Volume / tomas 26(3)

sodininkyste.darzininkyste.lsdi.lt

Volume / tomas 26(3)

LIETUVOS SODININKYSTËS IR DARÞININKYSTËS INSTITUTO

IR LIETUVOS ÞEMËS ÛKIO UNIVERSITETO MOKSLO DARBAI

SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF

AGRICULTURE

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË

25(3)

Eina nuo 1983 m.

Published since 1983

Babtai - 2006


Redaktoriø kolegija

Editorial Board

Doc. dr. Èeslovas BOBINAS - pirmininkas (LSDI, biomedicinos mokslai, agronomija),

prof. habil. dr. Pavelas DUCHOVSKIS (LSDI, biomedicinos mokslai, agronomija),

dr. Edite KAUFMANE (Latvija, Dobelës sodo augalø selekcijos stotis, biomedicinos

mokslai, biologija). dr. Aleksandras KMITAS (LÞÛU, biomedicinos mokslai,

agronomija), dr. Laimutis RAUDONIS (LSDI, biomedicinos mokslai, agronomija),

prof. habil. dr. Vidmantas STANYS (LSDI, biomedicinos mokslai, agronomija),

prof. habil. dr. Andrzej SADOWSKI (Varðuvos ÞÛA, biomedicinos mokslai,

agronomija), dr. Audrius SASNAUSKAS (LSDI, biomedicinos mokslai, agronomija),

prof. habil. dr. Algirdas SLIESARAVIÈIUS (LÞÛU, biomedicinos mokslai,

agronomija).

Redakcinë mokslinë taryba

Editorial Scientific Council

Doc. dr. Èeslovas BOBINAS - pirmininkas (Lietuva),

prof. habil. dr. Pavelas DUCHOVSKIS (Lietuva), dr. Kalju KASK (Estija), dr. Edite

KAUFMANE (Latvija), prof. habil. dr. Zdisùaw KAWECKI (Lenkija), prof. habil.dr.

Albinas LUGAUSKAS (Lietuva), habil. dr. Maria LEJA (Lenkija), prof. habil. dr. Lech

MICHALCZUK (Lenkija), prof. habil. dr. Andrzej SADOWSKI (Lenkija),

dr. Audrius SASNAUSKAS (Lietuva), prof. dr. Ala SILAJEVA (Ukraina), prof. habil.

dr. Algirdas SLIESARAVIÈIUS (Lietuva), prof. habil. dr. Vidmantas STANYS (Lietuva),

prof. dr. Viktor TRAJKOVSKI (Ðvedija).

Redakcijos adresas:

Address of the Editorial Office:

Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institutas

LT-54333 Babtai, Kauno r.

Tel. (8~37) 555 210

Faksas: (8~37) 555 176

El. paðtas institutas@lsdi.lt

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture

LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas district, Lithuania

Phone: +370-37-555-210

Telefax: +370-37-555-176

E-mail: institutas@lsdi.lt

Leidinio adresas internete www.lsdi.lt

Leidinys cituojamas CAB Internacional ir VINITI duomenø bazëse

© Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institutas, 2006

© Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas, 2006

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SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 3–12.

APPLE AND PEAR ROOTSTOCK RESEARCH

IN LITHUANIA

Darius KVIKLYS

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,

Lithuania. E-mail: d.kviklys@lsdi.lt

The paper presents ongoing apple and pear rootstock trials at the Lithuanian Institute

of Horticulture. Rootstock research projects are established in following directions:

rootstock and location interaction (Baltic fruit rootstock studies where Byelorussian,

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish research institutions are involved); budding

high effect on rootstock performance; interstock trials; rootstock effect on fruit quality,

ripening time and fruit storage; rootstock and tree training system; virus status of apple

planting material on different rootstocks (international trial with Applied Plant Research,

Netherlands); rootstock and soil sickness in nursery; rootstock resistance to Phytophtora;

rootstock response to irrigation; rootstock effect on tree physiological parameters and

flower physiology; rootstock effect on tree nutrition; rootstock and dry matter

accumulation; genetic engineering of Cydonia oblonga rootstocks. Following apple

rootstocks are included in different research projects: M and MM series – M.9, M.26,

MM.106; P series – P 2, P 22, P 14, P 59, P 60, P 61, P 62, P 66, P 67; B series – B.9, B.118,

B.136, B.396, B.491, other rootstocks as PB.4, Bulboga, York 9, Pure 1 and Antonowka

seedlings. Following pear rootstocks are included in different research projects: quinces

– QA, QC, Sydo, BA-29, S 1, K.11, K.16, K.19, 1.2, pears – Pyrodwarf, OHF333, Mostbirne,

Kazrausu. 14 scientists from Orchard technology department, Department of Genetics

and Biotechnology of Orchard Plants, Plant protection laboratory, Laboratory of

Biochemistry and Technology, Laboratory of Plant Physiology are involved in rootstock

research.

Key words: Cydonia x oblonga, Malus x domestica, Pyrus x communis, rootstock,

trial.

Introduction. Scientifically based rootstock research in Lithuania was started

at the Vytënai Horticultural Research Station (in 1987 reorganized into Lithuanian

Institute of Horticulture) in 1960 (Kviklys, 1977). Apple rootstock research developed

into different directions: propagation, nursery trials, rootstock vigour, winter hardiness,

rootstock use as interstems, rootstock effect on fruit quality, storage capacity, ripening

time, etc. (Kviklys, 1977, 1992; Ðvirinas, 1986; Ðumskis, 1986a, 1986b, Kviklys et

al., 1988; Kviklys, Kviklienë, 2002; Kviklys, 2004). During 1963–2002 more than 40

vegetative rootstocks and 20 seedling rootstocks were evaluated in the orchard for

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their productivity and effect on fruit quality (Kviklienë, Kviklys, 2001; 2004;

Duchovskis et al., 2000; Kviklys et al., 1999, 2000; Uselis, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005).

After long term of evaluation rootstocks MM.106 and B.118, semi-dwarf M.26, P 60

and B.396, dwarf M.9 and P 22 were recommended for propagation and growing on

commercial scale (Kviklys, 2002).

At this moment rootstock research is being developed in following directions:

rootstock and location interaction; budding high effect on rootstock performance;

interstock trials; rootstock effect on fruit quality, ripening time and fruit storage;

rootstock and tree training system; virus status of apple planting material on different

rootstocks; rootstock and soil sickness in nursery; rootstock resistance to

Phytophthora cactorum; rootstock response to irrigation; rootstock effect on tree

physiological parameters; rootstock effect on tree nutrition; rootstock and dry matter

accumulation; genetic engineering of Cydonia oblonga rootstocks.

The aim of our work is to present ongoing trials and achievements of rootstock

research projects at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture.

Material and methods. All rootstock trials in the orchard are established in

four-five replications with 3–5 trees in each. Replications are randomised. Variance

analyses are performed and criteria are chosen according to trial schemes.

Tree vigour control. As a measure for the tree vigour control trunk

circumference is measured annually; total shoot length is measured first two-three

years after trial establishment; tree height is measured until it reaches technological

allowed height. Additional measurements, as mean shoot length, canopy volume,

number of buds on the shoot, are taken according to trial scheme.

Yield and productivity. Yield per tree and per hectare are the main

measurements. Tree productivity is counted as kg cm -2 of trunk cross sectional

area.

Fruit quality, harvest time. From each replication 100 fruits are

weighed and sized in 5 mm intervals. Fruit colouring is expressed by percentage of

red colour covering fruit surface. Ten fruits from each replication are taken for

laboratory measurements. Fruit firmness is measured with an Effegi penetrometer.

Starch conversion is estimated after treatment with 0.1n iodine and potassium iodine

solution (scale 1–10). Concentration of soluble solids is determined with refractometer.

Maturity index is calculated as F/RS, where F – firmness, R – concentration of

soluble solids, S – starch conversion.

Flowering time, T-phase, days after full bloom are counted for harvest time

evaluation.

Natural mass loss, fruit rots, storage diseases, transpiration is recorded for

storage trials.

Hormones. Analyses of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA),

abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin are performed using HP 1050 Series liquid

chromatography system with variable wavelength UV-VIS detector (Agilent

Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany). Intersil ODS-2 column (150 x 4.6 mm 2 ) (Alltech,

Deerfield, USA) was used for phytohormones separation. Mobile phase: 45% methanol

containing 1% acetic acid. Flow rate: 1 mL/min. The wavelengths of 254 nm for

GA3 and ABA detection, 270 nm for zeatin and 280 nm for IAA detection were set.

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Pigments.Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in green mass is

determined in 100% acetone extracts using spectrophotometrical Wettstein method

[13]. Spectrophotometer – Genesys 6 (ThermoSpectronic, USA).

Sugars. Carbohydrate samples are prepared by grinding ~ 1g of fresh weight

(FW) material and extracted with 4 mL hot bidistiled water. After 24 h extract is

filtered through cellulose and membrane (pore diameter 0.2 µm) filters.

Chromatographic analysis was carried-out using Shimadzu 10A HPLC system with

refraction index detector (Shimadzu, Japan) and Adsorbosil NH 2 – column (150 mm

x 4.6 mm; Alltech, USA). Mobile phase: 75% acetonitrile. Flow rate: 1 m/min.

Morphophysiological analysis of buds is performed according to

F. Kuperman methodology. Bud development is analyzed by microscope and

organogenesis stage is established.

Resistance to Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) Schroeter. In vegetation

trial isolates of Phytophthora cactorum are tested on one year old apple rootstocks

grown in pots in a greenhouse. Inoculations are made via insertion of small agar

plugs from actively growing cultures into bark flaps in two sides. Length of necrosis

is measured after five weeks after inoculation. Total plant weight, fresh and dry

root, leaf, trunk weight are measured.

In laboratorial trial current season shoots are used. They are inoculated mycelia

disks of Phytophthora cactorum, taken from seven-day-old culture grown on PDA.

Basal and middle rootstock shoot parts are incubated on moist blotting paper in foilcovered

polystyrene boxes. Length of necrosis is measured after 3 and 8 days of

incubation.

Drought stress. Biometric measurements are done at the end of

experiment. Total plant weight, fresh and dry root, leaf, trunk weight are measured.

Leaf area is measured by Leaf area meter WinDias (U.K).

Budding height trials. Trial with P 60 and B.396 rootstocks budded at 5, 10, 20

and 30 cm planted in the spring of 2000. Planting distances – 4 x 1.5 m.

Trial with M.9, M.26, P 22, P 59 rootstocks budded at 5, 10, 20 and 30 cm

planted in the spring of 2002. Planting distances – 4 x 1.5 m for M.26 and 4x1 m. for

M.9, P 22, P 59.

‘Baltic fruit rootstocks studies’. Location effect on rootstock performance.

Trial with apple cv. ‘Auksis’ on P 22, P 2, M.9, B.9, Pure 1, B.491, B.146, York 9,

B.396, P 60, M.26 and Bulboga rootstocks planted in the spring of 2001. Planting

distances – 4 x 1.5 m. Under the same scheme trials were established at Babtai,

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture (Lithuania), Pure Horticultural Research Centre

(Latvia), Polli Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental

Sciences of the Estonian University of Life Sciences (Estonia), and Pruzany, Brest

Agricultural Experimental Station (Byelorussia).

Trial with apple cv. ‘Beloruskoje malinovoje’ on P 22, M.9, B.9, Pure 1, B.146,

B.396, P 60, M.26 and Bulboga rootstocks planted in the spring of 2001. Planting

distances – 4 x 1.5 m. Under the same scheme trials were established at Lithuanian

Institute of Horticulture, Pure Horticultural Research Centre, Polli Research Centre,

and Brest Agricultural Experimental Station.

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Trial with pear cv. ‘Suvenir’ on Quince BA29, QA, QC, Pyrus Pyrodwarf,

Pyrus OHF333, Pyrus Kirchensaller Mostbirne, and Pyrus Kazrausu planted in the

spring of 2001. Planting distances – 4 x 3 m for seedling rootstocks and 4 x 2 m for

clonal rootstocks. Under the same scheme trials were established at Lithuanian Institute

of Horticulture, Pure Horticultural Research Centre, Polli Research Centre, and Brest

Agricultural Experimental Station.

Trial with apple cvs. ‘Auksis’ and ‘Ligol’ on B.396, B.9, PB-4, Pure 1, M.9,

M.26, P 22, P 59, P 61, P 62, P 66, P 67 in the spring of 2005. Planting distances –

4 x 1.5 m. Under the same scheme trials were established at Lithuanian Institute of

Horticulture, Pure Horticultural Research Centre, Polli Research Centre, and

Skierniewice, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture (Poland).

Interstock trial includes rootstocks B.9, P 22, B.396, 3-3-72, apple cvs.

‘Summered’, ‘Kaunis’, ‘Lietuvos pepinas’, columnar apple 109 and planted in the

autumn of 2002. Planting distances – 4 x 1.5 m.. Interstock length 30 cm, rootstock

B.396.

Virus status of planting material. International trial planted in the spring of 2003

together with Applied Plant Research, Research Unit Fruit, Randwijk, Netherlands.

Cvs. ‘Sampion’ and ‘Jonagold decosta’ on M.9 and M.26 rootstocks. Planting distances

– 3 x 1 for M.9 and 3 x 1.5 for M.26. Virus free and not tested material is evaluated.

Replant trial in the nursery established in 2005. Cvs. ‘Auksis’ and ‘Sampion’

budded on M.9, M.26, MM.106, P 2, P 22, P 59, P 60, B.396, B.118, Antonowka

seedling rootstocks and planted in fresh soil and at the place where apple stoolbeds

were cultivated for 10 years.

Rootstock and orchard constructions. Trial with cv. ‘Auksis’ on P 22 and P 60

rootstocks planted in 2001. Different planting schemes and tree training systems are

evaluated.

Trial with cv. ‘Rubin’ on P 22 and P 60 rootstocks planted in 2001. Time and

crown training systems are evaluated.

Rootstock and planting distances. Trial with cv. ‘Ligol’ on P 22, P 2 and P 60

rootstocks planted in 1999. Different planting schemes are evaluated.

Trial with cv. ‘Lodel’ on M.26, P 2 and P 60 rootstocks planted in 1999. Different

planting schemes are evaluated.

Trial with cv. ‘Delikates’ on M.26, MM.106 and seedling rootstocks planted in

1999. Different planting schemes are evaluated.

Rootstock effect on tree physiology. Trial started in 2004 with cv. ‘Auksis’ on

P 22, P 2, M.9, B.9, Pure 1, B.491, B.146, York 9, B.396, P 60, and M.26 rootstocks.

Drought stress trial established ex-situ in 2005 with M.9, M.26, MM.106, P 2,

P 22, P 59, P 60, B.396, B.118, Antonowka seedling rootstocks. Three soil moisture

regimes are created: 20–30 kPa, 40–50 kPa, and >70 kPa.

Rootstock resistance to Phytophthora cactorum trials established ex-situ and in

laboratory in 2006 with M.9, MM.106, P 60, B.396 and B.118 rootstocks.

Rootstock effect on fruit quality and harvest time. Trial with apple cv. ‘Auksis’

on P 22, P 2, M.9, B.9, Pure 1, B.491, B.146, York 9, B.396, P 60, M.26 and Bulboga

rootstocks started in 2004.

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Trial with apple cv. ‘Auksis’ on B.396 and P60 budded at 5, 10, 20 and 30 cm

started in 2004.

Trial with pear cv. ‘Conference’ on QA, QC, Sydo, QS1, K.16, K.11, 1.2

rootstocks and Pyrus x communis seedlings started in 2000.

Rootstock choice to columnar apple varieties. 24 columnar apple selections

from the breeding program at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture are tested on

P 60, B.396, M.26, MM.106, B.118 and seedling rootstocks.

Genetic engineering of Cydonia oblonga rootstocks. Quince rootstocks K.11,

K.16 and K.19 from Lithuanian rootstock breeding program are included. RolB gene

(~ 800 bp) was isolated from Agrobacterium rhizogenes in PCR with rolB5kodrolB3kod

primers. Binary constructs basing on pART27 and pNOV2819 plasmids

and containing rolB gene under own promoter sequence, 35S CaMV, and stressinduced

PR promoter were prepared and used to transform quince using

A. tumefaciens.

Results. Some published and more important preliminary results of ongoing

rootstock trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture are presented.

‘Baltic fruit rootstocks studies’. Location effect on

rootstock performance. The strongest tree growth of cv. ‘Auksis’ was

recorded in Lithuania and Byelorussia. The highest yields were obtained in Lithuania.

All tested rootstocks according growth vigour control can be grouped in the following

way: less vigour than M.9 – P 22, the same as M.9 – Pure 1, B.396, York 9, P.60, B.9

and P 2, between M.9 and M.26 – B.491, the same or more vigorous as M.26

Bulboga and B.146. Trees on rootstocks Pure 1 gave the highest cumulative yield

and were the most efficient although there was no significant difference in cumulative

fertility index with trees growing on rootstocks P 22, P 2, M.9, B.9 and York 9. The

least efficient were trees on rootstocks Bulboga and B.146. Rootstock and location

interaction was recorded for B.491 and P.60 in growth vigour control, York 9 in total

yield, and B.9 in yield efficiency (Kviklys et al., 2006).

The evaluation of vegetative growth showed that the most vigorous trees of

apple cv. ‘Belorusskoye Malinovoye’ were on rootstock Bulboga, followed by B.146,

M.26, P 60, B.396, M.9, B.9 and Pure 1. The smallest trees were on P 2. Highest

cumulated yield was harvested from the trees on rootstocks M.26 and B.396, the

smallest – on P 22 and B.9. The highest yield efficiency (kg cm -2 TCSA) was observed

on Pure 1 and B.9 rootstocks, the smallest – on B.146 and M.26. These results were

observed in all trials in all four scientific institutions, although some differences were

noted (Bite et al., 2006).

In Lithuania pear trees grew more vigorously than in two other localities. The

trees on the QC were founded to be smaller and the trees on Pyrodwarf. In Latvia, the

trees on all Pyrus rootstocks were more vigorous than these on Cydonia rootstocs. In

Estonia, the trees on Pyrodwarf and OHF 333 were found to be weaker than these on

Cydonia rootstocks. The first crop in Lithuania appeared in the fourth year after planting

only on Cydonia and Pyrodwarf rootstocks. In Estonia and Latvia, the first crop appeared

in the fifth year on all rootstocks due to the entire killing of flowers in the fourth year

by spring night frosts; the first crop was bigger on Cydonia rootstocks. In Lithuania,

the fruit mass was bigger on OHF 333 than that of BA 29 (Haak et al., 2006).

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Rootstock effect on fruit quality. High yielding trees on dwarf

rootstock Pure 1 have the smallest fruits. Largest fruits were on strong growing

Bulboga, B.146 and dwarf rootstock M.9. Pure 1 and P 22 determined better fruit

colouring. Fruits on Bulboga were firmer, and these on rootstock P 2 – softer. P 2

determined higher content of soluble solids (Kviklienë, Kviklys, 2006).

The biggest ‘Conference’ fruit weight were from trees on rootstock QS1, K.11

and K.16. These rootstocks and QA increased fruit diameter. Pyrus x communis

seedlings negatively effected fruit mass. ‘Conference’ fruits on the Pyrus x communis

seedling rootstock were firmer at harvest and as well as QS1 and 1.2 rootstocks had

higher starch content. There were no rootstock influence on the soluble solids content

and maturity indices among Cydonia oblonga rootstocks (Kviklys, Kviklienë, 2005a).

Rootstock effect on fruit maturity. The maturity index indicated

that ‘Auksis’ apples were more mature from trees on rootstock Pure 1. Rootstock

Bulboga caused later ripening of apples.

The maturity indices indicated that ‘Conference’ pears were more mature from

trees on Cydonia oblonga rootstocks (Kviklys, Kviklienë, 2004).

Rootstocks choice for cv. ‘Conference’. Rootstock 1.2

significantly reduced growth of a pear tree (stem diameter and total shoot length

during the first two years), whereas trees on Sydo and seedling rootstocks had the

strongest growth. Significant differences of stem diameter were not established

between other tested rootstocks after five years in the orchard. Quince MC, Sydo,

K11 and K16 were the earliest to start cropping. Trees grafted onto them started to

yield in the second year after planting. The highest cumulative yield was obtained on

Quince MC followed by Sydo. Other rootstocks gave statistically lower yields.

Significant differences were not found among Quince MA, K.16, K.11 and S1. The

lowest yield was on 1.2 and Pyrus x communis seedling rootstocks (Kviklys, 2005).

Virus status of planting material. Virus free trees had stronger

vegetative growth (total shoot length and stem diameter) at planting year than not

tested ones. During second and third year in the orchard vegetative and generative

development of apple trees and fruit weight did not depend on health status of planting

material. During the second season virus free trees of cv. ‘Ðampion’ had higher

yield, but lower growth, when not tested trees – lower yield and stronger growth.

During the third year opposite tendencies were established. Correlation between

vegetative growth and generative development of cv. ‘Jonagold’ was not established.

Health status of planting material had no effect on scab incidence on leaves and

fruits. Not tested trees were more sensitive to bark diseases (Kviklys, Stankienë,

2005).

Budding height. The differences among rootstocks were recorded already

in the second year. Trees on P 60 grew stronger than on B.396. Stronger growth of

trees was recorded at lower budding height too. Trees planted at the height of 0 and

10 cm significantly differed from trees at the height of 20 and 30 cm in total shoot

growth, stem diameter and tree height. First crop was the same on both rootstocks

and there were no significant difference between budding height. In following two

years significant differences occurred for both rootstocks and budding height.

Rootstock B.396 gave higher yield and trees on it were smaller. Influence of budding

8


height on crop load differed between years and rootstocks. Significant differences

were found with B.396 budded at different height. Less pronounced differences

were with P 60 rootstock. Trees, which budded higher, had smaller stem diameter.

Apple fruit weight did not depend on budding height (Kviklys, Kviklienë, 2005b).

Genetic engineering of Cydonia oblonga rootstocks. The

aim is to transform quince rootstocks to increase their rooting ability. RolB gene was

isolated from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. 1992 explants derived from clones K.1,

K.16 and K.19 were transformed using A. tumefaciens (Raþanskienë et al., 2006).

Transgenic plants were obtained with good rooting ability. Root morphology was

typical to plants transformed with rolB gene.

Discussion. The choice of rootstocks depends mostly on climatic conditions,

which are usually more unsatisfactory in northern countries. The length of the

vegetation period, sum of temperatures and rain precipitations have significant effects

on the rootstock performance. The vegetation period in Lithuania is shorter than in

other European countries and the sum of temperatures is also lower. Winter could be

a limiting factor of growing sensitive apple and pear rootstocks. Apple and pear

rootstocks are released in different countries and have their own quality parameters

and often exhibit unequal performance in different countries (Wertheim, 1998), mainly

due to ecological conditions. Therefore rootstock research is relevant in Lithuania in

order to develop commercial fruit growing and scientific knowledge.

At the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture 14 research workers from Orchard

technology department, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology of Orchard Plants,

Plant protection laboratory, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Technology, Laboratory

of Plant Physiology are involved in rootstock research. Research collaboration and

mutual rootstock trials take place with Applied Plant Research, Research Unit Fruit,

Randwijk, (Netherlands), Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture,

Skierniewice, (Poland), Pure Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia), Polli Research

Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences of the Estonian

University of Life Sciences (Estonia), and Brest Agricultural Experimental Station,

Pruzany (Byelorussia) (Bite et al., 2004; 1999).

24 apple and pear rootstock research projects are being carried out at the

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2006: 15 projects at the Orchard Technology

Department, 2 projects together at the Orchard Technology Department and

Laboratory of Plant Physiology, 2 projects together at the Orchard Technology

Department and Plant protection laboratory, 1 project together at the Orchard

Technology Department and Department of Genetics and Biotechnology of Orchard

Plants, 1 project together at the Orchard Technology Department and Laboratory of

Biochemistry and Technology, 2 projects at the Department of Genetics and

Biotechnology of Orchard Plants, 1 project together at the Department of Genetics

and Biotechnology of Orchard Plants and Laboratory of Plant Physiology.

Following apple and pear rootstocks are included in different research projects:

M and MM series – M.9, M.26, MM.106; P series – P 2, P 22, P 14, P 59, P 60, P 61,

P 62, P 66, P 67; B series – B.9, B.118, B.136, B.396, B.491, other rootstocks as

PB.4, Bulboga, York 9, Pure 1 and Antonowka seedlings; quinces – QA, QC, Sydo,

BA-29, S 1, K.11, K.16 and 1.2; pears – Pyrodwarf, OHF333, Mostbirne, Kazrausu.

9


In 2003–2005 research workers of the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture have

published 25 scientific publications on apple and pear rootstock research.

Gauta

2006 06 06

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 25

References

1. Bite A., Lepsis J., Kviklys D., Haak E., Lukut T.

Results of apple rootstock testing with cultivar ‘Belorusskoye malinovoye‘ in the frame of

project "Baltic fruit rootstock studies" // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2006. 25(3)

(in press).

2. Bite A., Kviklys D., Univer T., Lukut T. The beginning of

the project “Baltic fruit rootstock studies” // Acta Horticulturae. 2004. 658 (1). P. 437–440.

3. Bite A., Kviklys D., Haak E., Lukut T. International project

"Baltic fruit rootstock studies" // Apple rootstocks for intensive orchards. Warszawa.

1999. P. 17–19.

4. Duchovskis P., Kviklys D., Kawecki Z., Petronis P.,

Kviklienë N. Impact of rootstock and irrigation on apple bud differentiation and

flowering initiation // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2000. 19(3)-1. P. 352–358.

5. Haak E., Kviklys D., Lepsis J. Comparison of Cydonia and Pyrus

rootstocks in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2006. 25(3).

P. 322-326.

6. Kviklienë N., Kviklys D. Rootstock effect on maturity and quality

of ‘Auksis’ apples // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2006. 25(3). P. 258-263.

7. Kviklienë N., Kviklys D. Effect of vegetative, seedling and interstock

rootstocks on apple fruit maturity and storage // Growth and development of plants.

Theoretical and practical problems: abstracts of international scientific conference (Babtai,

7–9 June, 2004). 2004. Babtai. 52 p.

8. Kviklienë N., Kviklys D. Obelø vegetatyviniø poskiepiø átaka

‘Jonagold’ ir ‘Melrose’ vaisiø sunokimui ir kokybei // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2001.

20(1). P. 25–34.

9. Kviklys A. Obelø vegetatyviniø poskiepiø ávertinimas sode. Iðtvermingumas

þiemà ir auglumas // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 1992. 11. P. 3–14.

10. Kviklys A. Þemaûgiai vaismedþiai. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1977. 128 p.

11. Kviklys A., Armolaitis E., Ðvirinas S. Intensyvus obelø sodas. Vilnius: Mokslas,

1988. 237 p.

12. Kviklys D. Þemaûgiø intarpø tyrimai obelø sode // Sodininkystë ir

darþininkystë. 1997. 16. P. 16–21.

13. Kviklys D., Kviklienë N., Bite A., Lepsis J., Lukut

T., Haak E. Baltic fruit rootstock studies: evaluation of 12 rootstocks for apple cultivar

‘Auksis’ // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2006. 25(3). P. 334-341.

14. K viklys D., N.Kviklienë. Vegetatyviniø ir sëkliniø poskiepiø átaka

kriauðiø vaisiø kokybei // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2005a. 24(2). P. 11–19.

15. Kviklys D., Kviklienë N. Akiavimo aukðèio átaka obelø su B.396 ir

P 60 poskiepiais morfogenezei ir produktyvumui // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë:

ataskaitinës mokslinës konferencijos medþiaga. 2005b. Babtai, Nr. 18. P. 9–14.

10


16. K v i k l y s D., K viklienë N. Pear rootstock effect on growth,

productivity and fruit internal quality // Acta Horticulturae. 2004. 658(1). P. 359–364.

17. K viklys D., Kviklienë N. Effect of rootstock on apple quality and

storability // Folia Horticulture. 2002. 14/1. P. 227–233.

18. K viklys D. Poskiepiø átaka Konferencinë kriauðiø vegetatyvinei ir

generatyvinei raidai // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2005. 24(2). P. 3–10.

19. K v i k l y s D. Apple rootstock effect on the quality of planting material //

Acta Horticulturae. 2004. 658 (2). P. 641–646.

20. K v i k l y s D. Apple rootstock research in Lithuania with aspect to fruit quality

and tree productivity // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2002. 21(3). P. 3–13.

21. K v i k l y s D., Stankienë J. Sodinamosios medþiagos sveikatingumo

átaka obelø veislës Ðampion augimui ir derëjimui jauname sode // Sodininkystë ir

Darþininkystë. 2005. 24(4). P. 48–56.

22. K viklys D., Uselis N., Kviklienë N. Rootstock effect on

‘Jonagold’ apple tree growth, yield and fruit quality // Apple rootstocks for intensive

orchards. Warszawa, 1999. P. 67–69.

23. K v i k l y s D., Petronis P., Kviklienë N. Þemaûgiø poskiepiø

átaka obelø derliui // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2000. 19(1). P. 23–32.

24. R a þ a n s k i e n ë A., Stanienë G., Rugienius R.,

Gelvonauskienë D., Zalunskaitë I., Venskienë J., Stanys

V. Transformation of quince (Cydonia oblonga) with the rolB gene-based constructs

under different promoters // Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2006. Vol.

14(1). P. 95–102.

25. Ð u m skis A. Obelø sëkliniø poskiepiø auginimas polietileniniuose

ðiltnamiuose // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 1986a. 4. P. 21–27.

26. Ð u m skis A. Dirvos ruoðimas obelø poskiepiams pakartotinai auginti

polietileniniuose ðiltnamiuose // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 1986b. 4. P. 29–35.

27. Ð v irinas S. Sëkliniai obelø poskiepiai. Agropramoninis komitetas. Vilnius,

1986. 46 p.

28. Uselis N. Obelø su þemaûgiu poskiepiu biologiniø-ûkiniø savybiø tyrimas //

Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2005. 24(4). P. 22–32.

29. Uselis N. Sodo konstrukcijø átaka Alva obelø su P 22 poskiepiu derliui,

produktyvumui bei vaisiø kokybei // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë: ataskaitinës mokslinës

konferencijos medþiaga. Babtai, 2004. Nr. 17. P. 24–27.

30. U selis N. Þemaûgiø obelø augumas ir produktyvumas ávairiø konstrukcijø

deranèiuose soduose // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2003. 22(1). P. 3–13.

31. Uselis N. Assessment of productivity and fruit quality of apple cultivars on

rootstock M26 in full bearing orchard // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. 2002. 21(3).

P. 14–28.

32. W ertheim S. J. Rootstock guide: Apple, pear, cherry, European plum.

1998. Fruit Research Station, Wilhelminadorp, The Netherlands.

11


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 3–12.

OBELØ IR KRIAUÐIØ POSKIEPIØ TYRIMAI LIETUVOJE

D. Kviklys

Santrauka

Straipsnyje analizuojami ðiuo metu Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institute

atliekami obelø ir kriauðiø tyrimai. Tiriant obelø poskiepius, nustatoma poskiepiø ir aplinkos

sàlygø (geografiniø vietoviø) sàveika (Baltijos poskiepiø studija, kurià atlieka Baltarusijos,

Estijos, Latvijos, Lenkijos ir Lietuvos mokslo ástaigos), poskiepio reakcija á akiavimo aukðtá,

átaka vaisiø kokybei, sunokimo laikui ir laikymuisi, obelø su skirtingais poskiepiais formavimo

sistemos, poskiepiø naudojimas tarpiniam skiepijimui, poskiepiø sveikumas (tyrimai

atliekami su Nyderlandø mokslininkais), reakcija á gentiná dirvos nualinimà medelyne,

atsparumas ðaknø kaklelio puviniui, sausrai, átaka vaismedþiø fiziologiniams rodikliams,

sausøjø medþiagø pasiskirstymui ir maisto medþiagø pasisavinimui, atliekami paprastojo

svarainio poskiepiø genø inþinerijos tyrimai. Atliekant ávairius bandymus, tiriami ðie obelø

poskiepiai: M ir MM serijos – M.9, M.26, MM.106; P serijos – P 2, P 22, P 14, P 59, P 60,

P 61, P 62, P 66, P 67; B serijos – B.9, B.118, B.136, B.396, B.491, kiti poskiepiai – PB.4,

Bulboga, York 9, Pure 1 ir 'Paprastojo antaninio' sëjinukai, ir kriauðiø poskiepiai: Paprastojo

svarainio – QA, QC, Sydo, BA-29, S 1, K.11, K.16, K.19, 1.2, kriauðiø – Pyrodwarf, OHF333,

sëkliniai – Mostbirne ir Kazrausu. Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institute

poskiepiø tyrimus ávairiu lygiu atlieka 14 Sodø technologijø skyriaus, Genetikos ir

biotechnologijos skyriaus, Augalø apsaugos, Augalø fiziologijos bei Biochemijos ir

technologijos laboratorijø mokslo darbuotojø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Cydonia x oblonga, Malus x domestica, moksliniai tyrimai,

Pyrus x communis, poskiepis.

12


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 13–26.

EVALUATION OF PYRUS AND QUINCE ROOTSTOCKS

FOR HIGH DENSITY PEAR ORCHARDS

Frank MAAS

Applied Plant Research, Research Unit Fruit, Lingewal 1, 6668 LA

Randwijk, The Netherlands. E-mail: frank.maas@wur.nl

High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and

labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars

form the basis for such orchards.

In the Netherlands there are no breeding programs for fruit tree rootstocks. Rootstock

research is limited to and focussed on testing rootstocks selected in other countries. For

the Dutch pear growers the main selection criteria for new rootstocks are: 1) control of tree

size; 2) production; 3) fruit size; 4) fruit quality; 5) production efficiency; 6) frost resistance.

Additional criteria for Dutch fruit tree nurseries exporting trees to other countries are:

1) compatibility with scion cultivars; 2) suitability for growth in calcareous soils; 3) easy

propagation. In all trials rootstock performance is compared to quince MC, the most

commonly used rootstocks for pears in the Netherlands.

Recently, a number of pear (Pyrus communis) and quince (Cydonia oblonga)

rootstocks have been tested with ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ as the scion

cultivars.

Generally, the production efficiency of the Pyrus rootstocks was much less than for

quince MC. Another disadvantage of the evaluated Pyrus rootstocks was their high

sensitivity towards pear decline. Several rootstocks were rejected after examination of the

graft union because of suspected compatibility problems. Of the tested quince rootstocks

C 132 shows promise because of its control of tree growth in combination with good fruit

size and Eline ® because of its reduction of fruit russeting in ‘Conference’.

Key words: Cydonia oblonga, graft compatibility, high density orchard, Pyrus

communis.

Introduction. High density planting systems are the starting point of modern

orchards. Small trees that come into production in the second year after planting are

a prerequisite to achieve regular yields of high quality fruits and to economise the use

of land and labour costs for pruning and picking. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling

the vigour of the scion cultivars and inducing precociousness form the basis for

such high density orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005).

European pears are predominantly grown on rootstocks of Quince (Cydonia

oblonga). In the Netherlands the majority of pears are grown on quince MC, but

13


quince MA and quince Adams are also used. ‘Conference’ is the most important

cultivar. Grown in high density planting systems yearly yields of 60 to 70 tons/ha are

feasible.

To obtain this production level a good control of shoot growth, flower bud

development, and fruit set is required. Although quince MC has been used successfully

for many decades in the Netherlands, there are several reasons to look for alternative

rootstocks.

Until 2001, the growth retardant chlormequat (CCC) was amply used the reduce

shoot growth and stimulate flower bud development. The loss of CCC has renewed

the interest in rootstocks more dwarfing than quince MC. Besides dwarfing of the

scion cultivar other desired traits of new rootstocks for pears are: 1) precociousness,

to ensure early productions starting in the second year after planting; 2) fruit size,

for ‘Conference’ pears the proportion of pears with a diameter >65 mm should be as

large as possible; 3) disease resistance, especially towards fire blight and pear decline;

4) compatible with scion cultivars; 5) frost resistance; 6) easy propagation;

7) suitability for growth on calcareous soils (absence of lime-induced chlorosis). In

addition, new rootstocks may also be used to meet the changes in market demands

for ‘Conference’ pears like larger and less russeted fruits.

Since there is no breeding program for pear rootstocks in the Netherlands, the

research on pear rootstocks is limited to testing rootstocks selected in other countries.

The main selection criteria for the Dutch pear industry are: 1) tree size; 2) production;

3) production efficiency; 4) fruit size distribution. Additional criteria for nurseries

exporting fruit trees to other countries are: 1) compatibility with as many modern

scion cultivars as possible; 2) suitability for growth in different soils; 3) easy

propagation.

During the past decades a large number of rootstocks were collected by Wertheim

(1998). The results of evaluation trials with several of these rootstocks have already

been published (Wertheim, 2002; Wertheim, Vercammen, 2000). This paper contains

the results of three more recent trials with the cultivars ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné

du Comice’ grafted on a number of other Quince and Pyrus rootstocks.

Materials and methods. P lant material. All trials were planted in

the experimental orchard of the fruit research station at Randwijk (5.707° East,

51.937° North) in fresh soil consisting of river clay with 30% silt. Trees were planted

at a distance of 3.5 x 1.5 m and were trained as spindle trees according to local

commercial practice. Growth of the trees was not regulated by chemical growth

regulators, root pruning or girdling of the trunks. No gibberellins were applied to

stimulate fruit set. Contrary to common practice the rootstocks were not protected

by a layer of compost during the winter in order to evaluate the frost resistance of

the different rootstocks.

During a period of at least 5 years the growth and production of the trees was

monitored by:

- Annual or biannual measurement of the girth of the trunk at 30 cm above the

graft union

- Annual shoot growth on a scale from 1 (no shoot growth) to 9 (very vigorous

growth)

14


- Annual flower intensity on a scale from 1 (no flowers) to 9 (very rich flowering)

- Annual fruit production (number of fruits and kg fruits per tree)

- Analysis of mineral content of leaves and fruits (once for each trial 3 to 5

years after planting)

- Fruit size distribution (at least once for each trial 4 to 5 years after planting)

- Calculation of production efficiency (number of fruits/cm² trunk cross sectional

area)

Trial 1. (code 044-Ra99107). Trees were planted on April 8 th ,

1998. The statistical design of the trial was a split plot with the scion cultivar being

the whole plot and the rootstocks the sub plots. Plots were replicated 8 times and

contained one tree of each treatment. In this trial the growth of ‘Conference’ and

‘Doyenné du Comice’ budded at 10 or 25 cm height was compared for the quince

rootstocks MC, C132, and the Pyrus rootstock BP10030 (Trajkovski, Andersson,

1990). Rootstocks were obtained from Naktuinbouw (Netherlands Inspection Service

for Horticulture) (MC), HRI East Malling, UK (C132), Eliteplantstation Balsgård,

Sweden (BP10030) and Fleuren Nurseries, Netherlands (Eline ® ). MC, C132 and

BP10030 were virus free. The virus-status of Eline ® was unknown.

Trial 2 (code 044-Ra00105).Trees were planted on March

30 th , 2000. The statistical design of the trial was a split plot with the scion cultivar

being the whole plot and the rootstocks the sub plots. Plots were replicated 10 times

and contained one tree of each treatment. The growth of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné

du Comice’ grafted on quince MC was compared with trees grafted on quince Sobu

and the Pyrus species Delbuena, Dolacomi, Gieser Wildeman and Pyrodwarf. Plant

material of Delbuena, Dolocomi and Gieser Wildeman was considered to be virusfree

as they were grown from seed. MC and Sobu were obtained as virus-free

material. The virus status of Pyrodwarf was unknown.

Trial 3 (code 044-Ra01101). Trees were planted on March

13 th , 2001. The statistical design of the trial was a split plot with the scion cultivar

being the whole plot and the rootstocks the sub plots. Each plot was replicated 6

times and consisted of 3 trees per treatment. In this trial the growth of ‘Conference’

and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ grafted on Quince MC was compared with trees grafted

on the Quinces Adams, S 3, MC Peters, MH (=QR 193-16), ME and the pyrus

Gieser Wildeman. The virus status of S 3 and MH was unknown, all other rootstocks

were assumed to be virus-free as they were obtained from virus-free stock plants or

grown from seed (Gieser Wildeman).

Statistical analysis. The data were analysed using the Genstat

statistical program (release 8.1). In trial 1, the results of the trials with ‘Conference’

and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ were analysed separately because of the difference in the

duration of the trials. If possible, the data of all other trials were analysed using the

analysis of variance for a split plot. In case of significant differences (p


growth was very weak. Quinces C.132 and Eline ® gave comparable to slightly more

growth in both ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’.

Table 1. Average growth parameters of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné

du Comice’

1 lentelë. ‘Conference’ ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ veisliø augimo rodikliø

vidurkiai

Rootstock

Poskiepis ‘Conference’

2001–2005

Growth index*

Augimo indeksas

‘Doy. du Comice’

2001–2004

*on scale 1 (no growth) to 9 (very strong growth) / skalëje nuo 1 (jokio augimo) iki 9 (labai

intensyvus augimas)

The cumulative production of ‘Conference’ on BP10030 was only 45% of that

on quince MC (Table 2). On quince C.132 ‘Conference’ produced slightly less and

on quince Eline ® slightly more than on quince MC, but these differences were not

statistically significant. From 2000 to 2005 ‘Conference’ produced the largest number

of fruits on quince MC and quince Eline ® , about 20% less fruits on quince C.132 and

approx. 50% less on BP10030. Despite the low number of fruits, the average fruit

weight was lowest on BP10030. On the quince rootstocks the average fruit weight

was the highest for the rootstock with the lowest number of fruits. Production

efficiency (number of fruits per cm² TCSA) was highest on quince Eline ® , but not

statistically different from that on quince MC.

Cumulative production and total number of fruits of ‘Doyenné du Comice’ was

similar for all 4 rootstocks, but with an average production of only 32 kg and 125

fruits per tree much lower than the 87 kg and 500 fruits per tree for ‘Conference’ on

the tested quince rootstocks (Table 3). Average fruit weight of ‘Doyenné du Comice’

was highest on C.132 and least on Eline ® . Production efficiency was highest for

BP10030.

The fruits harvested in 2003, 2004 and 2005 were graded in size. Table 4 shows

that C.132 gave the highest percentages of fruit with a diameter >65 mm. However

due to the large variation between the observations of trees these differences were

not statistically different in this trial.

16

Increase of trunk circumference

Kamieno apimties padidëjimas, cm

‘Conference’

Spring 1999 –

autumn 2005

1999 m. pavasaris–

2005 m. ruduo

‘Doy. du Comice’

Spring 1999 –

autumn 2004

1999 m. pavasaris–

2004 m. ruduo

MC 4.7 b 5.9 b 12.6 b 14.7 b

BP10030 2.4 a 4.2 a 7.9 a 12.0 a

C.132 5.0 bc 6.2 b 13.6 b 15.9 bc

Eline ® 5.4 c 6.0 b 13.7 b 16.4 c

F-test p


Table 2. Cumulative production of ‘Conference’ in 2000–2005

2 lentelë. ‘Conference’ derëjimo rodikliai 2000–2005 m.

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Yield, kg/tree

Derlius, kg/vaism.

Amount of

fruits, pcs/tree

Vaisiø kiekis,

vnt./vaism.

* Total number of fruits per tree in 2000–2005 per cm 2 of trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) in

autumn of 2005 / Bendras vaisiø skaièius 2000–2005 m. vienam kamieno skerspjûvio ploto (KSP) cm 2

2005 rudená

Table 3. Cumulative production of ‘Doyenné du Comice’ in 2000–2005

3 lentelë. ‘Doyenné du Comice’ derëjimo rodikliai 2000–2005 m.

* Total number of fruits per tree in 2000–2005 per cm 2 of trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) in

autumn of 2005 / Bendras vaisiø skaièius 2000–2005 m. vienam kamieno skerspjûvio ploto (KSP) cm 2

2005 rudená

Leaf appearance of both ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ grafted onto

BP10030 was not as healthy as on any of the other rootstocks. Many leaves were

pale green to yellowish. Mineral analysis of the leaves during the summer of 2002

revealed lower contents of K, Mg and Ca in ‘Conference’ and Mg and Ca in ‘Doyenné

du Comice’ (Table 5).

Flowering of ‘Conference’ was quite regular and good over the years 2000 to

2005. Average flower intensity over this period was between 5.5 and 6.2. Flowering

of ‘Doyenné du Comice’ was less regular. Average flower intensity from 2000 to

2005 varied between 3.5 and 5.3, with the lowest observed in 2001 (1.0 to 3.4) and

the highest in 2005 (7.3 tot 7.8). In both cultivars rootstock BP 10030 resulted in the

highest flower intensities.

17

Fruit weight

Vaisiø masë, g

Production efficiency,

fruits/cm 2 of TCSA *

Produktyvumas, vaisiai/cm 2 KSP

MC 87.0 b 503 c 193 b 19.0 bc

BP10030 39.7 a 266 a 176 a 17.4 ab

C.132 81.4 b 433 b 212 c 15.5 a

Eline ® 92.3 b 563 c 186 ab 20.5 c

F-test p


Table 4. Fruit size of ‘Conference’, % of total fruit yield

4 lentelë. ‘Conference’ vaisiø dydis, % bendro vaisiø kiekio

Rootstock

2003 2004 2005

Poskiepis >55 mm >65 mm >55 mm >65 mm >55 mm >65 mm

MC 91 b 52 c 89 33 89 48

BP10030 50 a 6 a - - - -

C.132 94 b 54 c 92 40 94 62

Eline ® 88 b 42 c 93 40 86 40

F-test p


and the rootstock is visible indicating both tissues are also not fully compatible.

Trial 2 (044-Ra00105). Table 6 shows that with ‘Conference’

rootstock Sobu gave the weakest growth. Differences in growth between all other

combinations were quite small. With ‘Doyenné du Comice’ growth index and increase

in trunk diameter were similar for all rootstocks used in the trial.

Table 6. Average growth parameters of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné

du Comice’

6 lentelë. ‘Conference’ ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ augimo rodikliø vidurkiai

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Growth index* in 2000–2004

Augimo indeksas 2000–2004 m.

*on scale 1 (no growth) to 9 (very strong growth). n.s = not significant / skalëje nuo 1 (jokio

augimo) iki 9 (labai intensyvus augimas); n.s. = nereikðminga

Table 7 summarises the production of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’

grown on four different Pyrus cultivars and quince Sobu as a rootstocks in comparison

with the standard rootstock quince MC. Production was highest on quince MC and

did not differ significantly between the 4 Pyrus rootstocks and quince Sobu. Despite

the lower fruit numbers, average fruit weights on Dolacomi and Gieser Wildeman

were lower than on MC and Pyrodwarf.

With ‘Doyenné du Comice’ quince Sobu was second best with respect to

production and production efficiency.

‘Conference’ trees on Sobu did not look as healthy as on the other rootstocks

and growth of the cultivar was much weaker than that of ‘Doyenné du Comice’ on

the same rootstocks, indicating some kind of incompatibility between ‘Conference’

and Sobu. At the end of the trial a longitudinal sections were made of the graft unions

of both scion cultivars grafted onto Sobu. Figure 2 shows the longitudinal sections

of the graft unions between Sobu and both cultivars. As can be clearly seen in this

figure, part of the wood at the union is black, which indicates compatibility between

Sobu and ‘Conference’ is very poor. The union between Sobu and ‘Doyenné du

Comice’ looks much healthier. However, also in the latter combination a clear separation

line between the wood of the scion and the rootstock is visible, indicating that also in

this case both tissues are not fully compatible.

19

Increase of trunk circumference in

spring 2000–autumn 2005

Kamieno apimties padidëjimas 2000 m.

pavasará–2005 m. rudená, cm

‘Conference’ ‘Doy. du Comice’ ‘Conference’ ‘Doy. du Comice’

MC 3.6 ab 5.0 8.6 b 11.6

Delbuena 4.3 bc 6.2 8.5 b 13.5

Dolacomi 5.1 c 5.0 11.3 b 13.0

Gieser W. 5.6 c 6.1 11.9 bc 12.7

Pyrodwarf 5.7 c 5.5 12.8 c 14.3

Sobu 2.5 a 4.9 5.4 a 11.9

F-test p


Table 7. Cumulative production of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du

Comice’, 2001–2004

7 lentelë. ‘Conference’ ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ derëjimas 2001–2004 m.

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Yield, kg/tree

Derlius,

kg/vaism.

Amount of

fruits, pcs/tree

Vaisiø kiekis,

vnt./vaism.

* Total number of fruits per tree in 2001-2004 per cm 2 of trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) in

autumn of 2004 / Bendras vaisiø skaièius 2001–2004 m. vienam kamieno skerspjûvio ploto (KSP) cm 2

2004 rudená

20

Fruit weight

Vaisiø masë, g

Production efficiency,

fruits/cm 2 of TCSA *

Produktyvumas, vaisiai/cm 2 KSP

‘Conference’

MC 28.9 172 190 10.2 e

Delbuena 16.4 114 160 6.4 d

Dolacomi 17.3 118 153 4.6 bc

Gieser W. 18.6 138 139 5.3 cd

Pyrodwarf 17.3 123 175 4.3 bc

Sobu 16.3 109 151 10.6 e

‘Doyenné du comice’

MC 24.3 98 263 4.1 bc

Delbuena 11.5 44 270 1.4 a

Dolacomi 8.1 36 232 1.1 a

Gieser W. 9.5 33 259 1.2 a

Pyrodwarf 8.6 30 263 0.9 a

Sobu 17.0 69 243 3.2 b

Average of ‘Conference’ & ‘Doyenné du comice’ / ‘Conference’ ir ‘Doyenné du comice’ vidurkis

MC 26.6 b 135 b 227 b

Delbuena 13.8 a 80 a 212 ab

Dolacomi 12.6 a 77 a 194 a

Gieser W. 13.8 a 85 a 197 a

Pyrodwarf 13.1 a 77 a 224 b

Sobu 17.4 a 91 a 204 ab

F-test p


Fig. 1. Longitudinal sections of graft unions of 8-year old trees of ‘Conference’ (A)

and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ (B) grafted on rootstock BP10030

1 pav. Aðtuonmeèiø ‘Conference’ (A) ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ (B) veisliø vaismedþiø

su BP10030 poskiepiu iðilginis skiepijimo vietos pjûvis

Fig. 2. Longitudinal sections of graft unions of 8-year old trees Conference (A) and

Doyenné du Comice (B) grafted on rootstock Sobu

2 pav. Aðtuonmeèiø ‘Conference’ (A) ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ (B) veisliø vaismedþiø

su Sobu poskiepiu iðilginis skiepijimo vietos pjûvis

Average flower intensities over the trial period were between 4.4 and 5.4 for

‘Conference’ and 3.4 and 4.9 for ‘Doyenné du Comice’ . In both cultivars the lowest

flower intensities were noted for trees grown on Gieser Wildeman and the highest

for trees grown on quince MC.

Trial 3 (044-Ra01101). In Table 8 the growth and production of

‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ on quince MC is presented together with

that on 5 other quinces (Adams, MC Peters, MH (= QR 193-16), ME, and S 3) and

on the pyrus Gieser Wildeman. Both scion cultivars showed similar patterns in growth.

21


Compared to growth on quince MC a significantly higher growth index and a larger

increase in trunk circumference was noted on both Gieser Wildeman and S 3. On

MC Peters the growth index and increase in trunk circumference equalled those on

MC. On Adams growth index of ‘Conference’ equalled that on MC, while that of

‘Doyenné du Comice’ was slightly higher. No differences were observed in the

increases in trunk circumferences of both scion cultivars on MC and Adams. With

the exception of a smaller increase in trunk circumference of ‘Doyenné du Comice’,

growth of both scion cultivars on MC Peters equalled that on MC. Significantly

lower growth indexes were observed in both scion cultivars on quinces MH and ME.

Increases in trunk circumferences were also smaller on these rootstocks, but these

differences were only statistically significant in ‘Doyenné du Comice’ .

Table 8. Average growth index and increase in trunk

circumference

8 lentelë. Vidutinis augimo indeksas ir kamieno apimties padidëjimas

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Growth index* in 2002–2005

Augimo indeksas 2002–2005 m.

*on scale 1 (no growth) to 9 (very strong growth) / skalëje nuo 1 (jokio augimo) iki 9 (labai

intensyvus augimas)

The average growth on Gieser Wildeman presented in Table 7 was somewhat

reduced by the occurrence of pear decline in some years in several observation

trees. In any year trees on Gieser Wildeman without any visual symptoms of pear

decline showed a much stronger growth than on MC.

Contrary to an earlier experiment at the former location of the research station

in Wilhelminadorp (Wertheim, 2002), growth on S 3 was stronger than on MC. The

most probable explanation for the weaker growth in Wilheminadorp was the use of

virus-infected S 3. The growth on virus-free S 3 in the experiment in Randwijk

indicates that this rootstock is too vigorous for Dutch high density orchards.

Cumulative productions of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ are shown

in Table 9. ‘Conference’ produced the highest number of fruits on the MC, Adams

and MC Peters. On S 3, Gieser Wildeman and MH trees produced about 100 fruits

less. On ME trees produced only one third of the number of fruits as compared to

trees on MC. ‘Conference’ trees produced similar kg fruits on MC, Adams and MC

22

Increase of trunk circumference in

spring 2001–autumn 2005

Kamieno apimties padidëjimas 2001 m.

pavasará–2005 m. rudená, cm

‘Conference’ ‘Doy. du Comice’ ‘Conference’ ‘Doy. du Comice’

MC 4.6 cde 4.3 bcd 8.2 ab 10.4 c

Adams 5.0 def 5.1 ef 9.0 b 10.9 c

S 3 6.0 g 5.9 g 12.1 d 14.0 e

Gieser W. 5.5 fg 6.8 h 10.3 c 14.8 e

MC Peters 4.4 bcd 4.3 bc 8.1 ab 9.0 b

MH 3.8 ab 3.4 a 7.7 a 7.9 ab

ME 3.2 a 2.9 a 7.5 a 7.8 ab

F-test p


Peters. On S 3 and MH trees produced about 15 kg less. Trees on Gieser Wildeman

and ME produced about 26 and 34 kg less, respectively, than on MC. Average fruit

weight was only significantly reduced for ‘Conference’ grown on Gieser Wildeman.

Production efficiency was highest for ‘Conference’ on MC. Trees on Adams and

MC Peters had slightly lower production efficiency, but the difference to MC was

not statistically significant. Significant lower efficiencies compared to MC were noted

for ‘Conference’ on MH (-17%), ME (-46%), and S 3 (-52%) and Gieser Wildeman

(-54%).

Table 9. Production parameters of ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du

Comice’, 2002–2005

9 lentelë. ‘Conference’ ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ derëjimo rodikliai 2002–2005 m.

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Yield, kg/tree

Derlius, kg/vaism.

Amount of fruits,

pcs/tree

Vaisiø kiekis,

vnt./vaism.

* Total number of fruits per tree in 2002–2005 per cm 2 of trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) in

autumn of 2005 / Bendras vaisiø skaièius 2002–2005 m. vienam kamieno skerspjûvio ploto (KSP) cm 2

2005 rudená

Compared to ‘Conference’ fruit production of ‘Doyenné du Comice’ was lower

for all rootstock. The highest number of fruits and kg/tree were produced on Adams,

MC Peters and MC, the lowest numbers on Gieser Wildeman and ME. Average fruit

size was highest on ME and lowest on Gieser Wildeman. Production efficiency was

highest on MC Peters followed by Adams, MC and MH. Gieser Wildeman gave by

far the lowest production efficiency.

23

Fruit weight

Vaisiø masë, g

Production efficiency,

fruits/cm 2 of TCSA *

Produktyvumas, vaisiai/cm 2 KSP

‘Conference’

MC 329 h 54.8 g 177 b 18.9 f

Adams 327 h 55.5 g 176 b 17.0 ef

S 3 211 g 38.4 ef 190 b 9.0 d

Gieser W. 215 g 27.1 c 134 a 8.6 d

MC Peters 293 h 52.0 g 188 b 16.9 ef

MH 222 g 40.0 ef 188 b 15.8 e

ME 109 def 19.6 b 187 b 10.3 d

‘Doyenné du comice’

MC 90 cde 28.4 cd 324 ef 4.8 bc

Adams 135 f 38.0 ef 294 d 5.6 c

S 3 79 cd 24.9 bc 317 def 2.9 b

Gieser W. 25 a 6.1 a 247 c 0.7 a

MC Peters 119 ef 35.0 de 301 de 6.2 c

MH 66 bc 19.9 b 330 f 4.7 bc

ME 37 ab 12.4 a 362 g 3.3 b

F-test P


Flower intensity over the trial period was generally good and averaged between

4.9 and 6.4 in ‘Conference’ and 3.6 and 6.0 in ‘Doyenné du Comice’ . In both

cultivars the lowest flower intensities were observed for trees grown on pyrus Gieser

Wildeman or quince ME, the highest flower intensities for trees grown on the quinces

MC, Adams and MC Peters.

Discussion. ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ trees raised from the same

batch of rootstocks and scion buds and at the same nursery in the Netherlands were

also planted in 1999 in a trial at East Malling Research in England (Johnson et al.,

2005). Compared to the Dutch trial production of ‘Conference’ in the UK was lower

and the percentage of fruits having a diameter of 65 mm or more was much lower

for trees grown on rootstocks MC and C132. With ‘Conference’ the Pyrus rootstock

BIP10030 was less productive. In the trial in England this was not yet noticeable in

2003 (Johnson et al., 2005), but became very clear in 2004 (Johnson, personal

communication, 2006). The observed tendency of C132 increasing fruit size of

‘Conference’ in the Dutch trial confirmed by the results of the trial in England. The

negative effect of leaf appearance of ‘Conference’ grafted on BP10030 together

with the decreased productivity warrants further attention and may possibly be the

result of a cultivar – specific incompatibility. Although such negative effects were

not observed with cultivar ‘Doyenné du Comice’, the formation of a very thickened

graft union may possibly affect graft compatibility in the future and thus necessitates

further research.

An interesting observation was the reduction of russeting of ‘Conference’ when

grown on rootstock Eline ® . This may be of interest when the market demands fruits

with less russeting, which may be of interest for market demanding less russeted

pears.

Frost resistance is expected to be another advantage of both Eline ® and C132 as

they were originate from areas with much more severe winters. However, lack of

severe winter frosts during the trial period made it not possible to evaluate this

characteristic.

Pyrus rootstocks are attractive from the point of view of better compatibility,

frost hardiness and tolerance to lime-induced chlorosis than most quince rootstocks.

However, all Pyrus rootstocks evaluated so far resulted in stronger growth, a lower

production efficiency and general smaller fruit size than quince MC. In addition,

another negative aspect of Pyrus rootstocks is their observed sensitivity to pear

decline. Of the tested quinces the weakest growth and highest production efficiency

was observed for ‘Conference’ and ‘Doyenné du Comice’ grown on Sobu. However,

based on the anatomy of the graft union and the poor leaf quality the dwarfing by

this rootstock seems to be caused by incompatibility, especially with ‘Conference’.

Large variation was observed in vigour between the 10 replicate trees of the trial,

indicating variability in the establishment of a successful graft union. As virus free

plant material of Sobu was used, it is unlikely that viruses were the reason for the

differences in growth between the trees. Quinces MH, Eline ® , and C132 were the

best performing rootstocks of the trials and their control of tree vigour and production

efficiency was quite similar to quince MC. Specific characteristics like slightly more

dwarfing (MH), bigger fruit size (C 132) and expected greater frost resistance

24


(C 132, Eline ® ), less russeted fruits with ‘Conference’ (Eline ® ) may favour their

choice above the currently most used quince rootstocks MC and Adams, depending

on the desired planting system, scion cultivar and market demands for fruit size and

russeting. A larger demonstration trial is in preparation to compare this growth and

production of ‘Conference’ with these three rootstocks in comparison with MC and

Adams at different locations in the Netherlands and to further optimise cultivation

practises.

Gauta

2006 05 05

Parengta spausdinti

2006 08 03

References

1. Johnson D., Evans K., Spencer J., Webster T., Adam

S. Orchard Comparisons of New Quince and Pyrus Rootstock Clones. Acta Hort. 2005.

671: 201–207.

2. Trajkovski V., Andersson G. Rootstock Breeding. 1990. Sveriges

Lantbrukuniversitet. Balsgård – Avdelningen För Hortikulturell Växtförädling.

Verksamhetsberättelse 1988–1989: 27–30.

3. Wertheim S.J. Rootstock guide. Apple, pear, cherry, European plum.

Publication Fruit Research Station, Wilheminadorp, 1998. P.144.

4. Wertheim S.J., Webster A.D. Rootstocks and interstems. In: Tromp

J., Webster A.D., Wertheim S.J. (eds). Fundamentals of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit

Production. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, 2005. P. 156–175.

5. Wertheim S.J. Rootstocks for European pear: a review. Acta Hort. 2002.

596: 299–309.

6. Wertheim S.J., Vercammen J. A multi-site pear-interstem trial in the

Netherlands and Belgium. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 2000. 54: 199–207.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 13–26.

KRIAUÐIØ IR SVARAINIØ POSKIEPIØ TINKAMUMAS INTENSYVIEMS

KRIAUÐIØ SODAMS

F. Maas

Santrauka

Siekiant ekonomiðkai iðnaudoti þemæ ir taupyti darbo sànaudas soduose, bûtina

taikyti tankaus sodinimo sistemas. Tokiø sodø pagrindas yra þemaûgiai poskiepiai,

kontroliuojantys vaismedþiø augimà.

Olandijoje nëra vaismedþiø poskiepiø selekcijos programø. Poskiepiø tyrimai – tik

kitose ðalyse sukurtø poskiepiø patikrinimas. Olandijos kriauðiø augintojams pagrindiniai

naujø poskiepiø selekcijos kriterijai yra ðie: 1) vaismedþio dydþio kontrolë; 2) produkcija;

3) vaisiø dydis; 4) vaisiø kokybë; 5) produktyvumas; 6) atsparumas ðalèiams. Papildomi

25


kriterijai Olandijos medelynams, eksportuojantiems vaismedþius á kitas ðalis, yra ðie:

1) poskiepiø suderinamumas su skiepijamomis veislëmis; 2) tinkamumas auginti

kalkinguose dirvoþemiuose; 3) nesudëtingas dauginimas. Visuose bandymuose poskiepiø

charakteristikos lyginamos su svarainiu MC, Olandijoje kriauðëms daþniausiai naudojamu

poskiepiu.

Neseniai keletas kriauðiø (Pyrus communis) ir svarainiø (Cydonia oblonga) poskiepiø

buvo patikrinti su ‘Conference’ ir ‘Doyenné du Comice’ veislëmis.

Paprastai kriauðiø poskiepiø produktyvumas yra daug maþesnis negu svarainiø MC.

Kitas ávertintø kriauðiø poskiepiø trûkumas buvo jø didelis jautrumas kriauðiø nykimo

fitoplazmai. Patikrinus skiepijimo vietà, keletas poskiepiø buvo atmesta dël átariamø

suderinamumo problemø. Ið patikrintøjø svarainiø poskiepiø daug vilèiø teikia C132 (riboja

vaismedþiø augimà ir uþtikrina gerà vaisiø dydá) ir Eline ® (sumaþina ‘Conference’ veislës

kriauðiø vaisiø grûdëtumà).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Cydonia oblonga, intensyvus sodas, Pyrus communis,

suderinamumas.

26


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 27–33.

ROOTSTOCKS USED FOR TEMPERATE FRUIT TREES

IN TURKEY: AN OVERVIEW

Sezai ERCISLI, Ahmet ESITKEN, Emine ORHAN,

Ozlem OZDEMIR

Ataturk University, Agricultural Faculty Department of Horticulture, 25240

Erzurum-Turkey. E-mail: sercisli@atauni.edu.tr

Most of the fruit tree orchards in Turkey are grafted onto rootstocks, except chestnuts

and cornelian cherries, which are generally propagated by seeds. The main rootstocks

used by Turkish growers for temperate fruit trees nowadays are: wild apple seedlings, M.9

and MM.106 for apples; wild pear, in particular Pyrus eleagrifolia L. seedlings for pears;

wild peach seedlings for peaches; wild plum seedlings for plums; seedlings of Mazzard

and Mahaleb, very recently clonally propagated Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks for

cherries; Juglans regia L. seedlings for walnut; wild almond seedlings for almond; wild

apricot seedlings for apricot. The level of clonal rootstock use for temperate fruit tree

species is not satisfactory in Turkey. However, in recent years the number of orchards

established with clonal rootstocks, in particular for apples and cherries, has been increased

in the country. In this paper the current status of rootstock use for temperate fruit trees in

Turkey is reported.

Key words: temperate fruit trees, rootstock use, Turkey.

Introduction. Agriculture traditionally has been a pillar of Turkey’s economy.

Although the industrial and service sectors increased their dominance in

recent years, Turkey remained the largest producer and exporter of agricultural

products in the Middle East and North African region. Turkey’s fertile soil and hardworking

farmers make the country one of the few in the world that is self-sufficient

in terms of food. The total land area of Turkey is about 78.3 million ha supporting

26.4 million ha of agricultural and 20.7 million ha of forest land (Ayyildiz et al., 1997;

Anonymous, 2005).

Turkey’s natural environment is very diverse, ranging from subtropical to cold

temperate. This ecological diversity has contributed not only to a high genetic diversity,

but has also allowed the successful introduction and cultivation of a great number of

fruit tree species. Thus, over 85 fruit tree species including almost all the deciduous

species such as apples, pears, cherries, quinces, almonds, pistachios etc. are grown

successfully in the country (Ercisli, 2004).

The country dominates in the world by hazelnut, apricot, sweet cherry, fig and

quince production (FAO, 2005). Fruit production is conducted throughout the

country, although it is less common in the mountainous Eastern regions, where

27


animal husbandry is the principal activity.

The development of the Turkey’s fruit industry has been remarkable in the last

decade. Currently planted fruit tree area is more than 240.000 ha, mainly central area

of the country. Previously, Turkey’s fruit industry was based mainly on dried fruit

export, but recently fresh fruit export gained importance. Hazelnut, sweet cherry,

citrus, fig and dried apricot export have an important place in Turkish economy

(FAO, 2005). One of the important factors, which affect this improvement in Turkey,

is the use of rootstocks for different fruit tree species.

As well known, the use of rootstocks is very important in fruit tree growing not

only for yield efficiency, mineral uptake, hardiness etc., but also to meet specific

cultural needs, aside from vigor management, with adaptability to climatic and edaphic

conditions having a high priority requirement (Ercisli et al., 2000).

During the last two decades, the use of clonal rootstocks for temperate fruit

tree crops such as apples, cherries, and nectarines, particularly increased in Turkey.

The aim of this study was to give latest information on the use of rootstocks in

Turkey for temperate fruit tree crops.

Materials and methods. The data used in this study was obtained from Ministry

of Agriculture of Turkey (www.tarim.gov.tr).

Results. Stone Fruit Rootstocks. The seedling and clonal rootstocks, their

percentage and number of rootstocks produced in Turkey in 2005 for stone fruits

are listed in Table 1.

It can be seen in Table 1 that the great majority of rootstocks used for apricot

cultivars in Turkey were still wild apricot seedlings (95.99%). Apricot culture was

practiced in Turkey more than 1000 years ago and the use of plantations of

systematically grafted trees was started from 1960’s. In some parts of Turkey, for

example, in Erzincan plain, the majority of apricot trees come from ungrafted seedling

material. However, in modern orchards of Turkey, the cultivars are grafted in general

on wild apricot seedling rootstocks using T-budding method. The use of other Prunus

species such as Prunus cerasifera, Prunus persica and Prunus

armeniaca L. seedlings is restricted by problems of graft incompatibility (Unal, 1992).

According to the latest data, Turkey occupy 1 st place both by sweet cherry

production and export levels in the world (FAO, 2005). Primary sweet cherry

rootstocks used in Turkey are wild Prunus avium L. (Mazzard) seedlings (40.12%)

and followed by Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings (28.75%), Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x

Prunus canescens) (14.84%) and Gisela 5 (Prunus canescens x Prunus cerasus)

(10.01%) rootstocks, respectively (Table 1). Turkish growers mainly prefer to use

Mazzard seedlings for sweet cherries because of its good soil adaptability. In general,

Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings were used for sweet cherries only on calcareous droughty

soils in Turkey. In latest years the use of Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks has been

widespread very quickly. On the other hand, Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings (92.22%)

still remain the main choice for Turkish sour cherry producers because of its high

compatibility with sour cherry cultivars, tolerance to drought, smaller tree size, good

precocity, and high productivity. In Turkey, the trees of Prunus mahaleb L. with

yellow fruited and light-colored trunks are generally preferred for rootstock for both

sweet and sour cherry cultivars. It is believed that these types do not show

incompatibility with scion cultivars (Misirli et al., 1996).

28


Table 1. Stone fruit rootstocks propagated, percentage and quantity

of grafted plants produced in Turkey nurseries in 2005

1 lentelë. Kaulavaisiø poskiepiai, Turkijos medelynuose 2005 metais áskiepytø

augalø procentas ir kiekis

Fruit tree crops

Augalo rûðis

Rootstocks

Poskiepiai

29

Number of grafted

plants

Áskiepytø augalø skaièius

% units/vnt.

Apricots / Abrikosai Nemaguard 3.70 30 000

Wild plum seedlings / Laukiniø slyvø sëjinukai 0.31 2550

Wild apricot seedlings / Laukiniø abrikosø sëjinukai 95.99 810 822

Sweet cherries

Treðnës

Mahaleb seedlings / Mahaleb sëjinukai 28.70 583 368

Sour cherries

Vyšnios

Mazzard seedlings / Mazzard sëjinukai 40.12 813 912

SL 64 6.33 128 400

Gisela 5 10.01 203 120

Gisela 6 14.84 301 000

Mahaleb seedlings / Mahaleb sëjinukai 92.22 296 163

Wild sour cherry seedlings / Laukiniø vyšniø sëjinukai 6.53 20 985

Wild sweet cherry seedlings / Laukiniø trešniø sëjinukai 1.25 4 000

Peaches / Persikai Nemaguard 1.24 10 000

Almond seedlings / Migdolø sëjinukai 0.20 2 000

GF 677 2.29 18 500

Marianna GF8-1 1.24 1 000

Wild peach seedlings / Laukiniø persikø sëjinukai 94.51 764 629

Wild apricot seedlings / Laukiniø abrikosø sëjinukai 0.50 4 315

GF 305 0.02 143

Nectarines/Nektarinai GF 677 59.96 35 500

Marianna GF8-1 16.89 10 000

Wild peach seedlings / Laukiniø persikø sëjinukai 6.26 3 705

Nemaguard 16.89 10 000

Plums / Slyvos Marianna GF8-1 4.42 20 000

Wild plum seedlings / Laukiniø slyvø sëjinukai 80.78 367 768

Wild apricot seedlings / Laukiniø abrikosø sëjinukai 0.30 1 380

Myrobalan B 14.00 63 400

Almonds / Migdolai GF 677 3.00 4 000

Wild almond seedlings / Laukiniø migdolø sëjinukai 97.00 115 343


Wild peach seedlings still are the principal rootstock source for peach cultivars

in Turkey with the percentage of use – 94.51% (Table 1). The wild peach types are

usually obtained from peach trees that have escaped cultivation and are found growing

wild or in a nearly wild state. A major problem with wild peaches is their genetic

variability and general lack of uniformity in the nursery and the orchard (Guleryuz,

1998).

In Turkey, most of plum trees are found in wild or semi-wild conditions. Plant

characteristics of plum species naturally grown in Turkey are very diverse, ranging

from shrubs to large trees, spreading to upright and early to late blooming (Ercisli,

2004). Wild seed propagated rootstocks (80.78%) mainly from Prunus cerasifera L.

species have been used. Turkish growers believe that less incompatibility is seen when

European plums are put on this species (Gonulsen et al., 1985). Myrobalan B is the

second widely used seedling rootstock in Turkey with sharing of 14% (Table 1).

Until 1980’s almond trees originally were grown ungrafted as seedlings in Turkey.

Now grafting, mainly onto almond seedlings (97%), is common way for almond

production in Turkey. Field budding practices onto seedlings in main almond growing

regions in Turkey is desirable because of deeper and longer tap-rooted characteristics

of seedlings. Field budded trees in these regions are considered to be more resistant

to dry conditions. On the other hand, seeds from bitter almond trees have been

characteristically used by nurserymen as sources of seeds. Trees from such sources

are thought to be more vigorous and generally superior to trees from sweet-kernelled

seeds. It is possible that such seeds are less often eaten by rodents and thus survive

better in field planting (Akca and Ceylan, 1996).

Pome Rootstocks. The main rootstocks used for apple cultivars in

Turkey were wild apple seedlings (37.07%), M.9 (35.96%) and MM.106 (22.60%)

(Table 2).

The center of genetic diversity of apple (Malus) is in Asia Minor (Turkey),

likewise the cradle of human civilization. M. pumila L. and M. trilobata L. are native

Anatolia (Way et al., 1990). A large number of wild apple populations’ originated

from the Black Sea and Northeast regions of Turkey. These wild germplasm are

critical in maintaining diversity in the gene pool. A research project on genes controlling

economic traits of Malus species found in Turkey is being carried out by apple

breeders, plant pathologists and germplasm curators (McCandless, 1999). Though

the fruit quality of these wild species is very poor, the possible frost and drought

tolerance and dwarf growth habit might be valuable genetic traits for apple rootstocks

breeding. If these wild plants came true-to-type from seed, this could be a source of

apomixes for use in breeding rootstocks.

Throughout Turkey, the most common rootstock used for pear cultivars still is

wild pear seedlings, in particular Pyrus elaeagrifolia with 97.0% (Table 2). Pyrus

elaeagrifolia L. originated in Crimea, Anatolia, East Bulgaria, Romania, and European

Turkey. The species shows high drought and cold resistance and therefore provides

one of the most commonly used rootstocks for pear cultivars in Turkey (Guleryuz,

1998).

30


Table 2. Pome rootstocks propagated, percentage and quantity of

grafted plants produced in Turkey nurseries in 2005

2 lentelë. Sëklavaisiø poskiepiai, Turkijos medelynuose 2005 metais áskiepytø

augalø procentas ir kiekis

Fruit tree crops

Vaismedžiai

Rootstocks

Poskiepiai

Nut Crop Rootstocks. Pistachios. In Turkey, there are wild

pistachio populations including Pistacia vera, Pistacia khinjuk and Pistacia terebinthus

trees or shrubs. These wild plants are being grafted in situ conditions by standard

pistachio cultivars. However, in modern pistachio orchards, pistachios are

commercially propagated by budding the chosen scion cultivar onto seedling

rootstocks (100 percent Pistacia vera L. seedlings used). Therefore, the rootstocks

for used pistachios cultivars in Turkey, however, are genetically variable, since the

seed from which it grew was the progeny of a heterozygous female parent and

unknown heterozygous pollen parent (Guleryuz, 1998).

Walnuts. In Turkey, both seedling and grafted walnut (Juglans regia L.) trees

are grown throughout the country. The cultivars mainly grafted onto wild walnut

seedlings (Juglans regia L.). Currently all seed propagated rootstocks in Turkey are

derived from open pollinated seeds. Breeding and selection programs in Turkey are

focused on cultivar rather than rootstock development because of the greater potential

gains by cultivar selection in native seedling populations. Rootstock development is

expected to be emphasized more when improved cultivars are released. There is

general agreement that the development of true-to type rootstocks for walnuts would

open a whole new realm of possibilities for the walnut growers. Dwarfing, greater

yields, precocity of production, and a reduction in variability of orchard trees have

been among the most often mentioned attributes (Balci et al., 2001).

31

Number of grafted plants

Áskiepytø augalø skaièius

% units / vnt.

Apples / Obelys M.9 35.96 950 936

M.26 1.06 28 108

MM.106 22.60 598 176

MM.109 0.02 5670

MM.111 3.31 87 915

Wild apple seedlings/ Laukiniø obelø sëjinukai 37.07 984 118

Pears / Kriauðës Quince A / Svarainis A 2.99 13 512

Wild quince seedlings / Laukiniø svarainiø sëjinukai 0.01 210

Wild pear seedlings / Laukiniø kriaušiø sëjinukai 97.0 488 037

Quinces / Svarainiai Quince A / Svarainis A 19.0 21 790

Wild quince seedlings / Laukiniø svarainiø sëjinukai 81.0 90 475


Table 3. Nut crop rootstocks propagated, percentage and quantity

of grafted plants produced in Turkey nurseries in 2005

3 lentelë. Rieðutø poskiepiai, Turkijos medelynuose 2005 metais áskiepytø

augalø procentas ir kiekis

Fruit tree crops

Vaismedžiai

Conclusion. It may be stated that during the last decade, fruit growers in

Turkey improve their use of rootstocks in order to achieve better growth of temperate

fruit tree crops, better tolerance to unfavorable soil and phytosanitary problems,

improved dwarfing, and reduced management costs. The most recent crop to be

grafted on rootstocks in Turkey were walnut and almond, which always were grown

on their own roots until the end of the 1980s. It is expected that the next decade the

use of clonal rootstocks will be increased.

Gauta

2006 04 24

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 13

References

Rootstocks

Poskiepiai

1. Akça Y., Ceylan S. A study on the comparison of some rootstock

properties of sweet and bitter almond seeds // Proceedings of Hazelnut and the Other Nut

Fruits Symposium, 10–11 January 1996, Samsun-Turkey. P. 402–408.

2. Anonymous. Statistical Yearbook of Turkey 2004, State Institute of Statistic

Prime Ministry Republic of Turkey, Publication Number: 2779, Ankara, Turkey, 2005.

3. Ayyildiz T., Acikel S., Keskin A., Atsan T. The

Relationship between Turkey and European Union // Publication of Ataturk University,

850, Erzurum, Turkey, 1997.

4. Balci A., Balta F., Kazankaya A., Sen S. M. Promising

native walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.) of the East Black Sea Region of Turkey //

Journal American Pomological Society. 2001. 55(4). P. 204–209.

5. Ercisli S., Guleryuz M., Pamir M. Effects of different rootstocks

on fruit characteristics of some apple cultivars // Turkish Journal Agricultural Forestry.

2000. 24. P. 533–539.

6. Ercisli S. A short review of the fruit germplasm resources of Turkey // Genetic

Resources and Crop Evaluation. 2004. 51. P. 419–435.

7. F A O. Food and Agricultural Organization. 2005.www.fao.org.

8. Gonulsen N., Ozvardar S., Baldiran E. The seed resources

for plum rootstocks. Proceedings of Seed Certification and Transportation Problems in

Turkey. TUBITAK. 1985. P. 585–590.

32

Number of grafted

plants

Áskiepytø augalø skaièius

% units / vnt.

Pistachios / Pistacijos P. vera, P. khinjuk 100 19 100

P. terebinthus seedlings / P. terebinthus sëjinukai

Walnuts / Graikiniai riešutai Wild walnut seedlings / Laukiniø graikiniø riešutø

sëjinukai

100 206 621


9. Guleryuz M. Temperate fruit species // Ataturk Univ. Agricultural Faculty.

1998. P. 128.

10. McCandless L. Cornell and USDA prospect for ‘Green Gold’ in the

mountains of Turkey//www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ pubs/ press /1999/ turkey.html.

11. Misirli A., Gulcan R., Tanrisever A. Importance of stomata

in evaluating the vigor of Prunus mahaleb rootstocks // Acta Horticultuýrae. 1996. 410,

P. 227–232.

12. Unal A. Anatomy of the graft union and degree of incompatibility of some

apricot varieties budded on plum, almond and peach seedlings // Acta Horticulturae. 1992.

384. P. 493–496.

13. W a y R. D., A l d w i nckle H.S., Lamb R.C., Rejman A.,

Sansavini S., Shen T. et al. Apples // Acta Horticulturae. 1990. 290. P. 1–63.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 27–33.

VIDUTINIO KLIMATO SÀLYGOMIS AUGANÈIØ VAISMEDÞIØ POSKIEPIAI

TURKIJOJE: APÞVALGA

S. Ercisli, A. Esitken, E. Orhan, O. Ozdemir

Santrauka

Daugelis sodo vaismedþiø Turkijoje yra skiepijami, iðskyrus graikinius rieðutmedþius

ir sedulas, kurie paprastai dauginami sëklomis. Pagrindiniai poskiepiai, á kuriuos turkø

augintojai mûsø laikais skiepija vidutinio klimato sàlygomis auganèius vaismedþius, yra

ðie: laukiniø obelø sëjinukai, M.9 ir MM.106 – obelims; laukiniø kriauðiø, ypaè Pyrus

eleagrifolia L., sëjinukai – kriauðëms; laukiniø persikø sëjinukai – persikams; laukiniø

slyvø sëjinukai – slyvoms; Mazzard ir Mahaleb sëjinukai, visai neseniai vegetatyviniu

bûdu pradëti dauginti poskiepiai Gisela 5 ir Gisela 6 – treðnëms; Juglans regia L.

sëjinukai – graikiniams rieðutmedþiams; laukiniø migdolø sëjinukai – migdolams; laukiniø

abrikosø sëjinukai – abrikosams. Vegetatyviniu bûdu dauginti poskiepiai vidutinio klimato

sàlygomis auganèiø vaismedþiø rûðims áskiepyti Turkijoje naudojami nepakankamai. Taèiau

pastaruoju metu ðalyje vis daugëja su vegetatyviniais poskiepiais áveistø sodø, ypaè

obelø ir vyðniø. Ðiame straipsnyje aptartas poskiepiø naudojimas vidutinio klimato

vaismedþiams áskiepyti Turkijoje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vidutinio klimato vaismedþiai, poskiepiø naudojimas, Turkija.

33


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 34–38.

ROOTSTOCKS OF FRUIT CROPS IN BELARUS

Vyacheslav SAMUS, Soltan GADZHIEV, Vitaliy POPLAVSKIY,

Nina DRABUDKO

RUE “Institute for Fruit Growing of the NAS of Belarus”, 2 Kovalev str.,

Samokhvalovitchy, Minsk region, Republic of Belarus.

E-mail: belhort@it.org.by

Biological and economic characteristics of recommended for cultivation and promising

clonal rootstocks of fruit crops according to the results of complex evaluation in stoolbed,

nursery and orchard in 1985–2005 are presented in the paper.

According to the complex indices the following apple rootstocks are recommended

for cultivation in the Republic: rootstocks PB-4, B.396, M.9, M.26, B.118, B.545, MM.106-

13. The following rootstocks are passed to the system of State variety trials: apple rootstock

106-13, plum rootstocks VPK-1, OD-2-3, VVA-1, cherry and sweet cherry AVCh-2, VSL-2,

Gisella-5, Damil GY-79.

Key words: clonal rootstocks, winterhardiness, vigor, biological, economic and

morphological characteristics, precocity, productivity, Belarus.

Introduction. Nowadays the most effective type of orchard is intensive onerow

orchard planted on clonal rootstocks. The type of clonal rootstocks can change

the vigour, precocity, yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic factors of grafted

plants without impact on inheritance of cultivar properties (1).

The applied rootstock must be winter hardy, well-adapted to the environmental

conditions of the region, highly compatible with grafted cultivars, resistant to fungi

and virus diseases, gaining precocity, high yield and fruit quality as well as forming

compact trees for convenient maintenance and cropping (3).

According to the food standards adopted in the Republic of Belarus, gross

production of fruits and small fruits must be not less than 800 thousand ton per year.

Yearly gross production of fruits and small fruits was on the average 300–400

thousand ton during the last 5 years, which comprised 40–50% of the required

production.

Substantial increase of fruit production in the Republic may be possible in case

of creation of new orchards with dense plantation design. Intensification in horticulture

can be achieved by the use of dwarf clonal rootstocks (5). Early fruiting of such

trees allows shortening unproductive period and optimum planting density due to the

fact that compact trees makes land use of areas more effective, eventually gaining

high profits.

34


Materials and methods. The research was carried out at the Institute for Fruit

growing of the NAS of Belarus in 1985–2005.

Objects of research where the following groups of rootstocks:

35 forms of apple tree: B.118, B.396, V-9, B.476, B.545, 71-3-150, 71-3-195

(Russia, Michurinsk SAU); B-16-20, B-7-53 (Russia, Dagestan FBES); ARM-18

(Armenia, RIH&G); P1, P2, P14, P22, P59, P60 (Poland, Institute in Skierniewitse),

M.9 Emla, M.9 N-9-84, M.9 Rene Nikolaya, M.9 Pajam 1, M.9 Pajam-2 (England,

East Malling Research Station), Supporter-1, Supporter-3 (Germany, Institute of

Pomology at Dresden-Pillnitz), D-1161, D-471, D-1071, D-3331, D-2854,

Don-70-382, Don-70-362 (Ukraine, Artemovskiy HES), J-TE-E, J-TE-D, J-TE-F

(Czech republic); MM.106-13, PB-4 (Belarus, Institute for Fruit Growing of the

NAS of Belarus);

pear: 6 forms – Cydonia x oblonga BA-29 (France, INRA), quince ¹1/19, ¹1/22,

¹1/33 (Belarus, Institute for Fruit Growing of the NAS), SI-4-2 and SI-2-10 (Ukraine,

Research institute in Mliev named after L. P. Simirenko UAAS) and 7 forms of pear

rootstocks obtained from All-Russia Research Institute of Horticulture named after

I. V. Michurin (Russia) – pear-10, 217-24-4, 218-5-4, 218-6-4, 3-21-32, 218-4-4;

plum: 14 forms – 21-11, 21-20 (Russia, I.V.Michurin CSL at Michurinsk),

OD-2-3 (Russia, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after K. D. Glinka) ,

GF 655/2 (France, Research station La Grande Ferrade at Bordeaux), SVG 132-2,

SVG 11-19, 140-2, VPK-1 (Russia, All-Russia Research Institute of Siberia name

after M. A. Lisavenko at Barnaul), Gayovata, 9-250, 9-259, VVA-1, VSV-1,

VVA-146 (Russia, the Crimean Experimental Research Station RIP at Krymsk);

cherry and sweet cherry: 36 forms – P-1, OVP-2, OVP-3, OVP-4, OVP-5,

OVP-6, V-2-180, B-2-230, B5-88, C-8-101, Rubin (Russia, All Russia Research

Institute of Horticulture at Oriol), VC-13, LC-52, L-2, VSL-2, Mahrovaya-2,

Plakuchaya (Ukraine, the Crimean ERS), P-7, P-3–Moscovia, Izmaylovskiy (All Russia

Breeding and Technology Institute for Fruit Growing and Fruit Nurseries, Moscow,

Russia), AVCh-2 (Russia, All Russia Research Institute of Siberia named after M. A.

Lisavenko at Barnaul), Rossoshanskaya No.2, Rossoshanskaya No.3, Studenkovskaya

(the Ukraine, Artiomovskaya ESH), Gisella-5, F-1/12 (Germany), Damil GY-79

(Belgium), Meteor (the US), Oblachinskaya (Yugoslavia), 16-53, Antipka 18/19,

Antipka 18/20, 53/1, 9-78/23, 17/40, 14/2 18-1 (Belarus, Institute for Fruit Growing

of the NAS).

Research and observations were carried out according to „Programma i metodika

izucheniya klonovix podvoev v Pribaltiyskih respublikah i Byelorusskoy SSR” (Elgava,

1980).

Results. High winter hardiness was found in apple tree rootstocks B.118, B.396,

V-9, B.491, B.476, B.545, B-16-20, PB-4, B-3, D-1161, J-TE-E, MM.106-13; pear

rootstocks SI-4-2 and SI-2-10, pear-10, 3-21-32; plum rootstocks VPK-1, VVA-1,

GF 655/2, 140-2, OD-2-3, 9–250, VSV-1; cherry and sweet cherry rootstocks

OVP-2, B-2-230, B-2-180, C-8-101, LC-52, VSL-2, L-2, VSL-2, Izmaylovskiy,

Gisella-5, Damil GY-79.

The following rootstocks have the highest value and quality of stoolbed rooting:

apple rootstocks B.396, PB-4, ARM-18, B.491, B.118, B.476, B-7-35, B-16-20, pear-

35


quince VA-29, SI-2-10, plum rootstocks VPK-1, cherry and sweet cherry rootstock

VSL-2. The selected rootstocks provided the output of 15–20 rooted stoolbeds from

1 mother plant, rooting score was 4.5, trunk diameter at ground level – 7–11 mm,

mean length of stoolbed – 50–80 cm.

The following rootstocks were rooted worse (score 3.0): apple rootstocks M.9,

M.26, D1161, pear rootstocks SI4-2, plum rootstocks OD-2-3, cherry and sweet

cherry LC-52, L-2.

Table. Economic and biological characteristics of adapted and

perspective clonal rootstocks of fruit crops

Lentelë. Ekonominës ir biologinës registruotø ir perspektyviø vegetatyviniø

poskiepiø charakteristikos

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Vigour

Augumas

PB-4 Super-dwarf

Nykštukinis

B.396 Dwarf

Žemaûgis

M.9 Dwarf

Žemaûgis

M.26 Semi-dwarf

Pusiau þemaûgis

B.118 Semi-vigorous

Pusiau augus

B.545 Semi-dwarf

Pusiau þemaûgis

MM.106-13 Semi-vigorous

Pusiau augus

VA-29 Semi-vigorous

Pusiau augus

Propagation

method

Dauginimo

bûdas

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

Augynai

Stoolbeds

and

hardwood

cuttings

Augynai ir

sumedëjæ

auginiai

Planting

density in

orchard,

tree/ha

Sodinimo

sode

tankumas,

vaism./ha

Apple / Obelys

36

Yield

during

full

fruiting

Derlius

visiško

derëjimo

metu, t/ha

Precocity,

year

Derëjimo

pradžios

metai

Anchorage

Ásitvirtinimas dirvoje

2500 40 2 Weak, trellis

required

Silpnas, reikia atramø

1666 32 2 Weak, trellis

required

Silpnas, reikia atramø

2500 40 2 Weak, trellis

required

Silpnas, reikia atramø

1666 32 2 Trellis required

Reikia atramø

1250 30 2 Good, trellis

temporary required

Geras, laikinai reikia

atramø

1250 30 2 Good, temporary

trellis required

Geras, laikinai reikia

atramø

1250

Pear / Kriauðës

35 2 Good, temporary

trellis required

Geras, laikinai reikia

atramø

1250 20 3 Good, temporary

trellis not required

Geras,

nereikia laikinø atramø


Table continued

Lentelës tæsinys

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Vigour

Augumas

VVA-1 Dwarf

Žemaûgis

OD-2-3 Semi-dwarf

Pusiau þemaûgis

VPK-1 Semi-vigorous

Pusiau augus

OVP-2 Semi-vigorous

Pusiau augus

Ismaylovskiy Semi-vigorous

Pusiau augus

VSL-2 Dwarf

Žemaûgis

Propagation

method

Dauginimo

bûdas

Softwood

and

hardwood

cuttings

Žalieji ir

sumedëjæ

auginiai

Softwood

and

hardwood

cuttings

Žalieji ir

sumedëjæ

auginiai

Softwood

cuttings

Žalieji auginiai

Planting

density in

orchard,

tree/ha

Sodinimo

sode

tankumas,

vaism./ha

Plum / Slyvos

The following rootstocks have high rooting (85–100%) in propagation by

softwood cuttings: plum rootstocks OD 2-3, VPK-1, 140-2, 9-250, VVA-1, cherry

and sweet cherry rootstocks OVP-2, Izmaylovskiy, C-8-101, B-2-180, VSL-2,

AVCh-2.

Assessment of clonal rootstocks showed that the output of rootstock layers is

determined by both meteorological conditions during vegetative period and biological

specifics of rootstocks. Maximum output of standard rootstocks (75–88%) was

found for the rootstocks of apple – B.396, B.118, ARM-18, B-7-35, B.476, J-TE-E,

pear-quince VA-29, plum VPK-1, cherry and sweet cherry OVP-2, Ismaylovskiy,

37

Yield

during

full

fruiting

Derlius

visiško

derëjimo

metu, t/ha

Precocity,

year

Derëjimo

pradžios

metai

Anchorage

Ásitvirtinimas dirvoje

2000 25 2 Weak, trellis

required

Silpnas, reikia atramø

1500 20 2 Weak, trellis

required

Silpnas, reikia atramø

1250 20 2 Good, temporary

trellis not required

Geras, nereikia laikinø

atramø

Cherry and sweet cherry / Vyðnios ir treðnës

Softwood

cuttings

Žalieji auginiai

Softwood

cuttings

Žalieji auginiai

Softwood

cuttings and

stoolbeds

Žalieji auginiai

ir augynai

1250 18 2 Good, temporary

trellis not required

Geras, nereikia laikinø

atramø

1250 18 2 Good, temporary

trellis not required

Geras, nereikia laikinø

atramø

1666 22 Weak, trellis

required

Silpnas, reikia atramø


VSL-2, LC-52, B-2-180, C-8-101.

The following rootstocks were distinguished by precocity and yield efficiency:

apple rootstocks PB-4, B.396, M.9, M.26, ARM-18, B-7-35, B-16-20, B.118, B.545;

pear-quince VA-29; plum VPK-1; cherry and sweet cherry OVP-2, Ismaylovskiy,

B-2-230 [2,4].

Conclusions. According to the complex indices the following apple rootstocks

are recommended for cultivation in the Republic: rootstocks PB-4, B.396, M.9, M.26,

B.118, B.545, MM.106-13. The following rootstocks are passed to the system of

State variety trials: apple rootstock 106-13, plum rootstocks VPK-1, OD-2-3,

VVA-1, cherry and sweet cherry AVCh-2, VSL-2, Gisella-5, Damil GY-79.

Gauta

2006 05 09

Parengta spausdinti

2006 08 03

References

1. Budagovskiy V. I. Kultura slaboroslih plodovih derevyev. Moscow.

1976. 303. (in Russian).

2. Drabudko N. N. Rezultati izuchenija klonovih podvoyev vishni I chereshni

v pitomnike: mat. II mezhdunarodnogo simposiuma, posviashchonnogo 80-letiyu so dnia

rozhdeniya A.S. Deviatova // Ekologicheskaya otsenka tipov visokoplotnih plodovih

nasazhdeniy na klonovih podvoyah. Samokhvalovichy. 12–15 avgusta 2003. P.149–152.

(in Russian)

3. Yeremin G.V. Kostochkoviye kulturi. – Rostov-na-Donu. 2000. 254. (in

Russian)

4. Zhabrovskiy I. E. Hoziaystvenno-biologicheskie osobennosti novih

klonovih podvoev yabloni v usloviyah Respubliki Belarus: Diss. kand. s.-h. nauk: 1999.

06.01.07. p. Samokhvalovichy Minskoy obl. 143. (in Russian)

5. Tsyngalev N. M. Klonoviye podvoi slivy: sbornik nauchnih trudov //

Slaborosliye klonoviye podvoi v sadovodstve. Michurinsk. 1997. 149. (in Russian)

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 34–38.

VAISMEDÞIØ POSKIEPIAI BALTARUSIJOJE

V. Samus, S. Gadzhiev, V. Poplavskiy, N. Drabudko

Santrauka

Ðiame darbe pateiktos biologinës ir ekonominës rekomenduojamø auginti ir

perspektyviø vegetatyviniø poskiepiø charakteristikos remiantis 1985–2005 metais atlikto

vertinimo poskiepiø dauginimo augyne, medelyne ir sode rezultatais. Kompleksiðkai

ávertinus, auginti Baltarusijoje rekomenduoti ðie obelø poskiepiai : PB-4, B.396, M.9, M.26,

B.118, B.545, MM.106-13. Á valstybinius veisliø tyrimus átraukti ðie poskiepiai: obelø

poskiepis 106-13, slyvø poskiepiai – VPK-1, OD-2-3, VVA-1, vyðniø ir treðniø poskiepiai –

AVCh-2, VSL-2, Gisella-5, Damil GY-79.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vegetatyviniai poskiepiai, atsparumas ðalèiui, augumas,

biologinës, ekonominës ir morfologinës charakteristikos, ankstyvumas, derlingumas,

Baltarusija.

38


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 39–46.

GROWTH AND QUALITY OF PEAR MAIDEN TREES

DEPENDING ON ROOTSTOCK AND GROWING SEASON

Jacek LEWKO 1 , Andrzej SADOWSKI 2 , Kazimierz ÚCIBISZ 3

Department of Pomology, Warsaw Agricultural University – SGGW,

Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsszawa, Poland.

E-mails: 1 jacek_lewko@sggw.pl; 2 andysadowski@o2.pl;

3 kazimierz_scibisz@sggw.pl

The aim of the trial was to assess the influence of five rootstocks on vigour of two

pear cultivars under different weather conditions in Central Poland. Diameter of rootstock

and maiden tree trunk, tree height as well as feathering of maiden trees were evaluated. All

parameters of trees raised in 2003, except for tree height, were higher than those of trees

raised in 2004. Cv. ‘Erika’ produced taller and more branched, but thinner trees than

‘Conference’. Both Pyrus rootstock, seedlings of Caucasian pear and Pyrodwarf, induced

a higher vigour and better branching than any Cydonia rootstock. No significant

differences were found within the rootstocks groups.

Key words: Cydonia, growth, nursery stock, pear, Pyrus, quince, rootstock, tree

quality.

Introduction. Importance of pear as a fruit crop is recently increasing in Poland.

Quality of planting stock is determining the success of a modern orchard. Selection

of a proper rootstock is essential in that respect. Limited information is available,

however, concerning rootstocks for pear, their growth in nursery and influence on

quality of nursery stock. In Poland, seedlings of Caucasian pear (Pyrus communis

var. caucasica Fed. syn. Pyrus communis ssp. caucasica (Fed.) Browicz) are most

commonly used. Recently seedlings of pears of unknown origin are being replaced

by seedlings of three seed cultivars, ‘Belia’, ‘Doria’ and ‘Elia’, selected at the Institute

of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice.

Intensive pear orchards in Poland are planted on quince clones, MA – a standard,

semi-dwarfing rootstock selected by Hatton in East Malling, England and on S 1 – a

Polish selection of Somorowski (1964). The latter has been recognised as more

winter hardy, compared with the standard Hatton’s selections, MA and MC

(Somorowski, 1964; Grzyb, 1987; Hoùubowicz and Bojar, 1995). It may also increase

winter hardiness of pear grown on this rootstock (Iwanszyniec and Hoùubowicz,

1998). Quince S 1 for many years was considered as more invigorating in the orchard,

compared with the quince MA (Grzyb, 1987). However, recently no differences in

39


vigour between young pear trees grown on quince S 1 and quince MA (Sosna, 2000)

or on quinces S 1, MA and MC (Iwaniszyniec and Hoùubowicz, 1998) were found.

This rootstock was also tested in Czech Republic (Kobìluð, personal communication),

however, only its effect on bud take of different pear cultivars has been reported to

date, (Kobìluð and Øeznièek, 2004). Lately a new rootstock originated from Pyrus

communis, named Pyrodwarf, was selected by Jacob (1998). It was described as

dwarfing and, because of the fact that it is a cross between two pear cultivars, no

incompatibility problem should occur. Growing season influences vigour and quality

of nursery stock of apples and sour cherries grown on the same soil and rootstock

as shown by Lipecki and Janisz (2004).

Materials and methods. The trial was set up in two successive series, in

Warsaw-Wilanów, on a silty loam alluvial soil of post-glacial valley of Vistula River.

In the spring of 2002 and 2003 the following rootstocks were planted in the nursery:

Caucasian pear seedlings, Pyrodwarf, quince S 1, quince MA and quince MC. All

rootstocks were well rooted and of grade 6–8 mm at collar root. To prevent infection

of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, roots were treated with Polagrocyna PC

(Agrobacterium radiobacter, strain K84). The planting distance was 30 cm in row

and 75 cm between rows. In each two-year nursery cycle standard nursery practices

were carried out, except for treatments promoting feathering of maiden trees. At the

beginning of August, in the year of planting, rootstocks of pear cultivars ‘Conference’

and ‘Erika’ were chip-budded at the height of 10 cm. At the end of September of the

second year of each cycle, diameter of rootstock (5 cm above the ground), trunk

diameter (10 cm above bud union) and tree height were measured. Number and

length of lateral branches (feathers) was also recorded and the percentage of

spontaneously branched (feathered) trees calculated.

Weather conditions of the second year of nursery cycle differed in two series

of the trial. The most distinct were the differences of mean temperatures (Table 1).

The beginning of 2004 (February-April) was warmer than that of 2003. However,

later (May-July), mean monthly temperatures were much higher in 2003 than in

2004. Temperatures at the end of the growing season (August-September) did not

differ in these two years. Monthly rainfall was less important, as the overhead irrigation

was regularly applied.

The trials were set up in a randomised block design, in 5 replications, with 25

plants per each cultivar/rootstock plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance.

For comparison of treatments means the F-test (for two means) or Newman-Keuls

(for more than two means) was applied, at α = 0.05. The percentage of branched

plants was transformed, prior to analysis, using the formula of Bliss (y = arcsin√x);

in tables the retransformed data are shown.

40


Table 1. Mean monthly temperatures (°C) and their difference

between 2003 and 2004

1 lentelë. Vidutinës mënesio temperatûros (°C) ir jø skirtumai 2003 ir 2004

metais

Month

Mënuo

1971–2000 2003 2004

Results and discussion. As all types of rootstocks were of similar size (grade

6–8 mm) at planting, the rootstock diameter at the end of the experiment might serve

as an indicator of the two-year growth in the nursery. In general, the rootstock

diameter at the end of the first nursery cycle (in the autumn of 2003) was larger than

that at the end of the second cycle (in 2004) – Table 2. Cultivar did not influence the

rootstock diameter (Table 3). Some differences in growth of particular rootstocks

depending on nursery cycle were noted (Table 5); after the first nursery cycle both

rootstocks of Pyrus origin had significantly larger diameter compared with the Cydonia

rootstocks, whereas after the second cycle a significant difference was found only

between the Pyrus rootstocks and quince MC.

The main index of vigour and quality of a nursery tree is its trunk diameter.

Similarly to the diameter of rootstock, trees raised in the first cycle (dug out in 2003)

had thicker trunks than those of the second cycle (dug out in 2004) – Table 2.

‘Conference’ developed trees with a larger diameter than ‘Erika’ (Table 3) in both

series of the trial. This corresponds to the results obtained by Kobìluð and Øeznièek,

(2004).

41

Difference, 2003–2004

Skirtumas 2003 ir 2004 m.

January / Sausis -2.2 -2.4 -4.1 1.7

February / Vasaris -1.2 -4.4 0.9 -5.3

March / Kovas 2.6 2.6 4.4 -1.8

April / Balandis 7.9 7.7 9.3 -1.6

May / Geguþë 13.7 16.1 12.8 3.3

June / Birželis 16.5 18.8 16.6 2.2

July / Liepa 18.1 21.2 18.6 2.6

August / Rugpjûtis 17.7 19.9 19.8 0.1

September / Rugsëjis 13.0 14.8 14.5 0.3

October / Spalis 8.1 6.1 10.7 -4.6

November / Lapkritis 2.8 5.5 4.4 1.1

December / Gruodis -0.4 1.8 2.5 -0.7

Mean of year / Metø vidurkis 8.1 9.0 9.2 -0.2


Table 2. Indices of vigour and quality of nursery trees as affected

by the growing season; mean values for five rootstocks

and two cultivars

2 lentelë. Sodinamosios medþiagos augumas ir kokybës rodikliai,

priklausomai nuo augimo sezono; vidutinës penkiø poskiepiø ir

dviejø veisliø reikðmës

Trial series

Bandymø serija

Rootstock

diameter

Poskiepio

skersmuo,

mm

Trunk

diameter

Kamieno

skersmuo,

mm

Maiden

tree height

Sodinuko

aukštis, cm

1 Based on F-test: ns – non-significant / Pagrásta F-testu: ns – nepatikima; ** significant at

α = 0.01 / patikima, kai α = 0,01

Table 3. Indices of tree vigour and quality depending on cultivar;

mean values of five rootstocks and two series of the trial

3 lentelë. Vaismedþio augumo ir kokybës rodikliø priklausomumas nuo

veislës; vidutinës penkiø poskiepiø ir dviejø bandymø serijø

reikðmës

1 For explanations see Table 2. / Paaiðkinimà þr. 2 lentelëje

Growing season did not influence the height of maiden trees (Table 2). Trees of

cv. ‘Erika’ were higher than trees of ‘Conference’ (Table 3). Trees on both Pyrus

rootstocks were higher, compared with those on Cydonia rootstocks (Table 4). In

case of tree height no significant differences between quince rootstocks were found

either. This confirms the results of Lepsis et al. (2004); in their trials no differences

between height of trees raised on quinces MA and MC were found. Similar results

with ‘Conference’ were obtained by Sosna and Gudarowska (1995). In the study of

Kviklys (2000) maidens on quince MC were higher than on quince MA.

42

Total

length of

laterals

Bendras

ðoniniø ðakø

ilgis, cm

Number of

laterals

Ðoniniø ðakø

skaièius

Percentage

of branched

trees

Ðakotø

sodinukø, %

2002–2003 20.7 14.6 178.4 180.0 4.8 82.1

2003–2004

Significance of

18.1 12.6 174.6 89.6 2.4 33.0

difference

Skirtumo patikimumas 1

** ** ns ** ** **

Cultivar

Veislë

Rootstock

diameter

Poskiepio

skersmuo,

mm

Trunk

diameter

Kamieno

skersmuo,

mm

Maiden

tree height

Sodinuko

aukštis, cm

Total length

of laterals

Bendras ðoniniø

ðakø ilgis, cm

Number

of laterals

Ðoniniø

ðakø

skaièius

Percentage of

branched trees

Ðakotø sodinukø,

%

‘Erika’ 18.9 13.0 189.1 177.7 4.9 77.3

‘Conference’

Significance of

19.8 14.3 163.9 91.9 2.2 38.6

difference

Skirtumo patikimumas 1

ns ** ** ** ** **


Table 4. Trunk diameter and height of maiden tree depending on

the type of rootstock; mean values of two cultivars and two

series of the trial

4 lentelë. Sodinuko kamieno skersmens ir aukðèio priklausomumas nuo

poskiepio rûðies; vidutinës dviejø veisliø ir dviejø bandymø serijø

reikðmës

Rootstock type

Poskiepio rûðis

Caucasian pear seedling / Kaukazietiðkos kriauðës

sëjinukas

1 Values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly; Newman-Keuls test at α = 0.05

Ta paèia raide paþymëtos reikðmës ið esmës nesiskiria; Newman-Keuls testas, kai α = 0,05.

Table 5. Rootstock diameter, number and total length of lateral

branches depending on the type of the rootstock and

growing season; mean values of two cultivars

5 lentelë. Poskiepio skersmens, ðoniniø ðakø skaièiaus ir bendro ilgio

priklausomumas nuo poskiepio rûðies ir augimo sezono; vidutinës

dviejø veisliø reikðmës

1 For explanations see Table 4 / Paaiðkinimà þr. 4 lentelëje

All indices of branching, i.e. number and total length of laterals as well as

percentage of spontaneously branched (feathered) trees, were higher in 2003 than in

2004 (Table 2). May, June and July of 2003 were warmer than in the next year

(Table 1). This was obviously the reason for a more vigorous growth and more

abundant feathering, as shown in Table 2. In both series of our trial, trees of cv.

‘Erika’ were better branched that trees of ‘Conference’ (Tables 3 and 7). All indices

of branching were higher when Pyrus rootstocks were used (Tables 5 and 6). Little

information about feathering of pear trees in the nursery is available in the literature.

43

Trunk diameter

Kamieno skersmuo, mm

15.0 b 1

Tree height

Vaismedžio aukštis, cm

195.1 b

Pyrodwarf 15.2 b 193.4 b

Quince S 1 / Svarainis S 1 12.4 a 163.8 a

Quince MA / Svarainis MA 12.9 a 165.5 a

Quince MC / Svarainis MC 12.6 a 164.8 a

Rootstock type

Poskiepio rûðis

Caucasian pear seedling

Kaukazietiðkos kriauðës sëjinukas

Rootstock diameter

Poskiepio skersmuo, mm

Total length of laterals

Bendras ðoniniø ðakø ilgis,

cm

Number of laterals

Ðoniniø ðakø skaièius

2003 2004 2003 2004 2003 2004

24.4 b 1

19.9 b 320.5 b 163.3 b 7.5 b 4.1 b

Pyrodwarf 24.3 b 20.5 b 310.6 b 181.3 b 7.4 b 4.1 b

Quince S 1 / Svarainis S 1 18.2 a 17.2 ab 76.7 a 23.8 a 2.7 a 0.9 a

Quince MA / Svarainis MA 18.4 a 17.4 ab 95.6 a 38.3 a 3.4 a 1.3 a

Quince MC / Svarainis MC 18.2 a 15.5 a 96.7 a 41.5 a 3.2 a 1.4 a


Poniedziaùek and Porêbski (1995) mentioned that ‘Conference’ on a seedling rootstock

shows a very low percentage of feathered trees; feathering in their study was lower

than in our trial. Sosna and Gudarowska (1995) reported that ‘Conference’ on quince

rootstocks branched poorly.

Table 6. Number of lateral branches and percentage of branched

trees depending on rootstock and cultivar; mean of two

series of the trial

6 lentelë. Poskiepio ir veislës átaka ðoniniø ðakø skaièiui ir iðsiðakojusiø

vaismedþiø procentui; dviejø bandymø serijø vidurkiai

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Caucasian pear seedling

Kaukazietiðkos kriauðës sëjinukas

Number of laterals

Ðoniniø ðakø skaièius

1 For explanations see Table 4 / Paaiðkinimà þr. 4 lentelëje

Table 7. Total length of lateral branches and number of laterals

depending on cultivar and growing season; mean values of

five rootstocks

7 lentelë. Bendro ðoniniø ðakø ilgio ir skaièiaus priklausomumas nuo veislës

ir augimo sezono; vidutinës penkiø poskiepiø reikðmës

1 For explanations see Table 2 / Paaiðkinimà þr. 2 lentelëje

Conclusions. 1. Vigour and quality of pear nursery stock depend on weather

conditions; warmer beginning of a growing season favours both – vigour and feathering

of maiden trees.

2. Rootstocks originated from pear induce stronger growth in the nursery,

followed by a higher quality of nursery stock. Pyrodwarf, described as dwarfing

rootstock, induces the same vigour of trees in the nursery as the standard seedling

rootstock. There are no differences between growth and final quality of trees on

different quince rootstocks.

44

Percentage of branched trees

Ðakotø sodinukø procentas

‘Erika’ ‘Conference’ ‘Erika’ ‘Conference’

7.6 b 1

4.1 b 90.6 b 73.9 b

Pyrodwarf 7.5 b 4.0 b 96.9 b 82.0 b

Quince S 1 / Svarainis S 1 2.7 a 0.8 a 54.6 a 14.3 a

Quince MA / Svarainis MA 3.3 a 1.4 a 65.5 a 17.2 a

Quince MC / Svarainis MC 3.6 a 0.9 a 65.8 a 13.2 a

Series of the trial

Bandymø serijos

Total length of laterals

Bendras ðoniniø ðakø ilgis, cm

Number of laterals

Ðoniniø ðakø skaièius

‘Erika’ ‘Conference’ ‘Erika’ ‘Conference’

2002–2003 236.4 123.6 6.6 3.1

2003–2004 119.0 60.3 3.3 1.4

Significance of difference 1

Skirtumo patikimumas

** ** ** **


3. ‘Erika’ produces thinner but taller and better-branched trees than ‘Conference’.

Vigour and quality of tree of any cultivar may be, however, considerably modified by

rootstock.

Gauta

2006 05 05

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 17

References

1. Grzyb Z. Cechy odróýniajàce klony pigwy u¿ywane na podk³adki dla gruszy

// Ogrodnictwo. 1987. (3). P. 6–7.

2. Hoùubowicz T., Bojar K. Wytrzymaùoúã na mróz jednorocznych

pædów trzech typów pigwy (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) // Prace Komitetu Nauk Rolniczych i

Leúnych PTPN, Prace z Zakresu Nauk Rolniczych (Poznañ). 1995. Vol. 79. P. 179–185.

3. Iwaniszyniec P., Hoùubowicz T. Wzrost, plonowanie i

mrozoodpornoúã drzew w intensywnym sadzie gruszowym // Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii

Rolniczej w Krakowie. 1998. Vol. 333. P. 439–443.

4. Jacob H. Pyrodwarf, a new clonal rootstock for high density pear orchards //

Acta Horticulturae. 1998. Vol. 475. P. 169–177.

5. Kobìluð V., Øeznièek V. Cydonia Mill. as a pear rootstock and their

influence on the quality of pear nursery stock. ISHS 8 th International Symposium on

Integrated Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems

(Budapest, Hungary, 13–18. 06.2004), Book of Abstracts. 2004. P. 115.

6. Kviklys D. Paprastojo svarainio (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) sëkliniai poskiepiai

kriauðëms // Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës instituto ir Lietuvos þemës ûkio

universiteto mokslo darbai. Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, Lithuania, 2000.

Vol. 19(2). P. 23–25.

7. Lepsis J., Drudze I., Dekens U. The evaluation of different plum

and pear rootstocks in the nursery // Acta Horticulturae. 2004. Vol. 658(1). P. 167–172.

8. Lipecki J., Janisz A. Wzrost okulantów róýnych gatunków drzew

owocowych w zaleýnoúci od niektórych warunków úrodowiska // Annales Universitatis

Mariae Curie-Skùodowska Lublin – Polonia, Sectio EEE. 2004. Vol. XIV. P. 45–54.

9. Parry M. S. Trials of dwarfing quince rootstocks with Comice and Conference

pears // Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 1981. Vol. 56(2). P. 139–143.

10. P oniedziaùek W., Poræbski S. Wpùyw sposobu traktowania

okulantów jabùoni i gruszy na ich rozgaùæzianie siæ i wzrost // Zeszyty Naukowe AR w

Krakowie. 1995. Vol. 302. P. 59–68.

11. S omorowski K. Nowe typy pigwy podkùadkowej // Prace Instytutu

Sadownictwa w Skierniewicach. 1964. Vol. 8. P. 21–29.

12. Sosna I. Wpùyw dwóch klonów pigwy oraz dwóch sposobów prowadzenia

drzew na wzrost i owocowanie kilku odmian gruszy // Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu

Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. 2000. Vol. 8. P. 209–216.

13. Sosna I., Gudarowska E. Typy pigwy – opinie, badania // Szkóùkarstwo (3). 1995.

P. 23–24.

45


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 39–46.

KRIAUÐIØ SODINUKØ AUGIMO IR KOKYBËS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO

POSKIEPIØ IR AUGIMO SEZONO

J. Lewko, A. Sadowski, K. Úcibisz

Santrauka

Bandymo tikslas buvo ávertinti penkiø poskiepiø átakà dviejø kriauðiø veisliø augumui

skirtingomis klimato sàlygomis centrinëje Lenkijoje. Buvo ávertintas poskiepio ir sodinuko

kamieno skersmuo, vaismedþio aukðtis ir sodinukø ðakojimasis. Visi 2003 metais iðaugintø

sodinukø augimo rodikliai, iðskyrus vaismedþio aukðtá, buvo geresni uþ 2004 metais

iðaugintø vaismedþiø augimo rodiklius. ‘Erika’ veislës kriauðës buvo aukðtesnës ir

ðakotesnës, bet plonesnio kamieno uþ ‘Conference’ veislës kriauðes. Pyrus poskiepiai,

kaukazietiðkos kriauðës ir Pyrodwarf sëjinukai lëmë geresná augumà ir ðakojimàsi negu bet

kuris Cydonia poskiepis. Tarp poskiepiø grupiø esminiø skirtumø neaptikta.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Cydonia, augimas, sodinukai, kriauðës, Pyrus, svarainiai,

poskiepiai, vaismedþiø kokybë.

46


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 47–51.

BUD-TAKE AND MAIDEN TREE PARAMETERS OF TWO

APRICOT CULTIVARS BUDDED ON DIFFERENT

SEEDLING ROOTSTOCKS

Miroslaw SITAREK, Tadeusz JAKUBOWSKI

Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Pomologiczna 18, 96-100

Skierniewice, Poland. E-mails: msitarek@insad.pl, tjakubow@insad.pl

Bud-take and growth of apricot cultivars ‘Morden 604’ and ‘LAK 101’ budded on

seedling rootstocks Wangenheim Prune (P. domestica L.), Erunosid (P. domestica L.), A.4

(P. armeniaca L.) and M.46 (P. armeniaca L.) were compared with seedlings P. cerasifera

var. divaricata Borkh. as the control.

The effectiveness of budding was high and varied from 88.8% to 97.2% depending

on rootstock/cultivar combinations. However, rootstock had no significant influence on

the number of budded trees produced in the nursery. Apricot seedlings A.4 and M.46

gave very high quality maidens. The one-year-old apricot trees budded on these rootstocks

were significantly higher and thicker than trees on P. divaricata. The trees of both cultivars

tested on Wangenheim Prune and Erunosid were weaker in terms of all grow parameters

than those grafted on P. divaricata.

Key words: apricot, rootstock, cultivar, growth in a nursery.

Introduction. Seedlings from different local biotypes of apricot are the most

widely used rootstocks for apricot trees in the Mediterranean basin and in the rest of

South European countries (Indreias et al., 2004; Orero et al., 2004). For lower scale

there are also used myrobalan, plum, almond and peach seedlings. For example,

myrobalan as a rootstock for apricot trees is often used in Romania, Yugoslavia,

Bulgaria, Czech Republic and France (Audergon et al., 1991; Dimitrova and Marinov,

2002; Vachun, 1995). In Poland P. seedling divaricata Borkh. is still the most popular

rootstock not only for plum trees, but for apricot cultivars too (Grzyb et al., 1996;

Jakubowski, 2004). However, using this rootstock is sometimes risky because not

all cultivars are physiologically compatible with it. Incompatibility between scion

cultivars and P. divaricata rootstock (within apricot in Polish growing conditions) is

very often expressed by rapid death of trees a few years after planting in the orchard

or easy break down at the graft union (Grzyb et al., 1996; Jakubowski, 2004).

Therefore more intensive searching was undertaken for selection of new seedling

rootstocks, having good compatibility with apricot cultivars, reducing growth of

trees and good adaptability to cool climate of Poland.

47


The aim of this paper was to evaluate bud-take and growth of maiden trees of

two apricot cultivars grafted on five seedling rootstocks in the nursery field.

Materials and methods. The field experiment was established in the Andrzej

Nowakowski nursery in Zdzary (Central Poland) on podzolic soil overlaying loose

sand boulder loam. It was designed in a multifactor system composed of separate

experiments repeated in three consecutive years. The first rootstocks were planted

in 2002, the last – in the spring of 2004. Seedling rootstocks Wangenheim Prune

(P. domestica L.), Erunosid (P. domestica L.), A.4 (P. armeniaca L.), M.46

(P. armeniaca L.) were compared with seedlings P. cerasifera var. divaricata Borkh.

The rootstocks were chip-budded with cultivars ‘Morden 604’ and ‘LAK 101’ at the

end of July. The buds were placed about 10 cm above ground level and wrapped

with foil strips. The strips were removed 5 weeks after budding.

The experiment was set up with four replications in randomised block design.

Each cultivar/rootstock combination was represented by 100 plants (25 x 4 replicates),

planted in the nursery at a distance of 0.9 x 0.25 m. Standard cultural and protective

practices provided for nursery production were used throughout the experiment.

At the end of October buds taken were counted and in the subsequent spring

their survival was evaluated. Before digging out the trees, their height, total length of

side shoots and trunk diameter 20 cm above the budding place was measured. During

vegetation period all side shoots were removed till 50 cm of height.

The results were processed using a statistical analysis of variance. To evaluate

the significance of mean differences within each cultivar the Duncan’s Multiple Range

test was used at P=0.05.

Results and discussion. Each year of the experiment, the number of successful

bud-takes evaluated in the autumn was close to shoots sprouted in the spring and to

the number of one-year-old trees obtained at the end for each cultivar/rootstock

combination. Fortunately, no winter damages were observed. Therefore, only mean

data on the number and quality of one-year-old trees for the 2003–2005 seasons are

presented.

The effectiveness of budding was high and varied from 88.8% to 97.2%

depending on rootstock/cultivar combinations. However, rootstock had some, but

no significant influence on the number of budded trees produced (Table). Apricot

seedlings A.4 and M.46 caused very high maiden quality. The one-year-old apricot

trees budded on these rootstocks were significantly higher and thicker than trees on

P. divaricata. The trees of both cultivars tested on Wangenheim Prune and Erunosid

were weaker in terms of all grow parameters than those grafted on P. divaricata.

Small size of one-year-old trees in a nursery can give the evidence of a dwarfing

effect of the rootstock. For example, this is observed in sweet cherry trees grafted

on dwarfing rootstocks (Sitarek and Grzyb, 1998). However, it can inform sometimes

about their physiological incompatibility. Grzyb et al. (1996) reported that usefulness

of seedlings Wangenheim Prune for apricot is very limited due to short life duration

of trees in the orchard, although that rootstock effectively depress tree growth.

Likely, using rootstocks belonging to P. domestica for apricot under Polish growing

conditions is risky. However, symptoms of rootstock/scion incompatibility of apricot

varieties on peach and myrobalan seedling rootstocks may occur too (Bassi, 1999;

48


Lapins, 1959; Southwick et al., 1999; Suranyi, 1999). Therefore, further investigations

are necessary to draw the last conclusions. For this purpose the produced trees

were planted in the orchard and the new experiment with influence of rootstocks on

the growth and yield of apricot trees was established.

Table. Characteristic of apricot trees budded on different seedling

rootstocks, mean values for 2003–2005

Lentelë. Abrikosø, áskiepytø á skirtingus sëklinius poskiepius, charakteristika,

2003–2005 m. vidurkiai

Cultivar and

rootstock

Veislë ir

poskiepis

P. divaricata

Wangenheim

Prune

A.4

M.46

Erunosid

P. divaricata

Wangenheim

Prune

A.4

M.46

Erunosid

Number of

maiden trees

Sodinukø

skaièius

Tree height

Vaismedžio

aukštis

Trunk diameter

Kamieno

skersmuo

Conclusions. Rootstocks tested had no significant effect on bud-take of apricot

cultivars in a nursery. Size of one-year-old apricot trees was depended on rootstock

type. In comparison to seedlings P. divaricata, apricot seedlings A.4 and M.46 gave

maidens of higher quality. The trees budded on Wangenheim Prune and Erunosid

were weaker in terms of all grow parameters than those on P. divaricata.

Gauta

2006 02 02

Parengta spausdinti

2006 08 03

49

Total length

of side

shoots

Bendras ðakø

ilgis

No./25 % cm % mm % cm %

23.4

23.5

24.0

23.4

23.0

23.8

24.3

23.4

93.6

94.0

96.0

93.6

92.0

197.6

179.5

189.9

216.3

173.0

100.0

90.8

96.1

109.5

87.5

‘Morden 406’

16.2

14.5

17.1

17.1

13.8

100.0

89.5

105.6

105.6

85.2

359

278

490

643

255

100.0

77.4

136.5

179.1

71.0

Number of

side shoots

Ðakø skaièius

per

tree

vieno

medžio

7.5

6.1

10.1

12.2

6.5

Mean

length of

side shoot

Vidutinis

šakos ilgis

% cm %

100.0

81.3

134.7

162.7

86.7

47.7

45.6

48.5

52.7

39.2

LSD0.05 2.5 9.5 1.4 56.6 1.6 5.8

‘LAK 101’

22.2 88.8 201.9 100.0 15.2 100.0 289 100.0 6.2 100.0 46.6

23.8 95.2 171.3 84.8 12.2 80.3 115 39.8 4.0 64.5 28.8

95.2

97.2

93.6

210.1

222.1

189.0

104.1

110.0

93.6

15.0

16.5

13.8

98.7

108.5

90.8

389

490

228

134.6

169.6

78.9

9.1

9.9

6.1

146.8

159.7

98.4

42.7

49.5

37.4

LSD0.05 2.4 10.2 1.3 45.4 1.5 6.4

100.0

95.6

101.7

110.5

82.2

100.0

61.8

91.6

106.

80.2


References

1. Audergon J. M., Duquesne J., Nicolas J., Caudubert

A. New selected rootstocks for apricot cultivars: Torinel. Acta Hort. 1991. 293. P. 395–400.

2. Bassi D. Apricot culture: Present and future. Acta Hort. 1999. 293. P. 395–400.

3. Dimitrova M., Marinov P. Myrobalan (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) as a

rootstock for apricot. Acta Hort. 2002. 577. P. 315–318.

4. Grzyb Z. S., Zdyb H., Sitarek M. Wpùyw róýnych podkùadek na

zdrowotnoúã, siùæ wzrostu i owocowanie moreli. Zesz. Nauk. ISiK 1996. 3. P. 55–62.

5. Indreias A., Stefan I., Dutu I. Apricot rootstocks created and

used in Romania. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 509–511.

6. Jakubowski T. Uprawa moreli. Wydawnictwo Hortpress Sp. z o. o.,

Warszawa, 2004.

7. Lapins K. Some symptom of stock scion incompatibility of apricot varieties

on peach seedling rootstock. Can. J. of Pl. Sci., 1959. 39. P. 194–203.

8. Orero G., Cuenca J., Romero C., Martinez-Calvo J.,

Badenas M.L., Llacer G. Selection of seedling rootstocks for apricot and

almond. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 529–533.

9. Sitarek M., Grzyb Z. S. Bud-take and growth of sweet cherry trees

budded on different rootstocks. J. of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 1998. 1.

P. 23–31.

10. Southwick S. M., Weis K. G. Propagation and rootstocks for

apricot production. Acta Hort. 1999. 488. P. 403–410.

11. Suranyi D. Wild apricot and myrobalan generative rootstocks for apricot

cultivars. Acta Hort. 1999. 488. P. 445–449.

12. V achun Z. Rootstocks for apricot – the current situation and main problems.

Acta Hort. 1995. 384. P. 459–465.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 47–50.

DVIEJØ ABRIKOSØ VEISLIØ, ÁSKIEPYTØ Á SKIRTINGUS SËKLINIUS

POSKIEPIUS, PRIGIJIMAS IR SODINUKØ AUGIMO RODIKLIAI

M. Sitarek, T. Jakubowski

Santrauka

‘Morden 604’ ir ‘LAK 101’ veisliø abrikosø, áskiepytø á Wangenheimo vengrinës

(P. domestica L.), Erunosid (P. domestica L.), A.4 (P. armeniaca L.) ir M.46

(P. armeniaca L.) sëklinius poskiepius, prigijimas ir augimas buvo lyginamas su kontrolinio

varianto sëkliniais poskiepiais P. cerasifera var. divaricata Borkh.

Áskiepijimo efektyvumas buvo didelis ir kito nuo 88,8% iki 97,2%, priklausomai nuo

poskiepiø ir veisliø deriniø. Vis dëlto poskiepiai neturëjo reikðmingos átakos medelyne

áskiepytø vaismedþiø skaièiui. Ið abrikosø sëkliniø poskiepiø A.4 ir M.46 iðaugo itin geros

kokybës sodinukai. Á ðiuos poskiepius áskiepyti vieneriø metø abrikosai buvo daug

aukðtesni ir tankesni uþ á P. divaricata áskiepytus vaismedþius. Abiejø veisliø abrikosø,

áskiepytø á Wangenheimo vengrinæ ir Erunosid, visi augimo rodikliai buvo menkesni negu

áskiepytø á P. divaricata.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: abrikosai, poskiepiai, veislës, augimas medelyne.

50


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 51–56.

IMPACT OF ROOTSTOCKS ON COLUMNAR APPLE

TREE GROWTH IN A NURSERY

Dalia GELVONAUSKIENË, Bronislovas GELVONAUSKIS,

Audrius SASNAUSKAS

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,

Lithuania. E-mail: d.gelvonauskiene@lsdi.lt

There were investigated 24 columnar apple selections and 2 cultivars ‘Arbat’ and

‘Ostankino’ in a nursery at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars

and selections M38-35, M38-33, M38-2, M38-15, No. 376-100 and No. 385-380 were released

in Russia and 16 hybrids (No. 23733, No. 23753, No. 24217, No. 24218, No. 24219, No.

24220, No. 24271, No. 24583, No. 24599, No. 24637, No. 24690, No. 25134, No. 26075, No.

26094 No. 26148, No. 26325) – at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Cultivars and

selections were budded on rootstocks P 60, B.396, M.26, MM.106, B.118 and ‘Antonovka’

seedlings at the height of 10–12 cm above soil and 7–10 trees were used for evaluation.

Apple trees were spaced at 0.25 x 0.9 m. Tree height and stem diameter were measured and

number of shoots were calculated in the first and second year in the nursery.

Significant differences of rootstock impact to tree height, stem diameter and shoot

number were determined. The smallest trees were on rootstocks P 60 and B.396. Apple tree

stem diameter on rootstocks B.118 and MM. 106 were the largest. The highest number of

shoots was measured on trees grown on rootstocks M.26, MM.106 and B.118. Six selections

did not raise shoots on any used rootstock.

Key words: lateral branches, rootstocks, tree height, trunk diameter.

Introduction. A columnar apple tree growth habit for the first time was described

by Lapins (1969, 1976) in Canada. The obtained results showed that this trait is

controlled by a single dominant gene, Co (Lapins, 1969, 1976). Nowadays donors of

Co gene are involved in an apple breeding programs in Russia, Latvia, Belgium,

Great Britain, USA, Bulgaria and other countries (Êè÷èíà, 1988; Drudze, 2000;

Meulenbroek et al., 1999; Tobutt, 1985; Kelsey and Brown, 1992; Djouvinov, 1994).

Donors of columnar growth habit were involved in crosses at the Lithuanian Institute

of Horticulture in 1988.

It was determined that tree height, trunk diameter, number of shoots and other

tree characteristics depend on rootstock (Inomata et al., 2003, 2005). Rootstocks

influence apple tree productivity, fruit weight and firmness (Lauri and Lespinasse,

1993; Lauri, et al., 1995; Kvilys, 2002; Inomata et al., 2003, 2005). Results obtained

by researchers in France and Japan showed that apple trees with common habitus

are more productive and biennial bearing is not so evident than it is typical for trees

with columnar type habitus.

51


Materials and methods. There were investigated 24 advanced selections and 2

columnar-type apple cultivars ‘Arbat’ and ‘Ostankino’ at nursery of the Lithuanian

Institute of Horticulture. Latter two cultivars and selections M38-35, M38-33,

M38-2, M38-15, No. 376-100 and No. 385-380 were received in Russia and the rest

16 selections (No. 23733, No. 23753, No. 24217, No. 24218, No. 24219, No. 24220,

No. 24271, No. 24583, No. 24599, No. 24637, No. 24690, No. 25134, No. 26075,

No. 26094, No. 26148, No. 26325) were received at the Lithuanian Institute of

Horticulture. ‘Arbat’ was used as a donor of columnar growth habit. Columnar apple

cultivars and selections were grafted on rootstocks P 60, B.396, M.26, MM.106,

B.118 and Antonovka seedlings. Trees were planted at the spacing of 25 x 90 cm in a

nursery. There were evaluated 7–10 plants per cultivar or selection in the nursery. Tree

height, trunk diameter and shoot (length more than 3 cm) number was evaluated in the

first and second year of tree growth. Trees were fertilized and sprayed with pesticides

according to the technology applied at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture.

Results. Average height of trees of 26 apple cultivars and selections on different

rootstocks varied from 66 cm to 76 cm at the end of the first year (Fig.). The

highest trees were on rootstocks ‘Antonovka’ seedlings and B.118. Trees were

significantly lower on rootstocks B.396 and P 60 than it was measured on previous

two rootstocks. Two years old apple trees grafted on ‘Antonovka’ seedlings were

significantly higher than on trees grafted on dwarf rootstocks. The lowest trees

were on rootstocks B.396 and P 60.

Fig. Impact of different rootstocks on average tree height of 26 apple cultivars and

selections

Pav. Ávairiø poskiepiø átaka 26 koloniniø obelø veisliø ir selekciniø numeriø medeliø

vidutiniam aukðèiui

PA – ‘Antonovka’ seedlings / PA – ‘Paprastojo antaninio’ sëjinukai.

Tree height, trunk diameter and shoot number of apple cultivars and selections

trees with columnar type habit on six rootstocks is presented in Table 1. Significant

52


differences were estimated between cultivars and selections for above noted traits.

The height of two-year-old trees of eight selections was 100 cm or less. It varied

from 88 cm to 100 cm.

Table 1. Mean value of traits of apple cultivars and selection trees

on six rootstocks

1 lentelë. Obelø veisliø ir selekciniø numeriø sodinukø, augintø su ðeðiais

poskiepiais, vidutiniai augimo rodikliai

Cultivar

Veislë, selekcinis numeris

Height / Aukštis, cm

53

Trunk diameter

Kamieno skersmuo, mm

Shoot number

Ðakø skaièius

2000 2001 2001 2001

M38-35 57 88 11 0.6

No. 0833 59 90 11 1

No. 24220 49 93 12 0

M38-33 51 93 12 0

No. 24583 61 94 12 0

No. 0749 52 96 13 0

M38-2 62 96 10 1.4

M38-15 52 100 11 0

‘Ostankino’ 72 112 12 0.3

No. 24271 56 115 12 0

No. 376-100 59 117 12 3.5

No. 385-380 71 122 12 0.1

No. 24599 69 125 12 0.3

No. 26148 64 126 11 0.7

No. 25134 79 139 12 1.8

No. 24637 74 143 11 1.2

‘Arbat’ 67 147 12 1

No. 24218 73 147 13 0.2

No. 24217 83 151 10 1.4

No. 26325 87 151 11 2.4

No. 24690 83 156 11 0.9

No. 26075 88 162 11 4.8

No. 24219 84 176 11 1.9

No. 23733 99 178 10 0.9

No. 23753 103 181 11 1.2

No. 26094 98 187 12 1.2

LSD05 / R05 18.2 31.7 0.8 1.1


The average tree height of 8 selections was higher than 150 cm and varied from

151 cm to 187 cm. Trunk diameter of cultivars and most selections was 11–12 mm.

The highest diameter (13 mm) was detected for No. 0749 and No. 24218, the lowest

(10 mm) – for M38-2, No. 24217 and No. 23733. The highest trunk diameter of

trees of investigated cultivars and selections was determined on rootstocks B.118

and MM.106, 13 mm and 12 mm, respectively (Table 2). The average shoot number

per tree depends on genotype, because 6 selections grafted on Antonovka seedlings

and 5 dwarf rootstocks did not have shoots (Table 1). Other selections and two

cultivars grew shoots and its number varied from 0.1 to 4.8. The significantly highest

shoot number was calculated for selections No. 26075 (4.8) and No. 376-100 (3.5).

On the other hand, shoot number was influenced by rootstock as well (Table 2).

Apple cultivars and selections had the highest shoot number (1.8) on rootstock M

26. The lowest shoot number (0.4) was estimated on apple trees grafted on rootstock

B.396.

Table 2. Impact of rootstocks on mean value of traits of apple

cultivars and selection trees

2 lentelë. Poskiepio átaka obelø veisliø ir selekciniø numeriø sodinukø

vidutiniams augimo rodikliams 2001 m.

Trait / Požymis

PA* B.118

Rootstock / Poskiepis

MM.106 M.26 B.396 P 60 LSD05 / R05

Trunk diameter / Kamieno

skersmuo, mm

11 13 12 11 11 11 0,8

Shoot number / Ðakø skaièius 0,7 1,4 1,4 1,8 0,4 0,6 0,6

* ‘Antonovka ’ seedlings / ‘Paprastojo antaninio’ sëjinukai

Discussion. Two-year-old apple trees height on dwarf rootstocks B.396 and

P 60 were 30% lower than it was estimated for trees grafted on Antonovka seedlings.

Differences of one-year-old trees grafted on above mentioned rootstocks were about

15%. Our results and results of Chinese researches (Dai Hong Yi et al., 1998) shows

that dwarf rootstocks are efficient tool to control the height and shoot number of

columnar type apple trees. The average height of smallest selections of two-year-old

columnar apple trees on six rootstocks was 2.1 times lower than it was measured

for strong grown selections (Table 2). Our results show that height of columnar

type apple trees is influenced by rootstock. Trunk diameter is influenced by rootstock

as well. The part of investigated selections did not develop shoots and used rootstocks

did not influence expression of this trait. A tendency of dwarf cultivars or selections

to have low number of shoots was emphasized (Table 1). It is shown by other

researches that apple tree height and columnar type trees as well and shoot number

is determined genetically (Decourtye, 1967; De Wit et al., 2004; Kenis and Keulemans,

2004).

Conclusions. 1. Rootstocks influence the growth and trunk diameter of columnar

type apple trees. The highest apple trees were recorded on rootstock Antonovka

seedlings and the highest trunk diameter – on rootstocks B.118 and MM.106.

54


2. Shoots were not detected on trees of six selections (M38-33, M38-15, No.

24220, No. 24583, No. 24271, No. 0749) grafted on five dwarf rootstocks and

Antonovka seedlings. The highest number of shoots was estimated for trees grafted

on rootstocks M.26, MM.106 and B.118.

Gauta

2006 07 04

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 31

References

1. Dai H. Y., Wang S. G., Yu S. M., Wang R. Yu X. M. Study

on the performance of columnar apple varieties // Journal of fruit science. 1998. 15(1): 13–19.

2. Ddjouvinov V. Apple and pear breeding in Bulgaria. In Schmidt H.,

Kellerhals M. (eds) Progress in temperate fruit breeding, Kulwer Academic publishers.

1994. P. 127–129.

3. Decouetye L. Etude de quelques caracteres a controle genetique simple

chez le pommier (Malus sp.) et le poirier (Pyrus communis) // Ann.Amelior.Plantes. 1967.

17(3):243–266.

4. De Wit I., Cook N.C., Keulemans J. Characterization of tree

architecture in two-year-old apple seedlings populations of different progenies with a

common columnar gene parent // Acta horticulturae. 2004. 663: 363–368.

5. Drudze I. Studies on perspective apple and pear hybrids of breeding station

“Iedzeni” in Latvia // Acta Horticulturae. 2000. 538: 729–734.

6. Inomata Y., Kudo K., Masuda T., Bessho H., Wada

M. and Suzuki K. Growth and fruit productivity habits of columnar type apple

selections // Horticultural research (Japan). 2004. 3(4): 392–401.

7. Inomata Y., Kudo K., Wada M., Masuda T., Bessho

H., Suzuki K. The influence of rootstock on characteristics of tree growth, fruit

productivity and dry matter production of ‘Maypole’ young apple tree // Horticultural

research (Japan). 2005. 4(1): 41–46.

8. Kelsey D. F. and B rown S. K. ‘McIntosh Wijcik’: A columnar mutation

of ‘McIntosh’ apple proving useful in physiology and Breeding Research // Fruit Var. J.

1992. 46: 83–87.

9. Kenis K., Keulemans J. QTL analysis of growth characteristics in

apple // Acta horticulturae. 2004. 663: 369–374.

10. Kviklys D. Apple rootstock research in Lithuania with aspect to quality

and tree productivity // Horticulture and vegetable growing. 2002. 21(3): 3–13.

11. Lapins K. O. Segregation of compact growth types in certain apple seedling

progenies // Can. J. Plant Sci. 1969. 49: 765–768.

12. L apins K. O. Inheritance of compact growth type in apple // J. Amer. Soc.

Hort. Sci. 1976. 101: 133–135.

13. Lauri P. E., Terouanne E., Lespinasse J. M.,

Regnard J. L. and K elner J. J. Genotype differences in the axillary bud

growth and fruiting pattern of apple fruiting branches over several years – an approach to

regulation of fruit bearing // Scientia Horticulturae. 1995. 64: 265–281.

55


14. Lauri P. E., Lespinasse J. M. The relationship between cultivar

fruiting type and Fruiting branch characteristics in apple trees // Acta Horticulturae. 1993.

349: 259–263.

15. M eulenbroek B., Verhaegh J. and J a n s e J. Inheritance

studies with columnar type trees // Acta Horticulturae. 1999. 484: 255–258.

16. Tobutt K. R. Breeding columnar apple at East Malling // Acta Horticulturae.

1985. 159: 63–68.

17. Êè÷èíà Â. Â. Ñàäû êîëëîííûõ ôîðì ÿáëîíè // Ñàäîâîäñòâî

è âèíîãðàäaðñòâî. 1997. 1: 22–24.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 51–56.

POSKIEPIØ ÁTAKA KOLONINIØ OBELØ SODINUKØ AUGUMUI MEDELYNE

D. Gelvonauskienë, B. Gelvonauskis, A. Sasnauskas

Santrauka

Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës instituto medelyne tirti 24 selekciniai numeriai

ir 2 koloninio tipo obelø veislës – ‘Arbat‘ ir ‘Ostankino‘. Pastarosios veislës ir selekciniai

numeriai M38-35, M38-33, M38-2, M38-15, Nr. 376-100 ir Nr. 385-380 sukurti Rusijoje, 16

kitø selekciniø numeriø (Nr. 23733, Nr. 23753, Nr. 24217, Nr. 24218, Nr. 24219, Nr. 24220,

Nr. 24271, Nr. 24583, Nr. 24599, Nr.2 4637, Nr. 24690, Nr. 25134, Nr. 26075, Nr. 26094 Nr. 26148,

Nr. 26325) sukurta Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institute. Kuriant pastaruosius

hibridus, kaip tëvinë forma panaudota ’Arbat‘ veislë, kuri yra koloninës vaismedþiø formos

donorë. Buvo tirta po 7–10 medeliø, áakiuotø á poskiepius P 60, B.396, M.26, MM.106,

B.118 ir Paprastojo antaninio sëjinukus 10–12 cm aukðtyje. Medeliai auginti 0,25 x 0,9 m

atstumais. Pirmaisiais ir antraisiais augimo medelyne metais matuotas augalø aukðtis ir

kamieno skersmuo ir suskaièiuotos ðakos.

Nustatyta, kad poskiepiai ið esmës veikë koloniniø obelø veisliø ir selekciniø numeriø

sodinukø aukðtá, kamieno skersmená ir ðoniniø ðakø skaièiø. Þemiausi buvo sodinukai su

P 60 ir B.396 poskiepiais, storiausi – su B.118 ir MM.106 poskiepiais. Daugiausia ðakø

iðaugino sodinukai su poskiepiais M. 26, MM.106 ir B.118. Ið tirtø 2 veisliø ir 24 selekciniø

numeriø 6 selekciniø numeriø vaismedþiai ðoniniø ðakø neiðaugino në su vienu poskiepiu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: ðoninës ðakos, poskiepiai, vaismedþiai, aukðtis, kamieno

skersmuo.

56


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 57–61.

QUALITY OF MAIDEN APRICOT TREES DEPENDING ON

ROOTSTOCK AND CULTIVAR

Maria LICZNAR-MAÙAÑCZUK, Ireneusz SOSNA

Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, Rozbrat 7, 50-334

Wrocùaw, Poland. E-mail: liczmal@ozi.ar.wroc.pl

The experiment was established at Fruit Experimental Station near Wrocùaw. Three

apricot cultivars – ‘Harcot’, ‘Hargrand’ and ‘Bergeron’ – were budded on three rootstocks:

seedlings Somo and clone LS-4 seedlings (P. armeniaca) and Pumiselect®. The aim of the

investigation was to evaluate the quality of maiden apricot trees depending on rootstock

and cultivar.

In the autumn of 2005 the thickest trunks in the nursery had apricot trees ‘Harcot’,

while apricot trees ‘Hargrand’ were the best feathered. Clearly the weakest growth was

noted of ‘Bergeron’. Irrespective of cultivars, apricot trees budded on Pumiselect®

rootstock were characterised of the strongest vigour. Maidens budded on seedlings Somo

grew similarly to LS-4 seedlings but more often weaker. Irrespectively of cultivars, the

longer root system had all trees on the generative rootstocks – Somo and clone LS-4

seedlings (45–50 cm). The average length of the rooted rootstock Pumiselect® was only

13.4 cm. Number of scaffold and lateral roots was also similar for both generative rootstocks.

Cvs. ‘Hargrand’ and ‘Harcot’ on seedlings Somo were characterised by the best quality of

root system, whereas ‘Bergeron’ irrespective of rootstocks was the worst rooted.

Key words: apricot, rootstock, cultivar, maiden, root system, Pumiselect.

Introduction. In the case of many apricot cultivars, reduction of growth is

only possible by using a proper rootstock (Grzyb el al., 1996; Szalay and Molnár,

2004). Rootstock not only influences the growth vigour, but also can affect the

lifespan of trees (Dimitrova, 2001). Properties of rootstocks have been evaluated as

a part of research and breading programs at the experimental stations (Vachùn et al.,

1995; Dimitrova, 2002).

Several good rootstocks from Prunus cerasifera, Prunus domestica, Prunus

insititia and also Prunus persica have been introduced in cultivation of apricot (Bassi,

2001; Jakubowski, 2004). None of them is widely distributed and well adapted to

the different soil environment. A full compatibility of rootstock with all cultivars is

not found yet (Bassi, 2001). Dimitrova and Marinov (2002) had no signal of grafting

incompatibility on the Myrobalan seedlings during 30 years of research work in

Bulgaria. In Poland, Grzyb et al. (1996) observed the highest percentage of dead

57


trees grafted on Wangenheim Prune, but seedling Somo 86 was recognised as a

good rootstock for all investigated cultivars except ‘Harcot’. Licznar-Maùañczuk

and Sosna (2005b) observed grafting incompatibility of cv. ‘Morden 604’ and

rootstock Somo.

Apricot trees ‘Harcot’, ‘Hargrand’ and ‘Bergeron’ were recognised as good

cultivars to the climatic conditions of the Lower Silesia region (Licznar-Maùañczuk

and Sosna, 2005 a; 2005b). The aim of the present studies was the estimation of

quality of one-year-old apricot trees of these cultivars depending on rootstock use.

Materials and methods. In 2004–2005, the experiment was conducted at Fruit

Experimental Station, which belong to the Agricultural University of Wrocùaw (southeast

of Poland). Three apricot cultivars: ‘Harcot’, ‘Hargrand’ and ‘Bergeron’ were

budded on three rootstocks: seedlings Pumiselect®, Somo and clone LS-4 seedlings.

Pumiselect® (Rhenus 2) as a clonal Pumiselect pumila rootstocks for peach

and apricot, was propagated by hardwood cuttings. In the autumn of 2003 oneyear-old

hardwood shoots were pruned at 40 cm long sections. During winter they

were kept in box with wet peat in room with about 3 o C and in the spring of 2004

were planted to the nursery in the depth of 20 cm. The seeds of Polish apricot

cultivar ‘Somo’ and Polish apricot clone LS-4 (both comes from Prunus armeniaca)

were stratificated and sown in the spring of 2004. In the summer of 2004 each

rootstock was budded.

In the autumn of 2005, the number of obtained trees varied from 13 to 33

among nine of experimental combination. The apricot estimation was based on 16

selected trees, except cv. ‘Bergeron’ on rootstock Pumiselect® (only 12 trees).

Quality of each selected one-year-old tree was evaluated in the autumn of 2005. The

length of the rooted stock for vegetative rootstock Pumiselect® was measured and

the total number of the main roots were counted. Number of scaffold and lateral

roots was counted for both generative rootstocks, and the length of root system

was also measured. Trunk and rootstock cross-section area was calculated basing

on diameter measured 30 cm above and just below the place of budding, respectively.

In addition, the length of annual shoots for one of the average chosen tree from

every replication was measured.

The experiment was evaluated separately for each cultivar, as a completely

randomised design with four replications, including four or three trees. Experimental

data were statistically elaborated and verified by Student’s multiple range t-test at

P = 0.05.

Results and discussion. In the autumn of 2005 maiden apricot trees,

irrespectively of rootstock, looked healthy. There were noted some dead trees caused

by Bacterial canker, but did not observed incompatibility symptoms in the nursery.

It was very promising, because according to Bassi (2001), even the use P. armeniaca

selections as a rootstock, could lead to incompatibility in some cultivars.

In this experiment the quality of maiden apricot trees depended on cultivar and

rootstocks. The thickest trunks had apricot trees ‘Harcot’, while apricot trees

‘Hargrand’ were the best feathered (Table 1). Clearly the weakest growth in the

nursery was noted of ‘Bergeron’. These results are similar to those reported by

Lopez and Brunton (2000). The estimated rootstocks had significant influence mainly

58


on total length of laterals (with the exception of ‘Bergeron’). Irrespective of cultivars,

apricot trees budded on rootstock Pumiselect® were characterised by the strongest

vigour. In some cases, even significant differences were noted. This vegetative

rootstock had the biggest cross section area, as well. It is interesting, because

Pumiselect® is taken for dwarf rootstock. Maidens budded on seedlings Somo grew

similarly to LS-4 seedlings or more often weaker. This contradicts to the studies by

Grzyb et al. (1996), who did note clearly retarding of vegetative growth of trees on

seedlings Somo 86 in comparison to strongly growing seedlings Myrobalan

(P. cerasifera). However, in studies of Dimitrova and Marinov (2002), trees grafted

on apricot seedlings grew much weaker than those on seedlings Myrobalan.

Table 1. Characteristic of maiden apricot trees depending on

rootstock

1 lentelë. Poskiepiø átaka abrikosø sodinukø kokybei

Cultivar / Rootstock

Veislë / Poskiepis

Rootstock cross

section area

Poskiepio

skerspjûvio plotas,

cm

Number of annual

shoots

Ðakø skaièius

2

Trunk cross

section area

Kamieno

skerspjûvio

plotas, cm 2

Total lengthof

annual shoots

Bendras ðakø

ilgis, cm

< 20 cm > 20 cm

Pumiselect® 3.97 0.95 5.8 6.3 366.9

LS-4 seedling

2.79 0.90 6.0 6.5 359.9

LS-4 sëklinis poskiepis

‘Bergeron’

Seedling Somo

Somo sëklinis poskiepis

2.79 0.82 5.5 6.5 359.9

X 3.18 0.89 5.8 6.4 362.2

LSD05 / R05 0.43 NS NS NS

Pumiselect® 6.13 1.65 9.8 10.8 654.1

‘Harcot’

LS-4 seedling

LS-4 sëklinis poskiepis

3.38 1.19 3.8 7.5 422.8

seedling Somo

Somo sëklinis poskiepis

3.25 1.02 3.8 7.0 364.1

X 4.25 1.29 5.8 8.4 480.3

LSD05 / R05 0.56 0.39 NS 2.7

Pumiselect® 5.47 1.27 18.0 15.3 829.9

LS-4 seedling

LS-4 sëklinis poskiepis

‘Hargrand’

seedling Somo

Somo sëklinis poskiepis

2.92

3.34

0.88

1.16

14.8

14.0

8.0

7.3

466.6

446.6

X 3.91 1.10 15.6 10.2 581.0

LSD05 / R05 0.52 NS NS 2.8

Irrespectively of cultivar, apricot trees had the longer root system on the

generative rootstocks – Somo and clone LS-4 seedlings (Table 2). Well-developed

and strong root system is typical for generative rootstocks. Such root system causes

that trees grafted on apricot seedlings (P. armeniaca) requires less water and they

are more tolerant to drought than apricot trees on rootstock P. domestica or

59


P. insititia (Szalay and Molnár, 2004). The average length of the rooted stock for

vegetative Pumiselect® was only 13.4 cm. Number of scaffold and lateral roots was

also similar for both generative rootstocks. Irrespective of rootstocks, ‘Hargrand’

and ‘Harcot’ cvs. on seedlings Somo were characterised by the best quality of root

system, whereas ‘Bergeron’ rooted the worst.

Table 2. Characteristic of maiden apricot trees root system

depending on rootstock

2 lentelë. Poskiepiø átaka abrikosø sodinukø ðaknø sistemai

Cultivar / Rootstock

Veislë / Poskiepis

Length of

rooted stock

Ásiðaknijusio

poskiepio

dalis, cm

Length of

root

Šaknies ilgis,

cm

Conclusions. 1. Quality of maiden apricot trees depended on cultivar and

rootstocks. Clearly the weakest growth in the nursery was noted of ‘Bergeron’.

Apricot trees budded on rootstock Pumiselect® grew much stronger in comparison

to seedlings P. armeniaca.

2. Irrespectively of cultivar, apricot trees budded on seedlings P. armeniaca

were better rooted than those on rootstock Pumiselect®.

Gauta

2006 05 04

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 18

60

Number of

scaffold

roots

Skeletiniø

ðaknø skaièius

Number of

lateral roots

Ðoniniø ðaknø

skaièius

Total

number of

roots

Bendras ðaknø

skaièius

Pumiselect® 15.7 - - - 11.9

LS-4 seedling

LS-4 sëklinis poskiepis

‘Bergeron’

Seedling Somo

Somo sëklinis poskiepis

-

-

44.3

44.3

3.0

2.8

6.7

4.5

9.7

7.2

X - 44.3 2.9 5.6 9.6

LSD05 / R05 - NS NS 1.6

Pumiselect® 11.3 - - - 11.9

‘Harcot’

LS-4 seedling

LS-4 sëklinis poskiepis

seedling Somo

Somo sëklinis poskiepis

-

-

52.0

55.8

3.1

2.6

11.9

15.7

15.0

18.2

X - 53.9 2.9 13.8 15.1

LSD05 / R05 - NS NS 2.1

Pumiselect® 13.2 - - - 14.7

LS-4 seedling

LS-4 sëklinis poskiepis

‘Hargrand’

seedling ‘Somo

Somo sëklinis poskiepis

-

-

40.2

52.4

4.1

3.5

11.3

12.8

15.4

16.3

X - 46.3 3.8 12.1 15.5

LSD05 / R05 - 6.0 NS NS


References

1. Bassi D. Apricot culture: present and future. In: I Karayiannis (ed.), XI Int.

Symp. on Apricot Culture, ISHS 1999 // Acta Horticulturae. 2001. Vol. 488. P. 35–40.

2. Dimitrova M. The influence of rootstock on the growth and productivity of

tree apricot cultivars // Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2001. Vol. 7. P. 161–166.

3. D i m i t r o v a M. Evaluation of some plum rootstocks as rootstock for apricot

in the orchard // Acta Horticulturae. 2002. Vol. 577. P. 311–314.

4. Dimitrova M., Marinov P. Myrobalan (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) as

a rootstock for apricot // Acta Horticulturae. 2002. Vol. 577. P. 315–318.

5. Grzyb Z., Zdyb H., Sitarek M. Wpùyw róýnych podkùadek na

zdrowotnoúã siùæ wzrostu i owocowanie moreli // Zeszyty Naukowe ISiK - Skierniewice.

1996. Vol. 3. P. 55–62.

6. Jakubowski T. Uprawa moreli. Hortpress. Sp. z o.o. Warszawa, 2004. 160 p.

7. Licznar-Maùañczuk M., Sosna I. Evaluation of several apricot

cultivars and clones in the Lower Silesia conditions. Part I: Blossoming of trees, yield and

fruit quality // Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2005a. Vol. 13. P. 39–48.

8. Licznar-Maùañczuk M., Sosna I. Evaluation of several apricot

cultivars and clones in the Lower Silesia conditions. Part II: Vigour, health and mortality /

/ Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2005b. Vol. 13. P. 49–57.

9. Lopez G.P., Brunton G.J. Comportamiento de variedades de

albaricoquero en la comarca del noroeste de la Region de Murcia // Jornadas de

experimentacion en fruticultura. 2000. Vol. 21. P. 163–170.

10. Szalay L., Molná r B. P. The effect of rootstock on tree size of

apricot cultivars // International Journal of Horticultural Science. 2004. Vol. 10(3). P. 57–58.

11. Vachùn Z., Krðka B., Sasková H. Results of apricot research

and breeding programme at the Horticultural Faculty in Lednice na Morawie // Zahradnictvi.

1995. Vol. 22(3). P. 95–98.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 57–61.

POSKIEPIO ÁTAKA SKIRTINGØ VEISLIØ ABRIKOSØ SODINUKØ

KOKYBEI

M. Licznar-Maùañczuk, I. Sosna

Santrauka

Bandymas atliktas Sodininkystës tyrimø stotyje netoli Vroclavo. Trys abrikosø veislës:

‘Harcot’, ‘Hargrand’ ir ‘Bergeron’, buvo áskiepytos á Somo ir LS-4 (P. armeniaca) sëklinius

poskiepius ir Pumiselect® vegetatyviná poskiepá. Tyrimo tikslas – ávertinti poskiepio átakà

abrikosø sodinukø kokybei. 2005 m. rudená medelyne storiausi buvo ‘Harcot’ veislës

sodinukø kamienai. Ðios veislës sodinukai labiausiai ðakojosi. Prasèiausiai augo ‘Bergeron’

veislës abrikosai. Visø veisliø abrikosai su Pumiselect® poskiepiu augo geriausiai. Á Somo

sëklinius poskiepius áskiepytos abrikosø veislës augo beveik taip pat, kaip áskiepytos á

LS-4, bet daþnai ir prasèiau. Ilgesnes ðaknis (45–50 cm) iðleido visø veisliø su Somo ir

LS-4 sëkliniais poskiepiais sodinukai, o sodinukø su Pumiselect® ðaknø ilgis buvo tik

13,4 cm. ‘Hargrand’ ir ‘Harcot’ veisliø abrikosø sodinukø su Somo poskiepiu ðaknø sistema

buvo geriausios kokybës. ‘Bergeron’ veislës sodinukø su visais poskiepiais ðaknø sistema

buvo prasèiausia.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: abrikosai, poskiepiai, veislës, sodinukai, ðaknø sistema,

Pumiselect.

61


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 62–70.

THE INFLUENCE OF ION EXCHANGE SUBSTRATES

(BIONA-112 AND BIONA-312) ON BIOCHEMICAL

PARAMETERS OF PRUNUS L. ROOTSTOCKS DURING

ADAPTATION EX VITRO

Tatjana KRASINSKAYA, Natalija KUKHARCHYK

Institute for Fruit Growing of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,

2 Kovalev str., Samokhvalovichy, Minsk reg., 223013 Belarus.

E-mail: krasinskaya@tut.by

It is known that the plant reorganization after in vitro culture is performed not only

in morphological but also in physiological direction during the adaptation ex vitro.

Different methods are applied for improving of adaptation stage. One of them is

using of ionic soils as adaptation substrates. As a result of that, the aim of our investigations

was to study plant physiological development on Prunus L. rootstocks, for example,

VSL-2 (Prunus fruticosa (Pall.) G. Waron. x P. lannesiana Carr.) and OVP-2 (P. cerasus

x P. Maackii) on ion-exchange substrates (IES) with different mineral compositions

(BIONA-112 and BIONA-312) at the adaptation to aseptic conditions ex vitro.

Evaluation of plant physiological development was made according to these

biochemical indices: chlorophyll (a + b) content (mg/dm 2 ), sugar concentration (glucose +

saccharose) (%) and dry weight (%).

Significant influence of IES on chlorophyll, sugar and dry weight accumulation were

established as a result of our investigation. The significant positive after-effect of ionexchange

adaptation substrates on plant physiological development was marked at the

second stage of adaptation.

Key words: Prunus L., ion exchange substrate, BIONA-112, BIONA-312, biochemical

parameters, chlorophyll, soluble sugars, dry matter content, ex vitro, adaptation, Belarus.

Introduction. Plants during ex vitro adaptation undergo certain changes in both

morphological and physiological aspects. First of all, the plants launch from

heterotrophic to autotrophic kind of nutrition because of the resumption of their

photosynthetic activity. Secondly, transpiration changes take place to promote the

adaptation of the plants to low moisture level, which is typical for their traditional

conditions of growing (the transpiration becomes controlled, the majority of stoma

close and comes to the inner parts of the leave tissue (Vegvari, Vertesy, 1999), cuticle

and epicuticle wax layer develop more intensively then in test-tube plants, the chemical

compound of wax changes (Ãèãîëîøâèëè, 2000)).

Different methods are used to accelerate and improve the adaptation stage, with

the aim to increase the number of normally adapted plants in ex vitro: the reduction

62


of nitrates concentration in nutrient medium for micro breeding, the using of waxes

for splashing the leaves after in vitro and others (McClelland et al., 1990). One of

the methods developed to improve plant adaptation is the usage of qualitative new

adaptation substrates, for example, ion exchange substrates (ionite soils). There are

known the advantages of ion exchange substrate using for growing fruits and small

fruits and ornamental plants (Ñâiðø÷ý¢ñêàÿ et al., 1995; Ñîëäàòîâ et al.,

1978; Ñóäåéíàÿ, Òèìîôååâà, 2003; Ñóäåéíàÿ, Óòûðî, 2000; Òóëàåâà

et al., 1990) for the in vitro rooting microshoots of potatoes after in vitro

(Ìàòóñåâè÷ et al., 1995), and for adaptation ex vitro of Prunus L. regenerates.

In previous researches we determined the statistically significant influence of

the substrates on the morphological development of plant Prunus L. To determine

the causes of considerable difference between the intensity of ontogenesis of

regenerates adapted on different substrates, in this work we study their influence on

physiological and biochemical processes, which occur in plant during ex vitro stage.

Materials and methods. The researches were carried out in the department of

biotechnology at the Institute for Fruit Growing of the National Academy of Sciences

of Belarus during 23.06.2004 – 7.04. 2005. Objects of research were peat substrate

(control), ion exchange substrates (BIONA-112 and BIONA-312); vegetative

rootstocks of sour cherry and sweet cherry – OVP-2 (Prunus cerasus x P. Maackii).

VSL-2 (P. fruticosa (Pall.) G. Waron. x P. lannesiana Carr.).

Peat substrate represents a mixture of substrate „Florabel-5” and river sand in

ratio 3 : 1, autoclaved under the pressure of 1.2 atmospheres during 2 hours. The

structure of water extract obtained after the autoclaving of peat substrate is represented

in Table 1. The pH value of water extract from peat substrate is 7.7.

This substrate was used also on the second stage of adaptation.

Table 1. Ionic composition of substrates

1 lentelë. Joninë terpiø sudëtis

Substrate

Concentration of ion / Jonø koncentracija, mg-eqv/l

Terpë Ê + Na + Ñà 2+ Mg 2+ Fe 3+ NH4 + N03 – H2P04 – SÎ4 2– Cl –

PEAT substrate

Durpiø substratas

0.697 0.48 3.20 2.8 0.122 0.37 1.28 0 1.254 1.76

BIONA-112 6.86 1.57 4.4 2.93 0.10 2.61 11.43 1.02 2.43 1.72

BIONA-312 2.9 2.3 3.7 0.9 - 0.21 8.6 0.42 0.87 0.08

The substrate of BIONA-112 is ion exchange substrate created on the basis of

cation exchanger KU-2 (H + ) and anion exchanger EDE-10P (ÎÍ ” ) in ratio 1 : 2.05. It

was rich by various macro- and microelements in the ion exchange form (Table 1).

The pH value of water extract from substrate BIONA 112–6.05.

The substrate BIONA-312 is the mixture of ion exchange substrate BIONA-112

(56 percent by weight) with cliniptilolite. The pH value of water substrate

BIONA-312 is 6.5–6.7.

The adaptation was carried out in 2 stages. Stage I (the adaptation stage). The

63


plants after the in vitro rhizogenesis stage were planted into 50 ml holders filled with

peat or ion exchange substrates, covered with plastic film in order to increase moisture.

Watering was performed with distilled water. The adaptation of the plants was fulfilled

in the third quarter of 2004. On the stage II (post-adaptation stage) the plants were

transplanted into 500 ml pots filled with peat substrate. The conditions of adaptation

on the first and second stages: illumination 2.5–3.0 th. Lux, temperature 20–22°C,

photoperiod 16/8 hours. The length of each stage was 17 weeks.

The influence and post-influence of adaptation substrates on the physiological

development of the plants was analyzed according to the data of biochemical analyses

of the leaves in 4 replications: the chlorophylls a and b content (Åðìàêîâ, 1987);

the soluble sugars content (monosugars (glucose + fructose) + saccharose)

(Êàðìàíåíêî, Êàçàíöåâà, 1986); dry matter content (Åðìàêîâ,1987).

The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and the significance of

differences between means was evaluated by Duncan’s multiple range test at

P = 0.05 with the help of Statistica 6.0 software. Results were represented in Tables

and included the mean±SE. Significance of differences in Tables is shown at

p< 0.05 (a), p< 0.01 (b), p < 0.001 (c), non-significant (–).

Result and discussion. Chlorophyll content. The factual influence

of the substrates on the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in the unit of the

leaves area was marked. All the parameters characterizing the accumulation of

pigments in the leaves during their adaptation on any ion exchange substrate not

depending on its content, was lower than on the peat substrate (Table 2).

In the investigated rootstocks the accumulation of the chlorophylls was different

and depended on the genotype. The maximum level of Chl b synthesis was marked

for the rootstock OVP-2 on the peat substrate, the minimum data by this rootstock

– on the substrate BIONA-312. The synthesis of Chl b by the rootstock VSL-2 was

even and did not depend on the adaptation substrate.

The Chl ratio a/b was the highest in rootstocks OVP-2. Depending on the

adaptation substrate this data positively did not change by any of both rootstocks.

Soluble sugars. Intensive accumulation of sugars was observed in

plants adapted on the peat substrate and substrate BIONA-312 (Table 2). This

tendency is obviously manifested during the adaptation of the rootstock OVP-2. The

synthesis of monosugars in the leaves certainly did not differ on different adaptation

substrates. More saccharose was accumulated in the plants, adapted on the peat

substrate.

Dry matter content. According to literature data, ion exchange substrate promotes

the accumulation of water in the leaves of the plants, so it is advisable to use it when

growing for leave product (Áàõíîâà ir kt., 1999). We have investigated the certain

decrease of dry matter content while the adaptation of regenerates of sour cherry on

the substrate BIONA-112; simultaneously, the essential increase in the volume of the

above-ground plant organs was shown. The quantity of dry matter content on the

substrate BIONA-312 was higher than on the substrate BIONA-112, but slightly

lower than at peat substrates. The maximum amplitude in the accumulation of dry

matter content on different substrates was marked for rootstock OVP-2: the leaves

of the regenerates adapted on the peat substrate, contained the maximum dry matter

quantity.

64


Table 2. Biochemical parameters characterizing physiological

development of rootstocks at the adaptation stage, n = 4

2 lentelë. Biocheminiai rodikliai, charakterizuojantys fiziologiná poskiepiø

vystymàsi adaptacijos etape, n = 4

Forms of

rootstocks

(factor A)

Poskiepiø

formos (A

faktorius)

Biochemical

parameters

Biocheminiai rodikliai

Stem length

Stiebo ilgis, ñm

Adaptation substrates (factor Â)

Adaptacijos terpës (B faktorius)

peat substrate

(control) BIONA-112 BIONA-312

Durpiø substratas

(kontrolë)

65

Mean for

factor À

A faktoriaus

vidurkis

3.9 ± 0.23 6.7±0.44 – 5.5 ± 0.28 – – 5.4 ± 0.38

Chl à, mg/dm 2 3.03 ± 0.20 2.64±0.14 – 2.49 ± 0.11 a – 2.72 ± 0.11

Chl b, mg/dm 2 1.16 ± 0.14 1.12±0.14 – 0.80 ± 0.05 aa 1.03 ± 0.08

Ñhl à+b, mg/dm 2 4.19 ± 0.33 3.51±0.37 – 3.30 ± 0.16a – 3.52 ± 0.20

Chl à/b, mg/dm 2 2.66 ± 0.16 2.50±0.45 – 3.12 ± 0.08– – 2.76 ± 0.17

OVP-2

Monosugars

Monocukrûs, %

Saccharose /

Sacharozë, %

Sugar concentration

0.09 ± 0.02

0.15 ± 0.05

0.04±0.007 b 0.1 ± 0.004 – c

0.08 ± 0.009 b 0.15 ± 0.01 – b

0.08 ± 0.01

0.13 ± 0.01

Cukraus koncentracija,

%

Dry matter content

0.24 ± 0.05 0.12 ± 0.02 b 0.2 ± 0.01 – b 0.20 ± 0.02

Sausøjø medþiagø

kiekis, %

26.10 ± 6.23 12.85 ± 0.51 b 22.41 ± 1.14 – a 20.4 ± 2.55

Stem length

Stiebo ilgis, ñm

8.9 ± 0.85 15.4 ± 2.08 c 10.9 ± 0.58 – b 11.76 ± 1.08 ñ

Chl à, mg/dm 2 3.03 ± 0.14 2.21 ± 0.16 2.14 ± 0.03c – 2.46 ± 0.14 a

Chl b, mg/dm 2 1.22 ± 0.05 0.96 ± 0.05 – 1.01 ± 0.02 – – 1.06 ± 0.04 –

Ñhl à+b, mg/dm 2 4.25 ± 0.19 3.17 ± 0.21 a 3.15 ± 0.05 a – 3.66 ± 0.18 –

Chl à/b, mg/dm 2 2.49 ± 0.03 2.31 ± 0.07 - 2.12 ± 0.01 – – 2.31 ± 0.05 a

VSL-2

Monosugars

Monocukrûs, %

Saccharose

Sacharozë, %

Sugar concentration

0.06 ± 0.003

0.12 ± 0.003

0.05 ± 0.003 0.03 ± 0.003 – – 0.05 ± 0.003 c

0.08 ± 0.007 – 0.07 ± 0.007a – 0.09 ± 0.007 b

Cukraus koncentracija,

%

Dry matter content

0.18 ± 0.003 0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.10 ± 0.01 – – 0.13 ± 0.01 b

Sausøjø medþiagø kiekis,

%

20.09 ± 0.64 17.81 ± 0.16 – 15.7 ± 0.71 – – 17.87 ± 0.62 –

Mean for factor  / B faktoriaus vidurkis

Stem length / Stiebo ilgis, ñm 6.4 ± 1.02 11.05 ± 1.92 c 8.2 ± 1.08 – a

Chl à, mg/dm 2 3.03 ± 0.11 2.43 ± 0.13 c 2.32 ± 0.08 c –

Chl b, mg/dm 2 1.19 ± 0.07 1.04 ± 0.07- 0.91 ± 0.05 b –

Ñhl à+b, mg/dm 2 4.22 ± 0.18 3.34 ± 0.21 b 3.22 ± 0.08 b –

Chl à/b, mg/dm 2 2.57 ± 0.08 2.40 ± 0.22 – 2.62 ± 0.19 – –

Monosugars

Monocukrûs, %

0.08 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.004 b 0.07 ± 0.01 – a

Saccharose / Sacharozë, % 0.13 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0.005 b 0.11 ± 0.22 – a

Sugar concentration

Cukraus koncentracija, %

0.21 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.01 b 0.18 ± 0.03 – a

Dry matter content / Sausøjø

medþiagø kiekis, %

23.1 ± 3.11 15.33 ± 0.97 a 19.05 ± 1.41 – –


The second stage of adaptation. The results of the

represented researches allowed estimating the after-effect of substrates on biochemical

parameters of the adapted plants after transplantation during the second stage. Both

ion exchange substrates stimulated the growth of the stem and chlorophyll synthesis

for the both rootstocks (Table 3). The most prolonging positive effect on the Chl a

+ b synthesis was marked using the substrate BIONA-112. Depending on the genotype,

the influence of the ion exchange substrates was different: for the rootstock VSL-2

the kind of ion exchange substrate did not influence the accumulation of the

chlorophylls. For the rootstock OVP-2 on the substrate BIONA-312 was marked the

increase of the sum of chlorophylls, while BIONA-112 was increasing the

accumulation of Chl a.

Forms of

rootstocks

(factor

A)

Poskiepiø

formos (A

faktorius)

OVP-2

Table 3. Biochemical parameters characterizing physiological

development of rootstocks at the post-adaptation stage, n = 4

3 lentelë. Biocheminiai rodikliai, charakterizuojantys fiziologiná

poskiepiø vystymàsi po adaptacijos, n = 4

Biochemical

parameters

Biocheminiai rodikliai

Δ stem length,

stem length

stiebo ilgis, ñm

Δ Chl a, mg/dm 2

Chl a

Δ Chl b, mg/dm 2

Chl b

Δ Chl à + b, mg/dm 2

Chl a +b

Chl à/b, mg/dm 2

Chl a/b

Δ monosugars,

monosugars

monocukrûs, %

Δ saccharose

saccharose / sacharozë,

%

Δ sugar concentration,

sugar concentration

cukraus koncentracija, %

Δ dry matter content

dry matter content

sausøjø medþiagø kiekis, %

Peat substrate

(control)

Durpiø substratas

(kontrolë)

0.3 ± 0.49

4.2 ± 0.27

0.21 ± 0.12

3.24 ± 0.19

–0.09 ± 0.15

1.07 ± 0.04

0.12 ± 0.19

4.31 ± 0.18

Adaptation substrates (factor Â)

Adaptacijos terpës (B faktorius)

66

BIONA-112 BIONA-312

2.5 ± 1.18-

9.2 ± 0.82 b

1.78 ± 0.20 c

4.42 ± 0.10c

0.32 ± 0.13 a

1.44 ± 0.04 b

2.35 ± 0.30 c

1.61 ± 0.21 ca

–1.08 ± 0.98 – –

4.4 ± 0.71 – b

1.10 ± 0.15 cb

3.59 ± 0.20 – c

0.51 ± 0.06 b –

1.32 ± 0.09 a-

5.86 ± 0.13 c

4.91 ± 0.30 ab

Mean for

factor À

A faktoriaus

vidurkis

0.57±0.66

5.9 ± 0.77

1.03 ± 0.21

3.75 ± 0.17

0.25 ± 0.1

1.28 ± 0.06

1.36 ± 0.30

5.02 ± 0.22

3.03 ± 0.22 3.07 ± 0.08 – 2.74±0.05 – – 2.95±0.08

0.04 ± 0.006

0.13 ± 0.02

0.1 ± 0.04

0.25 ± 0.07

0.14 ± 0.04

0.37 ± 0.03

9.82 ± 6.54

35.92 ± 1.07

0.06 ± 0.01 a

0.1 ± 0.005 a

0.05 ± 0.009 –

0.13 ± 0.003 a

0.11 ± 0.02-

0.23 ± 0.01 a

21.87 ± 1.80 a

34.72 ± 1.86-

– 0.009 ± 0.006 cc

0.09 ± 0.004 b –

0.1 ± 0.02 – –

0.26 ± 0.01 – a

0.09 ± 0.03 – –

0.35 ± 0.02 – –

9.59 ± 2.44 – a

32.00 ± 1.86 – –

0.03 ± 0.009

0.11 ± 0.008

0.08 ± 0.02

0.21 ± 0.03

0.11 ± 0.02

0.31 ± 0.03

13.8 ± 2.78

34.21 ± 0.99


Forms of

rootstocks

(factor

A)

Poskiepiø

formos (A

faktorius)

VSL-2

Table 3 continued

3 lentelës tæsinys

Biochemical

parameters

Biocheminiai parametrai

Δ stem length

stem length

stiebo ilgis, ñm

Δ Chl a, mg/dm 2

Chl a

Δ Chl b, mg/dm 2

Chl b

Δ Chl à + b, mg/dm 2

Chl à + b

Chl à/b, mg/dm 2

Chl à/b

Δ monosugars

monosugars

monocukrûs, %

Δ

saccharose,saccharose

sacharozë, %

Δ sugar concentration

sugar concentration

cukraus koncentracija, %

Δ dry matter content

dry matter content

sausøjø medþiagø kiekis,

%

Δstem length,

stem length / stiebo ilgis, ñm

ΔChl a, mg/dm 2

Chl a

ΔChl b, mg/dm 2

Chl b

ΔChl à+b, mg/dm 2

Chl à+b

Chl à/b, mg/dm 2

Δmonosugars,

monosugars / monocukrûs, %

– 0.13 ± 1.18

8.8 ± 0.78

0.04 ± 0.1

3.07 ± 0.12

– 0.28 ± 0.06

0.94 ± 0.08

– 0.24 ± 0.16

4.01 ± 0.19

Adaptation substrates (factor Â)

Adaptacijos terpës (faktorius B)

67

10.2 ± 3.70 b

25.6 ± 2.37

1.02 ± 0.19 c

3.42 ± 0.07 –

0.18 ± 0.12 b

1.14 ± 0.09 –

1.39 ± 0.31 c

4.55 ± 0.14 –

3.7 ± 0.70 – a

14.7 ± 1.02 bc

0.87 ± 0.007 b –

3.01 ± 0.09 – –

0.05 ± 0.01 a –

1.06 ± 0.02 – –

0.92 ± 0.09 b –

4.07 ± 0.11 – –

Mean for

factor À

A faktoriaus

vidurkis

4.6 ± 1.75 a

16.3 ± 2.25 ñ

0.70 ± 0.16 a

3.17 ± 0.07 c

– 0.02 ± 0.07 b

1.04 ± 0.04 c

0.69 ± 0.23 b

4.21 ± 0.11 c

3.32 ± 0.14 3.05 ± 0.19- 2.84 ± 0.04 a – 3.07 ± 0.09 –

0.05 ± 0.003

0.10 ± 0.003

0.07 ± 0.02

0.19 ± 0.02

0.12 ± 0.02

0.29 ± 0.02

7.61 ± 1.35

27.70 ± 0.99

0.06 ± 0.005-

0.10 ± 0.003

0.12 ± 0.02 –

0.20±0.02 –

0.18 ± 0.02 –

0.30 ± 0.02 –

10.21 ± 0.96 –

28.02 ± 0.88 –

Mean for factor  / B faktoriaus vidurkis

0.08 ± 0.60

6.5 ± 0.94

0.13 ± 0.08

3.15 ± 0.11

– 0.19 ± 0.08

1.0 ± 0.05

– 0.06 ± 0.13

4.16 ± 0.14

6.3 ± 2.31 b

17.4 ± 3.31 c

1.49 ± 0.17 c

3.92 ± 0.20 c

0.25 ± 0.09 c

1.29 ± 0.07 c

1.87 ± 0.27 c

5.21 ± 0.26 c

0.06 ± 0.003 – –

0.09 ± 0 –

0.1 ± 0.004 – –

0.17 ± 0.01 – –

0.16 ± 0.003 – –

0.26 ± 0.01 – –

10.81 ± 1.52 – –

26.5 ± 1.63 – –

1.3 ± 1.06 – a

9.5 ± 2.02 ac

0.99 ± 0.09 cb

3.30 ± 0.15-c

0.28 ± 0.09 c –

1.19 ± 0.07 a –

1.27 ± 0.17 ca

4.49 ± 0.22-b

3.17 ± 0.13 3.06 ± 0.1 – 2.79 ± 0.03 a –

0.04 ± 0.004

0.12 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.005 a

0.10 ± 0.003 –

0.02 ± 0.01 ac

0.09 ± 0.002 a –

0.05 ± 0.003 c

0.1 ± 0.002 –

0.1 ± 0.01 –

0.19 ± 0.008 –

0.15 ± 0.01 –

0.28 ± 0.01 –

9.54 ± 0.80 a

27.41 ± 0.66 c


Forms of

rootstocks

(factor

A)

Poskiepiø

formos (A

faktorius)

Table 3 continued

3 lentelës tæsinys

Biochemical

parameters

Biocheminiai parametrai

Δ saccharose,

saccharose / sacharozë, %

Δsugar concentration,

sugar concentration /

cukraus koncentracija, %

Δdry matter content,

dry matter content

sausøjø medþiagø kiekis, %

0.09 ± 0.02

0.22 ± 0.03

0.13 ± 0.02

0.33 ± 0.04

8.71 ± 3.12

31.81 ± 1.69

Adaptation substrates (factor Â)

Adaptacijos terpës (faktorius B)

For the both rootstocks steering of synthesis of monosugars was marked for

the plants, which were originally adapted on the BIONA-112, and saccharose and

soluble sugars were in general accumulated independently on the adaptation substrate.

During the second stage of adaptation the leveling of the quantity of dry matter

content by the adapted plants on all the substrates was marked. The minimum dry

matter content detected on the substrate BIONA-112, after the first adaptation stage

relevantly increased because of active accumulation of components, from which

dry matter is composed.

Conclusions. Trustworthy influence and post-influence of the adaptive

substrates on the biochemical data of the rootstocks of sour cherry was estimated.

On the first adaptation stage, a tendency to maximum accumulation of

photosynthetic pigments, sugars in the unit area and dry substance for the plants,

cultivated on the peat substrate is registered. Ion exchange substrate BIONA-312

provided the sugar synthesis and accumulation of dry matter more actively than

BIONA-112 (the substrate with higher concentration of mineral salts).

The rootstocks originally adapted on the substrate BIONA were characterized

by more intensive accumulation of chlorophylls (a, and sum of chlorophylls), the

quantity of it by the end of the second stage exceeding the data for adapted on the

peat substrate rootstock. Intensive accumulation of dry substances by the rootstocks,

which were transplanted from substrate BIONA-112 led to leveling this value in all

adapted regenerates.

Gauta

2006 05 12

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 17

68

0.08 ± 0.02 –

0.16 ± 0.02 –

0.14 ± 0.02 –

0.26 ± 0.02 –

16.04 ± 2.40 a

31.37 ± 1.58 –

0.10 ± 0.009 – –

0.21 ± 0.02 – –

0.13 ± 0.02 – –

0.30 ± 0.02 – –

10.20 ± 1.35 – –

29.96 ± 1.54 – –

Mean for

factor À

A faktoriaus

vidurkis


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69


13. McClelland M. T., Smith M. A. L. Carothers Z. B.

The effect of in vitro and ex vitro root initiation on subsequent microcutting root quality

in the woody plants.// Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 1990. No. 23. P. 115–123.

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«in vitro» // International Journal of Horticultural Science. 1999. Vol. 5. No. 3–4. P. 54–58.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 62–70.

JONØ MAINØ TERPËS (BIONA-112 IR BIONA-312) ÁTAKA PRUNUS L.

POSKIEPIØ BIOCHEMINIAMS RODIKLIAMS ADAPTACIJOS EX VITRO

METU

T. Krasinskaya, N. Kukharchyk

Santrauka

Po in vitro kultûros adaptacijos ex vitro metu augaluose vyksta morfologiniai ir

fiziologiniai pokyèiai.

Adaptacijai pagerinti taikomi skirtingi metodai. Vienas jø – jonizuotø dirvoþemiø,

kaip adaptacijos substratø, panaudojimas. Mûsø tyrimo tikslas buvo iðtyrinëti augalo

fiziologiná vystymàsi ant Prunus L. poskiepiø, pavyzdþiui, VSL-2 (Prunus fruticosa (Pall.)

G. Waron. x P. lannesiana Carr.) ir OVP-2 (P. cerasus x P. Maackii), skirtingos mineralinës

sudëties (BIONA-112 ir BIONA-312) jonø mainø terpëje (JMT) adaptuojant ex vitro

aseptinëmis sàlygomis.

Augalo fiziologinis vystymasis buvo ávertintas pagal ðiuos biocheminius rodiklius:

chlorofilo (a + b) kieká (mg/dm 2 ), cukraus koncentracijà (gliukozë + sacharozë) (%) ir sausøjø

medþiagø kieká (%).

Mûsø tyrimai parodë reikðmingà JMT átakà chlorofilo, cukraus ir sausøjø medþiagø

kaupimuisi. Antrajame adaptacijos etape buvo pastebëta esminë pozityvi jonø mainø

adaptacinës terpës átaka augalo fiziologiniam vystymuisi.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Prunus L., jonø kaitos substratas, BIONA-112, BIONA-312,

biocheminiai rodikliai, chlorofilas, tirpûs cukrûs, sausøjø medþiagø koncentracija,

ex vitro, adaptacija, Baltarusija.

70


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 71–76.

LATERAL ROOT INDUCTION BY BACTERIA, RADICLE

CUT OFF AND IBA TREATMENTS OF ALMOND

CVS. ‘TEXAS’ AND ‘NONPAREIL’ SEEDLINGS

Emine ORHAN 1 , Sezai ERCISLI 1 , Ahmet ESITKEN 1 ,

Fikrettin SAHIN 2

1 Ataturk University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 25240

Erzurum-Turkey. E-mail: sercisli@atauni.edu.tr

2 Yeditepe University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of

Genetics& Bioengineering, 34755 Kayisdagi-Istanbul, Turkey

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of radicle cut off, IBA (50 and

100 ppm) and three Agrobacterium rubi (A1, A16 and A18) and a Bacillus subtilis strain

(OSU-142) alone or in combination with radicle cut off on seedling height, stem diameter,

number of lateral roots, root length, fresh and dry root weight. Seedlings of two almond

cvs. ‘Texas’ and ‘Nonpareil’ were studied. The results showed that seed treatment with

IBA, radicle cut off, bacteria alone or in combination with radicle cut off significantly

increased the number of lateral roots and fresh and dry root weight compared with the

control treatments. Highest number of lateral roots (8.89) was obtained from seeds treated

with Agrobacterium rubi A18 strain for cv. ‘Texas’ and A16 for cv. ‘Nonpareil’ (9.60).

Key words: almond, bacteria, lateral root formation, rootstock.

Introduction. Turkey is one of the significant and unique countries in the world

from the point of almond genetic resources and diversity. Ten Amygdalus species

have been reported in Turkey so far (Ercisli, 2004). In Turkey, up to 1980’s, almond

production was generally maintained by propagation by seeds (Unal et al., 1994).

However, recently some native and especially standard foreign varieties, such as

‘Texas’, ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Ne Plus Ultra’, are being reproduced by budding in Turkey.

The budding method is spreading throughout the country and it is practiced either at

the nursery or in the seedbeds.

Notable lateral root difficulties exist in germinating seed of almond, using

conventional methods (Kuden et al., 1993). Due to the tap root formation, the ratio

of take in almond seedlings is very low this way establishing the orchards (Unal et

al., 1994). In nursery fruit tree production, a well developed and branching root

system is a prerequisite for a high ratio of take (Mulas et al., 1989). Therefore,

people have attempted to eliminate tap rooting of almond seedlings generally using

radicle cut off (Kuden et al., 1995; Akca and Ceylan, 1996). Since traditional radicle

cut off methods for lateral branching of almond roots is very time consuming and

needs extensive laboring, it is necessary to explore the easiest solutions.

71


Recent studies confirm that the application of bacteria in several genera

(Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes) seed and

vegetative propagation materials induce new root formation in cuttings and seeds of

some plant species (Patena et al., 1988; Trip and Stomp, 1997; Ercan et al., 1999).

In previous studies, we used Agrobacterium rubi strains (A1, A16 and A18) in kiwifruit,

sour cherry and rose hip cuttings to induce rooting. These bacterial strains were

found to be more effective on the adventitious root formation compared to control

(Ercisli et al., 2003; Esitken et al., 2003; Ercisli et al., 2004).

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of radicle cut

off, IBA and bacterial treatments using Agrobacterium rubi (A1, A16, A18) and

Bacillus subtilis strain (OSU-142) alone or in combination with radicle cut off on the

lateral root formation of two almond cultivars ‘Texas’ and ‘Nonpareil’.

Materials and Methods. Seeds were taken from healthy almond trees ‘Texas’

and ‘Nonpareil’ at the harvest time in 2005 and then placed into moist perlitte media

in cold storage (4°C) for 30 days in order to break embryonic dormancy. After

stratification, seeds were subjected to one of the following twelve treatments:

1- Control 7- Agrobacterium rubi A18

2- Radicle cut off 8- Bacillus subtilis (OSU-142)

3- IBA (50 ppm) 9- Radicle cut off + Agrobacterium rubi A1

4- IBA (100 ppm) 10-Radicle cut off + Agrobacterium rubi A16

5- Agrobacterium rubi A1 11-Radicle cut off + Agrobacterium rubi A18

6- Agrobacterium rubi A16 12- Radicle cut off + Bacillus spp. (OSU-142)

For radicle cut off treatments, the basal portion of radicles were cut by pinching

about 0.5-1.0 mm. Bacterial treatments were performed by dipping the seeds into the

suspension of Agrobacterium rubi (strains A1, A16 or A18) and Bacillus subtilis (strain

OSU-142) prepared in sterile water at a concentration of 10 9 cfu/ml. IBA treatments

were also performed by dipping the seeds into IBA solution for 10 min at a concentration

of 50 and 100 ppm. Radicle cut off + bacteria combined treatments were achieved by

dipping radicle cut off seeds into the bacterial suspension. Seeds in the control group

were dipped in sterile water. Following treatments, treated seeds were planted in plastic

bags filled with turf media in a greenhouse maintained at 21±2°C.

Plant height, stem diameter, number of lateral roots, root length, and fresh and

dry root weight were determined on 30 randomly chosen seedlings for each treatment.

The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 3 replications. Each

replication contained 20 seeds. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Results. The effect of all treatments tested in this study on the plant height,

stem diameter, number of lateral roots, root length and fresh and dry root weight of

almond cvs. ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Texas’ are summarized in Table. The data demonstrated

that, there were statistical differences in ‘Nonpareil’ but not cv. ‘Texas’ seedling

height among the treatments (Table). The highest plant height (64.80 cm) was obtained

when cultivar ‘Nonpareil’ was treated with Agrobacterium rubi A16 and followed by

radicle cut off + A16 treatment (63.33 cm) (Table).

72


Table. Effects of IBA, bacteria, radicle cut off, bacteria plus radicle

cut off on almond seedling growth parameters

Lentelë. ISR, bakterijø, ðakneliø trumpinimo ir bakterijø bei ðakneliø

trumpinimo derinio átaka migdolø sëjinukø augimo rodikliams

Treatments

Variantai

Control /

Kontrolinis variantas

R. cut off / Ðakneliø

patrumpinimas

Height

Aukštis,

cm

Stem

diameter

Kamieno

skersmuo, mm

Number of

lateral roots

Ðalutiniø ðaknø

skaièius

‘Texas’

* Means in columns followed by a different letter differ significantly, NS: Non Significant

Skirtingomis raidëmis paþymëtø reikðmiø stulpeliuose skirtumai yra esminiai; NS: skirtumai

neesminiai

73

Root

length

Ðaknø ilgis,

cm

Fresh root

weight

Þalioji ðaknø

masë, g

Dry root

weight

Sausoji ðaknø

masë, g

57.86 3.86 2.43 b y 25.14 5.30 c 3.38 c

63.40 3.60 7.17 a 29.30 7.98 abc 4.52 abc

IBA (50 ppm) 58.18 3.84 7.63 a 26.24 7.17 abc 4.10 abc

IBA(100ppm) 59.33 3.92 7.92 a 27.56 7.43 abc 4.23 abc

A 1 58.14 4.00 8.40 a 24.57 7.37 abc 4.70 abc

A 16 56.75 4.03 8.50 a 27.50 7.92 abc 5.36 ab

A 18 59.43 3.93 8.89 a 27.14 7.71 abc 5.03 abc

OSU 142 63.67 4.03 8.00 a 27.00 6.27 bc 3.55 bc

RC+A 1 58.33 3.60 8.75 a 27.00 8.86 ab 4.67 abc

RC+A 16 59.33 3.85 8.75 a 27.50 7.82 abc 4.18 abc

RC+A 18 62.71 3.69 8.44 a 27.86 9.69 a 4.98 abc

RC+OSU142 62.25 3.86 8.88 a 30.13 9.89 a 5.56 a

LSD01 / R01 NS NS 1.68

‘Nonpareil’

NS 2.58 1.56

Control /

Kontrolinis variantas

43.00 b 3.31 d 1.63 d 23.88 5.00 c 2.60 c

R. Cut Off / Ðakneliø

patrumpinimas

44.50 cd 3.80 bc 6.11 c 23.88 6.69 bc 3.93 b

IBA (50 ppm) 45.62 cd 3.42 d 4.82 de 23.40 5.24 bc 2.32 c

IBA(100ppm) 46.30 cd 3.55 cd 5.13 d 23.22 5.38 bc 2.47 c

A 1 46.00 cd 3.28 d 5.60 d 23.75 5.85 bc 2.40 c

A 16 64.80 a 4.26 a 9.60 a 28.00 10.79 a 6.24 a

A 18 45.50 d 3.54 cd 6.20 c 22.60 5.43 bc 2.65 c

OSU 142 51.75 bcd 3.95 ab 5.00 d 23.00 6.10 bc 3.15 bc

RC+A 1 52.90 bcd 3.72 bc 7.60 b 23.70 6.09 bc 4.44 b

RC+A 16 63.33 ab 3.57 cd 8.86 a 25.89 5.46 bc 3.60 bc

RC+A 18 52.63 bcd 3.98 ab 7.69 b 26.50 6.69 bc 4.08 b

RC+OSU142 54.80 bc 3.73 bc 9.43 a 24.14 7.13 b 4.39 b

LSD01 / R01 9.47 0.36 0.93 NS 1.89 1.24


Bacteria treatments of cultivar ‘Nonpareil’ caused statistically different plant

heights (p≤0.01, Table). The highest plants were observed with inoculated bacteria

strain, Agrobacterium rubi (A16) – 64.80 cm and followed by Bacillus subtilis

(OSU-142) – 51.75 cm, respectively (Table). The differences of the stem diameter

of cultivar ‘Nonpareil’ based on treatments given in Table 1 showed that maximum

stem diameter was obtained from Agrobacterium rubi A16 (4.26 mm) and followed

by radicle cut off + A18 treatment (3.98 mm) (Table).

The data showed that bacterial treatment alone or in combination with radicle

cut off significantly increased the number of lateral root and fresh and dry root

weight in both tested almond cultivars (Table). The number of lateral roots was

highest in Agrobacterium rubi A18 treatment (8.89) of ‘Texas’ and A16 treatment

(9.60) of ‘Nonpareil’ (Table).

Different treatments exhibited varying degrees of fresh and dry root weight. All

treatments, except control, increased fresh and dry root weight in both ‘Texas’ and

‘Nonpareil’. Radicle cut off+OSU-142 treatment of ‘Texas’ and Agrobacterium rubi

A16 of ‘Nonpareil’ were found to be the most effective in terms of both fresh and

dry root weight (Table).

Discussion. This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of IBA,

bacteria, radicle cut off and bacteria + radicle cut off on lateral root formation of

almond seedlings of cvs. ‘Texas’ and ‘Nonpareil’.

The results obtained in the present study revealed that all seed treatments in two

almond cultivars resulted in significantly more lateral roots than water-treated seeds

(Table 1). The treatments with Agrobacterium rubi A18 of ‘Texas’ and Agrobacterium

rubi A16 of ‘Nonpareil’ was found to be most effective in terms of lateral root

induction. These results may suggest that the differences in bacterial strain may be

an important factor for lateral root induction. It is evident that the seeds of different

plant species require different bacteria strains to promote lateral root formation.

These results support the findings of Ercan et al. (1999), who demonstrated that the

highest root numbers of Madder (Rubia tinctorum) populations were produced after

inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834, 2628, R1000 and 9365. It

has been shown previously that especially rooting might be induced in woody plants

by inoculation with Agrobacterium strains. McAfee et al. (1993) showed that hairy

rooting of Pinus was higher when they were inoculated with Agrobacterium strains.

Ercisli et al. (2004) tested three bacteria strains for rooting rose hip cuttings and

found that Agrobacterium rubi A16 for genotype ERS 14 and A18 for genotype ERS

15 was the most effective. Caesar and Burn (1987) also observed that seedlings of

apple gave better lateral roots when treated with bacteria strains.

Conclusion. Bacteria alone or bacteria plus radicle cut off treatments appeared

to induce lateral root formation on treated seeds of Texas and Nonpareil almond

cultivars. These results indicated that bacteria alone or bacteria plus radicle cut off

may indeed be useful for lateral root formation on difficult to-lateral roots woody

species. It has been suggested previously that the stimulation of rooting by bacteria

is due to the production of IAA by the bacteria. Thus, it is possible to speculate that

the bacterial strains used in this study may be producing IAA. Further studies are

74


underway to investigate the exact function of these bacterial strains in promoting the

root production of almond seeds.

Gauta

2006 04 24

Parengta spausdinti

2006 08 04

References

1. Akça, Y., Ceylan S. A study on the comparison of some rootstock properties of

sweet and bitter almond seeds // Proceedings of Hazelnut and the Other Nut Fruits

Symposium, 10–11 January 1996, Samsun-Turkey. P. 402–408.

2. Caesar, A.J., Burr, T.J. Growth promoting of apple seedlings and rootstocks by

specific strains of bacteria // Phytopathology. 1987. 77(11): 1583–1588.

3. Ercan, A.G., Taskin, K.M., Turgut, K., Yuce, S. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated

hairy root formation in some Rubia tinctorum L. populations grown in Turkey // Turkish

Journal of Botany. 1999. 23:373–378.

4. Ercisli, S. A short review on the fruit germplasm resources of Turkey // Genetic

Resources and Crop Evaluation. 2003. 51:419–435.

5. Ercisli, S., Esitken, A., Cangi, R., Sahin, F. Adventitious root formation of kiwi fruit

in relation to sampling data, IBA and Agrobacterium rubi inoculation // Plant Growth

Regulation. 2003. 41(2):133–137.

6. Ercisli, S., Esitken, A., Sahin, F. Application of exogenous IBA and inoculation with

Agrobacterium rubi stimulate adventitious root formation among stem cuttings of two

rose genotypes // HortScience. 2004. 39(3):533–534.

7. Esitken, A., Ercisli, S., Sevik, I., Sahin, F. Effect of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Different

Strains of Agrobacterium rubi on Adventive Root Formation from Softwood and Semi-

Hardwood Wild Sour Cherry Cuttings // Turkish Journal Agriculture and Forestry. 2003.

27, 37–42.

8. Kuden, A.B., Kaska, N., Kuden, A. Inducing the lateral root development of almond

seedlings: Comparing the foreign cultivars with some of our local cultivars for developing

lateral roots // Journal Agricultural Faculty of Cukurova University. 1993. 8(2):153–158.

9. Kuden, A.B., Kuden, A., Kaska, N. Comparing the foreign cultivars with some of

our local cultivars for developing lateral roots // Journal Agricultural Faculty of Cukurova

University. 1995. 10(4):149–158.

10. McAfee, B.J., White, E.E., Pelcher, L.E., Lapp, M.S. Root induction in Pine (Pinus)

and Larch (Larix) spp. using Agrobacterium rhizogenes // Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ

Culture. 1993. 34, 53–62.

11. Mulas, M., Delrio, G., D’Hallewin, G., Grassely, C. Etude de populations d’amendier

pour la selection de porte-greffes // Options Mediterraneennes Seria Seminaires. 1989.

5:39–46.

12. Patena, L., Sutter, E. G., Dandekar, A. M. Root induction by Agrobacterium

rhizogenes in a difficult-to-root woody species // Acta Horticulturae. 1988. 227:324–329.

13. Tripp, K.E., Stomp, A. M. Horticultural applications of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

(hairy-root): enhanced rooting of difficult-to-root woody plants // Combined Proceedings

of the International Plant Propagators’ Society. 1997. 47:527–535.

14. Unal, A., Gulcan, R., Misirli, A. A study on seedling rootstock properties of some

almond cultigens // Acta Horticulturae. 1994. 373:105–110.

75


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 71–76.

‘TEXAS’ IR ‘NONPAREIL’ VEISLIØ MIGDOLØ SËJINUKØ ÐALUTINIØ

ÐAKNØ AUGIMO SKATINIMAS BAKTERIJOMIS, ÐAKNELIØ TRUMPINIMU

IR ISR

E. Orhan, S. Ercisli, A. Esitken, F. Sahin

Santrauka

Ðio tyrimo tikslas – ávertinti ðakneliø trumpinimo, IBA (50 ir 100 ppm) ir trijø

Agrobacterium rubi (A1, A16 ir A18) bei Bacillus subtilis ðtamø (OSU-142) – vienø arba

derinant su ðakneliø ðalinimu bei bakterijomis – átakà dviejø migdolø veisliø (‘Texas’ ir

‘Nonpareil’) sëjinukø aukðèiui, kamieno skersmeniui, ðalutiniø ðaknø skaièiui, ilgiui, þaliajai

ir sausajai masei. Rezultatai parodë, kad migdolø sëklø apdorojimas trumpinant ðakneles,

bakterijomis ir ISR arba derinant ðakneliø trumpinimà su bakterijø panaudojimu reikðmingai

padidino ðalutiniø ðaknø skaièiø bei þaliàjà ir sausàjà masæ, palyginti su kontroliniais

variantais. Daugiausia ðalutiniø ðaknø gauta ‘Texas’ sëklas apdorojus Agrobacterium

rubi A18 ðtamu (8.89), o ‘Nonpareil’ – A16 ðtamu (9.60).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: migdolai, bakterijos, ðalutiniø ðaknø formavimasis, poskiepiai.

76


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 77–84.

VEGETATIVE CHERRY ROOTSTOCKS IN TISSUE

CULTURE

Ewa DZIEDZIC, Monika MAÙODOBRY

Agricultural University, Pomology and Apiculture Department,

al. 29 Listopada 54, 31–425 Kraków, Poland. E-mail: ewa@ogr.ar.krakow.pl

Multiplication of three cherry rootstocks PHL-6, PHL-84 and F12/1 was carried out

on solid and two-phase medium according to MS medium. The effect of cytokinin BA,

auxins IBA and NAA on shoot multiplication was studied. Better shoot multiplication was

achieved on the media containing auxin IBA in comparison to multiplication on media with

NAA. Greater increase of fresh mass was noted on two-phase media. The rooting of

shoots was conducted on WPM medium with addition of IBA and IAA auxins. The

studied rootstocks did not differ in shoot length, number of roots and total length of roots

for one shoot. Micrografting of cv. ‘Regina’ on rootstocks Damil and Gisela 5 and cv. ‘Van’

on rootstock Damil was carried out using different grafting methods in vitro. High percent

of successful micrografts was achieved for ‘Regina’ and ‘Van’ on rootstock Damil.

Key words: cherry rootstocks, micrografting, rooting, two-phase medium.

Introduction. Vegetative cherry rootstocks are subject of great interest because

of their possibility to reduce cherry tree growth. However, before introduction into

big scale production they have to be comprehensively studied. Many of them are

able to propagate by tissue culture only. The micropropagation of dwarfing rootstocks

PHL-6 and PHL-84 (Erbenova et al., 2001; Sedlak et al., 2005) and vegetative clone

of Prunus avium F12/1 (Krasinskaya, Kukharchik, 2004) was already the subject of

propagation in tissue culture. The influence of double-phase medium on shoot

propagation and rooting was tested for pear (Viseur, 1987; Wang, 1991) and apple

rootstocks (Litwiñczuk, 2000). This micrografing procedure has been applied for

different purpose: production of disease-free plants (Déogratias et al., 1991; Barba

et al., 1995; Starrantino, Caruso, 1998), diagnosis of virus infection (Tanne et al.,

1993; Pathirana, McKenzie, 2005), study of graft compatibility and formation of the

graft union (Cantos et al., 1995), rejuvenation of shoots from adult plants (Mneney,

Mantel, 2001; Fernández-Lorenzo, Fernández-Lopez, 2005). Micrografting was applied

for many plants: grapevine, peach, apple, cashew, avocado, apricot, citrus, almond.

There are also protocols of micrografting for Prunus type (Gebhardt, Goldbach,

1988; Özzambak, Schmidt, 1991; Schmidt et al., 1997). The aim of present studies

was to investigate the usefulness of method in vitro for cherry rootstocks propagation

and micrografting using cherry cultivars and rootstocks.

77


Material and methods. The multiplication of cherry rootstocks PHL-6,

PHL-84, F12/1 was conducted on MS medium (Murashige, Skoog, 1962) using two

forms: solid (S) and double-phase (2 P) medium. The double-phase medium was

obtained by pouring 5 ml of liquid medium onto the medium solidified with agar

(25 ml) at the beginning of the subculture. Both types of media were completed with

BA (0.7 mg/l) and auxins, either IBA (0.1 mg/l) SM1 and 2PM1 or NAA (0.2 mg/l)

SM2 and 2PM2. The experiment was conducted in 5 replications; one consisted of

jar with 5 shoots. The experiment was repeated twice. The fresh mass increase and

the number of shoots obtained were recorded. The rooting stage was conducted on

WPM medium (Lloyd, McCown, 1980) with addition of IAA (5.0 mg/l) and IBA

(2.0 mg/l). The shoots used for rooting experiment were produced on solid medium

(SM1). There were 5 replications, each of one jar with 5 shoots. The percent of

rooted shoots, the number and total length of roots, percent of roots distribution

according to their length were recorded. For micrografting experiment the leaves

and the apical meristem were removed from shoots Gisela 5 and Damil

(1.5-2.0 cm in length) used as rootstock. Shoot-tip explants of ‘Regina’ and ‘Van’

used as scions were 0.2–0.3 and 0.4–0.5 cm in length, respectively (Table 1). Before

Exp.

Bandymas

Table.1. Scion / rootstock combinations and types of treatments

applied for cherry micrografting

1 lentelë. Skiepûglio ir poskiepio deriniai ir apdorojimo tipai, taikyti atliekant

vyðniø mikroskiepijimus

Scion

Skiepûglis

1 ‘Regina’

Even end of

shoot-tip

explants

Lygus ûglio

virðûnës

eksplanto galas

2 ‘Regina’

Even end of

shoot-tip

explants

Lygus ûglio

virðûnës

eksplanto galas

3 ‘Van’

Wedge shape

end of shoottip

explants

Pleišto formos

ûglio virðûnës

eksplanto galas

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Gisela 5

Un-rooted

shoots

Neásiðaknijæ

ûgliai

Damil

Rooted

shoots

Ásiðaknijæ

ûgliai

Damil

Rooted

shoots

Ásiðaknijæ

ûgliai

Pre-treatment

Išankstinis apdorojimas

Antioxidant solution A

Antioksidanto A tirpalas

Antioxidant solution B

Antioksidanto B tirpalas

Antioxidant solution A

Antioksidanto A tirpalas

Antioxidant solution B

Antioksidanto B tirpalas

0.6% agar with 5 mg/l IAA on

the graft union

0,6% agaro su 5 mg/l IAA ant skiepo

Antioxidant solution A

Antioksidanto A tirpalas

Antioxidant solution B

Antioksidanto B tirpalas

0.6% agar with 5 mg/l IAA on

the graft union

0,6% agaro su 5mg/l IAA ant skiepo

78

Method of

grafting

Áskiepijimo

bûdas

Shoot-tip

grafting

Ûglio

virðûnës

áskiepijimas

Shoot-tip

grafting

Ûglio

virðûnës

áskiepijimas

Cleft

grafting

Áskëlimas

Treatment

after

grafting

Apdorojimas

áskiepijus

Light

Sviesoje

Darkness 1

day

1 para

tamsoje

Darkness 6

days

6 paros

tamsoje

Darkness 6

days

6 paros

tamsoje


grafting the upper part of the rootstocks and the lower end of scions were dipped

for 1 min in antioxidant solution; solution A 150 mg/l citric acid, 0.1 mg/l GA 3 ,

0.5 mg/l BA or solution B 150 mg/l citric acid, 0.1 mg/l GA 3 , 0.5 mg/l IBA. Moreover

in exp. 1 and 2 few drops of 0.6% agar with 5mg/l IAA was dropped around the

graft union. In exp. 3 the wedge shape end of scion ‘Van’ was inserted into

0.5–0.6 cm slit in rootstock Damil. The grafts were placed individually into testtubes

on WPM medium. All media were enriched with sucrose (30 g/l), and agar

(7 g/l). The pH was adjusted to 5,7 before autoclaving. Explants were cultured at

24°/23°C, 16 h day/8 h night at fluorescence light 92.8 µmol m -2 s- 1 .

The results obtained at multiplication and rooting stage were statistically analyzed

using variance analysis method. To assess the significance of difference between

means, the Duncan’s test was used at the 5% level of significance.

Results. During the multiplication stage the relationships between investigated

parameters were proved. Type of applied media affected significantly the increase of

fresh mass and number of shoots (Table 2).

Table 2. Effect of media type on increase of fresh mass and number

of shoots per one jar

2 lentelë. Terpës tipo átaka þaliosios masës ir ûgliø skaièiaus viename

indelyje padidëjimui

Medium

Terpë

Increase of fresh mass

Þaliosios masës padidëjimas, g

* Means followed by the same letters do not differ statistically at probability α = 0.05

Ta paèia raide paþymëtos reikðmës ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

Distinctly the greatest increase of mass was obtained on double-phase media

(3.70 g on 2PM1 and 3.14 g on 2PM2 medium), however such a simple relationship

was not evidence for number of shoots. The least number of shoots was obtained on

2PM2 medium whilst the numbers of shoots on the other media were similar. Also

the successive subculture affected the investigated factors (Table 3).

Increase both of fresh mass (3.33 g) and number of shoots (24.2) was greater

in the first than in the second subculture. Comparing the subcultures in terms of

produced mass and obtained shoots one could state that only in the first subculture

the double-phase media resulted in very high increase of mass. Moreover the maximum

mean number of shoots (33.9) was recorded on double-phase medium containing

IBA (2PM1) in the first subculture. Analysis of variance showed significant relationship

between the type of medium, successive subculture and rootstocks in terms of

production of fresh mass and number of shoots. Double-phase media enabled obtaining

both greater fresh mass and number of shoots. Such interaction was proved for all

rootstocks. Renewed application of the same media gave opposite results. Application

79

Number of shoots

Ûgliø skaièius

SM1 2.13 a* 21.8 bc

SM2 2.18 a 19.9 b

2PM1 3.70 c 23.5 c

2PM2 3.14 b 16.9 a


of double-phase media in spite of undoubted advantages resulted in high percent

(nearly 100%) of vitrified shoots. Moreover, browning of shoot tips was noted. The

rootstocks produced differentiated numbers of short and long shoots depending on

the type of medium and subculture. For PH-L 6 and F12/1 rootstocks the doublephase

media in the first subculture resulted in higher number of long shoots compared

to the corresponding solid media. Renewed application of double-phase media resulted

in decreasing of long shoot number (data not presented). The shoots rooted in 100%.

Table 3. Increase of fresh mass and number of shoots depending

on type of media and successive subculture per one jar

3 lentelë. Þaliosios masës ir ûgliø skaièiaus padidëjimo priklausomumas nuo

terpës tipo ir tolesnës subkultûros viename indelyje

Subculture

Subkultûra

I

II

Medium

Terpë

Increase of fresh mass

Þaliosios masës padidëjimas, g

* Means followed by the same letters do not differ statistically at probability α = 0.05

Ta paèia raide paþymëtos reikðmës ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

The differences in shoot length, roots number per one shoot and total length of

roots among investigated rootstocks statistically were not essential (Table 4). The

shoots obtained were rather short and their mean length was from 1.2 cm (for

F12/1) to 1,4 cm (for PH-L 84). The recorded mean number of roots per one shoot

ranged from 10.0 (for F12/1) to 12.4 (for PH-L 84). The highest total length of roots

was noted for rootstock PH-L 6. The shoots produced the roots of different length.

For rootstock PH-L 6 roots of 2.5 cm in length predominated (23.3%), for PH-L 84

– 2.5 cm roots (22.1%), and for F12/1 – 3.0 cm roots (17.1%). The longest roots

(6.0 and 6.5 cm) were recorded for PH-L 6 rootstock.

In the micrografting experiment different pre-treatments of scions and stocks,

ways of grafting and light conditions after grafting affected the successful grafts

(Table 5).

Owing to pre-treatment plant tissue with antioxidant solutions A and B no

browning of scions and stocks cut surface was noted. The scions and stocks

treatments with solution B (containing auxin IBA) resulted in higher percent of

successful grafts in comparison to treatment with solution A. In exp.1 the darkness

of treatment after grafting affected the higher percent of successful grafts. In

80

Number of shoots

Ûgliø skaièius

SM1 1.28 a* 16.7 bc

SM2 1.70 b 17.4 c

2PM1 5.03 e 33.9 f

2PM2 5.32 e 28.8 e

SM1 2.99 d 26.9 e

SM2 2.66 cd 22.4 d

2PM1 2.36 c 13.1 b

2PM2 0.96 a 5.0 a

Mean for subculture I / I subkultûros vidurkis 3.33 b 24.2 b

Mean for subculture II /II subkultûros vidurkis 2.24 a 16.8 a


exp. 3 the beneficial effect of cleft-grafting for cv. ‘Van’ and rootstock Damil comparing

to shoot-tips grafting (exp. 1 and exp. 2.) was proved by high percent of successful

grafts. The scions and stocks attached to each other closely and the percent of

graft-units displacements was low.

Table 4. Mean number and mean overall length of roots, mean

length of shoots of cherry rootstocks (per one shoot)

4 lentelë. Vyðniø poskiepiø ðaknø skaièiaus, bendro ilgio ir ûgliø ilgio

vidurkiai, tenkantys vienam ûgliui

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Mean number of roots

Vidutinis ðaknø skaièius

Mean overall length of roots

Vidutinis bendras ðaknø ilgis, cm

Table 5. Overall number of micrograft development efficiency with

different combination of scions and rootstocks of cherry

5 lentelë. Mikroûglio vystymasis taikant skirtingus vyðniø skiepûgliø ir

poskiepiø derinius

Discussion. During propagation stage on solid medium with addition of

BA (0.7 mg/l) the highest coefficient of shoot propagation of F12/1 was 5.8. Similarly

Krasinskaya and Kukharchik (2004) at propagating of various Cerasus forms (among

them F12/1) achieved the best coefficient of shoot multiplication (5.5) on the solid

medium with addition of 0.75 mg/l BA and 3.0 mg/l GA 3 . Higher concentration of BA

caused better multiplication (coefficient 8.4) but the shoots vitrified in high degree.

For PH-L 6 and PH-L 84 rootstocks the acceptable coefficients were 5.2 and 5.5.

81

Mean length of shoots

Vidutinis ûgliø ilgis, cm

PHL 6 10.6 28.8 1.2

PHL 84 12.4 27.8 1.4

F12/1 10.0 25.8 1.2

Exp.

Bandymas

Scion / stock

combination

Skiepûglio ir

poskiepio

derinys

1 ‘Regina’

Gisela 5

2 ‘Regina’

Damil

3 ‘Van’

Damil

Pre-treatment

of scion and

stock

Skiepûglio ir

poskiepio

išankstinis

apdorojimas

Solution A

A tirpalas

Solution B

B tirpalas

Solution A

A tirpalas

Solution B

B tirpalas

Solution A

A tirpalas

Solution B

B tirpalas

Treatment after

grafting

Apdorojimas

áskiepijus

Light

Šviesa

Darkness

Tamsa 1 d.

Light

Šviesa

Darkness

Tamsa 1 d.

Darkness

Tamsa 6 d.

Darknes

Tamsa 6 d.

Darkness

Tamsa 6 d.

Darkness

Tamsa 6 d.

% of

successful

grafts

Sëkmingi

áskiepijimai,

%

% of

displacement

graft-units

Skiepø

pasislinkimas,

%

% of dry

graft-units

Nudþiûvæ

skiepai, %

0 42.8 57.2

40.0 20.0 40.0

25.0 25.0 50.0

50.0 25.0 25.0

43.0 28.5 28.5

66.7 33.3 0

60.0 20.0 20.0

50.0 0 50.0


Erbenova et al. (2001) proved by 50% higher multiplication rate of the same rootstocks

at 1.5 mg/l BA, than 0.75 mg/l BA. Sedlak et al. (2005) for PH-L 84 rootstock

achieved the extremely high multiplication (10.9 shoots longer than 10 mm) on MS

medium with addition of 1.5 mg/l BA. According to Borkowska (1997), morphological

reaction to double-phase culture system is increasing fresh mass by increasing number

of shoots or length or enhancing the area of leaves. In presented studies distinctly

the greatest increase of mass was obtained on double-phase media, however such a

simple relationship was not evidence for number of shoots. Between the doublephase

media only that one containing auxin IBA resulted in higher number of shoots.

Viseur (1987) proved that double-phase medium gave high yield of axillary shoots of

pear cv. Durondeau; 6–7 shoots comparing to 2–3 shoots for medium solidified with

0.5% agar. Wang (1991) found significant increasing of pear shoot number and

length on double-phase medium. It was interesting that adding liquid medium to onemonth-old

cultures produced the similar effect on shoot multiplication as transferring

shoots onto a fresh solid medium. Studies carried out by Litwiñczuk (2000) showed

that the application of two-phase medium improved the shoot proliferation and

elongation in the case of apple rootstocks MM.106 and P 14 but not M.26. The

increase of fresh mass was achieved mainly due to abundant foliage. Rooting on

WPM medium with addition of IAA and IBA resulted in 100% of rooted shoots.

Often rooting of shoots is carried out on modified MS medium (Sedlak et al, 2005).

In the earlier study Dziedzic (2004) obtained better results at micrografts placed on

solid than on liquid medium because of graft-units vitrification and contamination of

liquid medium. Therefore in the presented study only the solid media were applied.

Similarly Özzambak and Schmidt (1991) found the solid media better than liquid

one. Success at micrografting depends on good adhesion of grafting units. At that

case the cleft-grafting seems to be more appropriate than simply sticking of two

parts of shoots. Moreover, the silicone tube can be applied to fasten grafts units

(Gebhardt, Goldbach, 1988; Özzambak, Schmidt, 1991; Dziedzic, 2004). At presented

experiment the maximum percent of successful grafts was 66.7%. Much better

results were obtained by Dobránszki (2000) 95% of successful grafts and Tanne et

al. (1993) 70–90% of successful grafts for grape sloping-grafting. Nas and Read

(2003) carried out very interesting and economically reasonable experiment proving

that it is possible simultaneous micrografting, rooting and acclimatizing with

successfully survival of grafts for grapevine (50%), hazelnut (70%) and American

chestnut

Conclusions. 1. Once appliance of double-phase medium increase both fresh

mass and number of shoots.

2. Rooting of cherry rootstock shoots should be preceded by elongation on the

media without cytokinin.

3. Cleft grafting method completed by pre-treatment of antioxidant solutions

can be recommended for cherry micrografting.

Gauta

2006 04 19

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 17

82


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11. Litwiñczuk W. Efficiency of a double-phase medium in micropropagation

of semi-dwarf apple rootstocks M.26, MM.106 and P 14 // Journal of Fruit and Ornamental

Plant Research. 2000. Vol. VIII., 3–4. P. 97–106.

12. L loyd G., McCown B. Commercially feasible micropropagation of

mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot tip culture // Intl Plant Prop Soc. Proc.

1980. 30. P. 421–427.

13. Mneney E. E., Mantel S. H. In vitro micrografting of cashew //

Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 2001. 66(1). P. 49–58.

14. MurashigeT., Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and

bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures // Physiol Plant. 1962. 15. P. 473–497.

15. N a s M. N., Read P. E. Simultaneous micrografting, rooting and

acclimatization of micropropagated American chestnut, grapevine and hybrid hazelnut //

Europ. J. Hort. Sci. 2003. 68(5). P. 234–237.

16. Özzambak E., Schmidt H. In vitro and in vivo micrografting of

cherry (Prunus avium L.) // Gartenbauwissenschaft. 1991. 56(5). P. 221–223.

17. P athirana R., McKenzie M. J. Early detection of grapevine leafroll

virus in Vitis vinifera using in vitro micrografting // Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 2005.

81. P. 11—18.

18. Schmidt H., Ketzel A., Ketzel C., Köpcke K., Radies

M., Schulze M. Kirschfrüchte schon drei Jahre nach der Kreuzung? // Obstbau.

1997. 8. P. 410–412.

83


19. S tarrantino A., Caruso A. The shoot-tip grafting technique applied

in viticulture // Acta horticulturae. 1998. Vol. 227. P. 101–103.

20. Sedlak J., Paprstein F., Erbenova M. In vitro propagation

of dwarfing sweet cherry rootstocks P-HL. 5 th International Cherry Symposium, Bursa-

Turkey // Book of abstracts. 2005. 31 p.

21. T anne E., Shlamovitz N., Spiegel-Roy P. Rapidly

diagnosing grapevine corky-bark by in vitro micrografting // HortScience. 1993. 28(6).

P. 667—668.

22. W ang Q. Shoot multiplication of pear in double–phase medium culture //

Acta horticulturae. 1991. Vol. 289. P. 349–350.

23. V iseur J. Micropropagation of pear, Pyrus communis L. in a double-phase

culture medium. // Acta horticulturae. 1987. Vol. 212. P. 117-–124.

24. Project no 3 P06 R 0 58 25 supported by Ministry of Scientific Research and

Information Technology

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 77–84.

VEGETATYVINIAI VYÐNIØ POSKIEPIAI AUDINIØ KULTÛROJE

E. Dziedzic, M. Maùodobry

Santrauka

Trys vyðniø poskiepiai: PHL-6, PHL-84 ir F12/1, buvo dauginami kietoje ir dviejø

faziø terpëje pagal MS terpæ. Tirtas BA citokinino ir IBA bei NAA auksinø poveikis ûgliø

dauginimui. Terpëje, kurioje buvo IBA auksino, ûgliai buvo dauginami sëkmingiau negu

terpëje su NAA. Daugiau þaliosios masës pagausëjo dviejø faziø terpëje. Ûgliai ásiðaknijo

WPM terpëje, kurioje buvo IBA ir IAA auksinø. Tirti poskiepiai nesiskyrë ûgliø ilgiu,

ðaknø skaièiumi ir bendru ðaknø ilgiu, tenkanèiu vienam ûgliui. ‘Regina’ veislës

mikroskiepijimas á Damil ir Gisela 5 poskiepius bei ‘Van’ veislës – á poskiepá Damil buvo

atliktas skirtingais skiepijimo in vitro metodais. Áskiepijus ‘Regina’ ir ‘Van’ veisles á Damil

poskiepá, gautas didelis pavykusiø mikroskiepø procentas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vyðniø poskiepiai, mikroskiepijimas, ásiðaknijimas, dviejø faziø

terpë.

84


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 85–89.

PERFORMANCE OF SOME VEGETATIVELY

PROPAGATED APPLE ROOTSTOCKS IN THE NURSERY

Sava TABAKOV 1 , Anton YORDANOV 2

Department of Fruit Growing Agricultural University – Plovdiv

12 Mendeleev str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

E-mails: 1 sgtabakov@abv.bg; 2 aiyordanov@abv.bg

Five apple rootstocks (M.9, M.26, J-TE-H, J-OH-A and J-TE-F) were studied in

commercial clonal stoolbed in 2003–2005. The rootstocks were planted in the autumn of

1999 at the density of 10,000 plants per hectare. The shoots developing from mother

plants were pruned in the stoolbed annually at the height of 10–15 cm above the ground.

First hilling up was done when stool shoots were 15–20 cm high, and the second one –

when stool shoots were 35–40 cm high. The aim of the study was to determine the yield of

stool shoots per plant and per hectare, mean diameter of stool shoots and their distribution

in five classes of quality (according to their thickness), height of stool shoots, number of

feathered stool shoots, mean number of roots per stool shoot. The yield of stool shoots

was the highest on rootstocks J-TE-F and M.26 and the smallest on M.9. The thickest

were stool shoots on M.9. The smallest number of feathered stool shoots was noted on

J-TE-F, and the best rooting was recorded on M.26.

Key words: apple, rooting, rootstocks, stoolbed, yield.

Introduction. Investigations of clonal apple rootstocks concern mainly maiden

trees or bearing orchards. Many researchers studied tree vigour, cropping efficiency

coefficient, fruit quality, etc. on different cultivar-rootstock combinations (Blaþek

1999; Hrotko et al. 1997; Ystaas et al., 1997; Kosina, 1991; Vercammen, 2004;

Kosina, 2004). The available literature about propagation and stoolbed properties of

rootstocks of J-TE-series is rather limited. As far as the Bulgarian conditions are

concerned, such information is not available at all. For this reason, it has been

attempted to investigate stoolbed properties of J-TE-H, J-OH-A, J-TE-F, along with

the widespread rootstocks M.9 and M.26.

Material and methods. Mother plants of rootstocks M.9, M.26, J-TE-H,

J-OH-A and J-TE-F were planted in the autumn of 1999 at the density of 10 000

plants per hectare. Since 2001 shoots developing from the mother plants were pruned

in stoolbed at the height of 10–15 cm above the ground (the upper halves of the

shoots were removed). This pruning increased the yield of stool shoots. First hilling

up was carried out when stool shoots were 15–20 cm high, and the second one –

85


when stool shoots were 35–40 cm high. The study was conducted during the period

of 2003–2005. The experiment was set up in a randomised block design, with 4

replications and 12 plants per plot. The following parameters were determined: yield

of stool shoots per plant and per hectare, mean diameter of stool shoots and their

distribution in five classes of quality (according to their thickness), height of stool

shoots, number of feathered stool shoots, mean number of root tufts per stool shoot.

Results and discussion. From 46 to 69 percent of the yield of stool shoots

were reckoned to the classes of 6–8 and 8–10 mm of diameter. The highest percentage

of shoots 12mm

(overgrown) was recorded on M.9 (Fig. 1-5).

Fig. 1. Distribution of the yield of stool shoots on M.9 in five classes of quality (%)

1 pav. M.9 atlankø derliaus pasiskirstymas á penkias kokybës klases, %

Fig. 2. Distribution of the yield of stool shoots on M.26 in five classes of quality (%)

2 pav. M.26 atlankø derliaus pasiskirstymas á penkias kokybës klases, %

The largest number of shoots in the class of 6–8 mm in diameter was recorded

on J-TE-F, but the difference was significant only in comparison with M.9

(Table 1). The largest number of shoots in the class of 8–10 mm was recorded on

J-TE-F, but the difference was significant only with M.9, J-OH-A and J-TE-H. No

significant differences were found in the classes of


Fig. 3. Distribution of the yield of stool shoots on J-TE-H in five classes of quality (%)

3 pav. J-TE-H atlankø derliaus pasiskirstymas á penkias kokybës klases, %

Fig. 4. Distribution of the yield of stool shoots on J-OH-A in five classes of quality (%)

4 pav. J-OH-A atlankø derliaus pasiskirstymas á penkias kokybës klases, %

Fig. 5. Distribution of the yield of stool shoots on J-TE-F in five classes of quality (%)

5 pav. J-TE-F atlankø derliaus pasiskirstymas á penkias kokybës klases, %

The largest number of root tufts per shoot was recorded on M.26 (Table 2).

Considering this parameter, it was found that M.26 significantly surpassed J-TE-H,

M.9 and J-OH-A, which had the smallest number of root tufts per shoot. J-TE-F did

not differ significantly in respect to this trait. The smallest number of feathered stool

shoots was noted on J-TE-F, and the largest number of feathered shoots was recorded

on M.26 and M.9. The other rootstocks showed the intermediate values of this trait.

The thickest were the stool shoots of M.9, the differences from the other rootstocks

tested was significant. Regarding the total number of stool shoots per mother plant

87


no significant differences were noted among the rootstocks. The most productive

rootstock per mother plant and per hectare was J-TE-F, followed by M.26. The

least productive were M.9 and J-OH-A, J-TE-H having occupied an intermediate

position. M.26 and M.9 had the highest shoots, whereas the shoots of J-OH-A were

the shortest.

Table 1. Mean number of stool shoots according to their diameter

1 lentelë. Ávairaus skersmens atlankø vidutinis skaièius

Rootstock

Diameter / Skersmuo, mm

Poskiepis

12

Ì.9 7.1 11.0 11.7 9.6 9.7

Ì.26 8.7 20.8 19.4 10.5 3.9

J-TE-H 8.0 16.0 15.1 12.0 4.6

J-OH-A 10.9 16.6 12.9 8.1 3.0

J-TE-F 11.8 20.9 25.8 8.1 1.4

LSD05/R05

6.63 7.22 9.94 4.63 3.03

LSD05/R05

9.30 10.12 13.94 6.49 4.25

LSD05/R05 13.14 14.30 19.70 9.18 6.01

Table 2. Growth characteristics of different rootstocks

2 lentelë. Skirtingø poskiepiø augimo charakteristikos

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Total number of

stool shoots per

mother plant 1

Bendras motininio

augalo atlankø

skaièius

Mean diameter

of stool shoot

Vidutinis atlankos

skersmuo, mm

Mean height of

a stool shoot

Vidutinis atlankos

aukštis, cm

1 for the period of 2003–2005 / 2003–005 m. laikotarpis

Conclusions. M.26 has the best rooting habit. J-TE-F shows the smallest number

of feathered stool shoots. The largest number of overgrown (thicker than 12 mm)

stool shoots is a characteristic of M.9. The highest yield of stool shoots may be

obtained from J-TE-F or M.26 and the smallest from M.9.

Gauta

2006 05 24

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 13

88

Mean number

of feathered

stool shoots

Vidutinis

suðakojusiø

atlankø skaièius

Mean number

of root tufts per

stool shoot

Vidutinis ðaknø

skaièius

Ì.9 49.3 10.1 72 5.5 4.0

Ì.26 63.3 8.3 74 5.7 5.3

J-TE-H 55.8 8.6 63 4.6 3.9

J-OH-A 51.5 8.4 53 3.2 4.5

J-TE-F 67.9 8.2 60 1.8 4.6

LSD05/R05 17.38 0.89

5.3

1.84 0.79

LSD05/R05 24.37 1.25

7.4

2.58 1.11

LSD05/R05 31.45 1.77

10.4 3.65 1.57


References

1. Blaþek J. Performance of EW rootstocks in intensive apple orchards in the

Czech Republic // Apple rootstocks for intensive orchards. Proceedings of the International

Seminar. Warsaw-Ursynów, Poland, August 18–21, 1999. P. 19-20.

2. D v o ø a k A. Breeding of rootstocks J-TE and their influence on growth and

productivity of different cultivars // Acta Horticulturae. 1988. Vol. 224. P. 325-330.

3. Hansen O. B. The rooting potential of dwarfing apple rootstocks // Norsk-

Landbruksforsking. 1990. 4. 2. P. 73-79.

4. Hrotko K., Magyar L., Hanusz B. Apple rootstock trials at the

Faculty of Horticulture, UHF Budapest (Preliminary report) // Acta Horticulturae. 1997.

Vol. 451. P. 153-159.

5. Kosina J. Effect of rootstocks on growth, productivity and fruit quality of

apples at the onset of fertility // Zahradnictvi-UVTIZ (CSFR). 1991. Vol. 18(2). P. 83-92.

6. Kosina J. Growth and yield of apples on new Czech dwarfing rootstocks //

Acta Horticulturae. 2004. Vol. 663. P. 945-948.

7. M a n t i n g e r H. Eine Neue Apfel-unterlagenserie aus der Tschechei //

Obstbau-Wienbau. 1996. 33(10). P. 255-256.

8. Vercammen J. Search for a more dwarfing rootstock for apple // Acta

Horticulturae. 2004. Vol. 658. P. 313-318.

9. Ystaas J., Frø ynes O., Meland M. Evaluation of 9 apple

rootstocks the first cropping year in a Northern climate // Acta Horticulturae. 1997. Vol.

451. P. 147-152.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 85–89.

KAI KURIØ MEDELYNE VEGETATYVINIU BÛDU DAUGINAMØ OBELØ

POSKIEPIØ APIBÛDINIMAS

S. Tabakov, A. Yordanov

Santrauka

2003–2005 metais komerciniame vegetatyviniame daigyne tirti penki obelø poskiepiai

(M.9, M.26, J-TE-H, J-OH-A ir J-TE-F). Jie buvo pasodinti 1999 metø rudená po 10 tûkst. á

hektarà. Motininiø augalø atþalos augyne kasmet buvo apgenimos 10–15 cm atstumu nuo

þemës pavirðiaus. Pirmàjá kartà buvo apkaupta atþaloms esant 15-20 cm, antràjá – 35–40 cm

aukðèio. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti atlankø derliø, tenkantá kiekvienam augalui ir hektarui,

vidutiná atlankø skersmená ir jø pasiskirstymà á penkias kokybës klases (pagal storumà),

atlankø aukðtá, iðsiðakojusiø atlankø skaièiø, vidutiná kiekvienos atþalos ðaknø skaièiø.

Didþiausià derliø davë J-TE-F ir M.26, maþiausià – M.9 poskiepiø atþalos. Storiausios

buvo M.9 poskiepio atþalos. Maþiausiai iðsiðakojusiø atlankø buvo ant J-TE-F, geriausiai

ásiðaknijo M.26 poskiepio atþalos.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: obelys, ásiðaknijimas, poskiepiai, augynas, derlius.

89


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 90–97.

YIELDING OF APPLE TREE CVS. ‘FIESTA’ AND ‘PINOVA’

DEPENDING ON THE AGE OF PLANTING MATERIAL

AND METHODS OF ITS PRODUCTION IN A NURSERY

Ewelina GUDAROWSKA, Adam SZEWCZUK,

Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, Rozbrat 7,

50-334 Wrocùaw, Poland. E-mail: gewa@poczta.onet.pl

In the spring of 2002 one-year-old and two-year-old apple tree cvs. ‘Fiesta’ and

‘Pinova’, budded on M.26 rootstock, were planted at the distances of 3.5 x 1.0 m. The

planting material was produced in a nursery using chemicals (Arbolin 036 SL, Arbostim

100 SL), pinching and pruning at the height of 100 cm. Those agrotechnical practices were

applied in the 3 rd (for knip-boom trees) and 2 nd (for maiden trees) year of production in

nursery. Two-year-old trees were not pruned after planting. Some of one-year-old trees in

control treatment were additionally pruned at the height of 40 cm, 60 cm, 80 cm and 100 cm

after planting.

The highest total yield was obtained from ‘Pinova’, planted as knip-boom trees,

produced in a nursery by methods, which stimulate feathering. In the case of maiden

trees, high yield was noted for control trees and sprayed with Arbolin 036 SL. For ‘Fiesta’

two-year-old material had more flowers in the first two years after planting. However, the

use of chemicals in a nursery had positive effect on the yield in the case of maiden trees.

The lowest yields were obtained from maiden trees pruned at the height of 40 cm and

60 cm (‘Pinova’) and 80 cm (‘Fiesta’) after planting.

Key words: age of planting material, apple trees, methods of tree production, tree

training, yield.

Introduction. The feathering of young trees is an important factor inducting

early fruit production. One-year-old trees without branches need at least one year to

produce crown (Bielicki, Czyczyk, 2004 b). The main factor determining branching

is cultivar (Basak et al., 1994). Several well-known apple cultivars (‘Ligol’, ‘Alwa’,

‘Gloster’) produce laterals in insufficient number (Gudarowska, 2002). Traditional

techniques to promote branching not always give satisfactory results, so application

of bioregulators may be necessary (Csiszár, Bubán, 2004). Benzyladenine is applied

very often for training canopies of planting material (Basak et al., 1994; Hrotko et al.

1996). Benzyloadenine in combinations with gibberellins are also used to overcome

apical dominance and to stimulate feathering (Gàstoù, Poniedziaùek, 2004; Jaumieñ et

al., 2002). Such chemicals as Arbolin 036 SL can be use as well in nursery for

90


production of two-year-old trees (Gudarowska, Szewczuk, 2002).

However, bioregulators may have different influence on initiation of blossoming

(Gudarowska, Szewczuk, 2004 a). In the case of gibberellins, the possible role of

these hormones in flower initiation is discussed. According to Basak (2001), the

spray with gibberellins (GA 3 ) could reduce flower initiation of fruiting trees. Jaumieñ

(1999) introduces results of experiments, which were carried out in Great Britain

and New Zealand ant show diverse influence on form of bud flowers.

According to Bielicki and Czynczyk (2004 a), heading back one-year-old trees

at the height of 65 cm above the ground level produced high quality of knip-boom

with the most shoots longer than 30 cm. In Gudarowska and Szewczuk (2004 b)

experiment, the pruning height at 60 cm and 100 cm in nursery, positively affected

the blossoming of young apple trees in the orchard.

Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out in the nursery in

2001 and in the orchard in 2002-2005. In the spring of 2002 one-year-old and twoyear-old

apple tree cvs. ‘Fiesta’ and ‘Pinova’ on M.26 rootstock were planted at a

spacing of 3.5 x 1.0 m. The trees originated from nursery where as one-year-old

material, in the spring of the 3 rd year of nursery production they were pruned at the

height of 60 cm and 100 cm above the ground level. At the beginning of July oneyear-old

and two-year-old trees pruned at 60 cm, were treated as follows: pinching

(below the 2 nd leaf) and spraying with Arbolin 036SL and Arbostim 100SL. Arbolin

036 SL containing 18mg gibberellins (GA 3 ) and 18 mg benzyladenine (BA) in 1 l of

agent was applied once in dose 25 ml/1l of water. Arbostim 100 SL contains 100 g

gibberellins in 1 l of agent applied one in dose 5 ml/1l of water. After planting into the

orchard two-year-old trees and part of maiden trees were not pruned, another part

of maiden trees was pruned at the height of 40 cm, 60 cm, 80 cm, and 100 cm.

The inflorescences and yield were recorded of each tree. In the first year of

planting all flowers were removed after counting. The experiment was carried out in

a randomised block design in 5 replications. Each experimental plot consisted of

4 trees. The obtained results were statistically processed by analysis of variance.

The significance of differences between means was evaluated by T-Duncan’s multiple

range test at P=0.05

Results. During the first three years after planting there was noted the most

intensive blossoming of two-year-old trees ‘Pinova’ (Table1). Pinching and spraying

with chemicals reduced blossoming of two-year-old trees as well as maiden trees of

cv. ‘Pinova’ In the case of maiden trees, pruning at the height of 40 cm, 60 cm, and

80 cm also affected less number of flowers. The highest total yield in 2003-2005

was obtained from cv. ‘Pinova’, planted as two-year-old material pruned in a nursery

at the height of 100 cm and 60 cm and additionally by using of methods stimulating

feathering (18.3-19.7 kg per tree). In the case of maiden trees, high yield was noted

for control trees (19.2 kg per tree) and sprayed Arbolin 036 SL – 17.8 kg per tree

(Table 3).

Two-year-old material of cv. ‘Fiesta’ had more flowers during the first two

years after planting into the orchard. However, Arbolin 036 SL reduced the number

of flowers in the first year (Table 2). In the 3 rd year after planting, the number of

inflorescences from trees planted as knip-boom and maiden material, and additionally

91


pinched and sprayed with chemicals, were comparable (Table 2). Despite of the

initial differences of blossoming intensity, the significantly lowest cumulative yield

was obtained from ‘Fiesta’ planted as maiden trees and pruned after planting at the

height of 40 cm and 80 cm (Table 4).

Table 1. The influence of age and methods of planting material

production on the number of inflorescences on apple tree

cv. ‘Pinova’ during the first three years after planting

1 lentelë. Sodinukø amþiaus ir dauginimo bûdø átaka ‘Pinova’ veislës obelø

þiedynø skaièiui pirmuosius trejus metus po pasodinimo

Treatment

Number of inflorescences / Þiedynø skaièius

Variantas 2002 2003 2004

Two-year-old trees / Dvejø metø vaismedþiai

Control 60 cm / Kontrolë 60 cm 14.5 e* 10.4 bcd 98.9 de

Control 100 cm / Kontrolë 100 cm 35.3 f 16.5 de 106.0 de

Pinching / Pinciravimas 5.0 abc 35.1 g 110.0 de

Arbolin 6.9 bcd 31.2 g 127.6 f

Arbostim 8.5 cd 28.8 fg 87.6 cd

One-year-old trees / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai

Control / Kontrolë 10.4 d 21.1 ef 65.0 b

Pinching / Pinciravimas 1.7 a 12.2 cde 69.5 bc

Arbolin 1.4 a 17.6 de 68.5 bc

Arbostim 4.8 abc 20.4 ef 66.6 bc

One-year-old trees after planting / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai po pasodinimo

40 cm 3.7 ab 0.3 a 32.4 a

60 cm 3.5 ab 1.0 ab 23.5 a

80 cm 3.5 ab 11.8 cde 73.1 bc

100 cm 7.6 cd 3.1 abc 32.5 a

* Means within a column marked with the same letter do not differ significantly at p=0.05

according to Duncan’s multiple range test.

* Tarp ta paèia raide paþymëtø reikðmiø skiltyse pagal Dunkano kriterijø esminiø skirtumø

nëra (p=0,05).

Discussion. The obtained results showed that age and method of planting

material production affected the bud formation and yield of apple trees. But the

observed reaction depended on cultivar (Tables 1-4). Using two-year-old planting

material positively affected the yield. These results confirmed earlier reports, which

were presented by Bielicki and Czynczyk (2004 a, b).

However, the use of chemicals containing plant hormones for maiden trees in

nursery had similar influence on the yielding in orchard. It was clearly visible for

cultivar ‘Fiesta’ (Tables 2, 4). For cultivar with tendency to the spontaneous feathering

and blossoming in the year of planting, such as ‘Pinova’, agents containing cytokinins

in combination with gibberellins could reduce number of inflorescences in the first

year. This is important for cultivars, which after blossoming and fruiting in the first

year could start biennial yielding (Gudarowska, Szewczuk, 2004 a, b).

92


Table 2. The influence of age and methods of planting material

production on the number of inflorescences on apple tree

cv. ‘Fiesta’ during the first tree years after planting

2 lentelë. Sodinukø amþiaus ir dauginimo bûdø átaka ‘Fiesta’ veislës obelø

þiedynø skaièiui pirmuosius trejus metus po pasodinimo

Treatment

Variantas

Number of inflorescences / Þiedynø skaièius

2002 2003 2004

Two-year-old trees / Dvejø metø vaismedþiai

Control 60 cm / Kontrolë 60 cm 6.5 bcd 8.3 c 66.8 d

Control 100 cm / Kontrolë 100 cm 6.8 cd 15.0 d 33.8 ab

Pinching / Pinciravimas 4.6 abcd 5.5 abc 61.2 cd

Arbolin 2.7 ab 14.6 d 63.5 cd

Arbostim 8.1 d 6.8 bc 62.3 cd

One-year-old trees / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai

Control / Kontrolë 1.1 a 5.5 abc 39.6 abc

Pinching / Pinciravimas 2.7 ab 6.8 bc 61.6 cd

Arbolin 3.3 abc 6.9 bc 61.0 cd

Arbostim 2.8 abc 5.4 abc 51.2 bcd

One-year-old trees after planting / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai po pasodinimo

40 cm 1.2 a 0 a 23.4 a

60 cm 0.7 a 0.4 a 23.0 a

80 cm 1.1 a 2.0 a 42.4 abcd

100 cm 0.8 a 3.8 abc 48.0 abcd

For explanation see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

According to Mika (1997), the pruning of young trees can reduce number of

flower buds. This opinion was confirmed in present study, first of all for trees

pruned at the height of 40 cm and 60 cm in the case of ‘Pinova’ and at 80 cm in the

case of ‘Fiesta’ (Table 4). On the other hand, strong, well-branched planting material

should be planted only in very good soil (Bielicki, Czynczyk, 2004a). In bad soil

conditions, pruning one-and two-year-old trees after planting should be necessary.

The obtained preliminary results point at necessity to adapt the nursery technique

to genetic features of cultivar and the methods of training of the trees after planting

into an orchard.

93


Table 3. The yield of apple tree cv. ‘Pinova’ on M.26 depending on

the age and methods of planting material production

3 lentelë. ‘Pinova’ veislës obelø su M.26 poskiepiu derliaus priklausomumas

nuo sodinukø amþiaus ir dauginimo bûdø

Treatment

Variantas

Yield, kg/tree / Derlius, kg/medis

2003 2004 2005

Two-year-old trees / Dvejø metø vaismedþiai

For explanation see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

94

Total yield in

2003–2005, kg/tree

Suminis derlius

2003–2005 m., kg/medis

Control 60 cm / Kontrolë 60 cm 0.7 b 8.1 def 7.7 def 16.5 cde

Control 100 cm / Kontrolë 100 cm 1.5 de 9.1 f 8.5 efg 19.1 f

Pinching / Pinciravimas 1.7 e 8.6 ef 9.4 fg 19.7 f

Arbolin 0.9 bc 9.0 f 8.4 defg 18.3 ef

Arbostim 1.2 cd 8.2 def 9.1 fg 18.5 ef

One-year-old trees / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai

Control / Kontrolë 1.7 e 7.5 cde 10.0 g 19.2 f

Pinching / Pinciravimas 1.0 bc 7.0 cd 7.3 cde 15.3 c

Arbolin 1.2 cd 7.2 cd 9.4 fg 17.8 def

Arbostim 1.3 cde 6.7 bc 6.7 bcd 14.7 c

One-year-old trees after planting / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai po pasodinimo

40 cm 0 a 3.9 a 5.5 a 9.4 a

60 cm 0.2 a 2.9 a 4.4 a 7.5 a

80 cm 1.0 bc 7.6 cde 6.9 bcde 15.7 cd

100 cm 0.2 a 5.6 b 5.6 abc 11.4 b


Table 4. The yield of apple tree cv. ‘Fiesta’ on M.26 depending on

the age and methods of planting material production

4 lentelë. ‘Fiesta’ veislës obelø su M.26 poskiepiu derliaus priklausomumas

nuo sodinukø amþiaus ir dauginimo bûdø

Treatment

Apdorojimas

Yield, kg/tree / Derlius, kg/medis

2003 2004 2005

Two-year-old trees / Dvejø metø vaismedþiai

For explanation see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

Conclusions. 1. The age of plant material and methods used for improving

feathering had an influence on the intensity of the blossoming and on the yielding of

apple tree cvs. ‘Pinova’ and ‘Fiesta’.

2. The high cumulative yield of cv. ‘Pinova’ was obtained from two-year-old

trees pruned in a nursery at the height of 100 cm and 60 cm and additionally pinched

and sprayed with chemicals.

3. Chemicals and pinching of young trees in a nursery positively affected the

yield obtained from trees planted as maiden plant material.

4. For both cultivars, the lowest total yields were obtained from maiden trees

pruned after planting at the height of 40 cm and 60 cm (‘Pinova’) and 80 cm (‘Fiesta’).

Gauta

2006 05 04

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 13

95

Total yield in

2003–2005, kg/tree

Suminis derlius

2003–2005 m., kg/medis

Control 60 cm / Kontrolë 60 cm 1.3 e 10.0 e 4.1 abc 14.4 de

Control 100 cm / Kontrolë 100 cm 1.8 f 7.1 cd 4.2 abc 13.1 cde

Pinching / Pinciravimas 0.7 bcd 8.1 de 3.5 ab 12.2 bcd

Arbolin 1.1 de 6.4 cd 4.0 abc 11.5 abcd

Arbostim 0.8 cd 6.9 cd 2.5 a 10.2 abc

One-year-old trees / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai

Control / Kontrolë 0.6 bc 4.5 abc 4.8 abc 9.9 ab

Pinching / Pinciravimas 0.6 bc 7.9 de 7.5 de 16.0 e

Arbolin 0.8 cd 7.5 de 4.6 abc 12.9 bcde

Arbostim 0.6 bc 6.4 cd 5.4 bcd 12.4 bcd

One-year-old trees pruned after planting / Vieneriø metø vaismedþiai po pasodinimo

40 cm 0 a 2.7 a 6.0 cd 8.7 a

60 cm 0 a 3.2 ab 9.3 e 12.5 bcd

80 cm 0.3 ab 5.6 bcd 3.1 ab 9.0 a

100 cm 0.5 bc 5.8 bcd 7.2 de 13.5 de


References

1. Basak A. Kwas giberelinowy w sadownictwie. Sad Nowoczesny. 2001. 11.

P. 10-11.

2. Basak A., Koùodziejczak P., Bubá n T., Urfiné F. É.

Paturyl 10 WSC as branching agent of young apple trees // Hort. Science. 1994. 26(2).

P. 46-49.

3. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A. Effect of rootstock quality and height of

heading back one-year-old grafts on the quality of two-year-old trees in nursery // Journal

of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2004 a. Vol. 12. P. 61-67.

4. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A. Influence of plant material quality on growth

and yield of two apple cultivars // Scientific Works of the Lithuanian Institute of

Horticulture and Lithuanian University of Agriculture. 2004 b. 21(4). P. 33-38.

5. Csiszá r L., Bubá n T. Improving the feathering of young apple trees in

environment friendly way by modified benzyladenine application // Journal of Fruit and

Ornamental Plant Research. 2004. Vol. 12. P. 31-38.

6. Gàstoù M., Poniedziaùek W. Wpùyw róýnych preparatów

chemicznych na rozgaùæzianie okulantów jabùoni w szkóùce // Folia Univ. Agric. Stein,

Agricultura. 2004. 240(96). P. 65-68.

7. Gudarowska E. Wpùyw wysokoúci przyciæcia jednorocznych okulantów

piæciu odmian jabùoni na jakoýã otrzymanych drzewek dwuletnich // Zeszyty Naukowe

Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa. Skierniewice. 2002. T. 10. P. 75-82.

8. Gudarowska E., Szewczuk A. Wpùyw czynników

agrotechnicznych i bioregulatorów na stopieñ rozgaùæzienia jednorocznych i dwuletnich

drzewek jabùoni odmian ‘Gala’ i ‘Alwa’ na podkùadce M 26 // Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu

Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa. Skierniewice. 2002. T. 10. P. 29-37.

9. Gudarowska E., Szewczuk A. The influence of agro-technical

methods used in the nursery on quality of planting material and precocity of bearing in

young apple orchard // Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2004 a. Vol. 12.

P. 91-96.

10. G udarowska E., Szewczuk A. Wpùyw wysokoúci przyciæcia

okulantów w szkóùce na kwitnienie i owocowanie trzech odmian jabùoni w sadzie // Zeszyty

Naukowe Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa. Skierniewice. 2004 b. T. 12. P. 43-49.

11. Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Bubá n T. Improved feathering by

benzyladenine application on one-year-old Idared apple trees In the nursery // Hort.

Science. 1996. 28(3-4). P. 49-53.

12. J aumieñ F., Dziuban R., Nowakowski R. Arbolin extra – a

new promising chemical for branching apple trees in nurseries // Scientific Works of the

Lithuanian Institute of Hort. and Lithuanian University of Agriculture. 2002. 21(2). P. 106-116.

13. J aumieñ F. Wpùyw giberelin na tworzenie siæ pàków kwiatowych u drzew

owocowych. Ogrodnictwo. 1999. 1. P. 6-8.

14. M ika A. Nowe kierunki zakùadania i prowadzenia sadów // Ogrodnictwa.

1997. 5. P. 10-13.

96


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 90–97.

OBELØ VEISLIØ ‘FIESTA’ IR ‘PINOVA’ DERLIAUS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS

NUO SODINUKØ AMÞIAUS IR DAUGINIMO BÛDØ

E. Gudarowska, A. Szewczuk

Santrauka

2002 m. pavasará vieneriø ir dvejø metø ‘Fiesta’ ir ‘Pinova’ veisliø obelys su M.26

poskiepiu buvo pasodintos 3,5 x 1,0 m atstumais. Sodinukai buvo iðauginti medelyne

naudojat cheminius preparatus (Arbolin 036 SL, Arbostim 100 SL), pinciruojant ir genint

100 cm aukðtyje. Ðios agrotechninës priemonës buvo taikytos treèiaisiais (dvimeèiams su

vienameèiu vainiku) ir antraisiais dauginimo medelyne metais. Dvejø metø vaismedþiai po

pasodinimo genimi nebuvo. Kai kurie kontrolinio varianto vieneriø metø vaismedþiai buvo

papildomai patrumpinti 40, 60, 80 ir 100 cm aukðtyje.

Didþiausià suminá derliø davë dvimetës su vienameèiu vainiku ‘Pinova’ veislës obelys,

iðaugintos medelyne taikant ðakojimàsi stimuliuojanèius metodus. Auginant vienameèius

sodinukus, didelá derliø davë kontrolinio varianto ir Arbolin 036 SL apipurkðti vaismedþiai.

Dvimeèiai ‘Fiesta’ veislës sodinukai pirmuosius dvejus metus po pasodinimo sukrovë

daugiau þiedø. Cheminiø preparatø naudojimas medelyne turëjo teigiamos átakos sodinukø

derliui. Maþiausià derliø davë sodinukai, po pasodinimo patrumpinti 40 ir 60 cm aukðtyje

(‘Pinova’) ir 80 cm aukðtyje (‘Fiesta’).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sodinukø amþius, obelys, vaismedþiø dauginimas, vaismedþiø

formavimas, derlius.

97


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 98–103.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE HEIGHT OF PRUNING OF

APPLE TREES IN A NURSERY ON THEIR QUALITY

AND YIELDING

Ewelina GUDAROWSKA, Adam SZEWCZUK, Dariusz DEREÑ

Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, Rozbrat 7,

50-334 Wrocùaw, Poland. E-mail: gewa@poczta.onet.pl

The experiment was carried out in a nursery in 2001 and then in an orchard in 2002-

2005. Maiden trees of cvs. ‘Ligol’ and ‘Alwa’ on M.26 rootstock were pruned at the height

of 40 cm, 60 cm, 80 cm and 100 cm above the soil level in the 3 nd year of production in the

nursery. In the autumn of 2001, the quality of two-year-old planting material was estimated.

For both cultivars, the highest trees with the biggest diameter were obtained after

pruning at the height of 100 cm. In the case of cv. ‘Ligol’, pruning at 40 cm and 100 cm

stimulated branching. For cv. ‘Alwa’, pruning only at the height of 100 cm positively

affected the number of shoots.

In the spring of 2002, the trees were planted into the orchard, 3,5 x 1,0 m apart. In

2002-2004 the number of inflorescences and yield (2003–2005) from each tree were estimated.

The trees pruned at 100 cm in the nursery, had the highest number of inflorescences

in the year of planting. In the orchard cv. ‘Ligol’ was more productive (22 kg/tree) than

‘Alwa’ (13 kg/tree) in 2003–2005. The height of pruning at 60 cm and 100 cm in the nursery,

positively affected the yield of ‘Ligol’ and ‘Alwa’ (12.9–24.7 kg/tree), in comparison with

those pruned at the height of 40 cm and 80 cm (11.6–19.7 kg /tree).

Key words: apple tree, height of pruning, inflorescences, planting material quality,

yielding.

Introduction. The quality of planting material significantly affected the yield of

trees in an orchard. Strong planting material with a few shoots guarantees early and

high cropping (Van Oosten, 1978; Green, 1991). Two-year-old trees with one-year

old crowns are perfectly suited to the needs of modern 21 st century fruit production

because they start bearing early and produce higher yields, especially in the first two

years after planting (Bielicki i Czynczyk, 1999) .

The main factor determining branching is genetics. Lateral shoots formation

depends on the apical dominance of the variety (Wertheim, 1978). Other important

factors in sylleptic branch formation are: rootstock, environmental conditions and

growing method (Bielicki i Czynczyk, 2004; Wertheim, 1978). According to Czarnecki

(1998) and Bielicki and Czynczyk (2000), heading back maiden trees of cvs. ‘Lobo’

and ‘Jonagold’ 65 cm above the ground level produced high quality two-year-old

98


trees with one-year-old crowns. Similar results were obtained by Gudarowska (2002)

for five other cultivars. The result obtained later in the orchard showed that the

pruning at the height of 60 cm and 100 cm in a nursery positively affected the

blossoming of young apple trees in the orchard (Gudarowska, Szewczuk, 2004).

The aim of the present study was to estimate the influence of the pruning height

of maiden trees in a nursery on the quality of produced two-year-old trees and their

yield potential during first four years after planting in an orchard.

Materials and methods. The first part of this experiment was carried out in a

nursery in 2001. In the spring of the 3 rd year of planting, maiden trees of cvs. ‘Ligol’

and ‘Alwa’ on M.26 rootstock were pruned at the height of 40 cm, 60 cm, 80 cm

and 100 cm above the soil level. In the autumn of 2001, the quality of two-year-old

planting material was estimated on the basis of their diameter, height and branching.

In the second part of the experiment, the estimated two-year-old trees with

one-year-old crown were planted into the orchard in the spring of 2002, at a spacing

of 3.5 x 1.0 m. The trees were not pruned after planting. In the year of planting all

flowers were removed after counting. The number of inflorescences and yield were

noted for each tree.

The experiments were established in a randomised block design: in a nursery –

in 3 replications with 10 trees per plot, in the orchard – in 4 replications with 4 trees

per plot. The obtained results were statistically processed by an analysis of variance.

The significance of differences between means was evaluated according to

T-Duncan’s multiple range test at P=0.05.

Results. The pruning height of maiden trees in nursery had a significant influence

on the quality of two-year-old apple trees after the 3 rd year of production (Table 1).

First of all, the height of pruning affected the height of trees and the number of

shoots > 20 cm long. The strongest trees were obtained after pruning at the height

of 100 cm above the soil level. For both cultivars pruning at 100 cm improved the

feathering of trees, their diameter and height. The obtained results were more significant

for cultivar ‘Ligol’ than for ‘Alwa’. In the case of ‘Ligol’, pruning at the height of

80 cm positively affected the height of planting material. However, pruning at the

height of 40 and 60 cm improved the feathering of trees.

The diverse quality of planting material affected the blossoming and yielding of

young trees in the orchard (Table 2). Stronger two-year-old apple trees of cv. ‘Ligol’

with well branched one-year-old crown had more inflorescences in the first year

after planting. In the next year (2004), no differences in ‘Ligol’ blossoming were

noted. However, the highest total yield in 2003-2005 was obtained from cv. ‘Ligol’

pruned in the nursery at the height of 60 cm and 100 cm (Table 3).

In the first two years after planting, more inflorescences were noted for trees

of cv. ‘Alwa’ when higher trees pruned at the height of 80 cm and 100 cm. In the

next year more inflorescences had trees pruned at the height of 40 cm, 60 cm and

100 cm (Table 2). The total yield in 2003–2005 was obtained from trees of cv.

‘Alwa’ pruned at the height of 60 and 100 cm (Table 3).

99


Table 1. The influence of the pruning height of maiden trees in a

nursery on the quality of two-year-old apple trees

1 lentelë. Sodinukø medelyne trumpinimo aukðèio átaka dvimeèiø obelø

kokybei

Height of

pruning

Trumpinimo

aukštis

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

Diameter

Skersmuo,

mm

16.1 a *

15.8 a

14.9 a

17.8 b

16.0 a

16.4 a

16.2 a

17.7 a

Height

Aukštis,

mm

120.9 a

140.3 b

159.8 c

203.1 d

154.5 a

170.7 a

191.2 b

215.5 c

Number of shoots

< 20 cm long

Trumpesniø kaip 20

cm ûgliø skaièius

‘Ligol’

2.2 ab

2.1 ab

0.2 a

3.6 b

‘Alwa’

0 a

0 a

0 a

5.0 b

*Means within the columns marked with the same letter do not differ significantly at p=0.05,

according to Duncan’s multiple range test.

* Tarp ta paèia raide paþymëtø reikðmiø skiltyse pagal Dunkano kriterijø esminiø skirtumø

nëra (p=0,05).

Table 2. The influence of the pruning height of maiden trees in a

nursery on the number of inflorescences during the first

three years after planting in an orchard

2 lentelë. Sodinukø medelyne trumpinimo aukðèio átaka þiedynø skaièiui

pirmuosius trejus metus po pasodinimo sode

For explanation see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

100

Number of shoots >

20 cm long

Ilgesniø kaip 20 cm

ûgliø skaièius

2.7 bc

2.3 b

0.6 a

7.4 c

0.2 a

0 a

0.1 a

4.9 b

Height of pruning

Number of inflorescences / Þiedynø skaièius

Trumpinimo aukštis 2002 2003 2004

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

5.0 a

9.3 ab

6.2 a

12.9 b

0.07 a

0.06 a

0.12 a

2.82 b

‘Ligol’

7.9 ab

7.1 a

5.9 a

9.3 b

‘Alwa’

4.2 a

5.7 a

12.7 b

9.2 ab

Total length of

shoots

Bendras ûgliø

ilgis, cm

30.5 a

49.4 a

21.6 a

36.9 a

21.4 ab

26.0 b

13.4 a

19.5 ab

96.9 a

82.6 a

30.3 a

345.3 b

9.1 a

0 a

8.4 a

311.7 b


Table 3. The yielding of apple tree cvs. ‘Ligol’ and ‘Alwa’ on M.26

depending on the pruning height of the trees in a nursery

3 lentelë. ‘Ligol’ ir ‘Alwa’ veisliø obelø su M.26 poskiepiu derliaus

priklausomumas nuo vaismedþiø trumpinimo aukðèio medelyne

Height of

pruning

Trumpinimo

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

Yield, kg/tree

Derlius, kg/medis

aukštis 2003 2004 2005

2.3 ab

1.6 a

1.5 a

2.5 b

0.5 a

0.5 a

1.5 b

1.0 ab

8.1 a

12.6 b

7.2 a

10.3 b

3.6 ab

5.0 b

2.5 a

3.8 ab

Total yield, kg/tree

2003–2005

Suminis derlius

2003–2005 m., kg/medis

‘Ligol’

9.3 a

9.4 a

11.4 a

11.9 a

‘Alwa’

6.5 a

9.7 a

7.7 a

8.1 a

For explanation see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

Discussion. One of the factors affecting early production is the quality of planting

material (Green, 1991; Van Osten, 1978). Apple trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ come into bearing

very early, usually in the second year after planting and the trees are very productive,

but trees of cv. ‘Alwa’ start to yield later, especially on M.26 rootstock (Czynczyk,

Bielicki, 2002, Uselis, 2002). However, in worse soil conditions, ‘Alwa’ should be

grafted on M.26 rootstock (Kruczyñska, 1998). In this case, planting two-year-old

trees could be a good method of improving the productivity of this cultivar.

Two-year-old trees can be obtained by pruning maiden trees in the spring of

the 3 rd year of nursery production. According to Bielicki and Czynczyk (1999, 2004)

and Czarnecki (1998), for high quality of planting material, trees should be pruned at

the height of 65 cm.

Pruning at the height of 60 cm improved the feathering of planting material,

without reduction of tree height, in comparison with pruning at the height of 40 cm

(Gudarowska, 2002).

The obtained results showed that for cultivars with strong apical dominance,

‘Ligol’ and ‘Alwa’, the height of pruning should be 100 cm. The pruning at the

height of 100 cm above the soil level positively affected the height of obtained trees

and their feathering. Strong trees pruned in the nursery at the height of 100 cm, had

the most inflorescences in the first years after planting into orchard. However, taking

into consideration the obtained total yield and the tendency of cvs. ‘Alwa’ and ‘Ligol’

to biennial bearing, pruning at the height of 60 cm could be a guarantee of high and

annual yielding.

The differences in the level of yielding between apple trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ and

‘Alwa’ on M.26 rootstock are similar to the results presented by Uselis (2002) in

Lithuania, but the obtained results confirmed the high usefulness of two-year-old

planting material for growing of the estimated cultivar, especially ‘Alwa’.

101

19.7 a

23.6 b

20.1 a

24.7 b

11.6 a

15.2 b

11.7 a

12.9 ab

Mean fruit weight

2003–2005

Vidutinë vaisiø masë

2003–2005 m., g

195 a

190 a

195 a

195 a

116 a

120 a

117 a

115 a


Conclusions. 1. The height of pruning of maiden trees in the spring of

the 3 rd year of planting material production had a significant influence on the quality

of two-year-old apple trees of cvs. ‘Ligol’ and ‘Alwa’ with one-year-old crown.

2. Irrespective of a cultivar, the best quality of knip-boom type trees was obtained

for trees pruned in a nursery at the height of 100 cm.

3. Pruning at the height of 80 cm improved the height of trees, but pruning at

40 cm and 60 cm positively affected the feathering of planting material of cv. ‘Ligol’.

4. Two-year-old trees of cvs. ‘Ligol’ and ‘Alwa’, pruned at the height of

100 cm and 60 cm were characterized by more intensive blossoming and higher

yield in the first years after planting.

Gauta

2006 05 04

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 13

References

1. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A. Drzewka jabùoni do nowoczesnych sadów

XXI wieku // Zeszyty Naukowe AR Kraków. 1999. No. 351(66). P. 59-65.

2. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A. Effect of rootstock quality and height of

heading back one-year-old grafts on the quality of two-year-old trees in nursery // Journal

of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2004. Vol. 12. P. 61-67.

3. Czarnecki B. Wpùyw wysokoúci przyciæcia drzewek w szkóùce na ich jakoúã

// Zeszyty Naukowe AR w Krakowie. 1998. No. 51(1). P. 411-414.

4. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P. Moýliwoúci produkcji drzewek jabùoni o

zróýnicowanej jakoúci // Ogrodnictwo. 2000. 3. P. 12-15.

5. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P. Ten-years results of growing the apple

cultivar ‘Ligol’ in Poland // Scientific Works of the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture and

Lithuanian University of Agriculture. 2002. No. 21(4). P. 12-21.

6. Green G. M. The advantage of feathered trees for more rapid cropping in

apples // Pennsylvania Fruit News. 1991. No 71(4). P. 25-28.

7. Gudarowska E. Wpùyw wysokoúci przyciêcia jednorocznych okulantów

piæciu odmian jabùoni na jakoúã otrzymanych drzewek dwuletnich // Zeszyty Naukowe

Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa. Skierniewice. 2002. Tom 10. P. 75-82.

8. Gudarowska E., Szewczuk A. Wpùyw wysokoúci przyciæcia

okulantów w szkóùce na kwitnienie i owocowanie trzech odmian jabùoni w sadzie // Zeszyty

Naukowe Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa. Skierniewice. 2004. Tom 12. P. 43-49.

9. Kruczyñska D. Nowe odmiany jabùoni. Hortpress. Warszawa. 1998.

10. Uselis N. Assessment of productivity and fruit quality of apple cultivars on

rootstock M26 in fruit bearing orchard // Scientific Works of the Lithuanian Institute of

Horticulture and Lithuanian University of Agriculture. 2002. No. 21(3). P. 14-28.

11. W e r t h e i m S. J. Induction of side-shoot formation in the fruit-tree nursery

// Acta Horticulturae. 1978. No. 80. P. 49-54.

12. V a n O o s t e n H. J. Effect of initial tree quality on field // Acta Horticulturae.

1978. No. 65. P. 123-125.

102


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3). 98–103.

OBELØ GENËJIMO AUKÐÈIO MEDELYNE ÁTAKA JØ KOKYBEI IR

DERLIUI

E. Gudarowska, A. Szewczuk, D. Dereñ

Santrauka

Bandymas atliktas 2001 metais medelyne ir tæstas 2002–2005 metais sode. Treèiaisiais

auginimo medelyne metais ‘Ligol’ ir ‘Alwa’ veisliø sodinukai su M.26 poskiepiu buvo

patrumpinti 40, 60, 80 ir 100 cm aukðtyje nuo dirvos pavirðiaus. 2001 metø rudená buvo

ávertinta dvejø metø sodinukø kokybë.

Aukðèiausi ir didþiausio kamieno skersmens abiejø veisliø vaismedþiai iðaugo

patrumpinus 100 cm aukðtyje. ‘Ligol’ veislës sodinukø trumpinimas 40 ir 100 cm aukðtyje

stimuliavo ðakojimàsi, o ‘Alwa’ veislës obelys daugiau ûgliø iðleido patrumpinus tik

100 cm aukðtyje.

2002 metø pavasará obelys buvo pasodintos sode 3,5 x 1,0 m atstumais.

2002–2004 metais buvo ávertintas kiekvienos obels þiedynø skaièius, 2003–2005 metais –

derlius.

Daugiausia þiedynø pasodinimo metais sukrovë obelys, kurios medelyne buvo

patrumpintos 100 cm aukðtyje. Sode ‘Ligol’ veislës obelys 2003–2005 metais buvo

derlingesnës (22 kg/medis) uþ ‘Alwa’ veislës obelis. 60 ir 100 cm aukðtyje medelyne

patrumpintos ‘Ligol’ ir ‘Alwa’ veislës obelys iðaugino didesná derliø (12,9–24,7 kg/medis)

nei patrumpintos 40 ir 80 cm aukðtyje (11,6–19,7 kg/medis).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: obelys, genëjimo aukðtis, þiedynai, sodinukø kokybë, derlius.

103


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 104–112.

THE EFFECT OF SELECTED AGRICULTURAL

PRACTICES ON QUALITY FEATURES OF APPLE TREES

Jan KOPYTOWSKI, Bogumiù MARKUSZEWSKI,

Jakub GURSZTYN

Uniwersytet Warmiñsko – Mazurski w Olsztynie, Katedra Ogrodnictwa ul.

Prawocheñskiego 21, 10-718 Olsztyn. E-mail: jan.kopytowski@uwm.edu.pl

The paper presents the results of studies on production of branched apple trees.

The study was carried out at the nursery owned by Wojciech Gursztyn in Braniewo in

2002–2004. The studies took into consideration not only the applied agricultural technology

operations but also the influence of the specific climatic conditions of the area. Processing

the results an attempt was made to formulate synthesis of the knowledge of the recent

years concerning production of branched trees.

During the study and analysis it was assessed, which of the seven applied agricultural

technique procedures had the largest influence on development of side branches of four

selected, reluctantly branching cultivars of apple trees. The following variants were studied:

I. Controls, II. Pruning, III. Pruning + Arbolin 036 SL (15ml/1 litre of water), IV. Arbolin

036 SL (15ml/1 litre of water), V. Arbolin 036 SL (30ml/1 litre of water), VI. Arbolin 036 SL

(15ml/1 litre of water applied twice), VII. Pruning + Arbolin Extra 038 SL (12ml/1 litre of

water). The trees were trained in the knipboom form (two-year-old trees with one-year-old

crown). The following parameters of the trees were assessed: height, thickness, sum of

lengths and thicknesses of side branches and number of branches with flowers.

Trees of the best quality were produced in those variants where the preparation

called Arbolin 036 SL at 15 ml/1 liter of water was applied. Cultivars: ‘Gloster’, ‘Gala Must’,

‘Elise’ and ‘Ligol’ used for tree study reacted in different ways to operations applied.

Among the analyzed cultivars ‘Gala Must’ reacted the best to Arbolin.

Key words: nurseries, agricultural practices, quality of trees.

Introduction. Nursery trees produced in Poland have to conform to the quality

standards, which oblige producers to grade fruit bearing trees in a consistent manner

(Bielicki, Czynczyk, 2000). Current requirements concerning the nursery tree quality

have been affected by the changes in the technology of tree growing, especially of

apple trees. Views have changed on the bud grafting height, as well as on the issue of

crown formation and the age of planted trees (Úlaski J., 1964; Czynczyk A., 1998;

Mika, 1998; Marczyñski S., 1999; Sadowski and Górski, 2005). Poland’s accession

to the European Union presents additional challenge not only to nursery gardeners

(Makosz, 2004) due to increased requirements concerning the quality of nursery

104


trees and the necessity to adapt to new market conditions. At the same time the

customs and sanitary regulations as well as those concerning the marketing of nursery

trees were made stricter.

This study is an attempt to synthesize the knowledge of the past few years on

the production process of branched apple trees in a nursery and an attempt to answer

the question: which of the seven applied agricultural practices most influences the

producing of offshoots in the four apple tree cultivars.

Materials and methods. The experiment was conducted in a private fruit tree

nursery, situated in the northeast of Poland (Braniewo), near the Vistula Lagoon. The

site where the nursery is situated is on class 4a brown soil with sandy clay layer at

the depth of 40–50 cm. These are well-cultured soils, with regulated air-water relations.

The nurseries were fertilised with ammonium sulphate at 100 kg·ha -1 . The fertiliser

was sown approximately on April 20 and at the end of May. Winter wheat and

mustard were used as fore-crops. The nurseries were additionally fertilised through

foliage eight times with Agrolife and Uniwersom up to 1.5 kg·ha -1 .

Rootstocks RN-29 (M.9 clone) and M.26 were planted in the spring of 2002, at

a spacing 70 x 10 cm. Cultivar ‘Elisa’ was bud grafted on rootstock M.26, while

cultivars ‘Gloster’, ‘Gala Must’ and ‘Ligol’ were bud grafted on RN-29.

In autumn, soon after the vegetation period had ended, the trees were cut off,

dug out and stored in a refrigerating room for the winter. Early next winter the budgrafted

rootstocks were planted in the appropriate places at a spacing 70 x 30 cm,

where the production process proceeded. The plugs were cut out immediately after

planting. A weaker rootstock was used on purpose because it inhibited the growth of

grafted trees and produced single unbranched annual offshoots. The material could

be used to produce biennial trees with one-year-old crown.

The study examined the effect of seven different agricultural practices on the

growth and producing lateral shoots in the four cultivars of apple tree: ‘Elisa’, bud

grafted on rootstock M.26 and ‘Gloster’, ‘Gala Must’ and ‘Ligol’ – on rootstock

RN-29. In early spring of the third year, the grafted trees were cut off 60 cm above

the ground and an annual branched offshoot was formed at the cut-off site, producing

an annual crown on a biennial trunk. At a later stage of the production process, all

offshoots below the place where new crown was formed were removed. The trees

were staked with bamboo poles and fastened with plastic foil to ensure their steady

growth and to protect them from breaking. A number of measures were taken in

order to force the trees to produce offshoots. They were topped and sprayed with

chemical agents in the following combinations: I. Control, II. Topping, III.

Topping + Arbolin 036 SL (15 ml·litre -1 of water), IV. Arbolin 036 SL (15 ml·litre -1 of

water), V. only Arbolin 036 SL (30 ml·litre -1 of water), VI. Arbolin 036 SL

15 ml·litre -1 x 2 (two spraying dates), VII. Topping + Arbolin Extra 038 SL

(12 ml·litre -1 of water). The practices were performed in the first, second and third

decade of June and in the first decade of July. The trees were topped seven times on

5, 9, 15, 21 and 26 of June and on 1 and 6 of July.

The trees were sprayed with Arbolin 036 SL on: 11 of June – 15 ml·litre -1 of

water (objects III, IV and VI), 23 of June – 15 ml·litre -1 of water (object VI), 23 of

June – 30 ml·litre -1 of water (object V) and 23 of June – 12 ml·litre -1 of water

(object VII).

105


In the autumn of 2004, after the vegetation period had ended, the measurements

of tree height, their trunks diameter and offshoot length were taken. The trunk

diameters were measured 30 cm above the ground level.

The statistical analysis was conducted by the method of analysis of variance.

The significance of differences between the mean values was assessed according to

Duncan’s test at the significance level of 0.05. All agricultural and plant protection

practices were performed as recommended.

Results. The fastest growth of trees and the largest number of produced shoots

are observed in June and July at the average air temperature of 21°C. In 2004, the

average temperature in June reached only 14.7°C, and in July – 16.4°C. The average

temperatures of the other months of the vegetation period were not too favourable

either. Due to frequent rains, the vegetation conditions were not good as they brought

about an increase of fungal infections.

The effect of cultivar and agricultural practices on the height of trees is shown

in Table 1. The height of the trees under study was not significantly differentiated

and was affected by the cultivar factor. On average, the trees of cultivar ‘Gala Must’

were the tallest – 163 cm, followed by ‘Gloster’ – 162 cm and ‘Elise’ – 160 cm. The

lowest were the trees of cultivar ‘Ligol’ – average height – 142 cm. The strongest

influence was observed when Arbolin 036 SL was applied at the dose of

30 ml·litre -1 of water, and the weakest – when the trees were topped and Arbolin

Extra 038 SL was applied at the dose of 12 ml·litre -1 of water.

Part I

I dalis

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

Table 1. The height of trees in the nursery, cm

1 lentelë. Vaismedþiø aukðtis medelyne, cm

Part II

II dalis

‘Gloster’ ‘Gala Must’ ‘Elise’ ‘Ligol’

160.1 bc

161.0 abc

157.1 c

164.3 ab

167.5 a

164.3 ab

159.5 bc

167.8 a

160.1 b

161.7 ab

163.4 ab

169.1 a

163.6 ab

152.3 c

The average values with the same letter are not significantly different at the level of

significance of α = 0.05 / Ta paèia raide paþymëti reikðmiø vidurkiai ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

The effect of cultivar and agricultural practices on the intensity of tree growth is

shown in Table 2. The growth intensity did not prove to be significantly differentiated

106

163.1 ab

154.3 cd

158.0 bc

164.9 a

162.6 ab

167.6 a

50.6 d

140.2 b

152.3 ab

134.3 c

143.2 ab

148.0 a

143.4 ab

144.5 ab

LSD05/R05 6.2 6.8 5.6 5.2

Average of cultivar

Veislës vidurkis

162.0 ab 162.6 a 160.2 b 142.2 c

LSD05/R05 Part I/ I daliai

Part II / II daliai

Part I x II / I x II daliai

2.2

2.9

5.9

Average of

combination

Derinio

vidurkis

157.8 b

154.4 c

152.8 c

158.9 ab

161.8 a

158.7 ab

151.7 c


and was also strongly affected by cultivar. The highest mean growth intensity was

observed for cultivar ‘Elise’ – 1.95 cm, whereas the lowest intensity was measured

for ‘Gala Must’ – 1.74 cm. The highest mean growth intensity was obtained with

Arbolin 036 SL at the dose of 15 ml·litre -1 of water, when the agent was applied twice;

the lowest mean growth intensity was recorded in variant II (topping) – 1.79 cm.

Table 2. Intensity of tree growth in the nursery (cm)

2 lentelë. Vaismedþio augimo medelyne intensyvumas, cm

Part I

I dalis

Part II

II dalis

‘Gloster’ ‘Gala Must’ ‘Elise’ ‘Ligol’

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

1.88 a

1.69 a

1.73 a

1.80 a

1.81 a

1.82 a

1.83 a

1.61 a

1.72 a

1.85 a

1.70 a

1.83 a

1.65 a

1.79 a

The average values with the same letter are not significantly different at the level of

significance of α = 0.05 / Ta paèia raide paþymëti reikðmiø vidurkiai ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

The sum of offshoot length ≥ 20 cm (Table 3) was significantly differentiated

when the applied agricultural practices were the most strongly affecting factor. The

highest mean sum of offshoots length was achieved by cultivar ‘Elise’ and amounted

to 102 cm. The lowest such value was observed for cultivar ‘Gloster’ – 58 cm. The

highest value for the combinations was achieved by the trees in combination III

(Topping + Arbolin 15 ml·litre -1 of water) – 138 cm, while the lowest value was

measured for the control combination (43 cm).

The sum of offshoot length < 20 cm (Table 4) was significantly differentiated

with the combination being the most strongly affecting factor. The highest mean

sum of offshoot length was achieved by cultivar ‘Gala Must’ and amounted to

33 cm. The lowest such value was observed for cultivar Elise – 15 cm. The highest

value for the combinations was achieved by the trees in combination III (Topping +

Arbolin 036 SL 15 ml·litre -1 water) – 32 cm, while the lowest value was measured in

combination I (Control) – 13 cm.

107

1.88 a

1.98 a

1.94 a

1.87 a

1.88 a

1.82 a

1.81 a

1.91 a

1.79 a

1.92 a

1.97 a

2.02 a

1.98 a

1.93 a

LSD05/R05 r. n. r. n. r. n. r. n.

Average of cultivar

Veislës vidurkis

1.79 b 1.74 b 1.95 a 1.93 a

LSD05/R05 Part I/ I daliai

Part II / II daliai

Part I x II / I x II daliai

0.12

n.s.

n.s.

Average of

combination

Derinio

vidurkis

1.82 a

1.79 a

1.86 a

1.83 a

1.88 a

1.93 a

1.84 a


Table 3. Sum of tree offshoot over 20 cm length

3 lentelë. Ilgesniø kaip 20 cm vaismedþio atþalø ilgio suma

Part I

I dalis

Part II

II dalis

‘Gloster’ ‘Gala Must’ ‘Elise’ ‘Ligol’

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

31.7 cd

73.8 abc

104.9 a

46.8 bcd

33.2 cd

83.3 ab

29.1 d

64.8 b

65.8 b

140.8 a

77.3 b

72.2 b

87.1 b

51.8 b

The average values with the same letter are not significantly different at the level of

significance of α = 0.05 / Ta paèia raide paþymëti reikðmiø vidurkiai ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

Table 4. Sum of tree offshoot under 20 cm length

4 lentelë. Trumpesniø kaip 20 cm vaismedþio atþalø ilgio suma

The average values with the same letter are not significantly different at the level of

significance of α = 0.05 / Ta paèia raide paþymëti reikðmiø vidurkiai ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

The total number of offshoots ≥ 20 cm (Table 5) was significantly differentiated

with combination being the strongest affecting factor. The largest average total number

of offshoots was achieved by the trees of cultivar ‘Elise’ – 2.9. The lowest such

number was observed for the cultivar ‘Gloster’ – 1.8 per tree. The highest total

number of offshoots for combinations was observed for the trees of combination

108

47.3 d

106.5 bc

177.8 a

66.8 cd

61.5 cd

154.4 ab

96.5 cd

28.8 c

74.8 bc

116.6 ab

69.0 bc

36.7 c

107.1 ab

147.3 a

LSD05/R05 39.6 43.4 49.4 48.5

Average of cultivar

Veislës vidurkis

57.5 c 80.0 b 101.5 a 82.9 b

Part I

I dalis

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

LSD05/R05 Part I/ I daliai

Part II / II daliai

Part I x II / I x II daliai

Part II

II dalis

16.9

22.3

44.7

‘Gloster’ ‘Gala Must’ ‘Elise’ ‘Ligol’

9.6 b

22.2 ab

38.0 a

18.3 b

17.8 b

38.9 a

38.4 a

22.3 a

22.0 a

40.3 a

34.3 a

35.9 a

35.4 a

39.1 a

8.0 c

22.0 ab

25.4 a

12.6 bc

9.3 c

14.9 bc

12.3 bc

10.7 a

16.8 a

25.2 a

22.3 a

22.9 a

30.6 a

22.5 a

LSD05/R05 16.5 n.s. 9.9 n.s.

Average of cultivar

Veislës vidurkis

26.2 b 32.8 a 14.9 c 21.6 b

LSD05/R05 Part I/ I daliai

Part II / II daliai

Part I x II / I x II daliai

5.6

7.4

n.s.

Average of

combination

Derinio

vidurkis

43.1 d

80.2 c

138.0 a

65.0 cd

50.9 d

108.0 b

81.2 c

Average of

combination

Derinio vidurkis

12.6 c

20.7 b

32.3 a

21.9 b

21.5 b

30.0 a

28.1 ab


III (Topping + Arbolin 036 SL 15 ml·litre -1 of water) – 3.9, while the lowest average

total number of offshoots was recorded for the control combination – 1.3.

Part I

I dalis

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

Table 5. The number of offshoots equal to 20 cm

5 lentelë. 20 cm ilgio vaismedþio atþalø ilgio suma

Part II

II dalis

‘Gloster’ ‘Gala Must’ ‘Elise’ ‘Ligol’

1.0 c

2.0 abc

2.9 a

1.6 bc

1.3 c

2.8 ab

1.1 c

2.1 b

21. b

4.1 a

2.3 b

2.0 b

2.7 b

1.7 b

The average values with the same letter are not significantly different at the level of

significance of α = 0.05 / Ta paèia raide paþymëti reikðmiø vidurkiai ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

The effect of apple tree cultivar and agricultural practices on the total number

of offshoots < 20 cm is shown in Table 6.

Table 6. The number of offshoots over 20 cm

6 lentelë. Ilgesniø kaip 20 cm vaismedþio atþalø skaièius

The average values with the same letter are not significantly different at the level of

significance of α = 0.05 / Ta paèia raide paþymëti reikðmiø vidurkiai ið esmës nesiskiria (α = 0,05).

109

1.5 d

3.1 bc

4.8 a

2.0 cd

1.9 cd

4.3 ab

2.7 cd

0.7 c

2.1 bc

3.7 a

2.1 bc

1.0 c

3.3 ab

4.2 a

LSD05/R05 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4

Average of cultivar

Veislës vidurkis

1.8 b 2.4 a 2.9 a 2.4 a

Part I

I dalis

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

LSD05/R05 Part I/ I daliai

Part II / II daliai

Part I x II / I x II daliai

Part II

II dalis

0.5

0.7

1.3

‘Gloster’ ‘Gala Must’ ‘Elise’ ‘Ligol’

1.2 c

2.6 bc

3.9 ab

2.2 bc

2.4 bc

4.5 a

4.1 ab

3.6 a

2.8 a

4.3 a

4.3 a

4.5 a

4.7 a

5.3 a

1.0 b

2.8 a

3.2 a

1.7 b

0.9 b

1.7 b

1.5 b

1.3 a

1.5 a

2.6 a

2.7 a

2.8 a

3.2 a

2.7 a

LSD05/R05 1.7 r.n. 1.1 r.n.

Average of cultivar

Veislës vidurkis

3.0 b 4.2 a 1.8 d 2.4 c

LSD05/R05 Part I/ I daliai

Part II / II daliai

Part I x II / I x II daliai

0.6

0.7

1.5

Average of

combination

Derinio

vidurkis

1.3 c

2.3 b

3.9 a

2.0 bc

1.5 c

3.3 a

2.4 b

Average of

combination

Derinio vidurkis

1.8 d

2.4 cd

3.5 a

2.7 abc

2.7 abc

3.5 a

3.4 ab


The total number of offshoots < 20 cm was significantly differentiated with

combination being the strongest affecting factor. The largest average total number

of offshoots was achieved by the trees of ‘Gala Must’ – 4.2. The lowest such

number was observed for cultivar ‘Elise’ – 1.8. The highest average total number of

offshoots for combinations was observed for the trees of combination III (Topping

+ Arbolin 036 SL 15 ml·litre -1 of water) and VI (Arbolin 036 SL 15 ml·litre -1 of water

x 2); in both cases the number was 3.5, while the lowest average total number of

offshoots was recorded for the control combination – 1.8.

Discussion. Weather conditions in the third year of running the nursery were

not favourable for producing young trees. Differentiation in growth among the breeding

cultivars, associated with genotype, rootstock, apical dominance, weather conditions

and performed agricultural practices has been observed. This was the most evident

in cultivar ‘Elise’. According to Jaumieñ (2004), the used rootstock does not play

any important role in branching grafted trees of cultivar ‘Elise’. They produce a

similar number of long and short offshoots on dwarf (M.9 and PB 4) and semidwarf

(M.26) rootstocks. Considering the above, it must be said that good growth

and offshoot development was also observed for cultivar ‘Elise’ in Braniewo. The

number of long offshoots was similar to the number of the short ones.

Cultivar ‘Gloster’ is one of those, which do not branch easily (Basak, 2001).

The proposition can be substantiated in the light of the results of this study, as the

sum of offshoot length ≥ 20 cm for the cultivar was the smallest, as was the total

number of offshoots; similar results were obtained by Kopytowski (2002).

The research conducted by Jaumieñ and Dziuban (1998) indicates that the Gala

cultivar treated with Arbolin produced the largest number of side shoots. In the

study conducted near Braniewo, the trees of the same cultivar grown in a three year

cycle branched well, producing 2.4 offshoots ≥ 20 cm and 4.2 ones < 20 cm.

Winter apple cultivar ‘Ligol’ is well known to fruit farmers, which also makes it

popular among nursery gardeners. The best quality of the trees in a three year cycle

is obtained, regardless of other measures, by cutting one-year-old trees 60 cm above

the ground (Rejman et al., 2002; Gudarowska, Szewczyk, 2004). In the study, the

cultivar was effective in producing offshoots, both long and short ones.

Conclusions. 1. The tallest grown trees were those of cultivar ‘Gala Must’ –

162.6 cm; the lowest were those of cultivar ‘Ligol’ – 142 cm. The tallest trees were

obtained in combinations where Arbolin 036 SL was applied at the dose of 30 ml·l -1

of water; the lowest trees grew in the group, which were topped manually and

treated with Arbolin Extra 038 SL at the dose of 12 ml·l -1 of water.

2 The largest trunk diameter increase was observed in trees of cultivar ‘Elise’

(1.95 cm), the smallest – of cultivar ‘Gala Must’. The differentiation was not affected

by the practices applied, but only by cultivar features.

3. The highest sum of offshoots growth over 20 cm was observed of cultivar

‘Elise’ in the variant where Arbolin 036 SL was applied at the dose of 15 ml·l -1 of

water.

Gauta

2006 05 30

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 17

110


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KAI KURIØ TECHNOLOGINIØ PRIEMONIØ ÁTAKA OBELØ KOKYBËS

RODIKLIAMS

J. Kopytowski, B. Markuszewski, J. Gursztyn

Santrauka

Tyrimai atlikti 2002–2004 m. Wojciecho Gursztyno privaèiame medelyne Braniewo

gyvenvietëje. Buvo atsiþvelgta ne tik á taikytas technologijas, bet ir á specifiniø to regiono

klimato sàlygø átakà. Apdorojant rezultatus, buvo pamëginta susisteminti pastaraisiais

metais sukauptà informacijà apie ðakotø vaismedþiø auginimà.

Tyrinëjant ir analizuojant buvo ávertinta, kuri ið septyniø panaudotø technologiniø

priemoniø labiausiai paveikë keturiø pasirinktø sunkiai besiðakojanèiø obelø veisliø ðoniniø

ðakø vystymàsi. Bandymo variantai buvo tokie: I. Kontrolë, II. Pinciravimas,

111


III. Pinciravimas + Arbolin 036 SL (15 ml/1 vandens), IV. Arbolin 036 SL (15 ml/1 vandens),

V. Arbolin 036 SL (30 ml/1 vandens), VI. Arbolin 036 SL (15 ml/1 vandens – du kartus),

VII. Pinciravimas + Arbolin Extra 038 SL (12 ml/1 vandens). Vaismedþiai buvo suformuoti

„knipo“ formos (dvejø metø vaismedþiai su vieneriø metø vainiku). Ávertinti ðie vaismedþiø

rodikliai: aukðtis, storis, ðoniniø ðakø ilgio ir storio suma, þydinèiø ðakø skaièius.

Geriausios kokybës vaismedþiai iðaugo panaudojus Arbolin 036 SL preparatà

(15 ml/1 vandens). Tirtos veislës: ‘Gloster’, ‘Gala Must’, ‘Elise’ ir ‘Ligol’, á skirtingus

apdorojimus reagavo skirtingai. Ið visø tirtø veisliø á Arbolin geriausiai reagavo ‘Gala

Must’.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: medelynai, agrotechninës priemonës, vaismedþiø kokybë.

112


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 113–123.

PERFORMANCE OF DWARFING CHERRY ROOTSTOCKS

IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

Terence L. ROBINSON 1 , Stephen A. HOYING 2 ,

Robert L. ANDERSEN 1

1 Department of Hort. Sciences, New York State Agricultural Experiment

Station, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456, USA.

E-mails: tlr1@cornell.edu, rla2@cornell.edu

2Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1581 Rt. 88 N, Newark, NY 14568 USA.

E-mail: sah192cornell.edu

Sweet cherry rootstocks and training systems were compared in two field planting

(1999 and 2002). In the 1999 trial, ‘Hedelfinger’ was planted with three rootstocks (Gisela

5, (Gi.5), Gisela 6, (Gi.6) and MxM.2), while ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’ were planted on Gi.5

and Gi.6. After 7 years, tree size was smallest with Gi.5, intermediate with Gi.6 and largest

with MXM.2. Early yield and cumulative yield were highest for trees on Gi.5 followed by

Gi.6, while trees on MXM.2 had the lowest yield. Average fruit size was largest on Gi.6,

intermediate on MXM.2 and smallest on Gi.5. Among planting systems, the vertical axis

system had the highest cumulative yield/ha followed by the slender spindle system, the

V system, the Marchant system, the Spanish bush system and the central leader system.

The cumulative yields largely reflected density; however, the Marchant system had

significantly lower yield than expected from its density, while the vertical axis system had

higher yield than expected from its density. In the 2002 field trial, ‘Lapins’, ‘Regina’ and

‘Hudson’ were planted on Mazzard, Gi.12, Gi.5 and Gi.6. After 4 years the Gi.12 trees were

as large as the trees on Mazzard, while Gi.6 was intermediate and Gi.5 was significantly

smaller. Gi.5 had the highest yield followed by Gi.6, and Gi.12, while Mazzard had

substantially lower yield than any of the Gisela rootstocks. The combination of Gi.5

rootstock and vertical axis training with ‘Regina’ achieved a yield of 12 t/ha of large

cherries in the fourth year.

Key words: Prunus avium, Gisela rootstocks, yield, fruit size, training system, planting

density.

Introduction. New cherry varieties that are large, firm and resist rain-induced

cracking have created new opportunities for the production of sweet cherries in the

eastern USA (Kappel, 2002). In addition the use of rain exclusion shelters or automatic

calcium sprinkling systems can be used to limit rain induced cracking. Nevertheless,

traditional, vigorous, non-precocious rootstocks continue to limit early yield and

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cause tree containment problems as new orchards mature. The development of

precocious, dwarfing rootstocks has allowed the development of high-density cherry

orchards with smaller trees that have the potential to significantly improve grower

returns (Lang, 2000; Long, 2001; Perry et al., 1996; Robinson, 2005). Several highdensity

training systems have been developed for sweet cherries (Balmer, 2001;

Long, 2001; Perry, 1998; Zahn, 1994) giving fruit growers many options for choosing

a planting density, rootstock and training protocol. The objective of this project was

to compare both standard and dwarfing rootstocks trained to several high-density

production systems for sweet cherries.

Materials and Methods. In April of 1999 a replicated field trial was planted at

Geneva, New York State, USA with ‘Hedelfinger’ on three rootstocks (Gi.5, Gi.6

and MxM.2), ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’ on 2 rootstocks (Gi.5 and Gi.6) and

‘Tehranivee’ and ‘Regina’ on one rootstock (Mahaleb). Each variety/rootstock

combination was planted into each of six training systems: (central leader

(336 trees/ha), Spanish bush (673 trees/ha), slender spindle (897 trees/ha), V-system

(997 trees/ha), Marchant inclined tree system (1035 trees/ha) and vertical axis

(1196 trees/ha)). The training recipes for each system were published earlier

(Robinson et al., 2004). The plot was designed as a split plot randomized complete

block experiment with 3 main plot replications. Training system was the main plot

with each main plot consisting of three 32 m long rows. Each row was planted on

a broad 30 cm high berm to control winter damage associated with excessive soil

moisture. In addition, a subsurface soil drainage line was installed in the center of

each tractor alley to remove excess moisture in the spring and during heavy rainfalls

before harvest. Each main plot was divided into 9 variety x rootstock subplots (3 in

each row). Each sub plot had from 2 to 6 trees of each variety x rootstock x system

combination with the number of trees depending on the inrow spacing of the system.

In May of 2002 a second replicated field trial was planted at Geneva, New York

State, USA with ‘Lapins’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Hudson’ on four rootstocks (Gi.5, Gi.6,

Gi.12 and Mazzard seedling). Each variety/rootstock combination was planted into

each of four training systems: (steep leader (598 trees/ha, Spanish bush

(748 trees/ha), slender spindle (748 trees/ha), and vertical axis (997 trees/ha)). The

plot was designed as a split plot randomized complete block experiment with 3 main

plot replications. Training system was the main plot with each main plot consisting

of two 50 m long rows. Each main plot was divided into 8 variety x rootstock

subplots (4 in each row). Each sub plot had from 4 to 7 trees of each variety x

rootstock x system combination with the number of trees depending on the inrow

spacing of the system.

In both plots yield and fruit size data recorded each year. A 50 cherry sample

was collected each year from each tree and analyzed for proportion of cracked fruit

and fruit soluble solids. Economic crop value was calculated as: Crop Value ($/ha)

= (Cumulative yield (kg/ha) – yield of cracked fruit (kg/ha)) * $2.20/kg. Data were

analyzed by analysis of variance. Effect of rootstock in the 1999 plot was determined

only with ‘Hedelfinger’ while the effect of system was determined using all 6 varieties.

In the 2002 plot the effect of rootstock and system was determined using both

‘Lapins’ and ‘Regina’.

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Results. Tree survival and tree size. Tree losses in both

plots were greatest on Mazzard followed by Mahaleb and MXM.2 and Gi.12 (Table).

There were essential not tree losses with Gi.5 or Gi.6 in either plot. Tree death was

due to root rot and winter injury. There was a clear rootstock effect on tree size, as

measured by trunk cross-sectional area, with trees on Gi.5 being significantly smaller

(21%) than trees on Gi.6, which in turn were about 9% smaller than trees on MXM.2

(Figure 1A). Planting system also had a significant effect on final trunk cross-sectional

area. The central leader trees were the largest and the Marchant trellis trees were the

smallest. There was a significant negative curvilinear relationship between tree planting

density and tree size with the highest density vertical axis trees being only 60% as

large as the lowest density central leader trees (Figure 1B).

Table. Tree death in 2 large orchard systems trials at Geneva NY, USA

Lentelë. Vaismedþiø þuvimas dviejuose dideliuose sodø sistemø bandymuose

Þenevoje, Niujorko valstijoje, JAV

Plot / Sklypas

Fig. 1.(A) Effect of rootstock on final tree size (trunk cross-sectional area (cm 2 ))

after 7 years of ‘Hedelfinger’ sweet cherry. Vertical bars represent LSD for

significant differences between stocks, p≤0.05. (B) Relationship of tree density and

final tree size (TCSA) after 7 years of 5 sweet cherry varieties (‘Hedelfinger’,

‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Tehranivee’) on MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 and

Mahaleb rootstocks trained to 6 training systems. Regression significant, p≤0.05.

1 pav. (A) Poskiepio átaka galutiniam vaismedþio dydþiui (kamieno skerspjûvio

plotui, cm 2 ) po 7 ‘Hedelfinger’ veislës treðniø augimo metø. Vertikalûs stulpeliai

vaizduoja esminius skirtumus tarp poskiepiø, p≤0,05. (B) Galutinio vaismedþio dydþio

(KSP) priklausomumas nuo vaismedþiø tankumo po 7 metø. Tirtos penkios treðniø

veislës (‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ ir ‘Tehranivee’) su MXM.2, Gisela

5, Gisela 6 ir Mahaleb poskiepiais. Vaismedþiai formuoti pagal 6 formavimo sistemas.

Lygtis patikima, kai p≤0,05.

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Rootstock / Poskiepis

Mahaleb MXM.2 Mazzard Gi.12 Gi.6 Gi.5

1997 Plot / Sklypas 1997 m. 8% 4% --- --- 0.1% 0.1%

2002 Plot / Sklypas 2002 m. --- --- 16% 4% 1.6% 1.4%


Y i e l d. With ‘Hedelfinger’, Gi.5 had the greatest cumulative yield

(30 kg/tree), while Gi.6 was intermediate (18 kg/tree) and MXM.2 had the lowest

yield (7 kg/tree) (Figure 2A). In the winter preceding 2004 severe winter temperatures

killed most of the flower buds in this trial. The drop in yield from 2003 to 2004

shows that Gi.6 was the most sensitive to winter cold while MXM2 was the least

sensitive. Gi.5 was intermediate.

Fig. 2. (A) Effect of rootstock on cumulative yield/ha of ‘Hedelfinger’ sweet cherry

trees trained to 6 training systems. Vertical bars represent LSD for significant

differences between stocks, p≤0.05. (B) Relationship of tree planting density to

cumulative yield after 7 years of 5 sweet cherry varieties (‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’,

‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Tehranivee’) on MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 and Mahaleb

rootstocks trained to 6 training systems. Regression significant, p≤0.05.

2 pav. (A) Poskiepio átaka suminiam ‘Hedelfinger’ veislës treðniø, suformuotø pagal

6 formavimo sistemas, derliui ið hektaro. Vertikalûs stulpeliai vaizduoja esminius

skirtumus tarp poskiepiø p≤0,05. Suminio derliaus priklausomumas nuo nuo

vaismedþiø tankumo po 7 metø. Tirtos penkios treðniø veislës (‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’,

‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Tehranivee’) su MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 ir Mahaleb

poskiepiais. Vaismedþiai formuoti pagal 6 formavimo sistemas. Lygtis patikima, kai

p≤0,05.

Among systems averaged over all 5 varieties, the vertical axis system had the

highest yield per tree in the third year (2001) followed by the slender spindle system,

the Spanish bush, central leader, Marchant inclined tree and the V system, respectively

(Figure 3A). By the seventh year, yield ranged from 7-19 kg/tree and from 7-16 t/ha.

The highest cumulative yield/ha was with the vertical axis system (37 t/ha), followed

by the slender spindle system (27 t/ha), the V system (25 t/ha), the Spanish bush

system (19 t/ha), the Marchant inclined tree system (18 t/ha), and the central leader

system (11 t/ha) (Figure 3B).

Among varieties, ‘Sweetheart’ was the most productive followed by

‘Tehranivee’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Hedelfinger’ and lastly ‘Regina’ (data not shown). ‘Regina’

had significantly lower production than any of the other varieties in the 1999 plot but

in the 2002 plot it had the highest production. Following the winter of 2004, which

killed most flower buds on ‘Sweetheart’ and ‘Lapins’ and many flower buds on

‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Regina’ had the highest flower bud survival.

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Fig. 3. Annual yield/tree (A) and yield/ha (B) of 5 sweet cherry varieties

(‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Tehranivee’) on MXM.2, Gisela 5,

Gisela 6 and Mahaleb rootstocks at Geneva NY. Vertical bars represent LSD for

significant difference within each year, p≤0.05.

3 pav. Penkiø treðniø veisliø (‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ ir

‘Tehranivee’) vaismedþiø su MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 ir Mahaleb poskiepiais metinis

derlius ið vaismedþio (A) ir ið hektaro (B), Þeneva, Niujorko valstija. Vertikalûs

stulpeliai vaizduoja esminius skirtumus kiekvienais metais, p≤0,05.

The differences in yield between systems were largely a function of tree density.

There was a linear relationship of tree planting density and yield that explained 67%

of the variation in cumulative yield per hectare (Figure 2B). The Marchant system,

and to some extent the V system, had significantly lower cumulative yield than expected

from their tree density. The vertical axis system, and to a lesser extent the slender

spindle system, had a higher cumulative yield than expected from their tree density.

With the vertical axis system, this resulted from the highest yield per tree and the

highest tree density.

There was an interaction of rootstock and training system with ‘Hedelfinger’,

but not with ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’. The combination of vertical axis training

and Gi.5 rootstock resulted in very high 7-year cumulative yields per hectare of 46,

41 and 40 t/ha for ‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’, respectively. In contrast,

the vertical axis system with the full vigor MXM.2 rootstock had a cumulative yield

of only 13 t/ha with ‘Hedelfinger’.

Yield Efficiency. There was a large effect of rootstock on yield

efficiency. Trees on Gi.5 were 4 times as efficient as trees on MXM.2 (data not

shown). Trees on Gi.6 were intermediate. Among training systems, the vertical axis

system was substantially more efficient than any other system and almost twice as

efficient as the traditional central leader system. There was a significant positive

curvilinear relationship between tree density and yield efficiency (data not shown).

However, the Marchant trellis and the V-slender spindle were significantly less efficient

than predicted by the regression equation.

Fruit Quality. With ‘Hedelfinger’, the largest average fruit size over

the 5 cropping seasons was with Gi.6, while MXM.2 was intermediate and Gi.5 had

the smallest fruit size (Figure 4A). However, there was an interaction with variety.

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With ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’ there was no difference in fruit size between Gi.5

and Gi.6 (data not shown). Among training systems, average fruit size was greatest

for the central leader, followed by the slender spindle, Marchant Spanish bush,

V-slender spindle, and vertical axis systems, respectively. Although the difference

between the top 2 systems and the bottom 2 systems was significant, the differences

were not large (Figure 4B).

Fig. 4. (A) Effect of rootstock on average fruit size of ‘Hedelfinger’ sweet cherry

trees at Geneva NY. (B) Effect of training system on average fruit size of 5 sweet

cherry varieties (‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Tehranivee’), on

MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 and Mahaleb rootstocks at Geneva NY. Vertical bars

represent LSD for significant differences between stocks or systems, p≤0.05.

4 pav. (A) Poskiepio átaka vidutiniam ‘Hedelfinger’ veislës treðniø vaisiø dydþiui,

Þeneva, Niujorko valstijoja. (B) Formavimo sistemos átaka penkiø treðniø veisliø

(‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ ir ‘Tehranivee’) su MXM.2, Gisela 5,

Gisela 6 ir Mahaleb poskiepiais vidutiniam vaisiø dydþiui, Þeneva, Niujorko valstija.

Vertikalûs stulpeliai vaizduoja esminius skirtumus tarp poskiepiø ar sistemø, p≤0,05.

Economics. Cumulative crop value was greatest for trees on Gi.5

followed by Gi.6 and then MXM.2 (Figure 5A). Among rootstocks there was an

interaction with variety. With ‘Hedelfinger’ and ‘Lapins’, the largest cumulative crop

value was with Gi.5, intermediate with Gi.6 and smallest with MXM.2. With

‘Sweetheart’, there was no difference in cumulative crop value between Gi.5 and

Gi.6. Among systems, cumulative crop value over the first 6 years of the orchards

life was greatest for the vertical axis system ($68,600/ha), followed by the slender

spindle system ($47,000/ha), the V system ($46,900/ha), the Spanish bush system

($34,200/ha), the Marchant inclined tree system ($30,600/ha), and the central leader

system ($20,000/ha). The difference between the top system and the bottom system

was 3.4 fold. There was a significant positive curvilinear relationship between tree

density and crop value (Figure 5B). The Marchant trellis had significantly lower

cumulative crop value than predicted by the regression relationship.

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2002 Trial. Tree size after 4 years was smallest for Gi.5 (Figure 6).

Gi.6 was intermediate, while Gi.12 and Mazzard were the largest and not significantly

different. Cumulative yield over the first 4 years was inversely related to tree vigor.

The highest yield was with Gi.5, followed by Gi.6, Gi.12 and Mazzard. Although Gi.12

was similar in tree size to ‘Mazzard’ it had 2.7 times as much yield as Mazzard. ‘Regina’

was more productive than ‘Lapins’ due to cold damage of ‘Lapins’ flower buds in the

winter of 2004/2005. The combination of Gi.5 rootstock and vertical axis training with

‘Regina’ achieved a yield of 12 t/ha of large cherries in the fourth year.

Fig. 5. (A) Effect of rootstock on 7-year cumulative crop value per hectare of

‘Hedelfinger’ sweet cherry trees at Geneva NY. Vertical bars represent LSD for

significant difference between rootstocks, p≤0.05. (B) Relationship of tree density and

6-year cumulative crop value per hectare of 5 sweet cherry varieties (‘Hedelfinger’,

‘Lapins’, ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Tehranivee’), on MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 and

Mahaleb rootstocks trained to 6 planting systems at Geneva NY (B). Regression

significant, p≤0.05.

5 pav. (A) Poskiepio átaka ‘Hedelfinger’ veislës treðniø 7 metø suminio derliaus ið

hektaro vertei, Þeneva, Niujorko valstija. Vertikalûs stulpeliai vaizduoja esminius

skirtumus tarp poskiepiø, p≤0,05. (B) Penkiø treðniø veisliø (‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Lapins’,

‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ ir ‘Tehranivee’) vaismedþiø su MXM.2, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 ir

Mahaleb poskiepiais, suformuotø pagal; 6 formavimo sistemas, 6 metø suminio derliaus

ið hektaro vertës priklausomumas nuo tankumo, Þeneva, Niujorko valstija. Lygtis

patikima, kai p≤0,05.

Discussion. Our results show the value of the precocious Gisela rootstocks

for early production (Balmer, 2001; Lang, 2000; Perry et al, 1996). The Gisela 5

trees had 10 times the yield as the vigorous MxM.2 trees in the fourth year, 4 times

the cumulative yield after 7 years. The ‘Gisela 6’ trees had about 7 times the yield of

the MxM.2 trees in the fourth year and 2.5 times the cumulative yield after 7 years.

In addition, the Gisela trees have had better survival in both plots and have remained

smaller than the ‘Mazzard’ or the MxM.2 trees and have a more “calm” appearance,

which makes them more suited to high planting densities. The Gi.6 trees have had

larger fruit size and higher fruit soluble solids than the standard sized MxM.2 trees

indicating that they have not been over-cropped. In contrast, the Gi.5 trees had

such large crops that fruit size and soluble solids were both lower than the Gi.6

119


trees. This indicates that the Gi.5 trees were resources limited for fruit development.

With the larger fruited ‘Regina’ variety Gi.5 produced a very large 4 th year crop with

large fruit size. However, with self fruitful varieties such as ‘Sweetheart’ and ‘Lapins’

a modified pruning strategies such as heading of all one-year-old shoots will be

required to achieve marketable fruit size. It is also possible that the large crops on

Gi.5 may be limiting tree carbohydrate or nitrogen reserve accumulation, thus

increasing vulnerability to winter damage (Andersen, et al, 1999; Lang and Ophardt,

2000). Our results after the winter of 2004 indicate that both Gi.6 and Gi.5 may be

more vulnerable to severe winter temperatures than the full vigor MXM.2. Gi.12

appears to be a full vigor rootstock but with greater precocity than Mazzard.

Fig. 6. Final tree size (trunk cross-sectional area (cm 2 )) after 4 years (A) and fouryear

cumulative yield/ha (B) of ‘Regina’ and ‘Lapins’ sweet cherry on Mazzard, Gisela

5, Gisela 6 and Gisela 12 rootstocks at Geneva NY. Vertical bars represent LSD for

significant differences between stocks, p≤0.05.

6 pav. ‘Regina’ ir ‘Lapins’ veisliø treðniø su Mazzard, Gisela 5, Gisela 6 ir Gisela 12

poskiepiais galutinis vaismedþio dydis (kamieno skerspjûvio plotas, cm 2 ) po 4 metø (A)

ir ketveriø metø suminis derlius ið hektaro (B), Þeneva, Niujorko valstija. Vertikalûs

stulpeliai vaizduoja esminius skirtumus tarp poskiepiø, p≤0,05.

The strong correlation of tree planting density and cherry yield over the first

7 years is similar to the results of studies of planting density with apple (Robinson,

2003). With our cherry data the relationship appears to be exponential over the

densities we considered, whereas with apple, the relationship is asymptotic. It is

likely, that over a broader range, the relationship with cherry would also be asymptotic.

An important component of the high yields of the vertical axis and the slender

spindle systems, was the minimal pruning during the first 2 years. In contrast, the

Spanish Bush system had very severe pruning during the first 2 years. The

perpendicular V system had severe pruning at planting, but minimal pruning after

that. The severe pruning was related to lower yields of these systems in the 3 rd and

4 th years. To successfully incorporate minimal pruning with sweet cherry, requires

specialized branching techniques to overcome the strong apical dominance. Bud

removal early in the spring has been very successful at stimulating lateral bud

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development without heading the leader (Hoying et al., 2001). This technique allows

minimal pruning yet proper limb placement along the leader.

The reduction in tree size (as measured by trunk cross-sectional area) with

increasing tree density indicates that at higher tree densities trees can be managed in

the smaller allotted space for a greater period of time. It was of interest to note that

in the vertical axis system with renewal pruning (Zahn, 1994), all of the lateral limbs

on each tree were less than 10cm in diameter. Larger limbs were removed back to

10 cm stubs and replacement branches were developed. In contrast, the central

leader trees had lower scaffold branches that exceeded 25cm in diameter by the end

of the 7 th year. The larger branch structure of the central leader trees led to larger

trunks and probably much larger root systems and more tree vigor.

Considering yield, fruit size, soluble solids and gross economic returns, the

vertical axis, slender spindle and the V-system were the three best systems in this

trial. The slender spindle and the V-system combined relatively high yields with good

fruit size and quality. The vertical axis system was highly productive, but had slightly

smaller fruit size and soluble solids content. The large fruit size and the high soluble

solids content with the slender spindle and the V-system indicate that these systems

were not over-cropped, whereas, the smaller fruit size and lower sugar content of

the vertical axis system indicates this system was slightly over-cropped. To make

the vertical axis system perform better will require modified pruning strategies such

as annual heading of one-year-old lateral shoots to reduce the cropping potential of

the system.

‘Regina’ cherry appears to be highly adapted variety to New York State climate.

The tree had good survival and better winter bud hardiness than the other varieties

we tested. Fruit size was large and tolerant of rain cracking. Although yield was low

in our 1999 trial where it was planted on Mahaleb rootstock, or in the 2002 trial

when planted on Mazzard, yield was highest when planted on Gisela stocks in the

2002 plot. An additional reason why yields were high in the second trial was that we

utilized a late blooming variety from New York State, ‘Hudson’ to pollinate ‘Regina’.

Conclusions. Our results show that planting systems, which use much higher

tree densities than the common central leader system combined with new precocious

rootstocks and minimal pruning, can give substantial yields in the first 5 years and

provide significant gross returns. With a high value crop like sweet cherries, this

should help rapidly recoup the investment associated with planting a new cherry

orchard (Seavert, 1997; Weber, 1998).

Gauta

2006 07 25

Parengta spausdinti

2006 08 08

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and training systems around the world. Acta Hort. 667:269–272.

12. R obinson, T.L., R.L. Andersen and S. A. H oying. 2004.

Performance of Gisela cherry rootstocks in the Northeastern United States. Acta Hort.

658:231–240.

13. Seavert, C. 1997. Sweet cherry orchard cost analysis: does high-density

pay? Proc. Oregon Hort. Soc. 88:34–42.

14. W e b e r, M. S. 1998. Labor demand and expected returns by different tree

training forms and planting densities in sweet cherry orchards. Acta Hort. 2:419–424.

15. Z a h n, F. G. 1994. Höhengerechter Planzabstand durch Stärkenbezogene

Baumbehandlung. Erwerbsobstbau 8:213–220.

122


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

113–123.

ÞEMAÛGIØ TREÐNIØ POSKIEPIØ PRODUKTYVUMAS JUNGTINIØ

AMERIKOS VALSTIJØ ÐIAURËS RYTUOSE

T. L. Robinson, S. A. Hoying, R. L. Andersen

Santrauka

Treðniø poskiepiai ir formavimo sistemos buvo palyginti atliekant du lauko bandymus

(1999 ir 2002 m.). 1999 metø bandyme ‘Hedelfinger’ veislës treðnë buvo pasodinta su trimis

poskiepiais (Gisela 5, (Gi.5), Gisela 6, (Gi.6) ir MxM.2), o ‘Lapins’ ir ‘Sweetheart’ – su Gi.5 ir

Gi.6. Po 7 metø maþiausi vaismedþiai iðaugo su Gi.5, vidutiniai – su Gi.6 ir didþiausi – su

MXM.2 poskiepiu. Didþiausià ankstyvàjá ir suminá derliø davë vaismedþiai su Gi.5, kiek

maþesná – su Gi.6 ir maþiausià – su MXM.2. Vidutiniðkai didþiausius vaisius subrandino

vaismedþiai su Gi.6, vidutinius – su MXM.2 ir maþiausius – su Gi.5. Ið sodinimo sistemø

didþiausià suminá derliø davë vertikaliosios aðies sistema, kiek maþesná – laiboji verpstë,

V sistema, Marchanto V sistema, ispaniðko krûmo sistema ir centrinë lyderinë sistema.

Suminis derlius daþnai priklausë nuo tankumo, taèiau Marchanto V sistema davë ið esmës

maþesná, negu tikëtasi ið jos tankumo, derliø, o vertikaliosios aðies sistema davë didesná,

negu tikëtasi ið jos tankumo, derliø. 2002 metø lauko bandyme ‘Lapins’, ‘Regina’ ir ‘Hudson’

veislës buvo pasodintos su Mazzard, Gi.12, Gi.5 ir Gi.6 poskiepiais. Po 4 metø vaismedþiai

su Gi.12 buvo tokie pat dideli, kaip su Mazzard, su Gi.6 buvo vidutiniai, o su Gi.5 – ið esmës

maþesni. Didþiausià derliø davë vaismedþiai su Gi.5, kiek maþesná – su Gi.6 ir Gi.12, o

vaismedþiø su Mazzard derlius buvo gerokai maþesnis negu su visais kitais Gisela

poskiepiais. ‘Reginos’ veislës treðniø vaismedþiai su Gi.5 poskiepiu, suformuoti vertikalios

aðies vainikais, ketvirtaisiais metais davë 12 t/ha dideliø treðniø derliø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Prunus avium, Gisela poskiepiai, derlius, vaisiø dydis,

formavimo sistema, sodinimo tankumas.

123


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 124–132.

INFLUENCE OF PLANTING SCHEMES AND CROWN

FORMS OF APPLE TREE ON ROOTSTOCK P 60 ON

PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY

Nobertas USELIS

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT–54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr.,

Lithuania. E-mail: n.uselis@lsdi.lt

The experiment of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 planting schemes and

crown forms was arranged at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2001. Investigations

were carried out in young orchard in 2002–2005. There were investigated fruit trees of

spindle form planted at spacings of 3 x 1.5 m, 3 x 1.25 m and 3 x 1 m; fruit trees of slender

spindle form planted at spacings of 3 x 1.5 m, 3 x 1.25 m, 3 x 1 m and 3 x 0.75 m; fruit trees of

free growing leader form planted at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m and fruit trees of super spindle

form planted at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m. It was established that apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on

rootstock P 60 starts fruiting in the third year after planting. In the third-fifth year of

growth significantly lower harvest per tree was produced by super spindles and slender

spindles planted most densely (at spacings of 3 x 0.75 and 3 x 1 m) in comparison to

spindles and free growing leader form planted most sparsely (at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m).

According to the diameter of trunk cross-section area, in most cases spindles and free

growing leader form planted most sparsely (at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m) significantly are the

most vigorous. The biggest fruit yield per unit of area was obtained in the densest orchard

(planted at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m), where fruit trees were trained as slender spindles and

super spindles, and in the orchard planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m, where fruit trees were

trained as spindles. The investigated dwarf orchard constructions in young orchard

influenced significantly neither the average fruit mass, nor fruit diameter.

After the evaluation of orchard constructions from the biological-economical point

of view we suggest to plant apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 at spacing of 3 x 1 m

and to train as spindles.

Key words: apple trees, P 60, planting schemes, crown forms, growth vigour, yield,

productivity, fruit quality.

Introduction. In the modern commercial apple tree orchards, which planting

and supervision is rather expensive, it is necessary as soon as possible to get rather

abundant, high quality and annual fruit yields. The planted fruit trees must be trained

in such a way that they preserved the desirable crown size and form, also physiological

balance between growth and fruiting; besides, that there would be good illumination

of crown and favourable conditions to obtain the early marketable yield of qualitative

124


fruits. Orchard density, pruning and training directly and indirectly affect the intensity

of fruit tree physiological processes.

Investigations in various countries revealed that fruit quality and yield per fruit

tree and from the unit of area is determined by the number of fruit trees per hectare.

Many authors established that the bigger yield from the area, but the lesser one per

fruit tree is obtained when fruit trees are planted more densely (Deviatov, 1997;

Mika, 1998; Uselis, 2003).

Fruit tree crown form most often is chosen taking into account the planting

scheme. Usually fruit trees are trained as spindles of various modifications. In Poland

fruit trees are trained as spindles when they are planted at spacing of 4 – 5 x 3 – 2 m

and as slender spindles when they are planted at spacing of 3.5 – 3 x 1.5 – 1 m. Very

densely planted fruit trees (3 x 0.8 – 0.5 m) are trained as super spindles or French

axis crowns (Makosz, 1997).

When investigating fruit tree over-ground part biology it was noticed that the

more the branch is leaned over the more it produces fruits. Therefore, when training

the crowns of spindle form, the shoots, which grow at vertical sharp angle, are

being bent horizontally (Forshey et al. 1992; Mika, 1998). Nevertheless, the other

authors noticed that crown form only slightly affected the yield and fruit quality of

apple tree cultivars ‘Jonagold’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Idared’ on dwarf rootstocks

(Krziewinska, Mika, 1998; Szewcuk, Sosna, 1998).

The aim of investigations is to analyze and to evaluate the influence of planting

schemes and crown forms of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 on fruit tree

yield, productivity and fruit quality in young age.

Material and methods. The experiment of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock

P 60 planting schemes and crown forms was arranged in 2001. Investigations were

carried out in young orchard in 2002–2005.

The scheme of the experiment: 1) spindle crown, planting scheme – 3 x 1.5 m

(2222 trees/ha); 2) slender spindle crown, planting scheme – 3 x 1.5 m

(2222 trees/ha); 3) free growing leader spindle, planting scheme – 3 x 1.5 m

(2222 trees/ha); 4) spindle crown, planting scheme – 3 x 1.25 m (2667 trees/ha);

5) slender spindle crown, planting scheme – 3 x 1.25 m (2667 trees/ha); 6) spindle

crown, planting scheme – 3 x 1 m (3333 trees/ha); 7) slender spindle crown, planting

scheme – 3 x 1 m (3333 trees/ha); 8) super spindle crown, planting scheme –

3 x 0.75 m (4444 trees/ha); 9) slender spindle crown, planting scheme – 3 x 0.75 m

(4444 trees/ha).

The investigation consisted of 4 replications with 5 fruit trees in each, 3 of

them were evaluated. There was evaluated: fruit tree flowering abundance in scores,

where 0 – fruit trees do not flower at all and 5 – fruit trees flower very abundantly;

growth vigour – trunk diameter (cm 2 ) at the height of 0.25 m, yield (kg/fruit tree and

t/ha), fruit tree productivity (kg/cm 2 ), the average fruit mass (g), and fruit diameter

(mm) were measured. The data of investigation were evaluated by Anova.

The changes of meteorological conditions during investigations didn’t influence

significantly the results, with the exception of 2004 when strong frosts in May

destroyed two thirds of apple tree blossoms.

125


Results. Flowering abundance and yield. ‘Auksis’ on dwarf

rootstock P 60 started abundant flowering in the third year in the orchard. According

to the average data of three years, the abundance of fruit tree flowering almost

didn’t depend on both orchard density and crown form (Table 1). Nevertheless,

fruit trees of spindle form planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m flowered most abundantly in

comparison with super spindles, which grew most densely.

Table 1. Flowering abundance and yield of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’.

Babtai, 2003–2005

1 lentelë.‘Auksio’ veislës obelø þydëjimo gausumas ir derlius. Babtai, 2003–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m

Free growing leader / Laisvai augantis

lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1.5 m

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Flowering abundance, scores

Þydëjimo gausumas balais

The average three-year fruit yield per fruit tree revealed a tendency that more

densely planted fruit trees produced poorer yield in comparison to these, which

grew more sparsely (Table 1). Most densely (3 x 0.75 m and 3 x 1 m) growing super

spindles trees and slender spindles trees yielded significantly worse than spindles

and free growing leaders trees planted most sparsely (3 x 1.5 m).

Growth vigour and productivity. According to trunk

cross-section area, spindles and free growing leaders trees planted most sparsely

(3 x 1.5 m) in most cases were the most vigorous (Table 2). The most densely

(3 x 0.75 m) growing fruit trees most often were significantly more slender in

comparison to these, which grew more sparsely.

Fruit trees of spindle form planted at spacings of 3 x 1 m and 3 x 1.25 and these

of free growing leader form planted most sparsely (at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m) are the

most productive (Table 2). Slender spindles growing at spacing of 3 x 1 m and super

spindles growing at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m are significantly the least productive.

126

Yield, kg/fruit trees

Derlius, kg/vaism.

4.3 11.79

4.3 10.37

4.4 13.14

4.6 11.50

4.4 9.76

4.7 10.23

4.4 8.61

4.0 7.51

4.3 8.61

LSD05 / R05 0.68 3.091


Table 2. Growth vigour and productivity of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’.

Babtai, 2003–2005

2 lentelë. ‘Auksio‘ veislës obelø augumas ir produktyvumas. Babtai, 2003–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

Trunk cross-section area in

2005 / Kamienëlio skerspjûvio

plotas 2005 m., cm 2

Yield per area and fruit quality. From the point of

economy, it is very important what yield is being gathered per unit of area. In the

first year of fruiting (2003) the most densely (at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m) planted

orchard of slender spindles and orchard of spindles planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m

yielded significantly better (Table 3). During the second year of fruiting (2004) because

of the strong spring frosts the yield wasn’t big and did not depend on fruit tree

planting scheme or their form, with the exception of more abundant yielding of free

growing leaders. In the third year of fruiting, when the orchard yielded especially

abundantly, the most densely planted orchard yielded significantly the most abundantly

not dependently on crown form and in most cases spindles planted at spacing of

3 x 1 m yielded significantly better (Table 3).

According to the average data of three years significantly the biggest fruit yield

per area unit was obtained in the densest orchard (3 x 0.75 m), where fruit trees

were trained as slender spindles and super spindles. Dwarf orchard construction,

where fruit trees were planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m and trained as spindles, was

distinguished for abundant yield also. In the case of this orchard construction, the

productivity per unit of area significantly didn’t differ from the productivity of the

orchard planted most densely and orchard, where spindles were planted slightly

more sparsely (3 x 1.25 m). Fruit trees planted most sparsely (3 x 1.5 m) or fruit

trees planted at similar spacing, but trained as slender spindles, produced significantly

smaller yield per unit of area in comparison to spindles planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m.

127

Productivity in 2003–2005

Produktyvumas 2003–2005 m.,

kg/cm 2

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m

19.64 1.80

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m

16.02 1.94

Free growing leader

Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1.5 m

18.37 2.15

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m

16.25 2.12

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m

15.09 1.94

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

15.21 2.02

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

16.14 1.60

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

13.31 1.69

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

13.63 1.90

LSD05 / R05 2.508 0.204


In the years of abundant yielding the average fruit mass depended neither on

fruit tree density, nor on crown form (Table 4). Only it was observed a tendency

that most densely planted slender spindles trees produced smaller fruits.

Table 3. Yield of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’. Babtai, 2003–2005

3 lentelë. ‘Auksio‘ veislës obelø derlius, t/ha. Babtai, 2003–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

Table 4. Fruit mass of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’. Babtai, 2003–2005

4 lentelë. Vaisiø masë, g. Babtai, 2003–2005 m.

When fruits were sorted into marketable classes it was established that in the

years of the average yielding (2003 and 2005) even 91–94% of fruits according to

their diameter corresponded to extra class requirements (Table 5). Fruit diameter

significantly depended neither on fruit tree density, nor on the form of their crown.

It was observed a tendency that there are more fruits of I and II class in more dense

variants. The amount of unsorted fruits reached only 0.3–1.8% and strongly varied

among different variants.

128

2003 2004 2005 Average

Vidutiniškai

Spindle / Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m 23.40 7.87 47.33 26.20

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m 18.40 10.51 40.21 23.04

Free growing leader / Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1.5 m 19.64 19.00 48.94 29.19

Spindle / Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m 23.98 13.52 54.51 30.67

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m 18.54 11.87 47.72 26.04

Spindle / Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m 31.06 12.13 59.13 34.11

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m 27.03 6.70 52.32 28.68

Super spindle / Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m 23.42 12.27 64.40 33.36

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m 37.55 8.75 68.48 38.26

LSD05 / R05 8.978 6.262 8.165 5.389

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

2003 2005

Average

Vidutiniškai

Spindle / Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m 146 125 135.5

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m 151 136 143.5

Free growing leader / Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3x1.5 m 151 120 135.5

Spindle / Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m 147 122 134.5

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m 151 133 142.0

Spindle / Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m 146 119 132.5

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m 131 125 128.0

Super spindle / Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m 154 124 139.0

Slender spindle / Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m 141 114 127.5

LSD05 / R05 22.5 19.8 16.3


Table 5. Distribution of apples according to diameter, %. Babtai,

2003–2005

5 lentelë. Obuoliø pasiskirstymas pagal skersmená, %. Babtai, 2003–2005 m.

Extra class

Orchard construction

Ekstra klasë

Sodo konstrukcija 65 mm and more

65 mm ir daugiau

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.5 m

Free growing leader / Laisvai

augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3x1.5 m

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1.25 m

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Discussion. Taking into account economical, agroclimatic and soil conditions

it is very important in every country to choose the suitable combinations of cultivars

and rootstocks and to create the optimal constructions of modern orchards. In Poland

E. Makosz (1997) states that it is more economical to exploit orchards, which density

is 2000–3000 tree/ha, than more sparse – 500–1200 tree/ha. Other authors are of

similar opinion (Groot, 1995; Mika, 1998; Meljnik, Shestopalj, 1998; Klochko, 1999).

Our investigations showed that in the case of combination of cv. ‘Auksis’ and dwarf

rootstock P 60 already in the third year after planting dependently on orchard

constructions there was obtained high quality fruit yield (18.4–37.6 t/ha). Similar

results with apple tree cv. ‘Ðampion’ were obtained by D. Kviklys, N. Kviklienë

(2005). Therefore, under Lithuanian agroclimatic conditions it is also possible to

obtain abundant and qualitative fruit yields already in the young orchard, when the

combination of cultivar and rootstock is suitable.

The investigations showed that in the third-fifth year in the orchard fruit trees

flowered abundantly and the abundance of flowering depended almost neither on

crown form, nor on planting schemes. The exception was only spindles planted at

spacing of 3 x 1 m (3333 trees/ha), which flowered most abundantly (4.7 scores),

and most densely (3 x 0.75 m, 4444 trees/ha) planted super spindles, which flowering

was the worst (4.0 scores). Nevertheless, the investigations of photosynthetic

pigments carried out in this experiment by Ðabajevienë et al. (2005) showed that

129

I and II class

I ir II klasë

60–64 mm

Unsorted

Nerûðiniai

up to 60 mm

iki 60 mm

93.0 6.5 0.5

93.4 5.5 1.1

93.8 4.4 1.8

94.2 5.1 0.7

94.0 5.4 0.6

91.5 7.2 1.3

91.3 8.4 0.3

94.3 5.1 0.6

91.2 7.4 1.4

LSD05 / R05 5.51 1.92 0.81


when apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 were densified from 2222 trees/ha up

to 4444 trees/ha the amount of photosynthesis pigments and their ratio in apple tree

leaves was suitable and crown forms in young age didn’t inhibit photosynthesis.

As well as in the investigations of the other authors (Chromenko, 2000;

Slowinski, Dziuban, 2002), in this experiment also it was observed that when

densifying fruit trees per unit of area both their growth vigour and productivity

decreased.

In most cases when fruit trees were densified from 2222 trees/ha up to

4444 trees/ha they grew and yielded significantly worse. Nevertheless, it is most

important to obtain big yields per unit of area and good quality fruits. According to

the data of three years, significantly the biggest yield per area was obtained when

fruit trees were planted most densely (4444 trees/ha) and trained as slender spindles

and super spindles. In young age spindles trees, which were planted more sparsely

(3333 trees / ha), was distinguished also for abundant flowering and abundant yield.

The investigation showed that in young age spindles with more branches have an

advantage over slender spindles.

When densifying dwarf orchards and increasing the productivity per area it is

very important to guarantee good fruit quality too. Investigations showed that

according to the average data, during the first three years of yielding neither fruit

mass nor fruit diameter depended on neither fruit tree density nor crown forms. It

may be that when orchard will grow older fruit quality will not become worse even

in the densest variants, if the previsioned fruit tree forms will be preserved taking

into account fruit tree planting distances.

The complex evaluations of the investigated orchard constructions from the

biological-economical point of view revealed that it is enough to plant apple tree cv.

‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 at spacing of 31 m (3333 trees/ha) and to train fruit trees

as spindles.

Conclusions. 1. Apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on dwarf rootstock P 60 start abundant

flowering and fruiting in the third year after planting.

2. According to the average three-year data (in the third-fifth years of growth)

fruit trees of all constructions flower in orchard abundantly, but the flowering of

spindles planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m is the biggest one.

3. The yielding of super spindles and slender spindles trees planted most densely

at spacings of 3 x 0.75 m and 3 x 1 m is the worst in comparison to the yielding of

spindles and free growing leaders trees planted most sparsely at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m.

4. According to the trunk cross-section area, in most cases spindles and free

growing leaders trees planted most sparsely at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m are significantly

the most vigorous.

5. Spindles trees planted at spacings of 3 x 1 m and 3 x 1.25 m and free

growing leaders trees planted most sparsely at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m are the most

productive. Slender spindles trees growing at spacing of 3 x 1 m and super spindles

trees growing at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m were significantly the least productive.

6. Significantly the biggest fruit yield per unit of area was obtained in the densest

orchard of slender spindles and super spindles trees planted at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m,

and in orchard of spindles trees planted at spacing of 3 x 1 m.

130


7. The investigated dwarf orchard constructions in the young orchard influence

significantly neither the average fruit mass nor fruit diameter.

8. After the evaluation of orchard constructions from the biological-economical

point of view we suggest to plant apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 at spacing

of 3 x 1 m and to train as spindles.

Acknowledgement. This work was partly supported by Lithuanian State Science

and Studies Foundation.

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OBELØ SU P 60 POSKIEPIU SODINIMO SISTEMØ IR VAINIKO FORMØ

ÁTAKA VAISMEDÞIØ PRODUKTYVUMUI IR VAISIØ KOKYBEI

N. Uselis

Santrauka

‘Auksio‘ veislës obelø su P 60 poskiepiu sodinimo schemø ir vainiko formø bandymas

árengtas 2001 m. Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institute. Tyrimai atlikti jauname

sode 2002–2005 m. Tirti paprastosios verpstës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 1,5 m,

3 x 1,25 m ir 3 x 1 m atstumais, laibosios verpstës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 1,5 m,

3 x 1,25 m, 3 x 1 m ir 3 x 0,75 m, laisvai auganèios lyderinës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti

3 x 1,5 m, ir superverpstës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 0,75 m atstumais. Nustatyta,

kad ’Auksio‘ veislës obelys su þemaûgiu P 60 poskiepiu gausiai þydëti ir derëti pradeda

treèiaisiais po sodinimo metais. Treèiaisiais–penktaisiais augimo metais ið esmës

prasèiausiai dera tankiausiai – 3 x 0,75 m ir 3 x 1 m atstumais – auginami superverpstës ir

laibosios verpstës vaismedþiai, palyginti su reèiausiai – 3 x 1,5 m atstumais – pasodintais

paprastosios verpstës ir laisvai auganèios lyderinës formos vaismedþiais. Pagal kamienëlio

skerspjûvio plotà daugeliu atvejø reèiausiai pasodinti (3 x 1,5 m) paprastosios verpstës ir

laisvai auganèios lyderinës formos vaismedþiai yra ið esmës augiausi. Ið esmës didþiausias

vaisiø derlius ið ploto vieneto gautas tankiausiame – 3 x 0,75 m atstumais pasodintame –

sode, kur vaismedþiai suformuoti laibosios verpstës ir superverpstës vainikais, ir 3 x 1 m

atstumais pasodintame sode, kur vaismedþiai suformuoti paprastosios verpstës formos

vainikais. Tirtos jauno þemaûgio sodo konstrukcijos neturi esminës átakos nei vaisiø

vidutinei masei, nei jø pasiskirstymui pagal skersmená. Ávertinus sodo konstrukcijas

biologiniu ir ûkiniu poþiûriu, siûloma ‘Auksio‘ obelis su þemaûgiu P 60 poskiepiu sodinti

3 x 1 m atstumais ir vaismedþius formuoti paprastosios verpstës formos vainikais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augumas, derlingumas, obelys, P 60, produktyvumas, sodinimo

sistemos, vainiko formos, vaisiø kokybë.

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SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 133–143.

INFLUENCE OF PLANTING SCHEMES AND CROWN

FORMS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY OF

APPLE TREES ON ROOTSTOCK P 22

Nobertas USELIS, Gintarë ÐABAJEVIENË,

Pavelas DUCHOVSKIS

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT–54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr.,

Lithuania. E-mail: n.uselis@lsdi.lt

The experiment of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 22 planting schemes and

crown forms was arranged at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2001. Investigations

were carried out in young orchard in 2002–2005. There were investigated fruit trees of

spindle form planted at spacing of 3 x 1.5 m; fruit trees of slender spindle form planted at

spacing of 3 x 0.5 m and 3 x 1 m; fruit trees of free growing leader form planted at spacing

of 3 x 1 m and fruit trees of super spindle form planted at spacing of 3 x 0.75 m, 3 x 0.5 m and

3 x 0.25 m. Slender spindles and super spindles also were investigated in V system.

It was established that apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on super dwarf rootstock P 22 start

abundant flowering already in the second year after planting. Fruit tree yield in young age

depended on planting schemes and almost didn’t depend on canopy form. Most sparsely

(3 x 1 m) planted fruit trees produced the biggest yield per tree – 3.98–4.57 kg. Super

spindles planted most densely in V system and super spindles planted at spacings of

3 x 0.25 m and 3 x 0.5 m were distinguished for the biggest average yield per unit of area,

correspondingly 32.82 t/ha and 26.14–27.54 t/ha. The smallest yield per unit of area was

obtained in most sparsely (3 x 1 m) planted variants (13.26–15.22 t/ha). Both the average

fruit mass and fruit size according to the diameter of the most densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted

fruit trees were significantly smaller in comparison to the fruits of more sparsely grown

fruit trees.

After the complex evaluation of orchard constructions from the biological-economical

point of view we suggest to plant apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on super dwarf rootstock P 22 at

spacing of 3 x 0.5 m (6667 trees / ha) and to train as super spindles.

Key words: apple trees, P 22, planting schemes, canopy forms, growth vigour, yield,

productivity, fruit quality.

Introduction. The growing of dessert apples in Lithuania is one of the priority

commercial horticulture trends. Therefore taking into account climatic and economical

conditions in the country the technologies of dessert fruit growing are being constantly

improved. The main purpose is to create the technologies, which allow cultivating

high quality dessert apple yields. This is especially important, because Lithuania

entered EU and competition in fruit market became extremely ardent. One of the

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most important questions in commercial fruit growing is to choose properly the

combination of cultivar and rootstock ant to introduce the optimal orchard

construction. In the last century the transition from the vigorous and sparsely planted

orchards to much more intensive densely planted semi-dwarf and dwarf orchards

took place (Uselis, 2002). Nevertheless, when intensifying horticulture various

investigators obtain different results. Slowinski and Dziuban (2002) investigations

showed that when orchards were densified from 2020 to 6040 trees / ha fruit tree

productivity decreased, but the yield per unit of area increased and fruit quality

didn’t worsen.

Intensive orchards were investigated by many scientists in various countries

(Sansavini et al., 1980; Ystaas et al., 1994; Callesen, 1995; Widmer and Krebs, 2001;

Szczygel et al., 2000). Lakso and Robinson (1997) established that the yield of fruit

trees was positively related to leaf area and light interception. There are a lot of

opinions that when fruit trees are densified too much fruit quality very worsen because

of the insufficient illumination (Mika et al., 2000; Ystaas et al., 1994; Licznar-

Malanczuk, 2001; Sadowski et al. 2001).

The aim of the investigation is to evaluate the influence of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’

on rootstock P 22 planting schemes canopy forms on fruit tree yield, productivity

and fruit quality in young age.

Material and methods. The experiment of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock

P 22 planting schemes and canopy forms was arranged in 2001. Investigations were

carried out in young orchard in 2002–2005.

The scheme of the experiment: 1) spindle, planting scheme – 3 x 1 m

(3333 trees/ha); 2) slender spindle, planting scheme – 3 x 1 m (3333 trees/ha); 3)

free growing leader form, planting scheme – 3 x 1 m (333 trees/ha); 4) super spindle,

planting scheme – 3 x 0.75 m (4444 trees/ha); 5) slender spindle, planting scheme –

3 x 0.75 m (4444 trees/ha); 6) super spindle, planting scheme – 3 x 0.5 m

(6667 trees/ha); 7) super spindle in V system, planting scheme – 3 x 0.5 m

(6667 trees/ha); 8) slender spindle in V system, planting scheme – 3 x 0.5 m

(6667 trees/ha); 9) super spindle, planting scheme – 3 x 0.25 m (13 333 trees/ha);

10) super spindle in V system, planting scheme – 3 x 0.25 m (13333 trees/ha).

The investigation consisted of 4 replications with 5 fruit trees in each, 3 of

them were accounting. There was evaluated: fruit tree flowering abundance in scores,

(0 – fruit trees do not flower at all and 5 – fruit trees flower very abundantly); trunk

diameter (cm 2 ) – at the height of 0.25 m, yield (kg/fruit tree and t/ha), fruit tree

productivity (kg/cm 2 of trunk cross section area (TCSA), the average fruit mass

(g), and fruit diameter (mm). The data of investigation were evaluated by ANOVA

statistical program.

The changes of meteorological conditions during investigations didn’t influence

significantly the means, which were being analyzed, with the exception of 2004

when strong frosts in May destroyed two thirds of apple tree blossoms.

Results. Flowering abundance and yield. ‘Auksis’ on super dwarf rootstock

P 22 started abundant flowering already in the second year after planting. Even

though most abundantly apple trees flowered in the fifth year of growth, the average

flowering abundance during 4 years was very high and reached 4–4.4 scores

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(Table 1). The abundance of fruit tree flowering significantly depended neither on

planting schemes, nor on canopy form.

Table 1. Flowering abundance and yield of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’

on rootstock P 22, 2002–2005

1 lentelë. ’Auksio‘ veislës obelø su P 22 poskiepiu þydëjimo gausumas ir

derlius 2002–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Free growing leader

Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.5 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.25 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.25 m

Flowering abundance, scores

Þydëjimo gausumas balais

The average four-year fruit yield per fruit tree almost didn’t depend on fruit tree

canopy form (Table 1). Investigations showed that fruit trees yield depended on

planting schemes. Fruit trees planted most sparsely (3 x 1 m) yielded best of all

(3.98–4.57 kg / trees). When densifying fruit trees their yield although not significantly

decreased. Only most densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted fruit trees yielded significantly

worst of all (2,06–2,46 kg / trees) (Table 1).

Fruit tree growth vigour and productivity.

According to the diameter of trunk cross-section area, fruit trees planted most sparsely

(3 x 1 m and 3 x 0.75 m) at the end of investigation were the most vigorous

(Table 2). The most densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted fruit trees grew significantly

weakly of all. Also in most cases fruit trees planted at spacing of 3 x 0.5 m grew

significantly worse in comparison to these, which grew more sparsely.

Fruit trees grown most densely (3 x 0.25 m) significantly were the most

productive (Table 2). Fruit tree productivity didn’t depend on canopy form and in

most cases didn’t depend on planting distances when fruit trees were planted at

spacing of 3 x 0.5 m and more sparsely.

135

Averige yield, kg/trees

Vidutinis derlius, kg/vaism.

4.3 3.98

4.2 4.27

4.4 4.57

4.2 4.24

4.4 4.01

4.4 3.92

4.1 3.56

4.4 3.26

4.0 2.06

4.1 2.46

LSD05 / R05 0.61 1.192


Table 2. Growth vigour and productivity of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’

on rootstock P 22, 2003–2005

2 lentelë. ’Auksio‘ veislës obelø su P 22 poskiepiu augumas ir produktyvumas

2003–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

Trunk cross-section area

(TCSA), 2005

Kamienëlio skerspjûvio plotas

(KSP) 2005 m., cm 2

Yield per area and fruit quality. The first yield in the

second year after planting strongly depended on fruit tree density (Table 3). The

least yield per unit of area was produced by the most sparsely planted fruit trees

(8.17–9.61 t/ha). When the number of fruit trees per hectare increased, the yield of

orchard increased also. The doubling of the number of fruit trees per unit of area

produced significantly bigger yield, and the biggest yield was obtained when the

orchard was planted most densely (3 x 0.25 m) (23.34–26.86 t/ha). It was observed

that in young age fruit tree forms didn’t influence significantly orchard yield.

Ne x t year, after the big first yield, the second yield was smaller and very

varied. In most cases there weren’t significant differences of yielding among the

different variants (Table 3).

In 2004 during apple tree flowering there were strong frosts, which injured

most blossoms and therefore fruit yield was very poor. Next year the biggest apple

yield was obtained in the ex periment (33–80 t/ha). In the most productive year the

poorest yield was obtained from the most sparsely (3 x 1 m) planted orchard

(Table 3). When increasing fruit tree number per unit of area, orchard yield increases

also and when orchard is planted at spacing of 3 x 0.5 m and 3 x 0.25 m the increase

136

Productivity, 2002–2005,

kg/cm 2 of TCSA

Produktyvumas 2002–2005 m.,

kg/cm 2 KSP

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

9.56 2.40

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

11.13 2.61

Free growing leader

Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1 m

10.70 2.34

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

10.18 2.40

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

10.52 2.62

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

8.88 2.26

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.5 m

8.05 2.26

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

9.30 2.85

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.25 m

7.20 3.50

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.25 m

7.67 3.11

LSD05 / R05 1.523 0.871


of yield is significant. Most densely planted super spindles in V system were

distinguished for the biggest yield (80 t/ha). Super spindles planted at spacing of

3 x 0.25 m and 3 x 0.5 m also were distinguished for very big yield.

Table 3. The yield of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 22,

2002–2005

3 lentelë. ’Auksio’ veislës obelø su P 22 poskiepiu derlius, t/ha 2002–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Yield / Derlius, t/ha

Sodo konstrukcija 2002 2003 2004 2005

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Free growing leader

Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.5 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.25 m

Super spindle, form V

Superverpstë, V system, 3 x 0.25 m

9.61 5.83 4.51 33.11

average

vidutiniškai

13.26

9.32 8.69 4.40 34.45 14.22

8.17 11.58 4.60 36.55 15.22

11.23 8.29 5.30 50.58 18.85

10.56 12.33 5.41 42.98 17.82

14.68 19.96 6.90 63.00 26.14

16.50 15.05 7.20 56.15 23.72

14.85 14.88 7.01 50.12 21.72

26.86 11.21 8.98 63.10 27.54

23.34 18.36 9.25 80.33 32.82

LSD05 / R05 5.057 10.630 4.011 18.251 9.251

The average yield data during four years showed that like in the most productive

year the least yield per unit of area was obtained in the most sparsely planted orchards

(13.26–15.22 t/ha) (Table 3). In most cases significantly more abundantly yielded

the orchard planted at spacing of 3 x 0.5 m and 3 x 0.25 m. The most densely

planted super spindles trained in V system (32.82 t/ha) and super spindles planted at

spacing of 3 x 0.25 m and 3 x 0.5 m (26.14–27.54 t/ha) were distinguished for the

most abundant average yield.

Investigating fruit quality it was established that in very productive years

(2002–2005) the average fruit mass was smaller than that in not productive 2003

(Table 4). In the first year of yielding the average fruit mass depended neither on

crown form, nor on planting scheme. Was observed the tendency that the most

densely grown fruit trees produced the smallest fruits. Super spindles planted at

spacing of 3 x 0.5 m were distinguished for significantly bigger fruits than these of

the same fruit trees planted twice more densely (3 x 0.25 m). In the extremely

productive year 2005 the average fruit mass significantly depended neither on planting

schemes, nor on canopy forms.

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Table 4. Fruit mass, g. 2002–2005

4 lentelë. Vaisiø masë, g 2002–2005 m.

Orchard construction

Fruit mass / Vaisiø masë, g

Sodo konstrukcija 2002 2003 2005

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Free growing leader

Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.5 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.25 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.25 m

118.8 152.5 128.3

average

vidutiniškai

133.2

126.8 153.2 133.7 137.9

131.8 139.5 129.0 133.4

127.3 143.0 128.5 132.9

117.0 139.8 135.6 130.8

141.5 137.0 121.9 133.5

128.8 139.0 121.6 129.8

128.3 138.5 123.5 130.1

105.8 130.2 120.4 118.8

106.5 131.5 124.0 120.7

LSD05 / R05 29.93 18.84 14.52 11.71

The average three year data showed that the average fruit mass was significantly

smaller only of the most densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted fruit trees (Table 4). In the

other orchard constructions the mass of fruits was almost the same.

The data of fruit calibration showed that in most cases the tendency prevailed

that spindles and slender spindles planted most sparsely produced the fruits of the

biggest diameter (Table 5). The most densely (3 x 0.25 m) grown fruit trees produced

significantly the smallest fruits.

Discussion. When intensifying commercial fruit growing further on, it is very

important that the optimal rootstock, which corresponds to the agroclimatic conditions

of the country, would be chosen for the main commercial apple tree cultivars and

the rational construction of the commercial orchard would be created. The average

vigorous apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ was chosen for the investigations and it was expected

to densify orchard maximally and to obtain the abundant and good quality fruit yields.

Investigations showed that apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on super dwarf rootstock

P 22 flowered abundantly already in the second year after planting. According to the

average four-year data, flowering abundance depended neither on fruit tree canopy

form, nor on planting schemes, but fruit trees were of different growth vigour. It

was established that according to trunk cross-section area the most sparsely

(3 x 1 m and 3 x 0.75 m) grown fruit trees were the most vigorous, and the most

densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted fruit trees grew significantly less. The similar results

138


were obtained by other researchers also (Deviatov, 1997; Mika, 1998; Chromenko,

2000; Uselis, 2003). Therefore, when the orchard is densified, even though fruit

trees flower abundantly, their growth vigour and fruit yield per fruit tree decreases.

On the other hand, investigations carried out by Ðabajevienë et al. (2006) showed

that in this experiment, in all combinations of apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on rootstock

P 22 orchard densities (3 x 1 m; 3 x 0.75 m; 3 x 0.5 m; 3 x 0.25 m) and canopy

forms there was enough of photosynthesis pigments and ratio of chlorophylls a/b

were sufficient and did not inhibit photosynthesis. Consequently, there is the foundation

for the abundant yields.

Table 5. Distribution of apples according to the diameter, %,

2002–2005

5 lentelë. Obuoliø pasiskirstymas pagal skersmená, % 2002–2005 m.

Literature data show that yield of the different fruit tree branches significantly

Orchard construction

Sodo konstrukcija

Spindle

Paprastoji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 1 m

Free growing leader

Laisvai augantis lyderinis vainikas, 3 x 1 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.75 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.5 m

Slender spindle

Laiboji verpstë, 3 x 0.5 m

Super spindle

Superverpstë, 3 x 0.25 m

Super spindle, V system

Superverpstë, V forma, 3 x 0.25 m

Extra class. Fruit diameters 65 mm and more

Ekstra klasë. Vaisiø skersmuo – 65 mm ir daugiau

2002 2003 2005

average

vidutiniškai

90.2 93.2 94.7 92.7

79.2 96.6 94.5 90.2

80.4 98.0 87.4 88.6

85.4 93.4 88.5 89.1

78.6 94.5 88.4 87.2

85.3 95.5 86.2 89.0

83.6 95.9 81.5 87.0

80.3 95.7 84.5 86.8

59.7 86.8 85.0 77.2

71.4 87.2 85.8 81.5

LSD05 / R05 12.22 10.54 11.05 8.51

depends on the position of the branch. If the branch is growing upward, the growth

prevails and yielding is being inhibited and vice versa – if the branch is horizontal or

hung down the yielding prevails and growth processes are being inhibited (Forshey

et al., 1992; Mika, 1998). Other investigators state that canopy forms do not influence

fruit tree yield (Krzewinska, Mika, 1998; Szewcuk, Sosna, 1998). Our investigations

showed that this process significantly depends on the growth vigour of the combination

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of cultivar and rootstock. However, when growing the averagely vigorous cultivar

on super dwarf rootstock the growth is moderate and irrespective of the branch

growth – upward (free growing leader), horizontal (spindle), downward (slender

spindle) – all the branches grow moderately and yield abundantly. It is thought that

for the combinations of moderate vigorous cultivar and super dwarf rootstock this

is determined not by canopy form, but by the effect of the interaction of rootstock

and cultivar.

Fruit tree productivity, which includes fruit tree yield and growth vigour, showed

that in most cases averagely vigorous fruit trees on super dwarf rootstock P 22

planted at different distances and trained differently did not differ by their productivity.

Very densely planted fruit trees, which though yielded worse, but also grew much

more poorly, were significantly most productive ones. From the biological-economical

point of view, it is extremely important to obtain the abundant and high quality fruit

yields per unit of area. Makosz (1997) states that it is more economical to exploit the

orchards, which density is 2000–3000 trees / ha, than more sparse ones –

500–1200 trees / ha. Our investigations included even higher orchard density. The

results showed that super spindles trained in V system and planted at spacing of

3 x 0.25 m and super spindles trained in V system and planted at spacing of

3 x 0.25 m and 3 x 0.5 m were distinguished for the biggest average yield. The least

yield per unit of area was obtained in the most sparsely (3 x 1 m) planted variants. At

the same time it is necessary to evaluate that both the average fruit mass and fruit

size according to diameter of the most densely (3 x 0.25 m) grown fruit trees were

significantly smaller in comparison with fruits of the more sparsely grown fruit

trees.

The complex evaluation of the investigated apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on super

dwarf rootstock P 22 orchard constructions revealed the optimal orchard construction

for this combination of cultivar and rootstock – super spindles grown at spacing of

3 x 0.5 m. This orchard construction produces one of the best yields. Moreover, it

is very important that fruit average mass and size according to the diameter is

characteristic to this combination of cultivar-rootstock and do not get smaller as in

denser variants of the experiment.

Conclusions. 1. Apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on super dwarf rootstock P 22 start

abundant flowering already in the second year after planting. The abundance of fruit

tree flowering significantly depends neither on planting schemes, nor on crown forms.

2. Fruit tree yield in young age depend on planting schemes and almost doesn’t

depend on canopy form. Most sparsely (3 x 1 m) planted fruit trees produced the

biggest yield (3.98–4.57 kg/trees). The most densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted fruit trees

yielded significantly less of all (2.06–2.46 kg/trees).

3. According to the trunk diameter area the most vigorous are the most sparsely

(3 x 1 m and 3 x 0.75 m) planted fruit trees. The most densely (3 x 0.25 m) planted

fruit trees grew significantly less of all.

4. Significantly the most productive were the most densely (3 x 0.25 m) grown

fruit trees. Productivity of fruit trees on rootstock P 22 doesn’t depend on canopy

form and in most cases doesn’t depend on planting distance also when fruit trees are

planted at spacing 3 x 0.5 m and more sparsely.

140


5. Super spindles planted most densely in V system and super spindles planted

at spacings 3 x 0.25 m and 3 x 0.5 m were distinguished for the biggest average yield

per unit of area, correspondingly 32.82 t/ha and 26.14–27.54 t/ha. The smallest yield

per unit of area was obtained in most sparsely (3 x 1 m) planted variants (13.26

15.22 t/ha).

6. Both the average fruit mass and fruit diameter of the most densely

(3 x 0.25 m) planted fruit trees were significantly smaller in comparison to the fruits

of more sparsely grown fruit trees. Fruit mass and fruit diameter in the orchards of

other constructions were almost the same.

7. After the complex evaluation of orchard constructions from the biologicaleconomical

point of view we suggest to plant apple tree cv. ‘Auksis’ on super dwarf

rootstock P 22 at spacing of 3 x 0.5 m (6667 fruit trees / ha) and to train as super

spindles.

Acknowledgement. This work was partly supported by Lithuanian State Science

and Studies Foundation.

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141

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2006 06 27

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6. Lakso A. N., Robinson T. L. Principles of orchard systems

management optimizing supply, demand and partitioning in apple trees // Acta

Horticulturae. 1997. V. 451. P. 405–415.

7. Licznar-Malanczuk M. Wzrost I plonowanw dwoch odmian jabloni

przy rožnych systemach prowadzenia drzew w warunkach Dolnego Sl¹ska // Zesz. Nauk.

Ak. Roln. We Wroclawiu, 2001. Nr. 415. P. 51–71.

8. Makosz E. Economical evaluation of different apple planting schemes //

Strategy of fruit growing development in Poland until 2010. Lublin, 1997. P. 187–190.

9. Mika A. Orchard models of XXI century // Proc. XXX VII horticultural

conference Skierniewice, 1998. P. 75–76.


10. M i k a A., Krawec A., Buler Z. et all. Wplyw systemow sadzienia,

formowania I ciêcia jabloni ‘Glister’ szczepionych na podkladkach skarlaj¹cych na

plonowanie intercepcjê igystrybucjê swiatla slonecznego w koronach drzew. // Zesz. Nauk.

Inst. Sad. I Kw. Skierniewicah, 2000. T. 8. P. 99–116.

11. Sadowski A., Bucko J., Guzewski W. et all. Naswietlenie w

rožnych czêsciach korony I wybarwienie jablek ‘Jonagold’, w zaležnosci od zagêszczenia

drzew w sadzie // „Jakosc Owocow W Obliczu Globalizacji Producji Sadowniczej”. 2001. 74 p.

12. Sansavini S., Bassi D., Giunchi L. Tree efficiency and fruit

quality in high-density apple orchards // Acta Hort. 1980. V. 114. P. 114–136.

13. Slowinski A., Dziuban R. Growth, cropping and fruit quality of

‘Gloster’ and ‘Elstar’ apple trees at two planting densities // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë.

Babtai, 2002. V. 21(3). P. 113–117.

14. Szewcuk A., Sosna I. Development of model of intensive apple orchard

at Dalnego Slaska climatic conditions // Proc. Horticulture in Central and Eastern Europe.

Lublin, 1998. P. 213–220.

15. S zczygiel A., Kadzik F., Mika A. Wplyw systemow I gênstosci

sadzienia na wzrost I owocowanie 4 odmian jabloni na pogorzu Karpackim. // Zesz. Nauk.

Inst. Sad. I Kw. Skierniewicah. 2000. T. 8. P. 87–97.

16. Ðabajevienë G., Uselis N., Duchovskis P. Investigation

of photosynthesis pigments of cultivar ‘Auksis’ in high density orchards of different

contruction. // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, 2005. V. 24(4). P. 57–64.

17. Uselis N. Evolution of orchard constructions in Lithuania // Sodininkystë ir

darþininkystë Babtai, 2002. V. 21(3). P. 98–112.

18. Uselis N. Growth and productivity of dwarf apple trees in bearing orchards

of various constructions // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, 2003. V. 22(1). P. 3–13.

19. W i d m e r A., K erbs C. Influence of planting density and tree form on

yield and fruit quality of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Royal Gala’ apples // Acta Horticulturae.

2001. V. 557. P. 235–241.

20. Y staas J., Hovland O., Kvale A. Effect of tree density on

productivity and fruit quality of ‘Red Gravenstein’ on rootstocks M.9 and M.26 in singlerow

system // Norwegian J. Agric. Sci. 1994. V. 8. P. 69–74.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

133–143.

SODINIMO SCHEMØ IR VAINIKO FORMØ ÁTAKA VAISMEDÞIØ SU P 22

POSKIEPIU PRODUKTYVUMUI IR VAISIØ KOKYBEI

N. Uselis, G. Ðabajevienë, P. Duchovskis

Santrauka

’Auksio‘ veislës obelø su P 22 poskiepiu sodinimo schemø ir vainiko formø bandymas

árengtas 2001 m. Lietuvos sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institute. Tyrimai atlikti jauname

sode 2002–2005 m. Tirti paprastosios verpstës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 1,5 m

atstumais, laibosios verpstës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 1 m ir 3 x 0,5 m, laisvai

auganèios lyderinës formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 1 m, ir superverpstës formos

vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 0,75 m, 3 x 0,5 m ir 3 x 0,25 m atstumais. Laibosios verpstës ir

142


superverpstës formos vaismedþiai dar tirti ir V formos konstrukcijos sode.

Nustatyta, kad ‘Auksio’ veislës obelys su labai þemu P 22 poskiepiu gausiai pradeda

þydëti jau antraisiais po sodinimo metais. Jaunø vaismedþiø derlingumas priklauso nuo

sodinimo schemø ir beveik nepriklauso nuo vainiko formos. Gausiausiai dera reèiausiai

(3 x 1 m) pasodinti vaismedþiai (3,98–4,57 kg/vaism.). Gausiausiu vidutiniu derlingumu ið

ploto vieneto iðsiskyrë tankiausiai V formos konstrukcijos sode pasodinti superverpstës

formos vaismedþiai (32,82 t/ha) ir tokios pat formos vaismedþiai, pasodinti 3 x 0,25 m ir

3 x 0,5 m atstumais (26,14–27,54 t/ha). Maþiausias derlius ið ploto vieneto gautas reèiausiai

(3 x 1 m) pasodintuose variantuose (13,26–15,22 t/ha). Tankiausiai (3 x 0,25 m) auginamø

vaismedþiø ir vidutinë vaisiaus masë, ir vaisiø skersmuo buvo ið esmës maþesni, palyginti

su reèiau auganèiø vaismedþiø vaisiais.

Kompleksiðkai biologiniu ir ûkiniu poþiûriu ávertinus tirtas sodo konstrukcijas,

vidutinio augumo ‘Auksio’ veislës vaismedþius su labai þemu P 22 poskiepiu siûloma

sodinti 3 x 0,5 m atstumais (6667 vaism./ha) ir formuoti superverpstës formos vainikus.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augumas, derlingumas, obelys, sodinimo schemos, P 22,

produktyvumas, vainikø formos, vaisiø kokybë.

143


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 144–150.

COMPARISON OF 18 ROOTSTOCKS FOR APPLE TREE

CV. ‘ELISE’ IN V PLANTING SYSTEM

Dariusz WRONA, Andrzej SADOWSKI

Department of Pomology, Warsaw Agricultural University – SGGW,

Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland.

E-mail: wrona@alpha.sggw.waw.pl

The experiment was set up on a fertile alluvial soil, at the Warsaw-Wilanów

Experimental Station, Central Poland, in spring of 2000. Apple trees of cv. ‘Elise’ were

planted on 18 rootstocks of different origin and grew in V planting system. Different

rootstocks were classified into three groups, depending on expected tree vigour: semidwarfing

(P 14, P 60, B.396 and M.26), dwarfing (B.9, B.146, P 2, P 59 and seven subclones

of M.9 – EMLA, Burgmer 984 & 751, T339, Pajam 1, Pajam 2, RN29) and superdwarfing

(M.27, P 16, PB-4). Trees on rootstocks assumed as semi-dwarfing were spaced at a

distance of 3.8 × 1.0 m, on dwarfing – at a distance of 3.5 × 0.7 m and on superdwarfing –

at a distance of 3.2 × 0.5 m. The trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) after 6 years on semidwarfing

rootstocks was the greatest on P 14; vigour of trees on other rootstocks was

similar. The cumulative yield per tree (2001–2005) was the lowest on M.26. Fruit size did

not depend on the rootstock. The cropping efficiency coefficient (CEC) was the highest

of trees on B.396 and the lowest – on P 14. On rootstocks considered as dwarfing, TCSA

after six years was the smallest on P 59 and the largest on M.9 EMLA; vigour of trees on

other subclones of M.9 was smaller and similar. The lowest cumulative yield per tree was

obtained on P 59 and the highest – on M.9 751, M.9 984 and M.9 EMLA. Fruit size was

similar and did not depend on rootstock. The CEC was the highest on P 59. On

superdwarfing rootstock trees on PB 4 were the smallest. The highest cumulative yield per

tree gave the trees on P 16, while on PB 4 – the lowest one. Fruit size did not depend on the

type of superdwarfing rootstock. In this group, CEC was the highest for trees on P 16.

Key words: apple, tree vigour, planting density, productivity, cumulative yield,

cropping efficiency, fruit size.

Introduction. For intensive planting system of apple fruit orchard, the ideal

tree is one that does not grow too vigorously, is early and regular bearing, and

produce high quality fruits (Wertheim, 1989; Vebster, 1992; Vercammen, 2004). M.9

EMLA is considered as standard and the most commonly used dwarfing rootstock

for high-density apple orchards. Its popularity is due to its moderate vigour, high

precocity of bearing, productivity of trees grown on it and good fruit size. Many

experiments with apple rootstocks have been carried out in different countries searching

144


for rootstocks best adapted to local climatic and soil conditions (Ferree et al., 1995;

Riesen and Monney, 1996; Quamme et al., 1999; Czynczyk et al., 2001; Sadowski et

al., 2004).

The aim of our experiment was to assess eighteen rootstocks of different origin

and vigour for cultivar ‘Elise’ planted in the “V” system.

Material and methods. The experiment was set up on a fertile salty loam

alluvial soil, at the Warsaw-Wilanów Experimental Station, Central Poland, in spring

of 2000. Apple trees ‘Elise’ on 18 rootstocks of different origin and vigour were

planted and trained in the V planting system. Different rootstocks were classified

into three groups, depending on expected tree vigour: semi-dwarfing (P 14, P 60,

B.396 and M.26), dwarfing (B.9, B.146, P 2, P 59 and seven subclones of M.9 –

EMLA, Burgmer 984 & 751, T339, Pajam 1, Pajam 2, RN29) and superdwarfing

(M.27, P 16, PB-4). Trees on rootstocks assumed as semi-dwarfing were spaced at

a distance of 3.8 × 1.0 m (2631 trees/ha), on dwarfing at a distance of 3.5 × 0.7 m

(4082 trees/ha) and on superdwarfing at a distance of 3.2 × 0.5 m (6250 trees/ha).

Each rootstock was represented by 10 trees per plot, in four replications. Alleyways

were under sward and herbicide strips were maintained along tree rows.

After six years, tree growth was estimated by the trunk cross-sectional area

(TCSA) derived from diameter measurements at 30 cm above the ground. The yield

was harvested every year and in this paper is presented as cumulative yield of five

years (2001–2005). Mean fruit mass was also determined. The cropping efficiency

coefficient (CEC) was calculated as a cumulative yield to the final TCSA ratio.

The results were elaborated by analysis of variance, separately for each group

of rootstocks. For evaluation of significance of differences between treatment means

the Newman-Keuls test was used, at α=0.05.

Results. After six years in the orchard (spring of 2006) the TCSA on semidwarfing

rootstocks was the largest on P 14. The vigour of trees on other rootstocks

was similar (Table 1). The cumulative yield per tree (2001–2005) was the lowest on

M.26. Fruit size did not depend on the rootstock (Table 2). The cumulative cropping

efficiency coefficient (CEC) was the highest for trees on B.396 and the lowest on

P 14 (Table 5).

On rootstocks considered as dwarfing, TCSA after six years was the smallest

on P 59 and the largest on M.9 EMLA. No significant differences in vigour between

the different subclones of M.9 were noted (Table 1). The lowest cumulative yield

per tree was obtained on P 59 and the highest on M.9 751, M.9 984 and M.9 EMLA.

Fruit size was similar and did not depend on rootstock (Table 3). The CEC was the

highest on P 59 (Table 5).

On superdwarfing rootstocks the lowest TCSA had trees on PB 4, significantly

higher – on M.27 and the highest on P 16 (Table 1). The highest cumulative yield per

tree gave the trees on P 16, while on PB 4 – the lowest. Fruit size did not depend on

the type of superdwarfing rootstock (Table 4). In this group, CEC was the highest

for trees on P 16 (Table 5).

145


Table 1. Size of apple tree cv. ‘Elise’ six years after planting

(spring of 2006)

1 lentelë. ‘Elise’ veislës obelø dydis, praëjus ðeðeriems metams po pasodinimo,

2006 m. pavasaris

Semidwarfing

rootstock

Pusiau

þemaûgiai

poskiepiai

P 14

P 60

B.396

M.26

P 14

P 60

B.396

M.26

Trunk crosssectional

area

(TCSA)

Kamieno

skerspjûvio

plotas (KSP),

cm 2

Dwarfing

rootstock

Þemaûgiai

poskiepiai

Trunk crosssectional

area

(TCSA)

Kamieno

skerspjûvio

plotas (KSP),

cm 2

Table 2. The cumulative yield (2001–2005) and mean fruit mass of

apple tree cv. ‘Elise’ on semi-dwarfing rootstocks

2 lentelë. ‘Elise’ veislës obelø su pusiau þemaûgiais poskiepiais suminis

derlius (2001–2005 m.) ir vidutinë vaisiaus masë

Rootstock

Poskiepis

36.0 b

20.16 a

18.60 a

22.15 a

M.9 EMLA

M.9 984

M.9 751

M.9 T339

M.9 Pajam 1

M.9 Pajam 2

M.9 RN29

B.9

B.146

P 2

P 59

Table 3. The cumulative yield (2001–2005) and mean fruit mass of

apple tree cv. ‘Elise’ on dwarfing rootstocks

3 lentelë. ‘Elise’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais suminis derlius

(2001–2005 m.) ir vidutinë vaisiaus masë

Rootstock

Poskiepis

M.9 EMLA

M.9 984

M.9 751

M.9 T339

M.9 Pajam 1

M.9 Pajam 2

M.9 RN29

B.9

B.146

P 2

P 59

Yield (kg tree -1 )

Derlius, kg medis -1

49.9 b

50.3 b

56.8 b

42.1 a

Yield (kg tree -1 )

Derlius, kg medis -1

49.3 b

48.5 b

50.1 b

43.7 ab

46.9 ab

46.0 ab

39.2 ab

43.2 ab

38.9 ab

37.4 ab

31.3 a

146

18.83 d

16.93 cd

16.68 cd

14.79 bc

14.74 bc

17.74 cd

14.66 bc

4.40 bc

12.11 b

15.95 cd

7.23 a

Superdwarfing

rootstock

Nykštukiniai

poskiepiai

M.27

P 16

PB 4

Trunk crosssectional

area

(TCSA)

Kamieno

skerspjûvio

plotas (KSP),

cm 2

7.65 b

8.20 b

5.69 a

Mean fruit mass

Vidutinë vaisiaus masë, g

220 a

225 a

233 a

222 a

Mean fruit mass

Vidutinë vaisiaus masë, g

231 a

230 a

239 a

230 a

237 a

240 a

231 a

226 a

230 a

230 a

217 a


M.27

P 16

PB 4

Table 4. The cumulative yield (2001–2005) and mean fruit mass of

apple tree cv. ‘Elise’ on superdwarfing rootstocks

4 lentelë. ‘Elise’ veislës obelø su nykðtukiniais poskiepiais suminis derlius

(2001–2005 m.) ir vidutinë vaisiaus masë

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Table 5. Cropping efficiency coefficient of apple tree cv. ‘Elise’

5 lentelë. ‘Elise’ veislës obelø produktyvumas

Semidwarfing

rootstock

Pusiau þemaûgiai

poskiepiai

P 14

P 60

B.396

M.26

CEC

Produktyvumas,

kg cm -2

1.39 a

2.51 b

3.12 c

1.90 a

Yield (kg tree -1 )

Derlius, kg medis -1

21.9 b

29.5 c

16.6 a

Dwarfing

rootstock

Þemaûgiai

poskiepiai

M.9 EMLA

M.9 984

M.9 751

M.9 T339

M.9 Pajam 1

M.9 Pajam 2

M.9 RN29

B.9

B.146

P 2

P 59

CEC

Produktyvumas,

kg cm -2

Discussion. Kurlus and Ugolik (1996), Sadowski et al. (1997) and Wlosek and

Jadczuk (1998) reported that trees on P 14 showed the highest vigour; branches of

trees spaced at 1 m in the row overlapped, and this indicated that this rootstock was

too vigorous in comparison with other rootstocks classified as semi-dwarfing and

dwarfing. Czynczyk et al. (2001) confirmed their opinion that trees on P 14 grew

too vigorously in the first years only. Later the growth of trees on P 14 is usually

much weaker. Results of above-mentioned authors partly confirmed our experiment.

The growth of trees on P 14 was stronger than M.26 and other rootstock, both at

the first years after planting and after six years. Fruit bud formation on P 14 was

delayed, and CEC was the lowest. Similar results were also obtained by Skrzyñski

and Poniedziaùek (2000) and Sùowiñski (2004).

In the present study none of the M.9 subclone had any consistent effect on the

trunk diameter of trees and yield in the orchard, however trees on M.9 EMLA showed

a slightly more vigorous growth and better yielding. Our report corresponded to the

results obtained by Loreti et al. (2001) and Webster et al. (2000), who pointed that

size of trees on M.9 subclones was similar; albeit some differences in vigour of trees

and yielding on some subclones and on M.9 EMLA had been noticed. Czynczyk et al.

(2001) pointed that trees on P 59 grew weakly, and yielded not very abundantly,

147

2.63 a

2.88 a

3.00 a

3.03 a

3.22 a

2.64 a

2.66 a

3.02 a

3.19 a

2.36 a

4.34 b

Mean fruit mass

Vidutinë vaisiaus masë, g

166 a

176 a

162 a

Superdwarfing

rootstock

Nykštukiniai

poskiepiai

M.27

P 16

PB 4

CEC

Produktyvumas,

kg cm -2

2.88 a

3.65 b

2.93 a


what is in line with our study. Trees on P 59 were the smallest and gave the low

yield.

According to Ùukuã (1994), trees on rootstock PB 4 have similar vigour to

M.9. Our experiment did not confirm this opinion. Tress on PB 4 were very dwarfing,

showing in the orchards weaker vigour than M.27 and P 16. This confirms the

observations of Sadowski et al. (2000, 2004), who described its vigour as lower

than on M.9 and even on P 22. Dwarfing effect of PB 4 as well P 22 has been

successively intensified; the contrast between trees on PB 4 and M.9 increased with

the age.

Conclusions. 1. Trees on semi dwarfing rootstock P 14 showed too vigorous

growth, delayed fruit bud formation and had the lower cropping efficiency coefficient.

On fertile soils in particular this rootstock is not acceptable for high-density plantings.

2. Dwarfing rootstock M.9 EMLA and other subclones of M.9 providing early

bearing and high productivity but not significant differences in vigour and yielding

between them were noted. This rootstock remains as universal rootstock for intensive

orchard.

3. For intensive orchard the most promising alternative rootstock for M.9 is

P 16. Trees on this rootstock had a relatively low vigour and high cropping efficiency

coefficient.

Gauta

2006 05 12

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 13

References

1. Czynczyk A., Bielecki P., Bartosiewicz B. Testing new

dwarfing apple rootstocks from Polish and foreign breeding programmes. Acta Hort. 2001.

557. P. 83-89.

2. Ferree D. C., Hirst P.M., Schmid J. C., Dotson P. E.

Performance of three apple cultivars with 22 dwarfing rootstocks during 8 seasons in

Ohio. Fruit Var. 1995. J. 49(3). P. 171-178.

3. Kurlus R., Ugolik M. Wzrost i plonowanie drzew jabùoni Szampion,

Rogal Gala i Jonagored na podkùadkach polskiej hodowli. XXXIV Ogólnopolska Konf.

Sad. 1996. P. 271-273.

4. Loreti F., Massai R., FeiC., Cinelli F. Cecconi B.

Evaluation of eleven dwarfing apple rootstock: preliminary results. Acta Hort. 2001. 557.

P. 155-161.

5. Ùukuã T. PB 4 – obiecujàca podkùadka dla jabùoni. Sad Nowoczesny. 1994. (7).

9 p.

6. Quamme H. A., Hampson C. R., Brownlee R. T. Apple

rootstock evaluation for the climate of British Columbia. Proc. Int. Seminar „Apple

Rootstocks for Intensive Orchards” (Warsaw-Ursynów, Poland, 18–21.08.1999). 1999.

P. 87-88.

7. Riesen W., Monney P. Apfelunterlagen: Zwischenergebnisse deutsch

und westschweizerischer Versuche. Obst und Weinbau. 1996. 132(21). P. 548-552.

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8. Sadowski A., Maciejczak G., Wrona D. Growth and early

bearing of ‘Ðampion’apple trees depending on rootstock and tree quality. Internat. Conf.

„Modern Orchards: Achievements and Tendencies”. Collection of Scientific Articles. 1997.

P. 28-34.

9. Sadowski A., Grochowalski W., Sùowiñski A.,

Ýóùtowski J. Ocena siùy wzrostu jabùoni na podkùadce PB 4. Zesz. Nauk. Ins. Sad.

I Kw. Skierniewice. 2000. 8. P. 71-76.

10. Sadowski A., Dziuban R., Jabùoñski K. Growth and

cropping of three apple cultivars on different rootstocks over a 7-year period. Acta Hort.

2004. 658. P. 257-263.

11. Skrzyñski J., Poniedziaùek W. Wzrost i plonowanie odmiany

‘Jonagold’ na kilku podk³adkach wegetatywnych. Zesz. Nauk. Inst. Sad. I Kwiat. W

Skierniewicach. 2000. T. 8. P. 53-58.

12. S ù o w i ñski A. Comparison of 22 rootstock of different vigour and origin

used for Elise apple trees. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 279-286.

13. W ertheim S. J. Preliminary results of trials with dwarfing apple and pear

rootstock. Acta Hort. 1989. 243. P. 59-70.

14. W ebster A. D. New dwarfing rootstocks for apple, pear, plum and sweet

cherry – a brief review. Acta Hort. 1992. 349. P. 145-153.

15. Webster T., Tobutt K., Evans K. Breeding and evaluation of

new rootstocks for apple, pear and sweet cherry. Compact Fruit Tree. 2000. 33(4). P. 100-104.

16. Wlosek Stangred C. R., Jadczuk E. Wpùyw podkùadki na

wzrost i plonowanie jab³oni. XXXVII Ogólnopolska Konf. Sad. 1998. P. 526-527.

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658. P. 313-318.

149


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

144–150.

‘ELISE’ OBELØ VEISLËS SU 18 POSKIEPIØ PALYGINIMAS V FORMOS

SODINIMO SISTEMOJE

D. Wrona, A. Sadowski

Santrauka

Bandymas pradëtas derlingoje aliuvinëje dirvoje Varðuvos-Vilanovo eksperimentinëje

stotyje, Centrinëje Lenkijoje, 2000 metø pavasará. ‘Elise’ veislës obelys buvo pasodintos

su 18 skirtingos kilmës poskiepiø ir augo V formos sodinimo sistemoje. Skirtingi poskiepiai

buvo suskirstyti á tris grupes, priklausomai nuo vaismedþio tikëtino augumo: pusiau

þemaûgiai (P 14, P 60, B.396 ir M.26), þemaûgiai (B.9, B.146, P 2, P 59 ir septyni M.9

subklonai – EMLA, Burgmer 984 ir 751, T339, Pajam 1, Pajam 2, RN29) ir nykðtukiniai

(M.27, P 16, PB-4). Vaismedþiai su pusiau þemaûgiams priskirtais poskiepiais buvo pasodinti

3,8 × 1,0 m, su þemaûgiais – 3,5 × 0,7 m ir su nykðtukiniais – 3,2 × 0,5 m atstumais. Po 6 metø

pusiau þemaûgiø poskiepiø grupëje didþiausias buvo kamieno skerspjûvio plotas (KSP)

vaismedþiø su P 14 poskiepiu; vaismedþiø augumas su kitais poskiepiais buvo panaðus.

2001–2005 m. maþiausias suminis derlius buvo vaismedþio su M.26 poskiepiu. Vaisiø dydis

nuo poskiepiø nepriklausë. Produktyviausi buvo vaismedþiai su B.396, o maþiausiai

produktyvûs – su P 14 poskiepiu. Ið þemaûgiams priskirtø poskiepiø grupës po ðeðeriø

metø maþiausias KSP buvo vaismedþiø su P 59, didþiausias – su M.9 EMLA poskiepiu.

Vaismedþiø augumas su kitais M.9 subklonais buvo maþesnis, bet panaðus. Maþiausias

suminis derlius buvo vaismedþio su P 59, didþiausias – su M.9 751, M.9 984 ir M.9 EMLA

poskiepiais. Vaisiø dydis buvo panaðus ir nuo poskiepiø nepriklausë. Produktyviausi

vaismedþiai buvo su P 59 poskiepiu. Ið nykðtukiniø poskiepiø augumà labiausiai sumaþino

PB-4. Didþiausias suminis derlius buvo vaismedþiø su P 16, maþiausias – su PB-4 poskiepiu.

Vaisiø dydis nuo nykðtukiniø poskiepiø rûðies nepriklausë. Ðioje grupëje produktyviausi

buvo vaismedþiai su P 16 poskiepiu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: obelys, vaismedþiø augumas, sodinimo tankumas, derlingumas,

suminis derlius, produktyvumas, vaisiø dydis.

150


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 151–157.

INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS AND PLANTING

SCHEMES OF APPLE TREE CV. ‘LIGOL’ ON

PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY

Nobertas USELIS

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr.,

Lithuania.E-mail: n.uselis@lsdi.lt

The experiment of apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’ rootstocks and planting schemes was arranged

at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 1999. Investigations were carried out in

young orchard in 2001–2005. There were investigated fruit trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstock

P 60 planted at spacing of 4 x 2 m (1250 trees / ha), on rootstock P 2 planted at spacings of

4 x 2 m (1250 trees/ha) and 4 x 1.5 m (1667 trees/ha), and on rootstock P 22 planted at

spacings of 4 x 1.5 m (1667 trees/ha) and 4 x 1 m (2500 trees/ha). It was established that

apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstock P 2 and P 60 yielded most abundantly (21.1–

22.9 kg / tree). Apple trees on super dwarf rootstock P 22 yields significantly loss (9.2–

11.0 kg / tree). Fruit trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstock P 60 and P 2 were the most vigorous,

and these on rootstock P 22 – the most productive ones. Significantly the biggest average

fruit yield per unit of area was obtained from fruit trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 60 and

P 2 (26.4–28.6 t/ha). When the distances among fruit trees on rootstocks P 2 and P 22 were

decreased by 0.5 m, the yield increased insignificantly. Fruit trees on more vigorous

rootstocks P 60 and P 2 produce significantly the biggest fruits and their mass does not

depend on planting distances. From the practical point of view it is suggested to grow in

commercial orchards fruit trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 2 and P 60 spaced at

4 x 1.5–2 m.

Key words: growth vigour, apple trees, rootstocks, productivity, planting schemes,

fruit quality.

Introduction. When planting commercial orchards it is very important to choose

the proper combinations of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks in order orchards

would start early yielding and would produce the abundant and high quality fruit

yields. One of the most reliable and most widely applied means in commercial fruit

growing to attain more early fruit tree yielding and to increase the productivity is the

use of dwarf rootstocks. The investigations of dwarf rootstocks in the orchard

were carried out in various agroclimatic zones and a lot of data was collected (Bite,

Lepsis, 2004; Slowinski, 2004 ). There were conducted many investigations at the

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture both in nursery and orchard (Kviklys et al., 1999;

Kviklys et al., 2000; Kviklys, 2002). Nevertheless, it is necessary to find the optimal

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combinations of cultivar and rootstock and also the corresponding planting schemes

for apple trees of every more important cultivar taking into account agroclimatic and

economical conditions of the country (Maas, Werthem, 2004).

The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the influence

of dwarf rootstocks and planting schemes on the productivity and fruit quality of

one of the most important winter apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’ in the young age.

Material and methods. The experiment of apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’ rootstocks

and planting schemes was arranged at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in

1999. Investigations were carried out in young orchard in 2001–2005.

The scheme of the experiment: 1) fruit trees on rootstock P 60, planting scheme

4 x 2 m (1250 trees/ha); 2) fruit trees on rootstock P 2, planting scheme 4 x 2 m

(1250 trees/ha); 3) fruit trees on rootstock P 2, planting scheme 4 x 1.5 m

(1667 trees/ha); 4) fruit trees on rootstock P 22, planting scheme 4 x 1.5 m

(1667 trees/ha); 5) fruit trees on rootstock P 22, planting scheme 4 x 1 m

(2500 trees/ha).

The investigation consisted of 4 replications with 5 fruit trees in each

experimental plot, 3 of them were accounting. There was evaluated: fruit tree flowering

abundance in scores, where 0 – fruit trees do not flower at all and 5 – fruit trees

flower very abundantly; trunk diameter (cm 2 ) – at the height of 0.25 m, yield

(kg/fruit tree and t/ha), fruit tree productivity (kg/cm 2 ), the average fruit mass (g).

The data of investigation were evaluated by ANOVA.

The changes of meteorological conditions during investigations didn’t influence

significantly the means, which were being analyzed, with the exception of 2004

when strong frosts in May destroyed two thirds of apple tree blossoms.

Experimental orchard was maintained on the technologies of the intensive

commercial orchards (Uselis, 2005). Fruit trees were trained as slender spindles.

Results. The experimental apple trees flowered very abundantly in 2001, 2003

and 2005. In 2002 and 2004 apple tree flowered less. The average apple tree flowering

during five years reached 3.98–4.13 scores and significantly didn’t depend on

rootstock (Table 1).

The average fruit yield of apple trees cv. ‘Ligol’ strongly depended on rootstock.

According to five-year data, apple trees on rootstock P 60 yielded most abundantly

(Table 1). The similar yield was obtained from apple trees on rootstock P 2. Meanwhile

apple trees on rootstock P 22 yielded significantly less. It was observed the tendency

that apple trees on the same rootstocks but planted more densely yielded less, even

though statistically significant differences weren’t obtained (Table 1).

Fruit tree growth vigour according to the trunk cross-section area strongly

depended on the rootstock they were grown. It was established that fruit trees on

rootstocks P 60 and P 2 didn’t differ according to the trunk cross-section area

(Table 2). Meanwhile the trunk cross-section area of fruit trees on rootstock P 22

was significantly smaller than that of fruit trees on rootstocks P 60 or P 2.

It was established that fruit trees on super dwarf rootstock P 22 were the most

productive ones (Table 2). Fruit trees on more vigorous rootstocks P 60 and P 2

were significantly less productive. Fruit tree planting distances investigated in the

experiment didn’t influence significantly their productivity.

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Table 1. The influence of rootstocks on flowering abundance and

yield of apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’, 2001–2005

1 lentelë. Poskiepiø átaka ‘Ligol’ veislës obelø þydëjimo gausumui ir derliui

2001–2005 m.

Rootstock, planting scheme

Poskiepis, sodinimo schema

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees/ha

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

Flowering abundance, 0-5 scores

Þydëjimo gausumas balais

Table 2. The influence of rootstocks on growth vigour and

productivity of apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’, 2001–2005

2 lentelë. Poskiepiø átaka ‘Ligol’ veislës obelø augumui ir produktyvumui

2001–2005 m.

One of the most important indices is fruit yield per unit of area. The first abundant

fruit yield per unit of area was obtained in 2001. This yield didn’t depend on fruit tree

rootstock. More densely (4 x 1.5 m) planted fruit trees on rootstock P 2 yielded

significantly more abundantly than these, which were planted more sparsely

(4 x 2 m) (Table 3). The same tendency was observed with the rootstock P 22. More

densely (4 x 1 m) planted fruit trees on rootstock P 22 yielded more abundantly than

these, which were planted more sparsely (4 x 1.5 m).

153

Yield, kg / tree

Derlius, kg/vaism.

4.01 22.9

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees/ha

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

4.12 21.1

P 2, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees/ha

P 2, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

4.21 17.7

P 22, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees/ha

P 22, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

3.98 11.0

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 trees/ha

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 vaism./ha

4.13 9.2

LSD05 / R05 0.69 6.23

Rootstock, planting scheme

Poskiepis, sodinimo schema

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees / ha

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

Trunk cross-section area

(TCSA) / Kamienëlio skerspjûvio

plotas (KSP) 2005 m., cm 2

Productivity 2001–2005,

kg/cm 2 TCSA / Produktyvumas

2001–2005 m., kg/cm 2 KSP

37.3 3.07

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees / ha

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

34.6 3.05

P 2, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees / ha

P 2, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

36.7 2.41

P 22, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees / ha

P 22, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

12.9 4.26

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 trees / ha

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 vaism./ha

10.6 4.34

LSD05 / R05 11.55 1.102


Table 3. The influence of rootstocks on yield of apple tree

cv. ‘Ligol’, t/ha, 2001–2005

3 lentelë. Poskiepiø átaka ‘Ligol’ veislës obelø derliui, t/ha 2001–2005 m.

Rootstock, planting scheme

Poskiepis, sodinimo schema

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees/ha

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

22.5 12.2 54.2 6.2 47.9

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees/ha

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

23.1 11.1 45.8 7.1 44.9

P 2, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees/ha

P 2, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

34.8 13.5 52.8 10.7 35.5

P 22, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees/ha

P 22, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

22.5 10.8 30.8 14.8 12.5

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 trees/ha

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 vaism./ha

27.0 14.7 31.0 20.0 22.0

LSD05 / R05 10.20 5.01 12.52 6.25 13.02

After the productive first year fruit trees yielded worse and the second yield

was twice as smaller. There weren’t significant differences among fruit trees on

different rootstocks; only it was observed the tendency that more densely planted

fruit trees on the same rootstocks produced more abundant yields per area (Table 3).

In 2003 the experimental orchard yielded very abundantly. The biggest yield was

obtained from fruit trees on rootstock P 60, also the similar yields were obtained

from fruit trees on rootstock P 2. Meanwhile fruit trees on super dwarf rootstock

P 22 produced statistically significantly smaller yield per unit of area. The similar

results were obtained in 2005. In 2004 after strong frosts the yield very varied, but

the most densely grown fruit trees on super dwarf rootstock P 22 yielded best of all.

The biggest average fruit yield per unit of area during the five years of investigation

was obtained from fruit trees ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 2 and P 60 spaced at 4 x 2 m

– respectively 26.4 t/ha and 28.6 t/ha (Table 4). When growing fruit trees on super

dwarf rootstock P 22, even though planted more densely, there was obtained the

smallest yield per unit of area (18.3 t/ha). When the distances among fruit trees on

both rootstocks P 2 and P 22 were reduced by 0.5 m, the yield increased, but there

weren’t significant differences.

Fruit trees on more vigorous rootstocks P 60 and P 2 produced the biggest

fruits. Their mass independently on planting distance was 200–209 g. Fruit trees on

superdwarf rootstock P 22 produced significantly smaller fruits (Table 4).

Discussion. When choosing the rational construction of the commercial orchard

it is very important to choose the optimal combinations of cultivar and rootstock, the

corresponding fruit tree canopy forms and planting schemes. It is indicated in the

literature (Kviklys et al., 1999; Uselis, 2005) that fruit trees on rootstocks P 60 and

P 2 are more vigorous therefore they are planted more sparsely, and fruit trees on

rootstock P 22 are less vigorous, therefore they are planted more densely. The

tendencies of fruit tree vigour were confirmed by the data of this experiment also,

when trunk cross-section area of fruit trees on rootstocks P 60 and P 2 was more

than three times bigger in comparison to that of fruit trees on rootstock P 22. The

154


analogical data are being obtained of fruit tree yield also. It was established in the

investigation that the more vigorous dwarf fruit trees are (on more vigorous rootstocks

P 60 and P 2), more abundantly they yield in comparison with these fruit trees on

rootstock P 22, which growth vigour is very weak. The similar data, that the smaller

rootstock, the poorer yielding of fruit tree, were obtained by other authors too (Barritt

et al., 2004). Nevertheless, there are data in the literature that yield of apple tree cv.

‘Ligol’ on these rootstocks significantly do not differ (Czynczyk et al., 2004).

Table 4. The influence of rootstocks on the average fruit yield

(t/ha) and fruit mass (g) of apple tree cv. ‘Ligol’, 2001–

20054

4 lentelë. Poskiepiø átaka ‘Ligol’ veislës obelø vidutiniam vaisiø derliui (t/ha)

ir vaisiø masei (g) 2001–2005 m.

Rootstock, planting scheme

Poskiepis, sodinimo schema

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees/ha

P 60, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

Average yield

Vidutinis derlius, t/ha

Fruit tree productivity is the complex index, which include fruit tree growth

vigour and fruit tree yield. It showed that fruit trees of the weakest vigour on rootstock

P 22 are significantly the most productive ones. Nevertheless, in commercial

horticulture there isn’t enough of this index only and it is much more important the

yield per unit of area and fruit quality. There was established in the investigation that

fruit trees on rootstock P 22, despite the biggest productivity per unit of area, produced

significantly the smallest yield. Even fruit tree densifying in the rows didn’t change

productivity significantly.

The second very important index is fruit quality. There was established in the

investigation that fruit trees on rootstock P 22 produced significantly smaller fruits,

even though there are data in the literature that the mass of fruits of fruit trees on

rootstocks P 60 and P 22 is similar (Czynczyk et al., 2004).

In most cases the tendency was observed that the further fruit tree densifying

in the rows decreases fruit tree yield, but the yield per unit of area slightly increases.

This is confirmed densifying by abundant data of the other authors also (Deviatov,

1997; Mika, 1998; Uselis, 2003).

After the complex evaluation of fruit trees ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 60, P 2 and

P 22 planted at different spacing, it is possible to state that from the practical point of

view it is best of all to grow in commercial orchards fruit trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on

155

Average fruit mass

Vidutinë vaisiaus masë, g

28.6 209

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 trees/ha

P 2, 4 x 2 m, 1250 vaism./ha

26.4 200

P 2, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees/ha

P 2, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

29.5 200

P 22, 4 x 1.5 m, 1667 trees/ha

P 22, 4 x 1,5 m, 1667 vaism./ha

18.3 156

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 trees/ha

P 22, 4 x 1 m, 2500 vaism./ha

23.0 148

LSD05 / R05 7.11 37.2


ootstocks P 2 and P 60 planted at spacing of 4x1.5 m. It is advisable not to grow

apple trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 22 or to grow them only if they are being

irrigate, because of their poorer yield and especially worse fruit quality. Investigations

by Petronis (2002) showed that when irrigating ‘Ligol’ on rootstock P 22 fruit yield

significantly increases and fruit quality improves.

Conclusions. 1. The average fruit tree flowering abundance does not depend

on rootstock. According to the average data, apple trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks

P 2 and P 60 produce the biggest yield (21.1–22.9 kg/tree). Apple trees on super

dwarf rootstock P 22 yield significantly less (9.2–11.0 kg/trees).

2. Most vigorous fruit trees are on rootstocks P 60 and P 2, most productive

ones – on rootstock P 22.

3. The biggest fruit yield per unit of area was obtained from apple trees of

cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 2 and P 60 spaced at 4 x 2 m – respectively 26.4 t/ha and

28.6t/ha. When the distances among fruit trees on rootstocks P 2 and P 22 were

decreased by 0.5 m, the yield increased insignificantly.

4. Fruit trees on more vigorous rootstocks P 60 and P 2 produce the biggest

fruits and their mass does not depend on planting distances.

5. From the practical point of view it is best of all to grow in commercial

orchards apple trees of cv. ‘Ligol’ on rootstocks P 2 and P 60 planted at spacing of

4 x 1.5-2 m.

Acknowledgement. This work was partly supported by Lithuanian State Science

and Studies Foundation.

References

156

Gauta

2006 07 01

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 27

1. Barritt B. H., Konishi B. S. and D illey M. A. The influence

of 12 M.9 clones and 12 other dwarfing rootstocks on ‘Fuji’ apple tree growth, productivity

and susceptibility to Southwest trunk injury in Washington // Acta Horticulturae. Zaragosa,

2004. N. 658. V. 1. P. 103–109.

2. Bite A. and Lepsis J. The results of extended duration testing of apple

rootstocks in Latvia // Acta Horticulturae. Zaragosa, 2004. N. 658. V. 1. P. 115–118.

3. Deviatov A.S. Productivity of apples on dwarf rootstocks at dense planting

system // Dwarf apple rootstocks in horticulture. 1997. P. 92–93.

4. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Bartosiewicz B. Influence of

subclones of M.9 and P 22 and new polish-bred rootstocks on growth and yields of

‘Jonagold’ and ‘Ligol’ apple trees // Acta Horticulturae. Zaragosa, 2004. N. 658. V. 1.

P. 129–133.

5. Kviklys D., Uselis N., Kviklienë N. Rootstock effect on

‘Jonagold’ apple tree growth, yield and fruit quality // Apple rootstocks for intensive

orchards. Warszawa, 1999. P. 67–69.


6. Kviklys D., Petronis P., Kviklienë N. Effects of apple

rootstocks on the yield and fruit quality // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, 2000.

V. 19(1). P. 23–31.

7. Kviklys D. Apple rootstock research in Lithuania with aspect to fruit quality

and tree productivity // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, 2002. V. 21(3). P. 3–13.

8. Maas F. M., Wertheim S. J. A multi-site rootstock trial with the

apple cultivars ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ and ‘Jonagold’ // Acta Horticulturae. Zaragosa,

2004. N. 658. V. 1. P. 177–184.

9. Mika A. Orchard models of XXI century // Proc. XXXVII horticultural conference

Skierniewice, 1998. P. 75–76.

10. Petronis P. Efficiency of irrigation fir young dwarf ‘Ligol’ apple trees //

Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, 2002. V. 21(4). P. 39–44.

11. Slowinski A. Comparison of 22 rootstocks of different vigour and origin

used for ‘Elise’ apple trees // Acta Horticulturae. Zaragosa, 2004. N. 658. V. 1. P. 279–286.

12. Uselis N. Growth and productivity of dwarf apple trees in bearing orchards

of various constructions // Sodininkystë ir darþininkystë. Babtai, 2003. V. 22(1). P. 3–13.

13. U selis N. Intensyvios obelø ir kriauðiø auginimo technologijos. Babtai,

2005. 210 p.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

151–157.

POSKIEPIØ IR SODINIMO SCHEMØ ÁTAKA ‘LIGOL’ VEISLËS OBELØ

PRODUKTYVUMUI IR VAISIØ KOKYBEI

N. Uselis

Santrauka

‘Ligol’ veislës obelø poskiepiø ir sodinimo schemø bandymai árengti 1999 m. Lietuvos

sodininkystës ir darþininkystës institute. Tyrimai atlikti jauname sode 2001–2005 m. Tirti

‘Ligol’ veislës vaismedþiai su P 60 poskiepiu, pasodinti 4 x 2 m atstumais (1250 vaism./ha),

su P 2 poskiepiu, pasodinti 4 x 2 m (1250 vaism./ha) ir 4 x 1,5 m atstumais (1667 vaism./ha),

ir su P 22 poskiepiu, pasodinti 4 x 1,5 m (1667 vaism./ha) ir 4 x 1 m atstumais

(2500 vaism./ha). Nustatyta, kad gausiausiai dera ‘Ligol’ obelys su P 60 ir P 2 poskiepiais

(22,9–21,1 kg/vaism.). Obelys su þemiausiu P 22 poskiepiu dera ið esmës prasèiau

(11,0 kg/vaism.). Ið esmës augiausi ‘Ligol’ vaismedþiai yra su P 60 ir P 2 poskiepiais, o

produktyviausi – su P 22 poskiepiu. Ið esmës didþiausias vidutinis vaisiø derlius ið ploto

vieneto gautas auginant ‘Ligol’ veislës vaismedþius 4 x 2 m (1250 vaism./ha) atstumais su

P 2 ir P 60 poskiepiais – atitinkamai 26,4 ir 28,6 t/ha. Sumaþinus atstumus 0,5 m, vaismedþiø

su P 2 ir P 22 poskiepiais derlius ið esmës nepadidëjo. Vaismedþiai su stipresnio augumo

P 60 ir P 2 poskiepiais iðaugina ið esmës didþiausius vaisius ir jø masë nepriklauso nuo

sodinimo atstumo. Praktiniu poþiûriu versliniuose soduose geriausia auginti ‘Ligol’ veislës

vaismedþius su P 2 ar P 60 poskiepiais ir juos sodinti 4 x 1,5–2 m atstumais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augumas, derlius, obelys, poskiepiai, produktyvumas, sodinimo

schemos, vaisiø kokybë.

157


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 158–163.

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF APPLE TREE CULTIVAR

‘CELESTE’ ON DWARF ROOTSTOCKS IN CENTRAL

POLAND

Pavel BIELICKI, Alojzy CZYNCZYK, Barbara BARTOSIEWICZ

Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, 96-100 Skierniewice,

Poland. E-mail: pbielick@insad.pl

The field experiment was established in the spring of 2001 in the Experimental Orchard

in Dabrowice, near Skierniewice, on a sandy loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. The

influence of five dwarf apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of the

cultivar ‘Celeste’ was studied. One-year-old maiden trees grafted on rootstocks PB-4,

P 59, P 60, P 14 and M.7 were planted at the same spacing of 3.5 x 2.0m (1429 trees/ha).

Trees grafted on M.9 and M.26 were used as standards.

After the first five years of the evaluation, Byelorussian rootstock PB-4 and Polish

rootstock P 59 were found to have induced the lowest growth of the cultivar ‘Celeste’.

The size of the trees on these two rootstocks was smaller than of those on the standard

M.9. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, trees on P 60 were smaller than those on the

standard M.26. Rootstock P 14 reduced tree growth to the same extent as M.7.

The highest cumulative yield (2002–2005) of ‘Celeste’ was recorded for trees on P 14,

M.26 and M.7. Trees grafted on P 60 and M.9 showed similar yields. The lowest yield was

obtained from trees on PB-4.

In 2005, the fruit quality parameters (size, mean weight, and colour) of cultivar ‘Celeste’

were generally very good with the exception of those harvested from trees on PB-4 and

P 59, which produced the smallest fruit.

Key words: apple, Malus sp., clonal rootstock, growth, yield, fruit quality, yield

efficiency.

Introduction. In recent years there has been a growing interest among fruitgrowers

in summer varieties of apple. However, interest in such varieties is often

short-lived. The main reason is that they can be very disappointing in production and

the prices for this type of apples are highly changeable. Another problem is that there

is only a small assortment of summer cultivars. In comparison with the autumn or

winter cultivars, the number of cultivars in this group is quite small. At the end of

20th century, new summer varieties appeared, originating mainly from ‘Golden

Delicious’, the fruit of which was ready for consumption already in the first week of

August (Steinborn, 1983; Kruczyñska, 2002). ‘Celeste’ (syn. ‘Delcorf Schumann’)

158


is one of them. It came from Germany, where it was found by Schumann. ‘Celeste’

is one of two mutants of cultivar ‘Delcorf’ used in Poland. With respect to many

characteristics, it resembles the parent cultivar. Tree vigour, crown appearance as

well as susceptibility to diseases and productivity are all similar in both cultivars. It

requires fruitlet thinning to ensure regular fruiting. There is little difference in fruit

size between ‘Celeste’ and ‘Delcorf’, but the red blush on ‘Celeste’ apples is more

intense and spreads over a larger area of the skin. Fruit ripening time is similar to that

of ‘Delcorf’ (Goddrie, 1987). The share of ‘Celeste’ trees, and of the other mutant

‘Ambassy’, in the total number of apple trees produced in Poland has been growing

in recent years.

The aim of the experiment was to determine the usefulness of dwarfing

rootstocks for the growing of apple tree cultivar ‘Celeste’. An evaluation of seven

rootstocks with obvious differences in growth vigour should accurately single out

the best rootstocks for the production of trees of this cultivar in the soil conditions

of central Poland.

Material and methods. The field experiment was established in the spring of

2001 in the Experimental Orchard in Dabrowice, near Skierniewice (central Poland),

on a sandy loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. The influence of five dwarfing

apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of cultivar ‘Celeste’ was

studied. One-year-old maiden trees grafted on rootstocks PB-4, P 59, P 60, P 14 and

M.7 were planted at the same spacing of 3.5 x 2.0 m (1429 trees/ha). Trees grafted

on M.9 and M.26 were used as standards. The experiment was set up in four

randomized blocks with three trees per plot. Thus, there were 12 trees of cultivar

‘Celeste’ growing on each rootstock.

All the trees were trained as slender spindles and tied to a supporting structure.

Herbicides were used to control weeds in the tree rows, whereas the inter rows

were grassed over in the second year after planting. Fertilization, plant protection

and other agro-technical treatments were applied according to the standard

recommendations for commercial apple orchards in Poland. The trees were dripirrigated

from the first year after planting.

In the course of the experiment the following observations and measurements

have been recorded: health status of trees, trunk circumferences (measured at

30 cm above ground level), yield (determined every year, separately for each tree)

and fruit quality (samples were taken from each replication). In 2005, fruit quality

was assessed using an electronic sorting machine manufactured by Greef. Statistical

analyses involved variance analyses and Duncan’s multiple range test at P = 0.05.

Results and discussion. T ree health. During the first five years of the

evaluation there was no loss of trees due to frost damage or infection with diseases.

Only 2 trees of ‘Celeste’ grafted on P 59 were lost due to falling over during periods

of strong winds while carrying the burden of a heavy crop. Similar observations

regarding the poor rooting ability of trees grafted on very dwarfing rootstocks were

made by Wertheim (1998) and Czynczyk et al. (2004).

Tree growth. After the first five years of the evaluation, Byelorussian rootstock

PB-4 (Ùukuã, 1994) and Polish rootstock P 59 were found to have induced the

lowest growth of cultivar ‘Celeste’ (Table 1). The size of the trees on these two

159


ootstocks was significantly smaller than of those on the standard M.9. Similar results

were obtained by Bielicki et al. (2004) for PB-4 with ‘Jonagold’ trees grafted on it

and Czynczyk et al. (2004) for P 59 with ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Ligol’ trees. Sùowiñski and

Sadowski (1999) reported that the vigour induced by PB-4 was similar to that of

M.27. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, trees on P 60 were smaller than those on

the standard M.26. In contrast, trees on P 14 were bigger than those on the standard

rootstock. The results confirmed earlier reports by Czynczyk (1995), Jakubowski

and Zagaja (2000) and Czynczyk et al. (2004), who stated that Polish rootstock P 14

showed a stronger effect inducing vigour than M.26. P 14 reduced tree growth to

the same extent as M.7. However, the results obtained by Hrotko and Berczi (1999)

showed that trees of cultivar ‘Idared’ on P 14 were bigger than trees on M.7.

Table 1. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), yield and yield

efficiency of cv. ‘Celeste’ grown on dwarf rootstocks

1 lentelë. ‘Celeste’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais kamieno

skerspjûvio plotas (KSP), derlius ir produktyvumas

Rootstock

Poskiepis

M.9 standard

M.9 kontrolë

TCA in

2005

KSP 2005 m.,

cm 2

Yield / Derlius

2002 2003 2004 2005

kg/tree / kg/vaism.

Averages followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 (Duncan’s multiple

range test) / Ta paèia raide paþymëti vidurkiai pagal Dunkano kriterijø (p = 0,05) ið esmës nesiskiria.

Yields and Fruit Quality. The first yields from the cultivar ‘Celeste’ were obtained

in the second year after planting (Table 1). Very low yields (less than 1kg per tree)

were obtained from trees grafted on the semi-dwarf and medium vigorous rootstocks.

In the third year, the trees on those rootstocks produced bigger yields in comparison

with the trees on the dwarf rootstocks (M.9, PB-4 and P 59). Nevertheless better

yielding of the trees on the dwarf rootstocks was observed in the next year of fruitbearing.

In 2005, the yielding situation was reversed. The trees on the semi-dwarf

and medium vigorous rootstocks gave higher yields. The highest cumulative yield

160

Total yield

in 2002–

2005

Suminis derlius

2002–2005 m.

Yield

efficiency

index (kg/cm 2

TCA)

Produktyvumas,

kg/cm 2 KSP

10.7 b 2.3 c 1.2 a 6.8 d 4.6 a 15.5 c 1.5 b

PB-4 5.0 a 1.4 b 0.8 a 2.8 b 1.9 a 6.8 a 1.4 ab

P 59 6.6 a 2.4 c 1.6 a 5.2 c 3.5 a 12.7 b 2.0 c

M.26 standard

M.26 kontrolë

19.6 c 0.7 a 5.9 c 1.0 a 16.9 cd 25.0 de 1.3 ab

P 60 11.7 b 0.5 a 4.0 b 1.4 ab 11.1 b 17.0 c 1.5 b

P 14 23.7 d 0.1 a 7.9 d 0.3 a 19.1 d 27.4 e 1.2 ab

M.7 23.4 d 0.7 a 6.3 c 1.4 ab 14.5 c 22.9 d 1.1 a


(2002–2005) was recorded for the ‘Celeste’ trees on P 14, M.26 and M.7. Trees

grafted on P 60 and M.9 showed similar yields. The lowest yield was obtained from

the trees on PB-4. The total yields obtained for the trees grafted on the very dwarfing

rootstocks were similar to those presented by Bielicki et al. (2004) and Slowinski

(2004).

The results concerning tree productivity, expressed as the yield efficiency index,

showed that the trees on P 59 were more productive than these on remaining

rootstocks. They had the highest yield efficiency index (expressed as ratio of yield

per tree to the trunk cross-sectional area (kg/cm 2 )). Similar values of this index were

obtained from the trees on the dwarf rootstocks. The trees on semi-dwarf rootstocks

(P 14 and M.7) had the lowest yield efficiency index.

In 2005, the size and weight of apples and the percentage of apples having more

than 50% of their skin surface covered by a red blush were similar for all the rootstocks

with the exception of fruits harvested from the trees on PB-4 and P 59 (Table 2). In

their case, fruits were significantly smaller. There were no statistical differences

between the rootstocks in respect of the colouring of the fruit. However, fruits on

P 59 were slightly worse coloured. These results are in agreement with the data

produced by Bielicki et al. (1999).

Table 2. Fruit quality of cv. ‘Celeste’ grown on dwarf rootstocks in

2005

2 lentelë. ‘Celeste’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais vaisiø kokybë 2005 m.

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Weight of 100 fruits

100 vaisiø masë, kg

Fruits with diameter >

7.0 cm

Vaisiai, kuriø skersmuo

> 7,0 cm, %

For explanation, see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

Conclusions. 1. The lowest growth of apple tree cultivar ‘Celeste’ was induced

by Byelorussian rootstock PB-4 and Polish rootstock P 59.

2. Growth vigour of the trees of cultivar ‘Celeste’ grafted on P 60 was similar

to those on M.9 EMLA.

3. P 14 was similar to M.7 in its ability to reduce tree growth.

4. The highest cumulative yield was obtained from the trees of cultivar ‘Celeste’

grafted on the semi-dwarf rootstocks P 14 and M.7.

161

Fruits with blush on > 50%

of skin

Vaisiø, kuriø odelë

> 50% paraudusi, %

M.9 standard

M.9 kontrolë 14.3 ab 54.0 b 62.9 a

PB-4 11.3 a 14.9 a 73.8 a

P 59 11.2 a 27.5 a 46.0 a

M.26 standard

M.26 kontrolë 15.4 b 74.2 b 71.6 a

P 60 14.2 ab 58.3 b 70.4 a

P 14 15.5 b 72.4 b 58.4 a

M.7 15.9 b 78.3 b 71.4 a


5. The highest yield efficiency index was obtained for the trees of cultivar

‘Celeste’ growing on the very dwarf Polish rootstock P 59. In the case of semidwarf

rootstocks, all of the trees were characterized by a similar yield efficiency

index.

6. The development of fruit quality parameters (with the exception of fruit size)

appeared to be unaffected by the rootstock type. The smallest apples of cultivar

‘Celeste’ were harvested from trees on the very dwarf rootstocks.

Gauta

2006 07 05

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 17

References

1. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A., Bartosiewicz B. Effects of New

Polish Rootstocks and Some M 9 Clones on Growth, Cropping and Fruit Quality of Three

Apple Cultivars. Proc. of the International Seminar “APPLE ROOTSTOCKS FOR

INTENSIVE ORCHARDS”. Warsaw-Ursynów, 1999. P. 15–16.

2. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A., Chlebowska D. Effects of Several

New Polish Rootstocks and M.9 Subclones on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Two

Apple ‘King Jonagold’ and ‘Elshof’ Cultivars. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 327–332.

3. Czynczyk A. New apple rootstocks from the Polish Breeding Program.

International. Dwarf Fruit Tree Association, Pennsylvania. Compact Fruit Tree. 1995. Vol.

28. P. 68–76.

4. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Bartosiewicz B. Influence of

Subclones of M.9 and P 22 and New Polish-Bred Rootstocks on Growth and Yield of

‘Jonagold’ and ‘Ligol’ Apple Trees. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 129–133.

5. Goddrie P. D. Delbarestivale. Fruitteelt. 1987. 77(43). P. 16–17.

6. Jakubowski T., Zagaja S. W. 45 years of apple rootstocks breeding

in Poland. Proc. of the Eucarpia Symp. of Fruit Breeding and Genetics. Acta Hort. 2000.

538. P. 723–727.

7. Hrotko K., Berczi J. Effect of semi-dwarfing and medium vigorous

rootstocks on growth and productivity of apple tress. Proc. of the International Seminar

„Apple Rootstocks for Intensive Orchards”. Warsaw-Ursynów., 1999. P. 35–36.

8. Kruczyñska D. JABÙONIE – nowe odmiany. Wyd. Hortpress Sp. z o.o.

2002. P. 25–36.

9. Ùukuã T. PB-4 – obiecujàca podkùadka dla jabùoni. Sad Nowoczesny. 1994.

(7). 9 p.

10. S adowski A., Grochowalski W., Sùowiñski A. and

Ýóùtowski J. Ocena siùy wzrostu jabùoni na podkùadce PB-4. Zesz. Nauk. Inst. Sad.

i Kw. Skierniewice. 2002. 8. P. 71–76.

11. Sùowiñski A., Sadowski A. Growth in the nursery and in the orchard

and initial bearing of ‘Elise’ apple trees on different rootstocks. Proc. of the International

Seminar „APPLE ROOTSTOCKS FOR INTENSIVE ORCHARDS”. Warsaw-Ursynów, 1999.

P. 99–100.

12. S ùowiñski A. Comparison of 22 Rootstocks of Different Vigour Used for

‘Elise’ Apple Trees. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 279–286.

162


13. Steinborn G. New early apple cultivars compared. Erwerbsobstbau. 1983. 25(8).

P. 188–190.

14. W ertheim S. J. Rootstock guide. Fruit Res. St. Wilhelminadorp Publ.

1998. No. 25.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

158–163.

PRELIMINARUS ‘CELESTE’ VEISLËS OBELØ SU ÞEMAÛGIAIS

POSKIEPIAIS ÁVERTINIMAS CENTRINËJE LENKIJOJE

P. Bielicki, A. Czynczyk, B. Bartosiewicz

Santrauka

2001 metø pavasará tyrimø sode Dabrovicuose, netoli Skiernievicø, priesmëlio jaurinëje

dirvoje ant priemolio atliktas lauko bandymas. Tirta penkiø þemaûgiø obelø poskiepiø

átaka ‘Celeste’ veislës vaismedþiø augimui, derliui ir vaisiø kokybei. Vieneriø metø sodinukai,

áskiepyti á PB-4, P 59, P 60, P 14 ir M.7 poskiepius, buvo pasodinti vienodais atstumais –

3,5 x 2,0 m (1429 medþiai/ha). Á M.9 ir M.26 áskiepyti vaismedþiai panaudoti kaip kontrolë.

Praëjus pirmiesiems penkeriems tyrimo metams pastebëta, kad baltarusiðkas poskiepis

PB-4 ir lenkiðkas poskiepis P 59 labiausiai stabdo ‘Celeste’ veislës augimà. Vaismedþiai su

ðiais poskiepiais buvo þemesni uþ vaismedþius su M.9. Pusiau þemaûgiø poskiepiø grupëje

vaismedþiai su P 60 buvo þemesni uþ vaismedþius su M.26 poskiepiu. P 14 poskiepis

sumaþino vaismedþiø augimà tiek pat, kiek ir M.7.

2002–2005 m. didþiausià suminá derliø davë ‘Celeste’ veislës vaismedþiai su P 14,

M.26 ir M.7 poskiepiais. Panaðø derliø iðaugino á P 60 ir M.9 áskiepyti vaismedþiai.

Nederlingiausi buvo vaismedþiai su PB-4.

2005 metais ‘Celeste’ veislës obuoliø kokybë (dydis, vidutinë masë ir spalva) ið

esmës buvo labai gera, iðskyrus nuskintus nuo vaismedþiø su PB-4 ir P 59 poskiepiais –

ðie vaisiai buvo maþiausi.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: obuoliai, Malus sp., vegetatyviniai poskiepiai, augimas, derlius,

vaisiø kokybë, produktyvumas.

163


SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 164–172.

SEARCH FOR A MORE DWARFING ROOTSTOCK FOR

‘JONAGOLD’

Jef VERCAMMEN*, Guy VAN DAELE and Ann GOMAND

Pcfruit - Proeftuin pit- en steenfruit, Fruittuinweg 1, 3800 Sint-Truiden,

Belgium. E-mail: jef.vercammen@pcfruit.be

Up until now we did not find a better rootstock than M.9 in our rootstock experiments.

Nevertheless there are a couple of promising rootstocks for ‘Jonagold’, namely J.TE.G.

and P 16. J.TE.G. is 15% less vigorous than M.9. The production efficiency and colouring

remain the same, but there are more kilos of A2++ in the 70–85 mm size class because of its

smaller fruit size. P 16 is 30% less vigorous. The colouring and the production are almost

comparable to those of M.9 and over the years the fruit size remains somewhat smaller on

average. The combination of the lesser vigour and the same yield causes the production

efficiency of P 16 to be clearly better than that of M.9-29.

Where the vigour of M.9 is too strong, other selections of M.9 with less vigour can

be used. The most suitable selections to this purpose are M.9 Fl56, NAKB 337 and

NAKB 339. M.9 Fl56 has the weakest growth and the fruit size can be compared to that of

M.9-29. With respect to colouring, there is no improvement.

Also the use of M.27 as rootstock springs to mind, but M.27 is not always suited to

replace M.9. In many cases a tree with vigour between M.9 and M.27 is needed. One

possibility to achieve this is the use of M.27 as interstock, in the hope that the advantages

of M.9 (production and size) and of M.27 (colour and labour) will be found in the interstock

tree. In practice however this does not seem to be so.

Another possibility is the use of Granny Smith, Delcorf or Idared as interstock.

These interstocks provide a clear growth reduction, without influencing the yields too

much.

Key words: interstock, M.27, M.9-selections, M.9 Fl56, J.TE.G and P 16.

Introduction. For most fruit growers the ideal tree is a tree that does not grow

to vigorously, demands little labour and yields a good production and high quality

every year. In order to achieve this, our varieties are grafted or inoculated on a

rootstock. For the Belgian apple culture this is mostly M.9, a rootstock with moderate

vigour. Though M.9 satisfies in most cases, there are conditions where trees with

less vigour are needed.

First the use of M.27 as rootstock springs to mind. Because of its weak vigour

less pruning hours per ha are needed, which is an important advantage, taking into

account current labour costs. Other advantages are the better colouring and, in the

164


case of varieties with big fruits, a smaller fruit size. Moreover the intensifying also

raises fewer problems.

Unfortunately M.27 also has some drawbacks. The sometimes quickly declining

growth does make M.27 sometimes less suitable and in many cases unsuitable for

replanting. Fertilization also has to be adapted, M.27 needs more nitrogen, phosphorus

and potassium than M.9. Furthermore the trees are more expensive and they do

easily break off at the graft union. In order to obtain the same produce per ha, more

trees have also to be planted per ha, which strongly raises the investment costs

(Vercammen, 1997).

Because of this M.27 is not always suitable to replace M.9. In many cases a

tree of which the vigour lies between that of M.9 and M.27 is needed. In this paper

we will discuss some possibilities to achieve this aim.

Materials and methods. Use of an interstock. In the autumn of 1997 an

interstock experiment for the ‘Jonagold’ clone ‘Jonica’ was started. Besides M.27,

P 22 and Bud 146 also a number of varieties were used as interstock. In the Netherlands

(Bal) they had very good experiences with the use of Summerred as an interstock

for Elstar (Baab) and from everyday practice it was said that the use of Elstar as an

interstock for ‘Jonagold’ has a better colouring for a result. Other interstocks included

in the experiment are: Gloster, Golden, Granny Smith, Idared, Delcorf, Braeburn,

Gala, Red Chief and Zoete Aagt. Knipbomen were added as a control to the experiment.

For each combination 3 replicates of 6 trees were planted. A planting distance of

3.50 x 1.50 m (1.714 trees/ha) was observed for all trees.

Use of other rootstocks. The following rootstocks were chosen for a comparative

rootstock experiment: the Polish rootstocks P 59 and P 60, the Russian rootstocks

Budagovski 9, 146 and 491, the Czech rootstocks J.TE.E, J.TE.F and J.TE.G and

the German rootstocks Pi80 (Supporter 4), PiAu733 and PiAu916. These rootstocks

were compared to M.9T337 and M.27. The test variety was ‘King Jonagold’ and

the planting distance was 3.50 x 1.40 m (1.837 trees/ha). For each combination 12

trees were planted in December 1996. The experiment was followed for 6 years and

attention was mainly paid to vigour, production, fruit size and colouring.

Different M9-selections. In the year of planting 1999–2000, 10 different

selections of M.9 were planted for ‘Novajo’, namely M.9 F156, M.9 1576, M.9-8,

M.9-19, M.9-29, NAKB 337, NAKB 339, Burgmer 984 and Pajam 2. A number of

rootstocks with weak vigour were also planted, namely M.27, P 22, P 16 and

Budagovski 9. For each rootstock 4 replicates of 5 trees were planted. Braeburn

was chosen as pollinator (9 % scattered through the rows). The planting distance

for all trees was 3.50 x 1.25 m (2.057 trees/ha). From 2001 attention was mainly

paid to vigour, production, fruit size and colouring.

Results and discussion. Use of an interstock. Vigour. As a measure for

the vigour the increase in trunk circumference from 1998 up to and including 2005

was used (measured just below the first branching). From this it clearly appeared

that the experiment can be divided into two groups, depending on the vigour. When

a Gloster, Golden, Braeburn, Gala or Red Chief interstock is used for ‘Jonica’, the

vigour equals that or is somewhat stronger than that of the Knipbomen. The vigour

is clearly stronger when Elstar is used as interstock. From figure 1 it appears that

165


the vigour of a Bud 146 interstock can be compared to that of a M.27 interstock. On

the other hand the vigour provoked by P 22 is even weaker than that of M.27.

A Delcorf interstock also provokes a clearly smaller increase in trunk circumference,

but the trees are clearly more vital than those with a M.27, P 22 or Bud 146 interstock.

Summerred, Idared, Granny Smith and Zoete Aagt provoke an increase in trunk

circumference between the Knipbomenand M.27.

Yield data. The differences in production between the more vigorous

interstocks are only small. Only for a Golden interstock the production per tree did

remain smaller almost every year. Concerning the fruit weight there are no significant

differences either, although with Gala there is a tendency to smaller fruits. On the

other hand there are big differences in production in case of the weaker interstocks

(Table 1). Only Idared obtains approximately the same level as the Knipbomen each

year. All other interstocks are clearly less productive than the Knipbomen. In particular

when a M.27, P 22 or Bud 146 interstock is used the production remains undersized.

This can for the most part be explained by the lack of vigour of these trees.

Table 1. Yield data of ‘Jonica’ with different interstocks (Pcfruitpps,

1999–2005)

1 lentelë. ‘Jonica’ veislës derlius, naudojant skirtingus intarpus, 1999–2005 m.

Kg/tree / Kg/medis Kg/cm Fruit weight / Vaisiaus masë, g

Interstock

Intarpas 2005 1999–2005

trunk circumference

kamieno apimtis 2005 1999–2005

Knipbomen 43.5 a 187.1 8.5 241 b 254

M.27 28.0 f 127.9 7.8 162 d 212

P 22 17.2 g 91.3 6.7 154 d 208

Bud 146 27.2 f 123.1 7.3 180 cd 212

Summerred 40.6 c 162.7 8.5 195 c 230

Granny Smith 37.9 d 168.5 8.8 212 c 233

Idared 42.5 b 176.8 9.4 202 c 228

Delcorf 37.1 e 165.1 9.1 210 c 227

Zoete Aagt 33.9 f 169.2 8.8 255 a 248

To calculate the effect of the vigour, the yield is also expressed per unit of

growth in table 1. As a measure for growth the trunk circumference of end 2005

was chosen. The best results are obtained by Idared, with a production efficiency

that is even better than that of the Knipbomen. For an important part this due to its

weaker vigour (Figure 1). Other interstocks with a better score than the Knipbomen

are Delcorf, Granny Smith and Zoete Aagt. After 7 years of production P 22 and Bud

146 obtain the lowest production efficiency. As mentioned above, this can mainly be

explained by the insufficient vitality of these trees.

On average over the years, the fruit size of all weaker growing interstock trees

is clearly smaller than that of the Knipbomen. In years with too big sized fruits, e.g.

2002, 2003 and 2004, this is positive. In 2001 and 2005 on the other hand, when the

average fruit size was clearly smaller, trees with a M.27, P 22 or Bud 146 interstock

166


produced fruits that were too small. In this case also the insufficient vitality of the

trees played an important role.

Table 2. Yield data of ‘King Jonagold’ on different rootstocks

(Pcfruit-pps, 1998–2002)

2 lentelë. ‘King Jonagold’ veislës su skirtingais poskiepiais derlius 1998–2002 m.

Yield / Derlius 1998–2002 m.

Rootstock

Poskiepis kg/tree / kg/medis %

Table 3. Yield data of ‘Novajo’ on different M.9-selections

(Pcfruit-pps, 2001–2005)

3 lentelë. ‘Novajo’ veislës su skirtingais M.9 klonais derlius 2001–2005 m.

167

Kg/cm

trunk circumference

Kamieno apimtis

Fruit weight

Vaisiaus masë, g

1998–2002

M.9T337 92.5 100.0 4.7 249

M.27 66.4 71.8 4.1 221

PiAu916 67.4 73.0 4.4 190

PiAu733 65.8 71.2 4.3 193

B.491 75.3 81.5 4.3 223

B.146 84.9 91.9 4.9 229

P 59 71.7 77.5 5.0 219

J.TE.G 76.3 82.6 4.7 223

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Trunk circum-

ference

Kamieno apimtis

2005 m., cm

Kg/tree / Kg/medis

2005 2001–2005

M.9-selections / M.9 klonai

Kg/cm

trunk

kamienas

Fruit weight

Vaisiaus masë, g

2002–2005

M.9-29 19.1 ab 38.9 ab 107.7 5.6 245

M.9-19 19.2 a 36.3 b 100.9 5.3 246

M.9-8 19.8 a 36.3 b 105.1 5.3 254

M.9 1576 19.8 a 38.9 b 112.7 5.7 254

M.9 Fl56 16.9 b 33.7 a 106.5 6.3 247

NAKB 337 17.7 b 37.5 b 109.1 6.2 234

NAKB 339 18.3 b 37.1 b 111.4 6.1 242

Burgmer 984 19.7 a 40.0 a 107.0 5.4 250

Pajam 2 19.1 a 35.8 b 102.3 5.4 240

Dwarfing rootstocks / Žemaûgiai poskiepiai

M.27 15.5 b 19.6 b 74.1 4.8 206

P 22 13.1 c 18.7 c 63.9 4.9 207

P 16 14.4 b 28.6 b 94.7 6.6 227

Bud 9 16.3 b 28.0 b 76.5 4.7 226


Fig. 1. Increase in trunk circumference of ‘Jonica’ with different interstocks

(Pcfruit-pps, 1998–2005)

1 pav. ‘Jonica’ veislës vaismedþiø kamienø apimtis, naudojant skirtingus intarpus,

1998–2005 m.

Colour. A third aspect that is important when choosing an interstock is the

influence on the colouring. With respect to the share at first picking over the 7 years

not one interstock with weak vigour obtains a bigger first picking than the Knipbomen.

The number of A2++ kilos also remains smaller than in case of the Knipbomen. The

number of kilos at first picking and the number of kilos A2++ produced by the

vigorous interstocks usually is not any bigger than those produced by the Knipbomen

either. Only a Gloster or Elstar interstock obtains a somewhat better colouring during

the 7 years.

However if we take a look at the number of kilos A2++ in the 70–85 mm size

class, a totally different picture presents itself (Figure 2). Over the 7 years and in

total the trees with a Granny Smith, Idared, M.27 or Delcorf interstock obtained the

most kilos in the most interesting size classes from a commercial point of view.

Here also the worst results were obtained by P 22 and Bud 146.

Fig. 2. Colouring of ‘Jonica’ with different interstocks (Pcfruit-pps, 1999–2005)

2 pav. ‘Jonica’ veislës vaisiø spalva, naudojant skirtingus intarpus, 1999–2005 m.

168


Use of other rootstocks. Vigour.The list below contains the different

rootstocks in proportion to their vigour. As a measure for the vigour the increase in

trunk circumference from 1997 up to and including 2002 was used.

– Stronger vigour than M.9T337

* Pi80 (Supporter 4): vigour is too strong (30% more than M.9T337)

– Vigour equal to that of M.9T337

* Bud 9 and P 60: comparable vigour

* J.TE.E and J.TE.F: 5 to 10 % less vigour than M.9T337

–Vigour between M.9T337 and M.27

* Bud 146 and Bud 491: cause a growth inhibition of 10%

* J.TE.G: 15 % less vigour than M.9T337

–Vigour equal to or weaker than that of M.27

* PiAu916 and PiAu733: vigour comparable to that of M.27

* P 59: 10% less vigour than M.27

Yield data. As appears from table 2, from 1996 up to 2002 the highest

total yield was obtained by M9T337, followed by Bud 146. The difference amounts

to about 10%. The other rootstocks with weak vigour are approximately 20% less

productive than M.9T337. After 5 years of production all rootstocks with strong

vigour also obtain a smaller yield than M.9T337. When we take a closer look at the

production efficiency, we see that P 59 obtains the best result, followed by Bud 146

and J.TE.G. (As a measure for growth the trunk circumference of end 2002 was

chosen.) The production efficiency of all other rootstocks was less good than that

of M.9T337.

Concerning the fruit size all rootstocks, except for Pi80, produce smaller sized

fruits than M.9T337. This is an important advantage, especially for ‘Jonagold’. As

is the case for the interstocks with weak vigour, a warning is in place that in some

years rootstocks with weak vigour can produce too small sized fruits. In 2001 the

average fruit weight of PiAu916 and PiAu733 amounted to 152 and 154 respectively,

with for a consequence that 30 to 35% of the yield was smaller than 70 mm. That

year the fruit of the other rootstocks weighed between 180 and 200 grams on average.

For M.9 this was 213 grams.

Colour. Whether the colouring of ‘Jonagold’ grafted on the rootstocks

with weak vigour is good or not, strongly depends on the number of apples per tree.

This can be explained for the most part by the smaller trees and t