Zoelen van varkens en implicaties voor dierenwelzijn - Wakker Dier

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Zoelen van varkens en implicaties voor dierenwelzijn - Wakker Dier

Rapport 381

“The elm and the tamarisk, the species most commonly found in the Camargue, are used as rubbing

trees [by wild boar]. Rubbing trees are observed in the thickest groves which are located close to

marshes or in scrub grasslands …. Since these groves are rather scarce, wild boars have often to

travel several hundred meters from the wallowing area to the rubbing trees. In forests, Baettig (1980),

Bavoux (1981) or Sardin (1982) have found that rubbing trees are generally very close to wallows.”

(Dardaillon, 1986).

9.1.2.3 Timing

“During the dry season, [feral] hogs were found at waterholes at midday; they wallowed there and then

returned to the shade.” (Graves, 1984).

“Conley et al. (1972) found that European wild boars in Tennessee are nocturnal, feeding at night and

resting during the day in beds or wallows. Stegeman (1938) reported that when hunted, the hog does

most of its feeding and traveling in the dark, wallowing or bedding on the sides of ridges during the

daytime.” (Graves, 1984).

“Pine and Gerdes (1973) … found that during the summer, wild hogs gather around mud seeps in

which they can wallow; these are particularly desirable if shaded by an overstory.” (Graves, 1984).

Shade

“The wallowing habit is continued throughout the year, according to the accounts of local hunters [in

Cherokee National Forest]. They report many instances where hogs have broken the ice to wallow

and state that, when pursued during the winter, they frequently wallow in each stream that they cross.”

(Stegeman, 1938; also cited in Graves, 1984, who relates these observations to thermoregulation).

Wallows are available at all temperature ranges, especially when (highly) active (Stegeman, 1938;

Graves, 1984)

At low temperatures especially when heat-producing activities are performed (Stegeman, 1938)

“Feral pigs [in Australia] require access to water for drinking and for wallowing. … Pigs were observed

to wallow in all habitats when water was available during hot and cold weather.” (Dexter, 1998).

“Due to a lack of sweat glands, pigs must rely on behavioral thermoregulation to maintain a favorable

heat balance in hot environments (Mount, 1968; Signoret et al., 1975). Behavioral thermoregulation

was evident in pigs on Catalina during portions of the dry season. Mean maximum temperature per

month ranged from 21 to 28C during summer. Animals were primarily crepuscular and nocturnal at

these times, minimizing activity during the hotter portions of the day. Pigs frequented cool, moist sites

to wallow and bedded by day in thick vegetation. A dependence on free water and behavioral

responses to high ambient temperatures are commonly reported for wild pigs (Barrett, 1978;

Eisenberg and Lockhart, 1972; Giles, 1978; Van Vuren, 1984) and domestic swine (Mount, 1968;

Signoret et al., 1975) in hot, arid climates.”(Barber and Coblentz, 1986).

“Warty pigs prefer to wallow especially on days with strong direct sunshine. European wild boar can

also be found wallowing in mud during rain and cold weather.” [Free translated from German]

(Frädrich, 1967).

Wallow is also available at colder temperature ranges and during rain (Frädrich, 1967).

“In forests, some authors, such as Herrenschmidt and Regost (1979) or Baettig (1980), found

traditional wallows used almost daily by a number of animals. In the Camargue, wallows themselves

are temporary as we found just two wallows that had been re-used within a few weeks' time. Only the

wallowing areas can be considered traditional since the wallows observed change constantly

according to the water level of marshes.” (Dardaillon, 1986).

9.1.3 Wallowing in related species

Before listing citations on wallowing in related species, a specification is given of the phylogenetic

relationships between pigs and other animals, in relation to their propensity wallow.

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