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Microsoft Word - PhD Thesis Final.pdf - University of Limpopo ...

Microsoft Word - PhD Thesis Final.pdf - University of Limpopo ...

Microsoft Word - PhD Thesis Final.pdf - University of Limpopo

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO MAKGABENG The name, “Makgabeng” There are different answers to the questions of the origin and meaning of the name “Makgabeng”. Although there are different explanations for the name, according to the Northern Sotho grammar, it is a word which indicates the place (adverb of place) because of the ending “-eng”, which indicates location. Therefore, the original noun – before adding the location suffix – would be “makgaba”. A lot of different interpretations exist about what “makgaba” actually is. But for the name itself – Makgabeng – apparently it has been used from a very long time ago. It is very difficult to determine precisely when it was first used mainly because of the lack of written records by the earliest occupants of the area, namely, the Khoikhoi and the San and the Bantu-speakers. The earliest literate groups such as the German missionaries referred to that name in their earliest records and documents. In some of such documents the name was spelt as “Makchabeng” 1 . Some arliest German documents date as far back as 1868. 1 Anon, Berliner Missionsberichte. Vol. 11. No. 12. 1878, p. 249. 1

  • Page 2 and 3: This indicates that the name had be
  • Page 4 and 5: the wild hard fruits which are know
  • Page 6 and 7: situated about thirty kilometres we
  • Page 8 and 9: history 14 . Most of the existing p
  • Page 10 and 11: Another aim which will concurrently
  • Page 12 and 13: their ages do not correspond with t
  • Page 14 and 15: In this study it is demonstrated ho
  • Page 16 and 17: Sources The main sources that were
  • Page 18 and 19: especially after the South African
  • Page 20 and 21: There are three main problem areas
  • Page 22 and 23: insight into the subject’s person
  • Page 24 and 25: Geography is another practical cons
  • Page 26 and 27: Non Parella, Old Langsyne, Kgatu, G
  • Page 28 and 29: _ the subjects (in general terms) w
  • Page 30 and 31: _ informal, loose, open questions.
  • Page 32 and 33: informant was speaking, I had to pr
  • Page 34 and 35: probably switch to the third person
  • Page 36 and 37: During the 1970s Harold Pager, a re
  • Page 38 and 39: CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL DISCUSSION OF
  • Page 40 and 41: For Manuel Castells, identity is pe
  • Page 42 and 43: globalisation. This point is emphas
  • Page 44 and 45: The compression of time and space b
  • Page 46 and 47: last bastion of self-control, the r
  • Page 48 and 49: contrast with the Eurocentric pathw
  • Page 50 and 51: primarily on the periphery of Europ
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    all of the books of philosophy star

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    Afrocentricity seeks neither hegemo

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    independence of individual disconte

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    y others, while that individual or

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    Identity as “shared experience”

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    artificially, but it only becomes a

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    sufficient. Significant in the proc

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    Environmental factors such as veget

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    very important in defining who they

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    Geology and geography of Makgabeng

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    formed crescent-shaped barchans and

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    The area from Belabela (formerly Wa

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    have grown various types of plants

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    where it is dense as Woodland, and

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    (Terminalia sericea), Peeling Plane

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    exodus from rural villages by the y

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    Just like with flora, the human enc

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    their midst… May the Lord protect

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    Bantu-speaking communities attached

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    were the earliest to occupy the are

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    San had to adapt to the migration p

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    core 139 . From the rock art painti

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    arrow was not very great, the San d

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    prayers 149 . These prayers were of

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    ceased to exist as a separate peopl

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    2. Some born on the veld, but perio

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    northwards towards Venda, the peopl

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    However, the San must have retreate

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    contexts are decisive when it comes

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    partners in the Makgabeng area. Thi

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    particular, however, we do know tha

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    area. From central Africa, the Vend

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    Bakone, but later allowed to move o

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    ecome, “Mmalebogo”, mostly spel

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    polity. For example, on the souther

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    eventually found their way to diffe

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    Earliest European appearances in Ma

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    and explorers, did not immediately

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    Bantu-speaking communities, the com

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    certain extent the Wesleyans, playe

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    And even after settling in the Sout

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    the name Mara, which means “Bitte

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    wealthy groups became distinguished

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    It is evident that the Nguni warrio

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    Makgabeng political identities and

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    The new Boer state was divided into

  • Page 144 and 145:

    over local communities, the Boers h

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    polity, brought political instabili

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    With the gradual subjugation of the

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    people after his release in 1900, a

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    At macro-level, whereas the mission

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    diplomatic issues. The missionaries

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    communities - including their triba

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    esult, he was in a position to supp

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    enforced by the new colonial rulers

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    creation was thus more spontaneous

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    and White supremacist, the missiona

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    Under the Malebogo royal family, th

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    epidemic which brought missionary H

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    missionary activities. On 31 March

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    Franz, the grandson of the missiona

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    Wesleyans and the Lutherans often c

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    of the people the African evangelis

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    Matlonkana’s sister who was later

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    The competition and constant switch

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    in 1889. During that funeral at the

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    practice as it usually took away nu

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    among many cases in the Makgabeng a

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    the purchase of a chattel. They did

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    customs were actually integral part

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    everything is in uproar as the heat

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    in these areas than with aspects of

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    Blacks did not excel in this field

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    diseases, including Lues which infe

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    issue from the mid 19 th century an

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    As already shown in Chapter 3, the

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    These groups of the Batau of Madiba

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    Castells refers to as organically g

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    Although land was used for politica

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    subsequent groups which became inte

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    to Leipzig to replace Stech, he was

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    state, the entire land referred to

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    paper money reached 1 431 and these

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    14. Lomonside was originally grante

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    power and influence to impose new i

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    Boers had never been able to admini

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    The land reform process subsequent

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    the state intervened in the interes

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    18. Old Langsyne No. 360 LR; Morgen

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    9. Goedetrouw was surveyed by R.E.

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    After the survey of all the Makgabe

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    The passing of the 1913 Natives Lan

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    Here are few examples of the corres

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    The removals of Blacks from land al

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    for Residential and Grazing Rights

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    the White religious groups were exp

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    permits to the church by the Govern

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    nature in the area. The original co

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    arrival of Europeans in the Makgabe

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    involvement in that war 417 . Most

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    “Blaauwberg agency” covered the

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    White authorities favoured them as

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    hoped to swim against the strong ti

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    of Native Affairs approved the appl

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    1 each from Botlokwa, Senthumule an

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    In addition to the formation of the

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    Boshoff, T. Boshoff, P.M. Boshoff a

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    According to the 1936 Act, the purc

  • Page 268 and 269:

    the farms such as Milbank and Lomon

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    ecome experiences if only enforced

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    eing understood that after transfer

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    The failure of the White authoritie

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    The question of non-buyers was not

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    original Makgabeng inhabitants, the

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    The literate, Christian new-comers

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    Ngwepe as their link to Kgoši Matl

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    Just like with the previous matter

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    in a less confrontational manner. H

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    tribe, community, or individual cou

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    involved planned village land use.

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    affected the Makgabeng communities.

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    As early as the 1840s, some Black s

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    Some of the earliest migrant labour

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    Blacks and the Boers in the area 52

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    Johannesburg. This was not the firs

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    pressing questions of the Milner ad

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    ecome wage labourers. Since the wag

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    earn enough money to buy a gun. He

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    workers 536 . With recruiting centr

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    to the communities and chiefs’ kr

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    life. According to Moses Ngwepe 544

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    had to leave the district. This put

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    According to Mpoeleng Ramoroka, acc

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    In accordance with the notion that

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    Makgabeng dinaka groups would assem

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    decisively separated residential ar

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    The consequences of labour migrancy

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    in the Makgabeng villages. Original

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    his store on the farm, Early Dawn 5

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    changed the outlook of rural Makgab

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    ackgrounds - found themselves shari

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    ecame identities after they were en

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    occupied land. Their policies on la

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    the original settlement which appea

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    The original names of these communi

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    occupied the Makgabeng area, were s

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    As for the daughters of the farm pu

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    ecame an official directive as part

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    authoritatively labelled within an

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    system work, used various methods s

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    division which was encouraged and i

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    among one another, visit one anothe

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    of Makgabeng know that they belong

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    healers, who are entrusted with con

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    In addition to the main groups of t

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    Another important aspect of people

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    individual has his praise poem, esp

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    In addition to identity creation th

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    Bahananwa from the present day Bots

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    forms by different groups. As much

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    Ramoroka were some of the pioneerin

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    absence of the men and young boys,

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    ut it was not sustainable, probably

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    households. The government also int

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    2. Volume 1/331, Part 1, Papers rec

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    messengers to labour areas to colle

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    54. Volume 7728, Removal of John Mo

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    85. Volume 1703, Part 1, Native Adm

  • Page 388 and 389:

    • Anon. “Nachrichten Uber die S

  • Page 390 and 391:

    • Grudenmann, R. “David Maschil

  • Page 392 and 393:

    31. Sorrich Rakumako. 32. Mosima Ra

  • Page 394 and 395:

    Brookes, E.H., White rule in South

  • Page 396 and 397:

    Muller, J. (et al) (ed), Challenges

  • Page 398 and 399:

    JOURNAL ARTICLES. Alexander P., “

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    Joubert, A. and Van Schalkwyk, J. A

  • Page 402 and 403:

    ANNEXURE 1 MAKGABENG LOCALITY MAP S

  • Page 404 and 405:

    M A K G A B E N G W I T H I N T H E

  • Page 406 and 407:

    ANNEXURE 5 Duren Mons Monte Christo

  • Page 408:

    Mons Vergelegen VILLAGES / COMMUNIT

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