take up various posts in the

aeronautics and air transport

industries, not only in aeronautical

engineering but also in aircraft

maintenance, ground and on-board

systems and airlines.

but skills transfer, in terms of training

students, takes time. “There is such

a gap between the French and Chinese

education systems that it will take

ten years before our Chinese partner

is self sufficient,” considers

Michel Martin. Moreover, the Chinese

have asked for the French presence

to continue after 2013. This year,

for the first time, the Institute’s

students will be sent out for training

course in the Chinese subsidiaries

of the French partner companies:

Airbus, Eurocopter, Safran and Thales.

Some students will also go to France

for their final training course, before

receiving their diplomas.

_on September the

29 th 2010, Michel Martin,

former Director of

the SIAE, received

the National Friendship

Prize for foreign experts

from the hands of the

Chinese Vice-Prime

Minister, Zhang Dejiang.

© DR




navigation The DGAC, Airbus and the ENAC have combined

their efforts to supply India with access to new flight

procedures. A new cooperation on the basis of a French global

offer and renowned know-how.

India puts its money

on French know-how

February 2010. The DGAC signed a

technical cooperation agreement

with DGCA, its Indian counterpart,

and a second with the Airport

Authority of India (AAI),

which supervises airports in India. The

country’s needs for air transport are

increasing massively. Traffic is growing

by 10% a year; private airlines are

being set up. But there is often a lack of

infrastructures and navigation equipment…

An appropriate response to this

situation seems to be to implement the

PBN (Performance Based Navigation)

procedures. In practice, these rely on onboard

systems and use information from

satellites (GPS) so that they can dispense

with traditional navigation systems and

ground based approaches. It is for this

reason that Indian airlines and air traffic

management authorities are showing

interest in the PBN procedures. However,

setting them up requires adaptation to

the local conditions and training the

players. To do this, India has turned to

France, trusting its technical command

and convinced by the global approach

taken by the DGAC, Airbus*—of which

India is one of the main customers - and

the ENAC*. “This operation was original in

several ways because it offered cooperation

and training and not just the supplying of

a system. It involved the industrial companies,

the DGAC’s international cooperation

mission and the aeronautics attaché in

Delhi in order to combine their skill and get

together the necessary finance,” pointed

out Philippe Lambert, head of the Near

and Middle-East and South Asia mission

at the DGAC.

specialist training

Flights were made in an Airbus

and a Boeing to train the crews. The

Airbus and ENAC specialists demonstrated

the aircrews’ ability to use the

PBN procedures correctly to the Indian

authorities. For their part, the air traffic

controllers attended a specialised

course on the new arrival procedures

at the end of 2010. It was given by two

instructors from the ENAC. Airbus and

its partners worked with their Indian

counterparts at Kochi (formerly Cochin,

_opposite: the Indian Kochi team with

the Airbus pilot present during the training

of the Indian air traffic controllers.

_Above: a trainer of the National Civil Aviation School.

South-West India). In practice this

medium size airport is well suited to

this type of cooperation. Result? “This

complex project succeeded in less than

a year. It demonstrated professionalism

and great responsiveness on the part of

all of the Indian and French stakeholders,

concluded Arnaud Toupet, DGAC representative

at the French embassy in New

Delhi. It’s another step for India towards

recognition of its position as an essential

player in world civil aviation.”

germain Chambost

*Via its subsidiary QUOVADIS.

CLoSe uP oN…


In 2007, the International Civil Aviation

organisation (ICAo) asked all nations

to implement the Performance based

Navigation (PNb) procedures.

This concept provides for unrivalled

accuracy in navigation, whether

for transit and point-to-point trajectories

or for arrivals and departures to and

from airports.

It also helps to optimise the length

of navigation trajectories and therefore

reduce fuel consumption and emissions

of greenhouse gases. Finally, it attenuates

noise pollution around airports by

avoiding the overflying of built-up areas.


Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© 2010 ATR GIE

The 2010 figures for activity of the

French aeronautics industry seem to

confirm the recovery. The after effects

of the crisis are still being felt and, in

particular, the price of oil remains high.

but French industry has been active

during the recent period of depression.

The action plan implemented by

the government is a timely boost

for research and the adaptation of the

sub-contracting base to the challenges

of the sector (aircraft manufacturers’

new industrial models, composite

materials) and it is helping them to find

a satisfactory way out of the crisis.

Airbus, which has announced

3,000 new jobs to raise the rate

of production, is in 2011 starting

the final assembly of the A350 XWb

and is picking up orders for its A320

Neo. This year, ATR is inaugurating

the commercial career of its new

-600 series, which is attracting

the market with its economic and

environmentally-friendly performance.

French industry is also getting involved

in the international programmes

of countries that have large-scale

ambitions in aeronautics. China is a

notable case, launching the programme

Recovering well

from the crisis

_The new Armonia cabin of the ATR-600 series.

for its future C919 medium-haul carrier

the, powered by the LEAP-X1C from

Safran, and it has also announced

the liberalisation of its lower air space.

Good prospects for Eurocopter with

its new baby the EC175, designed

in partnership with China, deliveries

of which will start in 2012.

Pierre Moschetti

Directorate general for Civil Aviation

Directorate of Air Transport

Deputy director of aeronautical


© DR Airbus S.A.S.



timing 2011 sees the start of final assembly of the Airbus A350 XWB,

a new aircraft with three initial versions. Review of a programme

with a tight schedule.

Airbus A350 XWB:

a tight schedule but still on track

launched by Airbus in December

2006, the A350 XWB is taking,

one by one, the steps leading to

its first flight. On the industrial

side, 2010 was the year when the

manufacture of the first elements and

sub-assemblies of the aircraft started.

In particular, the full scale systems test

bench operations (“Iron Bird”) of the

A350 XWB started in December 2010.

“We set up these intensive tests for the

electrical and hydraulic systems about

twelve months before the final assembly

phase. This was done in order to identify

any necessary upstream changes and

so significantly reduce the need for “retrofits”

(modifications) on the assembly

line. For the A380 we ran these tests at the

same time as the start of final assembly,”

_The “Iron bird” hall that will receive the A350.

explains Sophie Pendariès, A350XWB

Marketing manager at Airbus.

An awaited flight

Final assembly of the aircraft will

begin at the end of the year. Its first flight

is planned for the second half of 2012.

Five aircraft will be used in the flight

test programme, over twelve months,

before the A350-900 comes into service

at the end of 2013.

Qatar Airways will be the first company

to use the new aircraft, a total of

583 of which have already been sold.

Aside from the 900 version—that will

carry 314 passengers over 15,000 km—

Airbus will be offering two other models:

The A350-800 (270 passengers over

15,400 km) and the A350-1000. With a

carrying capacity of 350 passengers

over 14,800 km, the A350-1000 is going

to be directly in competition with the

Boeing 777-300 ER. The engineers at Airbus

will decide on its detailed definition

between now and the end of the year.

Two other versions will later complete

this new family of aircraft intended,

according to Airbus, “to develop the

world market for this type of wide-body

aircraft, for all networks and all alliances

everywhere on the five continents”.

They are the A350-900R, an extended

radius-of-action version of the 1000,

and the A350 Cargo.

6,500 people are already working on

the programme. The personnel will be

increased to 12,000 in order to reach

the objective of 120 aircraft per year

at full production! The support will be

welcome as Airbus is going to have to

meet a challenge: deliver the new aircraft

according to schedule although

there are no margins left.

olivier Constant



The A350 XWb distinguishes itself

from other European aircraft with

its structure containing 53% composite

materials, as well as titanium

and new generation aluminium alloys.

As a comparison, the A380 only

contains 25%.

Powered by Rolls-Royce Trent engines,

the A350-900 will emit 24% less Co 2

than the Airbus A340.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© 2010 ATR/GIE

success After setting a record in 2010 from a commercial

point of view, for ATR this year will be marked for ATR by

the new -600 series, with, as its key milestones,

the certifications and first deliveries of two models in the series.

_The ATR-600 is the most fuel efficient of all of the regional aircraft.

ATR: 2011, the year

of the -600 series

Can the recent commercial

successes of ATR, the Franco-

Italian aircraft builder, be put

down to the recovery of air

transport or the economic and

environmental qualities of the new -600

series? A bit of both probably! Whatever

the case, in 2010 the new ATR-600

aircraft represented nearly half of the

aircraft builder’s sales: 39 of the 80

regional aircraft ordered. This performance

brings the number of ATRs

sold since 1981, all versions included, to

1,074. 915 aircraft out of this total had

been delivered to 165 operators worldwide

by the end of 2010. Therefore, 159

still had to be delivered, including 112


Renewing with confidence has enabled

ATR to announce an objective of

delivering 70 aircraft a year from 2012

onwards, for a turnover of $1.8 billion.

The manufacturer now estimates its

market to be 3,000 regional transport

twin turboprops in the next twenty

years, 60% of which correspond to bigger

fleets and 40% to the replacement

of ageing aircraft. ATR’s objective? To

confirm its position as leader by seizing

more than 50% of the market. The

aircraft builder reckons that Latin

America, South-East Asia and India are

the regions where there are the most

promising sales prospects.

latest technologies

The -600 series is the third generation

of the ATR family. It comes in two

versions, developed with the financial

support of the DGAC: the ATR42, offering

48 to 50 seats, and the ATR72, with

68 to 74 seats. Though they both retain

the same airframes as their predecessors,

they benefit from the latest


– the latest generation PW27M turbines,

from Pratt & Whitney Canada,

– new “all screen” avionics from Thales

(same generation as that of the A380),

– a new cabin, called “Armonia”, with

CLoSe uP oN…


“In the last three years, twin turboprops

have represented 75% of sales of regional

aircraft. Airlines have really appreciated

them since the rise in the price of oil and

the new environmental requirements,”

pointed out Filippo bagnato, Executive

Chairman of ATR.

“Not only do they bear comparison with

‘jets’ in terms of performance and

comfort in their range bracket, but, most

importantly, they consume up to 50% less

fuel and therefore emit 50% less CO 2 .

That’s why, on a 370 km commercial flight,

a ‘jet’ with the same capacity as the

ATR72-600 will have 45% higher operating

costs and a competing turboprop 22%

higher costs.”

wider and lighter seats and larger baggage


The ATR72-600, the most popular

of the two models, flies at a cruising

speed of more than 500 km/h. It can

cover up to 1,975 km with a full load of

passengers. It was the first to come into

service but will be followed, by the end

of the year, by its smaller counterpart,

the ATR42-600.

régis noyé

© 2010 ATR/GIE

© Dassault



Interface Two events illustrate the high technology of Dassault Aviation

Falcon business aircraft: the EASy II cockpit and the launch of the Falcon 2000S.

Falcon “eASy II”,

compatible with EGNOS

In 2003, Dassault Aviation installed

the “EASy” cockpit in its Falcon aircraft,

a real revolution in the field of

man-machine interfaces. Resulting

from ten years work, it represents

real progress in terms of ergonomics,

coordinated crew work and safety.

EASy has four large screens arranged

in a T in front of the pilots. It displays

all of the information they need when

they need it: flight parameters, states

of systems, charts and aircraft trajectory,

weather forecasts, check list, etc.

In an emergency the problem—and its

solution—are automatically displayed

on the screen.

The EASy cockpit means easy, intuitive

and safe flight management with scrolling

menus and the selection of functions

using a “track ball”, the equivalent of a

computer mouse. Pilots have a continuous

and instantaneous overall view of

the aircraft’s current and future situation

in its environment. The advantage

is that the workload is lightened which

means greater safety.

Today, on the strength of the experience

of around 400 Falcon operators

– and to take account of changes in air

navigation regulations – Dassault Aviation

is further improving the design

with an EASy II version. It includes the

latest technologies featured with new

options and functionalities. For example,

a synthetic vision system that provides

a digital representation of the external

environment so that the terrain can be

seen as in full daylight, even in very poor


The EASy II cockpit will be offered

as a standard equipment on board Falcon

900LX aircraft immediately after

its certification, expected at the end of

May 2011, then at the end of 2012 for Falcon

2000LX and Falcon 7X aircraft.

One of the advantages of the EASy II

cockpit is its total compatibility with the

new navigation systems, in particular

the European EGNOS 1 . This is why Dassault

was among the first operators to

experiment with its signal and measure

the benefits. In February 2011, when

the European service opened, seven LPV 2

type instrument approaches—i.e. down

to 80 m, the minimum descent height

authorised—were made at the Pau

Pyrénées airport by a Falcon 900LX.

régis noyé

1/ European Geostationary Navigation Overlay

Service (read Aviation Civile No.357).

2/ Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance.


“We have been able to confirm

the reliability and high accuracy, right up

to landing, of the new EGNOS signal,

to about 30 cm, measured as the wheels

touched the runway, says Jean-Louis

Dumas, test pilot. LPV2 approaches

considerably improve the accessibility

of a large number of secondary airports

with little or poor equipment. The EGNOS

system will offer operators more direct

routes and a greater flexibility in the

choice of destinations whilst preserving

a better level of safety.”


Dassault launched the Falcon 2000S, bringing a large cabin aircraft

to the mid-sized business jet market. It will offer category leading range,

performance and efficiency. The 3,350 nm Falcon 2000S will feature

inboard slats, blended winglets, a new generation PW308C engine

that emits fewer emissions, entirely new bMW Group DesignworksuSA

interior and redesigned cockpit aesthetics along with the next-generation

EASy II flight deck. It is expected to be certified in second half 2012

with deliveries beginning in early 2013.

The new platform bases on the original Falcon 2000 has been optimized

with a long list of standard options and cutting edge technology and

industry leading features. but the most astonishing accomplishment

has been to create this large cabin Falcon in a way that runs on as much

as 10 percent less fuel than aircraft 20% smaller. And to offer it at

a comparable price.

© Dassault

lutz bertling, chairman of Eurocopter, reports on the EC175 programme.

He also tells Aviation Civile about the prospects offered by the forthcoming

liberalisation of the Chinese lower airspace.

The Chinese market’s


Are you happy with your cooperation

with China on the EC175?

Up to now the cooperation with Avicopter

has proceeded satisfactorily, within

the given time scales, and this in spite

of the heavy constraint of distance. The

results of the flight tests of the EC175 1 ,

our new 7 t twin-engined civil helicopter,

have proved to be excellent.

I would also like to point out its very

high level of systems integration,

automatic flight controls and excellent


what stage is the programme now at?

The freezing of the production configuration

in 2010 has enabled us to start the

European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)

certification procedure, still planned

for this year, and speed up the series

production of the EC175, in view of the

first deliveries in 2012. We estimate that

the EC175 market should be from 600 to

800 units in the next twenty years.

How did you receive the announcement

of a forthcoming liberalisation of the

Chinese lower airspace?

This measure seems to match the desire

to develop the country’s dynamism

and commercial potential. Experience

shows that the objectives of the

five years plans in China are very often

achieved. On the strength of our long

history with China 2 we are obviously

ready and keen to strengthen our presence

in the country.

what are the challenges and the


The first consequence is obviously a significant

growth in the helicopter market,

in all of its segments (mainly the light

single-engined craft and the medium

capacity twin-engined machines). This

measure opens the way to offshore

activities, aerial work and VIP transport.

The new Chinese market is estimated

at more than 450 helicopters by 2015;

maybe 1,000 in the next ten years…

Our first objective is to maintain and

even grow our market share, which, with

150 helicopters sold to date, currently

stands at 41%.

“the new Chinese

market is estimated

at more than

450 helicopters

by 2015”

what are Eurocopter’s plans for

developing its activities, especially in

terms of training and maintenance?

Eurocopter is currently the only foreign

manufacturer to benefit from a fully

operational subsidiary in China: Eurocopter

China, in charge of sales and support.

In addition, we have signed three

agreements, in 2010, with General Aviation

Maintenance & Engineering Co. Ltd.

(CGAMEC), the Civil Aviation University

of China (CAUC) and the Civil Aviation

Flight University of China (CAFUC). They

are aimed at expanding maintenance

capacities and developing training

activities for pilots and technicians.

Already, in 2009, Eurocopter increased its

holding in CGAMEC, a major MRO (Maintenance,

Repair and Overhaul) company

for helicopters, from 21 to 34%.

Interviewed by régis noyé

1/ Read Aviation Civile No.354, p. 31,

on-line at www.developpementdurable.


2/ The first Alouette III entered service

in China in 1967.

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011

© DR Eurocopter


IN 2010

15,600 people

A division of EADS and a

French-German-Spanish group,

Eurocopter employs 15,600 people.

346 orders

recorded for helicopters in 2010, for a

total of €4.3 billion, or 49% of the civil

and paragovernmental market.

527 helicopters were delivered

for a turnover of more than €4.8 billion

(+6% compared to 2009).

11,200 eurocopter

helicopters are in service in

147 countries, which represents 33%

of the world fleet of civil and

paragovernmental helicopters.

© Reytinas/Thales



technology Thales, a major industrial manufacturer of avionics and air

traffic control systems, is one of the main players in SESAR and Clean Sky.

Michel Mathieu, chairman of Avionics activities and the Group’s

“Key Account Executive” described the Thales contribution to Aviation Civile.

Thales at the leading

edge of challenges

in air transport

what strategy is thales

implementing to meet the challenges

of the growth in air traffic and

environmental constraints?

For a long time now, Thales has been

active in the FANS (Future Air Navigation

System) field, deploying its threefold

skills in Avionics/ATM 1 /Satellites.

It is also basing its strategy on its long

experience in aviation, acquired and

developed with its customers: the aircraft

manufacturers, airlines and “ANS

providers 2 ” throughout the world.

The solutions that we are developing

will be integrated into the future

Flight Management Systems (FMS 3 ),

Onboard Airport Navigation Systems

(OANS 4 ) and onboard satellite receivers.

They will be implemented in the

software of air traffic control centres

and the airport applications that we

are developing.

what is needed for effective

action in these fields?

Close collaboration between the ground

and the air is very important. By providing

both the controllers and pilots with

better “intelligence” we can successfully

optimise air traffic management. For

example, by drawing up and tracking

“4D trajectories 5 ”.

In practice the controller on the ground

must be in total interaction with the

other actors in order to possess all of

the information he needs. The pilot on

board must have pertinent information,

the automation of functions and

optimum security. The data exchanges

between the two are essential.

how is thales involved in the sEsAr 6


As a member of the SJU 7 , our Group is a

major player in the SESAR programme

(read also p. 10). We are taking part in

more than half of the 302 projects and

we are “leader” for 42 of them. We play a

part in all of the phases, from the validation

to industrialisation of the systems,

not forgetting the ground and flight


We have a dedicated laboratory, AIRLAB,

that we use to define, prototype and

assess ground/air collaboration concepts.

AIRLAB groups together an ATM

ground station, a cockpit including the

main piloting and navigation functions

and data transmission systems. So this

“in-house laboratory” reproduces the

pilot and controller environments along

with their exchanges and interactions.

Starting from the end of 2011 the first

optimised trajectory concepts will be

tested in flight on an Airbus, equipped

with a Thales FMS. We will be working

with Stockholm airport, equipped with

our ATM systems, and the NORACON

consortium which groups together

eight European “ANS providers”.

what progress have you made

with your work on Clean sky?

Thales is a founding member of the programme.

Once again, the optimisation

and control of trajectories will lead to

significant savings in fuel consumption

and reductions in gaseous emissions

and noise pollution. New FMS functions

are going to be assessed in our AIRLAB

in 2011. At the end of the year, the “Technology

Evaluator”, for which we are the

coordinator, will publish its first estimate

of the environmental gains generated

by the Clean Sky technologies.

Interviewed by régis noyé

1/ Air traffic management.

2/ Air navigation service providers.

3/ Flight Management System.

4/ Onboard Airport Navigation System.

5/ Also called “Business trajectories”, these

“door-to-door” trajectories are designed

to give the priority to user/requester’s needs

and wishes and also environmental factors.

6/ Single European Sky ATM Research.

7/ SESAR Joint Undertaking, European joint

undertaking responsible for supervising

the development of SESAR projects.

medium-haul The C919 medium-haul aircraft is the symbol

of Chinese civil aircraft manufacturing ambitions. It will be

powered by the LEAP-X1C supplied by the Snecma (Safran group)

and GE joint-venture, CFM International. Presentation.

Chinese C919:

CFM wins the day

If there is one programme that truly illustrates

China’s aircraft manufacturing ambitions, it’s

the C919. This 150 to 190 seat twin-engined aircraft

is intended to meet the growing needs of

the world’s medium-haul aircraft fleets, especially

those of Chinese airlines.

Air China, China Eastern, China Southern,

Hainan Airlines, CDB Leasing Company and GE

Capital Aviation Services (GECAS) jointly placed

the first order for 100 C919s at the last Zhuhai air

show in 2010.

Its manufacturer, Comac (Commercial Aircraft

Corporation of China), forecasts that it will sell 2,000

of them over a period of twenty years, starting in

2016. This aircraft, which incorporates equipment

from the best Western manufacturers, could

even eventually compete with the Airbus/Boeing

duopoly, with whom CFM maintains very strong


So, CFM has made a remarkable breakthrough in

China by becoming the supplier of the sole Western

power plant system to equip the single aisle C919

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011



According to one of its

directors, the Chinese

aircraft builder forecasts

sales of 2,000 aircraft

by 2030.


civil aircraft. All the more so because in a few years

time the country will represent the world’s largest

aeronautics market. The LEAP-X, developed by CFM,

is the first of a family of engines intended for the

future generation of single aisle civil aircraft. The

engine’s roots can be found in the technological

development programmes looking into aerodynamics,

the environment and materials. In practical

terms, the LEAP-X will represent a saving of 15 % in

fuel consumption and 50 % in polluting emissions.

Furthermore, Airbus has selected the LEAP-X as a

power plant option for the A320neo (new engine

option) family of aircraft, the first orders for which

were announced at the start of 2011.

On the request of the Chinese side, CFM took

an innovative approach and was able to offer an

integrated power plant assembly including the

nacelle as well as the engine. The manufacture of

the nacelle, an integral part of the CFM offer, has

been entrusted to Nexcelle, a 50/50 joint venture

between Middle River Aircraft Systems (GE) and

Aircelle (Safran group).

Comac has still to award other equipment contracts.

Some of them may be placed with French

companies in the course of 2011.

olivier Constant

PRogRAmme SCheDuLe

2008: launch of the C 919 programme following

the creation of Comac.

21 st of December 2009: nomination

of CFM International as the sole Western power plant

system supplier for the C919.

16 th of November 2010: order for 100 aircraft,

45 of them as an option, announced

at the Zhuhai air show, in China.

1 st quarter 2013: start of tests of the complete

LEAP-X1C engine.

2014: first flight of the aircraft.

2016: the first C919s delivered to Chinese airlines

come into service.

© E. Drouin/SNECMA



Cooperation The Franco-Russian SaM146 engine will start its

commercial career on the new Sukhoï Superjet 100 regional aircraft.

The completely new design of this engine is a good illustration

of Snecma’s intention to penetrate emerging markets and widen

its range of products.

The SaM146 comes into service

since the start of the 2000s, Snecma (Safran

group) has enlarged its offer beyond its

successful partnership with GE (General

Electric), one of the world’s largest engine

manufacturers. This was how the SaM146*

programme, the fruit of an equal shares cooperation

with the Russian NPO Saturn engine manufacturer,

was born. This engine, marketed by their

joint subsidiary Powerjet, was launched to meet

the needs of regional aviation.

Designed to produce a thrust of 13,500 to

17,500 pounds, the SaM146 can be used in a

whole family of 70 to 120 seat aircraft, a decisive

operational advantage for airlines. In addition,

it is the first time that an engine manufacturer

has marketed a complete power plant assembly

for a regional aircraft, i.e. including the engine,

nacelle and equipment at the same time. So, the

SaM146 engine has all of the advantages necessary

for a competitive entry into the market. It meets

customers’ requirements, especially in terms of

ownership costs and availability.

An 800 aircraft market

This engine equips the different versions of the

Sukhoï Superjet 100 (SSJ100). The first production

SSJ100 flew for the first time on the 4 th of November

2010. This aircraft, 181 of which have already been

sold and option taken on to fifty-three, came into

service on the 21 st of April 2011, for its first commercial

flight between Erevan (Armenia) and Moscow.

Currently estimated at 800 aircraft, sales of

the SSJ-100 could significantly increase after the

planned launch of a 110 to 115 seat version, instead

of the 95 in the first version. Good prospects for

the SaM146…

Valuable experience

As well as increasing the rate of delivery of

production engines, Powerjet is currently setting

up the support for the SaM146. As Robert Vivier,

the Snecma programme director, confirmed, “our

technical representatives are already in place with

Armavia and Aeroflot, the two launch companies for

the SSJ100. Furthermore, all of the technical documentation

has been delivered to the aircraft builder.

We are now working on setting up and certifying

our repair centres at Saint Quentin en Yvelines, in

France, and Rybinsk, in Russia”. He concluded by

adding that “the experience gained in integrating

the SaM146 engine could also benefit the engines

under development at Snecma”.

olivier Constant

* The French government contributed 140 million euros

of support towards the development of the SaM146

(repayable advance).

_The SaM 146 engine obtained its European

certification (AESA) on the 23rd of June 2010. The Russian

certification followed on the 9th of August. The SSJ100

also obtained its type certificate from IAC AR, the Russian

certification authority, on the 3rd of February 2011.

ownership costs

All of the costs of

an aircraft throughout

its lifetime, particularly

in maintenance.


marketplace After getting its new model of Diesel cycle engine

certified, SMA is actively preparing its installation on single and

twin engined general aviation aircraft.

SR305-230 e, a “true”

aeronautics engine

the 230 hp SR305-230 E diesel

engine made by SMA (Société de

Motorisations Aéronautiques)

was certified by the European

Aviation Safety Agency on the

24 th of January 2011. A few weeks later

it obtained the validation of the Federal

Aviation Administration (FAA),

which opened the way to its use by the

major manufacturers of single or twin

engined propeller aircraft and light


new performance

This new model has markedly superior

characteristics and performance

compared to the initial model of the

SR305, which already equipped some

Cessna 182s, indicated by the letter “E”

(enhanced). “The operational ceiling

has been raised to 20,000 feet (about

Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011 Aviation Civile magazine No.358_ June 2011


6,000 m), performance and reliability

have been improved, and controllability

made easier,” pointed out Thierry

Hurtes, CEO of SMA.

Another plus: it’s a real aeronautics

engine, designed as such. Nothing to do

with a “land”, in other words car, engine

adapted for aviation, as Jean-Pierre Dantart,

of the DGAC’s Air Transport Division,

stressed. The latter has supported

the development of the SMA Diesel

engine from the very beginning.

A support policy

With the SR305 there is no risk of a

break in the supply of spare parts and the

quality, safety and reliability imposed

by aeronautics rules are maintained.

In practice, SMA is determinedly committed

to supporting the equipment it

produces in the long term. The company


IN 1937

In 1929, the engineer Pierre Clerget

was already developing a range of

Diesel cycle aeronautic engines, in Paris,

porte d’Issy. With them, Georges Detre

and Raymond Marchal broke the world

altitude record at 7,652 metres,

on the 6 th of December 1937, in a

Potez 25 aircraft. The recent certification

of the SR 305-230 E continues this

worthy tradition.

—backed up by Snecma, the renowned

engine manufacturer, of which it has

been a subsidiary since 2005, and the

Safran group—implements an industrial

and commercial policy that also

applies to the first models of the SR305

already in use, specified Hugues Joubert,

SMA director of programmes.

The supply of spare parts will not dry

up and airworthiness support will be


less thirsty, less polluting

Operational and economic criteria

also argue in favour of the development

of diesel cycle engines that run on the

same fuel as airliners. The proof? Compared

to old engines running on aviation

gasoline, the SR305 consumes 40%

less fuel. Given the difference in price

between aviation gasoline (avgas) and

jet fuel (Jet A/A1) the savings reach at

least 50%! Finally, unlike avgas, Jet A is

available everywhere.

The SR305’s final plus: benefits for

the planet. No discharges of lead, unlike

avgas, and drastically reduced CO 2 emissions

due to its much higher efficiency

compared to a gasoline engine.

germain Chambost

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