LBNO - Faculty of Physics

neutrino.fuw.edu.pl

LBNO - Faculty of Physics

Expression of Interest

for a very long baseline neutrino

oscillation experiment (LBNO)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

CERN-SPSC-2012-021

SPSC-EOI-007

André Rubbia (ETH Zurich)

on behalf of the LBNO proto-collaboration

106th Meeting of the SPSC

June 26 th , 2012

v2

1


Expression of Interest

for

∼230

a very long baseline neutrino

authors,

oscillation experiment

51 institutions

(LBNO)

A. Stahl, 1 C. Wiebusch, 1 A. M. Guler, 2 M. Kamiscioglu, 2 R. Sever, 2 A.U. Yilmazer, 3 C. Gunes, 3

D. Yilmaz, 3 P. Del Amo Sanchez, 4 D. Duchesneau, 4 H. Pessard, 4 E. Marcoulaki, 5 I. A.

Papazoglou, 5 V. Berardi, 6 F. Cafagna, 6 M.G. Catanesi, 6 L. Magaletti, 6 A. Mercadante, 6

M. Quinto, 6 E. Radicioni, 6 A. Ereditato, 7 I. Kreslo, 7 C. Pistillo, 7 M. Weber, 7 A. Ariga, 7 T. Ariga, 7

T. Strauss, 7 M. Hierholzer, 7 J. Kawada, 7 C. Hsu, 7 S. Haug, 7 A. Jipa, 8 I. Lazanu, 8 A. Cardini, 9

A. Lai, 9 R. Oldeman, 10 M. Thomson, 11 A. Blake, 11 M. Prest, 12 A. Auld, 13 J. Elliot, 13 J. Lumbard, 13

C. Thompson, 13 Y.A. Gornushkin, 14 S. Pascoli, 15 R. Collins, 16 M. Haworth, 16 J. Thompson, 16

G. Bencivenni, 17 D. Domenici, 17 A. Longhin, 17 A. Blondel, 18 A. Bravar, 18 F. Dufour, 18 Y. Karadzhov, 18

A. Korzenev, 18 E. Noah, 18 M. Ravonel, 18 M. Rayner, 18 R. Asfandiyarov, 18 A. Haesler, 18

C. Martin, 18 E. Scantamburlo, 18 F. Cadoux, 18 R. Bayes, 19 F.J.P. Soler, 19 L. Aalto-Setälä, 20

K. Enqvist, 20 K. Huitu, 20 K. Rummukainen, 20 G. Nuijten, 21 K.J. Eskola, 22 K. Kainulainen, 22

T. Kalliokoski, 22 J. Kumpulainen, 22 K. Loo, 22 J. Maalampi, 22 M. Manninen, 22 I. Moore, 22

J. Suhonen, 22 W.H. Trzaska, 22 K. Tuominen, 22 A. Virtanen, 22 I. Bertram, 23 A. Finch, 23 N. Grant, 23

L.L. Kormos, 23 P. Rato↵, 23 G. Christodoulou, 24 J. Coleman, 24 C. Touramanis, 24 K. Mavrokoridis, 24

M. Murdoch, 24 N. McCauley, 24 D. Payne, 24 P. Jonsson, 25 A. Kaboth, 25 K. Long, 25 M. Malek, 25

M. Scott, 25 Y. Uchida, 25 M.O. Wascko, 25 F. Di Lodovico, 26 J.R. Wilson, 26 B. Still, 26 R. Sacco, 26

R. Terri, 26 M. Campanelli, 27 R. Nichol, 27 J. Thomas, 27 A. Izmaylov, 28 M. Khabibullin, 28

A. Khotjantsev, 28 Y. Kudenko, 28 V. Matveev, 28 O. Mineev, 28 N. Yershov, 28 V. Palladino, 29 J. Evans, 30

2

S. Söldner-Rembold, 30 U.K. Yang, 30 M. Bonesini, 31 T. Pihlajaniemi, 32 M. Weckström, 32 K.

Mursula, 32 T. Enqvist, 32 P. Kuusiniemi, 32 T. Räihä, 32 J. Sarkamo, 32 M. Slupecki, 32 J. Hissa, 32 E.

Kokko, 32 M. Aittola, 32 G. Barr, 33 M.D. Haigh, 33 J. de Jong, 33 H. O’Kee↵e, 33 A. Vacheret, 33

A. Weber, 33, 34 G. Galvanin, 35 M. Temussi, 35 O. Caretta, 34 T. Davenne, 34 C. Densham, 34 J. Ilic, 34

P. Loveridge, 34 J. Odell, 34 D. Wark, 34 A. Robert, 36 B. Andrieu, 36 B. Popov, 36, 14 C. Giganti, 36

J.-M. Levy, 36 J. Dumarchez, 36 M. Buizza-Avanzini, 37 A. Cabrera, 37 J. Dawson, 37 D. Franco, 37

D. Kryn, 37 M. Obolensky, 37 T. Patzak, 37 A. Tonazzo, 37 F. Vanucci, 37 D. Orestano, 38 B. Di Micco, 38

L. Tortora, 39 O. Bésida, 40 A. Delbart, 40 S. Emery, 40 V. Galymov, 40 E. Mazzucato, 40 G. Vasseur, 40

M. Zito, 40 V.A. Kudryavtsev, 41 L.F. Thompson, 41 R. Tsenov, 42 D. Kolev, 42 I. Rusinov, 42

M. Bogomilov, 42 G. Vankova, 42 R. Matev, 42 A. Vorobyev, 43 Yu. Novikov, 43 S. Kosyanenko, 43

V. Suvorov, 43 G. Gavrilov, 43 E. Baussan, 44 M. Dracos, 44 C. Jollet, 44 A. Meregaglia, 44 E. Vallazza, 45

S.K. Agarwalla, 46 T. Li, 46 D. Autiero, 47 L. Chaussard, 47 Y. Déclais, 47 J. Marteau, 47 E. Pennacchio, 47

E. Rondio, 48 J. Lagoda, 48 J. Zalipska, 48 P. Przewlocki, 48 K. Grzelak, 49 G. J. Barker, 50 S. Boyd, 50

P.F. Harrison, 50 R.P. Litchfield, 50 Y. Ramachers, 50 A. Badertscher, 51 A. Curioni, 51 U. Degunda, 51

L. Epprecht, 51 A. Gendotti, 51 L. Knecht, 51 S. DiLuise, 51 S. Horikawa, 51 D. Lussi, 51 S. Murphy, 51

G. Natterer, 51 F. Petrolo, 51 L. Periale, 51 A. Rubbia, 51, ⇤ F. Sergiampietri, 51 and T. Viant 51

1 A. Rubbia III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

1. III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany

2. Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey

3. Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey

4. LAPP, Université de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, France

5. Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Centre for Scientific Research ”Demokritos”, Athens, Greece

6. INFN and Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari, Italy

7. University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Bern,

Switzerland

8. Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

9. INFN Sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

10. INFN Sezione di Cagliari and Università di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

11. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

12. Universita‘ dell’Insubria, sede di Como/ INFN Milano Bicocca, Como, Italy

13. Alan Auld Engineering, Doncaster, United Kingdom

14. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia

15. Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, United Kingdom

16. Technodyne International Limited, Eastleigh, Hampshire, United Kingdom

17. INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italy

18. University of Geneva, Section de Physique, DPNC, Geneva, Switzerland

19. University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

20. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

21. Rockplan Ltd., Helsinki, Finland

22. Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

23. Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

24. University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool, United Kingdom

25. Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

26. Queen Mary University of London, School of Physics, London, United Kingdom

27. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London, United Kingdom

28. Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

29. INFN Sezione di Napoli and Università di Napoli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli, Italy

30. University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

31. INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy

32. University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

33. Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford, United Kingdom

34. STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, United Kingdom

35. AGT Ingegneria S.r.l., Perugia, Italy

36. UPMC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris,

France

37. APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne

Paris Cité Paris, France

38. Università and INFN Roma Tre, Roma, Italy

39. INFN Roma Tre, Roma, Italy

40. IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

41. University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield, United Kingdom

42. Department of Atomic Physics, Faculty of Physics, St.Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, BG-1164, Sofia, Bulgaria

43. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), St-Petersburg, Russia

44. IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg, France

45. INFN Trieste, Trieste, Italy

46. IFIC (CSIC & University of Valencia), Valencia, Spain

47. Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, IPN Lyon (IN2P3), Villeurbanne, France

48. National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw, Poland

49. Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University (IFD UW), Warsaw, Poland

50. University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry, United Kingdom

51. ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zurich, Switzerland

2 Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey 2

Tuesday, June 26, 12

2






Neutrinos at the frontier

A wealth of new results over the last years are clarifying the landscape in Particle Physics at the various

frontiers and confirm the “invincible” Standard Model (SM). The discovery of a Higgs boson at ATLAS/CMS

will crown the successful SM and will call for a verification of the Higgs boson couplings to the gauge bosons

and to the fermions.

In this rapidly emerging picture, neutrino masses and oscillations are today the only experimentally

established evidence of physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM).

Very likely new BSM physics at a yet-unknown high-energy scale is a key ingredient to resolve these

questions that the SM cannot answer:

- What is the origin of the gauge structure of strong and electroweak interactions ?

- Does a bigger gauge symmetry exist in Nature?

- Is there a unique theory of family and flavor?

Being the only elementary fermions whose basic properties are still largely unknown, neutrinos must

naturally be one of the main priorities in the quest to complete our knowledge of the SM.

- Their understanding has progressed considerably, but deeper studies are still needed to answer these

- The mixings among leptons have different values and are larger than those among quarks. And the

- The above observations are yet to be clarified within a unique and appropriate theoretical framework, and

- Is, as Bruno Pontecorvo said, the neutrino “the prototype of all other fermions” ?

profound questions.

smallness of the neutrino rest masses compared to those of other elementary fermions points to the

preferred scenario of Majorana neutrinos and the see-saw mechanism.

addressing such questions has therefore significant potential to offer new insights into the BSM physics at

the very high-energy scale.

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

3

3


CP violation in leptonic sector

• CP-violation is an essential aspect of our understanding of the Universe and is related to the

question of the matter dominance.

• A natural question is whether the SM can provide the necessary CP-violation to explain the

baryon asymmetry (≈10 –9 ).

Neutrino Oscillations for Three Flavours

• Today we are certain that there are two places where CP-violation can enter: the CKM matrix and

the newly found PMNS matrix !

It is simple to extend this treatment to three generations of neutrinos.

• To date CP violation has only been observed in the quark sector

In this case we have:

Mixing between

weak and mass

eigenstates:

Consider the effects of T, CP and CPT on neutrino oscillations

The 3x3 Unitary matrix is known as the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata

T matrix, usually abbreviated PMNS Note Since C alone CKM is not known sufficient to be as a it source of

transforms LH neutrinos into LH

CP Note : has to be unitary to conserve probability CP-violation in Nature, it is natural to expect

anti-neutrinos (not involved in

Weak a similar Interaction) situation in the lepton sector.

CPT

Using

If the weak interactions is invariant under CPT

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Pontecorvo-Maki-

Nakagawa-Sakata

4

4


• The T2K result which indicated electron-neutrino appearance triggered a revolution. The effect was

confirmed by MINOS soon after.

• The observation of near/far ratios smaller than unity at long baseline reactor experiments were also

interpreted as evidence for the disappearance of electron neutrinos and confirmed the non-zero

value of θ13 with high statistical significance, as initially reported by Double-CHOOZ and

culminating in the later announcement of a 5.2σ result by Daya Bay and 4.9σ by RENO

• With the present level of knowledge, neutrino oscillations are entering the precision era:

-

- MH unknown, 0


What do we know about neutrino m ixing?

The knowns and unknowns...

Schwetz, Tortola, Vale, 1103.0734 [hep-ph]

sin 2 µ12 = 0:312 +0:017

¡0:015

(1σ)

¢m 2 12 = (7:59 +0:20

¡0:18 ) £ 10¡5 eV 2

sin 2 µ23 =

¢m 2 31 =

0:51 § 0:06

0:52 § 0:06

2:45 § 0:09

¡(2:34 +0:10

¡0:09 ) £ 10¡3 eV 2

sin 2 (2 13) 0.09 ± 0.02

CP =[0, 2 ]

Solar

parameters

SK,SNO, Kamland

Atmospheric

parameters

SK,K2K, MINOS, T2K

→ Mass ordering is hierarchical or inverted ?

→ Complex phase is unknown. Because of similarities with

CKM matrix, it is natural to expect a CP violation in the lepton

sector. But CKM & PMNS angles are very different, what is the

size of the CP effect in leptons??

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 6

Tuesday, June 26, 12

6




LBNO is a next generation long baseline experiment which aims at a significantly better sensitivity

than what is achievable with the combined T2K, NOvA and reactors experiments.

LBNO will explicitly observe MH induced matter effects and CP-violation, which is different

from simply extracting the hierarchy or δCP value from global fits of all available data:

★ Large detectors and intense beam for a significant increase in statistics

★ Measure all active-active transitions (e / mu / tau CC) and active-sterile (NC) at long baseline

★ A precise investigation of the oscillation probabilities as a function of energy (L/E) and a direct

comparison of neutrino and antineutrino behaviors to verify the expectations from 3-generations

neutrino mixing.

★ A very long baseline to have an excellent separation of the asymmetry due to the matter effects

(i.e. the mass hierarchy measurement) and the CP asymmetry due to the δCP complex phase, and

thus to break the parameter degeneracies, and to “see” the 1 st and 2 nd maxima !

★ To directly observe the different MH induced matter- and CP-phase induced effects in oscillation

probabilities for neutrinos and antineutrinos !

• Extend nucleon decay searches, a unique probe for BSM up to the Grand Unification Scale

• Perform very compelling and complementary atmospheric and astrophysical neutrino detection

programs, which become accessible when the detector is deep underground.


Beyond T2K&NOvA: LBNO ?

A new massive deep underground neutrino observatory for long baseline

neutrino studies, capable of proton decay searches, atmospheric and

astrophysical neutrino detection

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

7

7


e: LAGUNA/LAGUNA-LBNO

and a magnetized iron-scintillator calorimeter (MIND) located at the Pyhäsalmi

CUPP at Pyhäsalmi

istance of 2300 km from CERN. See Figure 1.

RAL

Pyhäsalmi far site location

CERN

Present: Site location

DESY 2300km

2300km

Pyhäsalmi

NNN11, Zurich, 7.-9.11.2011 – 2/27 –

Protvino

©2012 Google - Map data ©2012 Basarsoft, Google, Tele Atlas -

d

views

2100 km from RAL, 1500 km from

DESY, and 1160 km from Protvino.

n May 13 · By · Updated < 1 minute ago

Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

I CUPP : Centre for Underground Physics

in Pyhäsalmi (www.cupp.fi)

I Location: 63 o 39’ 31”N – 26 o 02’ 48”E

I Distances (by roads)

I Oulu – 165 km

I Jyväskylä – 180 km

I Helsinki – 450 km

I Distance to CERN 2300 km

I Good tra c connections

I the main highway:

Helsinki – Jyväskylä –Oulu–...

I the second busiest airport in Oulu

I rail yard at the mine

I Inhabitants: ≥6000

Being extensively investigated

in LAGUNA DS since 2008

2300 km baseline is suitable for

experimental setup consists of a new conventional neutrino beam aimed at a deepobservatory

composed of a double phase liquid argon detector (GLACIER) and a mag- Neutrino 17 Factory

calorimeter (MIND) located at the Pyhäsalmi (Finland) mine at a distance of 2300 km

iTuesday, is alsoJune at26, a 12

distance of 2100 km from RAL, 1500 km from DESY, and 1160 km from

8

8


Layout of the LAGUNA-LBNO

observatory at Pyhäsalmi

(-1400m)

Necessary space for

2x50 kton LAr + 50 kton LSc

879’000 m 3 excavation

Design to be finalized within

LAGUNA-LBNO by ≈2014

≈200m

Feasibility Study for LAGUNA at PYHÄSALMI

Underground infrastructures and engineering

(Deliverable 2.1)

Figure 04-8 West view of the new Mine area. Copper and Zinc ores a

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

with different colors.

9

Tuesday, June 26, 12

9


Far underground detectors

• 20 kton double phase LAr LEM TPC

(GLACIER): best detector for electron

appearance measurements with excellent

energy resolution and small systematic errors

‣ Exclusive final states, low energy

threshold on all particles

‣ Excellent ν energy resolution and

reconstruction ability from sub GeV

to a few GeV, from single prong to

high multiplicity

➡ Suitable for spectrum measurement

with needed wide energy coverage

‣ Excellent π0 detector.

/electron discrimination

➡ Wide band On-Axis beam is tolerable

• 35 kton magnetized Muon Detector (MIND):

conventional and well-proven detector for

muon CC, and NC

‣ muon momentum & charge determination, inclusive

total neutrino energy

‣ rsµ/wsµ with Neutrino Factory

‣ 3cm Fe plates, 1cm scintillator bars, B=1.5-2.5 T

2.6 Magnetized Iron detector

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

20m

field cage

field configuration is symmetric (the acceptance to the left for positive muons is identical t

acceptance to the right for negative muons and vice-versa), which is important for the measureme

CP asymmetries and was actually being considered as a possible improvement for the Neutrino Fa

10m

20m

cathode

40m

Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND)

B B

I

40m

anode & charge readout

liquid argon

volume

height

bottom of tank &

light readout

10

10


Top view of far detector cavern

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

One of the largest underground experimental halls !

11

11


Neutrinos from CERN to Pyhäsalmi

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

arXiv:hep-ph/0305042v1

•Distance CERN-Pyhäsalmi = 2288 km

•Deepest point = 103.8 km

•Abundant geophysical data about crust and upper

mantle available

•Densities = 2.4÷3.4 g/cm 3

•Remaining uncertainty has small effect on neutrino

oscillations (assumed equivalent to ±4% global change in

matter density)

70

2 × 2 × 12

12


CERN-Pyhäsalmi: spectral information νμ→νe

sin

P( νµ

-> νe)

P( νµ

-> νe)

2 ★Normal mass hierarchy

(2 13) =0.09

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0.12

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

CP

=0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

δ

E

ν

(GeV)

)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 13

Tuesday, June 26, 12

0.1

0

¯

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

δ

¯

CP

CP-conserving

=90

o


(GeV)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

L=2300 km

¯

o

δCP=45


o

CP=180


(GeV)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

δ

¯

CP-conserving

(GeV)

13


CERN-Pyhäsalmi: spectral information νμ→νe

sin 2 (2 13) =0.09

★Inverted mass hierarchy

)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

=0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(GeV)

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

0

δ

CP

CP-conserving

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

0.12

0.1

0.08

¯

0.06

0.04

¯

o

δCP=90

¯


(GeV)

)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

0.02

0

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

L=2300 km

o

δCP=45

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


o

CP=180


(GeV)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

δ

CP-conserving

¯

(GeV)

14

14





New LAGUNA-LBNO neutrino beam

CN2PY horn focused neutrino beam towards Pyhäsalmi/FI

‣ Starting point is SPS and CNGS operation (achieved 420kW)

‣ Consider protons extraction, transfer & secondary beam lines

‣ Design optimized target and horn focusing systems.

‣ Afford relatively short decay tunnel ≈300m, but 10deg dip angle

‣ Necessity of a near detector station to achieve target systematic errors

‣ Consider dedicated set of hadron-production measurements

Benefit from improved performance of SPS+injectors; consider further options to

upgrade power of SPS:

‣ SPS intensity is upgraded to 7e13 ppp at 400 GeV with cycle time = 6 seconds.

‣ Yearly integrated pot = (0.8–1.3)x 1e20 pot / yr

‣ Total integrated (12 years) = (1–1.5)x 1e21 pot

‣ Range corresponds to sharing 60–85%

‣ Studies ongoing within CERN accelerator team in LAGUNA-LBNO WP4

Upgrade path (three options):

- SPS upgrades (e.g. SUPER-SPS/SPS+ @ 800-1200 GeV) → 2 MW

- New HP-PS accelerator (50 GeV) → 2 MW

- NF storage ring (staged program with initially 1% of the NF baseline).

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

LAGUNA-LBNO WP4

15

15


Two CERN presently ν-beam to Pyhasalmi considered - CN2PY layouts

‣ Phase 1 layout using the 400 GeV beam

from SPS

Possibilities:

‣ Option A: LSS6 extraction, target near

BA2

- LSS6 fast extraction and TT60 beam line

exists

- New switch to direct the proton beam

towards North

- Long (~1.6km) proton tunnel to bring the

beam towards BA2

‣ Option B : LSS2 extraction, target near

TCC2

- new fast extraction system in LSS2

- TT20 beam line exists

- Target area near existing TCC2

I. Efthymiopoulos - NuTownMeeting, May 10 2012

12

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 16

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Option A: use

LSS6/TI2

TI2

(LHC)

TT66

(HiRadMat)

TT10

(PS)

BA1

BA7

TT60

BA2

Option B: use

LLS2/TT20

BA6

ECA5

BA4

BA5

BA3

TT40

TI8

(LHC)

TT20

(SPS NA)

ECA4

CNGS

TT41

(CNGS)

Courtesy : B. Goddard - LLBNO

16


Detailed view of CN2PY layout : Option A

New transfer

line

LSS6/TI2

extraction

Near BA2:

target station

Near detector position:

choose a location

between 500-800m

from target

A. Rubbia FIG. 106th 46: Meeting CN2PYof layout the SPSC Option - June A: 2012 Layout of the CN2PY beam in the CERN area using the SPS extraction

Tuesday, June 26, 12

channel in LSS6. The long proton beam transfer line is shown in blue and the target station in shaded-green.

17

17


Beam spectrum optimization



2

/100m /year at 100 km

µ

ν

Low-energy neutrino beam (0-10 GeV) optimization done within LAGUNA DS for

various baselines to maximize θ13 sensitivity, assuming 50 GeV protons from HP-PS.

Present activities:

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

- Optimization for 200, 300 and 400 GeV SPS protons vs 50 GeV HP-PS;

12

× 10

- Focusing optimization maximizing MH&CPV physics reach (1st & 2 nd maxima);

- Target & focusing optimization ongoing to increase further flux at 2nd maximum

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

E (GeV)

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

µ

¯µ

Ep = 400 GeV

Present assumption

on optics

ν

νµ

/200 MeV/year at 100 Km

2

/100 m

ν

Flux at 400 GeV

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

12

× 10

LAGUNA-LBNO WP4

On-going optimization

Target z Shift

Δ z=-50 cm

Δ z=-40 cm

Δ z=-20 cm

Δ z=0

Δ z=+20 cm

Δ z=+50 cm

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20


[GeV]

19

19


year at 100 km

2

/100m

µ

ν

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

12

× 10

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

0

120 14 2 16 4 18 6 20 8 10 12


(GeV)

0.12

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

δCP=0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


(GeV)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 20

Tuesday, June 26, 120.12

)

e

ν

2 nd

1 st

Flux tuning

12

/year at 100 km

2

/100m

µ

ν

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

)

e

ν

->

µ

ν

P(

)

e

ν

× 10

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0.12

2 nd

1 st

o

δCP=45


(GeV)

20


entries / 200 MeV / 1.50e+21 0.75e+21 pots

µ

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

µ-like CC sample (+)

20 kt LAr

+MIND

µ

µ CC(no osc)

(8204evts)

µ µ

(2089evts)

Detector response

and resolution

included

Reco

ν

energy (GeV)

21

21


entries / 200 MeV / 1.50e+21 0.75e+21 pots

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

µ

e-like CC sample (+)

0 NC µ CC e CC

(29evts)

(94evts)

e

(20evts)

(51evts)

Reco

CP = 180

Integral 7.2e+02

(50% of pots)

ν

µ e

(526evts)

Detector response

and resolution

included

energy (GeV)

22

22


Neutrino/antineutrinos and MH

132 5 PHYSICS POTENTIAL

entries / 200 MeV / 3.75e+20 pots

entries / 200 MeV / 3.75e+20 pots

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

⌫,NH

all electron-like events

Integral e CC beam

3.7e+02

CC misid


0

NC

misid

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2


CC + -> e


Reco energy (GeV)

all electron-like events

Integral e CC beam

1.6e+02

CC misid

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Reco energy (GeV)

Reco energy (GeV)

Reco energy (GeV)

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 23

Tuesday, June 26, 12

⌫,IH

Detector response and resolution included


0

NC


misid

CC + -> e


entries / 200 MeV / 1.12e+21 pots

entries / 200 MeV / 1.12e+21 pots

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

¯⌫,NH

¯⌫,IH

all electron-like events

CC beam


Integral e 2e+02

CC misid


0

NC



misid

CC + -> e

all electron-like events

Integral e CC beam

4.1e+02

CC misid


0

NC

misid

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


CC + -> e


23




finalized in view of the proposal. They will depend on the ultimate understanding of the far detect

LBNO sensitivity for MH&CPV

of potential calibration campaigns in test beams, on the ultimate performance of the near detec

from the specific knowledge of secondary particle production at the target, and from related dedica

We estimate hadronproduction the significance measurements, C.L. with a chi2sq etc. method, Unless otherwise with which noted, we can the oscillation parameters and t

1) exclude errors the opposite assumed in mass thishierarchy section areand listed in Table XVII.

2) exclude δCP = 0 or π (CPV)

TABLE XVII: Parameters and assumed 1 errors other than CP assumed in this section.

We minimize chi2sq w.r.t to the known 3-flavor oscillations and the nuisance parameters using

Gaussian constraints

Name Value Error (1 )

| m

138 5 PHYSICS POTENTIAL

2 32 | ⇥10 3 eV2 2.40 ±0.09

sin

TABLE XVIII: Energy correlated and bin-to-bin uncorrelated systematic errors assumed in these sections.

2 ✓23 0.50 ±0.06

Average density of traversed matter (⇢) 3.2 g/cm3 ±4%

Name MH determination CP determination

Error (1 ) Error (1 )

Bin-to-bin correlated: Two milestones for the protons-on-target are assumed for the present studies: in the first

Signal normalization years of running, (fsig) an integrated proton-on-target intensity ±5% corresponding±5% to 2.25 ⇥ 10

Beam electron contamination normalization (f⌫eCC) ±5% ±5%

Tau normalization (f⌫⌧ CC) ±50% ±20%

⌫ NC and ⌫µ CC background (f⌫NC ) ±10% ±10%

Relative norm. of “+” and “-” horn polarity (f +/ ) ±5% ±5%

Bin-to-bin uncorrelated ±5% ±5%

20 p.o.t. wil

accumulated. This initial phase will be focused on the mass hierarchy determination and CP ph

determination. In total absence of knowledge of the MH, we take the conservative approach of 5

50% sharing of the running time between neutrino and antineutrino horn focusing. Hence, we assu

1.125 ⇥ 1020 p.o.t. in neutrino mode and 1.125 ⇥ 1020 Control of

systematic

errors will be

fundamental

p.o.t. in antineutrino mode, which should

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

accumulated in a few years of SPS operation.

L 2300 km exact

m 2 21 7.6⇥10 5 eV 2 exact

sin 2 ✓12 0.31 exact

sin 2 2✓13 0.10 ±0.02

24

24


MH & CPV sensitivities

• Estimation using all systematic errors mentioned

previously.

• Nominal beam power scenarios (700kW).

• For sin 2 2θ13=0.1, approximately

(at 90%C.L.):

• MH: 100% coverage at >5σ in a few years of

running

• CPV: ≈60% coverage and evidence for

maximal CP (π/2, 3π/2) at 2.9σ in 10 years

• CPV coverage already sensitive to systematic

errors.


With more details studies and a better definition of

the near detector, hadron production

measurements, and other auxiliary

measurements, they might be reduced.

• In case of negative result, the CPV sensitivity can

be improved with longer running periods and/or an

increase in beam power and far detector mass.

For instance, CPV becomes accessible at > 3σ’s

C.L. for 75% of the δCP parameter space with a

three-fold increase in exposure, provided that

systematic errors can be controlled well below the

5% level.


142

20

0

0 1 2 3 4


90%C.L.

5 PHYSICS 6 POTENT

True δ

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

True δCP

25

FIG. 75: 2 of the CPV discriminant as a function of true CP for an integrated intensity of 1.5 ⇥ 1021 Tuesday, June 26, 12

25 p

2

χ

Δ

MH

2

χ

Δ

CPV

120

100

80

60

40

12

10

8

6

4

2

MH determination

50% nu+50% anu

2.25e+20 pots


CPV discovery

δ

CP


= 0, π exclusion

90%C.L.

full syst.

reduced syst.

2.25e20 pot

1.5e21 pot

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

myfitter

CP

myfitter


l energy correlated errors are set to zero and the average Earth density error is reduced to 1%.

Incremental approach with conventional beams

coverage (%)

CP

δ

Fraction of

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

CPV discovery

δ = 0, π exclusion

CP

all errors included

20 kt LAr

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

70 kt LAr

or HP-PS

90% C.L.

σ

3

C.L.

20

Integrated SPS 400 GeV p.o.t. (x 10 )

myfitter

26

26


Milestones - Timescale

LAGUNA Design Study funded for site studies:

Categorize the sites and down-select:

Start of LAGUNA-LBNO

Submission of LBNO EoI to CERN

End of LAGUNA-LBNO DS: technical designs,

layouts, liquids handling&storage, safety, ...

Critical decision

Excavation-construction (incremental):

Phase 1 LBL physics start:

Phase 2 incremental step implementation:

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

2008-2011

Sept. 2010

2011

2012

2014

2015 ?

2016-2021 ?

2023 ?

>2025 ?

27

27





Conclusions

LBNO, to be located underground at Pyhäsalmi 2300km away from CERN, has truly

unique scientific opportunities:

➡ all transitions (e/µ/tau) measurable in neutrino/antineutrino in a single experiment

➡ a fully conclusive mass hierarchy determination, in a cleaner and more significant

way than any other methods/proposals

➡ a very good chance to find CPV with the spectral information providing unambiguous

oscillation parameters sensitivity. With 10 years at 700kW SPS and 20 kton LAr

+MIND (=initial phase), the reach is ≈60% CPV coverage at 90% C.L. This step will

inform future investigations (e.g. systematics).

➡ >x10 better sensitivity in several nucleon decay channels, competitive to HK LoI.

➡ detection of several astrophysical sources (SN,...) and fresh new look at atmospheric

neutrinos with high granularity and resolution (atm tau app., atm MH, ...).

LBNO defines a clear upgrade path (long term vision / incremental approach) to fully

explore CPV. E.g., a three-fold exposure yields 75% CPV coverage at 3σ C.L. !

Comparable to T2HK LoI and better than “other” proposals with conventional beams.

LBNO is a possible first step towards the Neutrino Factory.

We are calling on CERN to engage in a collaborative effort with the LBNO

Collaboration to prepare a full engineering design of the CN2PY beam and to

promptly support the necessary R&D and test beams needed to develop a Proposal

by the end of 2014.

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

28

28






Acknowledgements

FP7 Research Infrastructure “Design Studies” LAGUNA

(Grant Agreement No. 212343 FP7-INFRA-2007-1) and

LAGUNA-LBNO (Grant Agreement No. 284518 FP7-

INFRA-2011-1)

We are grateful to the CERN Management for supporting the

LAGUNA-LBNO design study.

We thank the CERN staff participating in LAGUNA-LBNO, in

particular M.Benedikt, M.Calviani, I.Efthymiopoulos, A.Ferrari,

R.Garoby, F.Gerigk, B.Goddard, A.Kosmicki, J.Osborne,

Y.Papaphilippou, R.Principe, L.Rossi, E.Shaposhnikova and

R.Steerenberg.

The contributions of Anselmo Cervera are also recognized.

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

29

29


Backup slides

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Courtesy PvZ

30

30


T2K and NOvA: in the future

• Preliminary and not official estimates of

the combined T2K, NOvA and reactors

sensitivity


Nominal beam power scenarios (750kW).

Need to check beam power assumptions.

• For sin 2 2θ13=0.1, approximately

(at 90%C.L.):



MH: ≈50% coverage

CPV: ≈30-40% coverage

(robustness vs MH ?)

• Are these curves too optimistic ?

• Atmospherics to the rescue ?

• Official predictions to be produced by

experiments with revised projections.


CPV and MH are “extracted” from a

global fit. Not a direct proof of CP nor

direct measurement of MH induced

matter effect !!

Fraction of of true true ∆ CP

Fraction of true true ∆ CP

MH 90%C.L. sensitivity CPV

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2Θ13 2 0

2Θ13 0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

MH discovery, IH

Dashed: NOA with neutrinos only

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

2014

0.1

True value of sin 2Θ13 2 0

2Θ13 A. Rubbia

Figure 8: Mass hierarchy (left panels) and CP violation (right panels) discoverypotentialsasafunctio

106th Meeting

of

of

true

the SPSC

sin

- June 2012 31

2 2θ13 and fraction of true δCP at 90% CL from T2K, NOνA andreactordata. Theupperro

Tuesday, June 26, 12

corresponds to the normal simulated hierarchy, the lower row totheinvertedsimulatedhierarchy. T

31

GLoBES 2009

GLoBES 2009

MH discovery, NH

Dashed: NOA with neutrinos only

NH

IH

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

Fraction of of true true ∆ CP

Fraction of true true ∆ CP

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2Θ13 2 0

2Θ13 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

CPV discovery, NH

Dashed: NOA with neutrinos only GLoBES 2009

NH

2019

2018

2017

CPV discovery, IH

Dashed: NOA with neutrinos only GLoBES 2009

IH

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

True value of sin 2Θ13 2 0

2Θ13 Huber et al., JHEP 0911:044,2009

not official






LBNO EoI: the physics reach

Initial setup 20 kton LAr LEM TPC + MIND + CERN SPS 700kW

Ultimate long baseline oscillations measurements:

-LBNO can measure all transitions (e/µ/tau) and determine precisely

oscillation parameters. It can achieve a 5σ C.L. determination of the

neutrino mass hierarchy in a few years. In a 10 years run, it explores a

significant part of the CPV parameter space, namely 60% CPV

coverage at 90%C.L.

-Both the local situation and the distance make it such that it can evolve into

larger detector(s) and a more powerful beams (e.g HP-PS and/or NF) and

thus, offers a long term vision. For example, with a three-fold increase in

exposure, it reaches 75% CPV coverage at 3σ C.L.. Competitive with

T2HK (even more with JPARC MR at 700kW...) and LBNE.

Significantly extended sensitivity to nucleon decay in several channels.

E.g. some channels with sensitivity similar to HK:

Br(p ¯K) > 2 10 34 y(90%C.L.) Br(n e K + ) > 2 10 34 y(90%C.L.)

Interesting astrophysics: LBNO acts as an nu-observatory in the 10 MeV-

100 GeV range.

5600 atmospheric events/yr relic SN, WIMP annihilation, ...

>10000’s events @ SN explosion@10kpc

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

32

32


Depth considerations for CN2PY

CN2PY - Layout considerations

‣The depth for the installations is the major concern

-50m

-100m

-150m

- 18% slope compared to 5.6% for CNGS

. Efthymiopoulos - NuTownMeeting, May 10 2012

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

92 3 ACCELERATOR REQUIREMENT

the relative depths starting from the target of the various components of the be

Distance [m] Depth [m]

target - 0

hadron stop 300 -54.3

muon station 330 -59.9

1st position for near detector 500 -90.57

2nd position for near detector 800 -145.21

CN2PY&Beam&6&Generic&Layout

Distance Depth

TABLE X: Indicative depths of the CN2PY components relative to the

Target 6 0'm

Starting the beam from the

Hadron'stop 300'm 654.3'm

SPS level adds ~100m to the

depth of the installations

location of the target cavern requires optimization with key parameters being th

Muon'sta$on 330'm 659.8'm

beam and the design constraints to operate this high-power facility. The targe

Near'detector 400'm 672.6'm

final focusing elements of the beam and associated instrumentation, the target

‣ Staying in the molasse

Middle'detector 830'm 6150.6'm'

and the focusing elements horn(s). In the downstream part the target cavern c

‣ Starting the beam from the SPS

tunnel - most likely a 3.0 m diameter layer steel has tubequite buried insome concrete for reasons of

level adds ~100m to the depth

of the surrounding rock. of The the advantages technically installations challenging for the components civil of the beam

engineering and radiation to

and the collection and focusing ‣ Staying devices in the (horns) molasse require layer has dedicated R&D and en

quite some advantages for the

be studied and optimized for this environment beam and build(underground using the available expertise

CE (stability) and radiation to

collaborating institutes. environment water (underground activation) water issues

activation issues) issues

Two possible locations for the CN2PY beam in the CERN accelerator complex

exploiting alternative options for the SPS extraction. A brief description of th

below, detailed studies and further optimizations are ongoing within the LAGUN

33

16

33


Light readout layout

92

SY2791

MHz

it ADCs

Liquid Argon (87K, 1bar)

ger

ME

720

Physical parameters and challenges

Liquid Argon:

Technical challenges:

+ High density, cheap medium

– Long drift requires ultra high purity

+ Quasi free electrons from ionizing tracks are * free of electro-negative molecules (O2, H2O, ...)

drifted in LAr (87K, 1bar) by Edrift.

Goal


The LAr TPC features

★ The LAr TPC is the very successful marriage between the “gaseous TPC” and “the liquid argon

calorimeter” to obtain a dense and very fine grained three dimensional tracking device with local

dE/dx information and a homogenous full sampling calorimeter

★ Detector performance:

- 3D tracking, mm-scale spatial resolution with local dE/dx

- fully sensitive, ≈2%X0 sampling rate and excellent energy resolution

- excellent particle identification (range vs dE/dx), e/π0 separation

with ε=90% for rejection factor >100.

- continuously sensitive (“trigger-less” mode)

★ Technology achievement:

- large ultra high vacuum ( 10 for m.i.p with Cdet ≈ 400pF)

Physics performance:

- Kinematical reconstruction of QE events (ICARUS 50L@CERN WANF)

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Cosmic interaction in double phase 40x80cm 2

LAr-LEM TPC with adjustable gain @ CERN-ETHZ

Figure 7.7: Event display of some events rec

and right columns refer to the two views. F

crossing a dead region, a muon which emits

breakup.

PRD 74, 112001 (2006)

-

-

Inclusive cross-section measurement on Argon (ArgoNEUT)

PRL 108 (2012) 161802

Many published studies on: For example:

PRD82, 093012 (2010)

• Proton decay

JHEP 0704 (2007) 041 Nucl. Phys. B. Proc. Suppl. 91, 223 (2001)

• Atmospheric neutrinos: e.g. detection of ντ

JCAP 0408 (2004) 001

• Supernova core collapse neutrinos

arXiv:1003.1921 [hep-ph]

• Diffuse supernova neutrino background

JCAP 0412 (2004) 002 arXiv:0804.2111 [hep-ph]

• Indirect DM detection

arXiv:1105.4077 [hep-ph] arXiv:0801.4035 [hep-ph]

• Long baseline neutrino oscillation for CPV & MH

Nucl. Phys. B 589 (2000) 577 JHEP 0611 (2006) 032

+ etc...

35

Tuesday, June 26, 12

35


C2.K?,?.6:,J4421.57?:,AH=a,6D

The “electronic bubble chamber”

CNGS neutrino interactions in ICARUS T600

"4;;:J?.45,O.:P

h.2:,J4421.57?:,AW,6D

ICARUS T600

@ LNGS

Courtesy A. Guglielmi

Neu2012, 27-09-2010 Slide: 14

50cm

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Argoneut @ FNAL

800cm

Courtesy B. Fleming

"BN&, 9:76,1.2:J?.45

Cosmic track in double phase 3L LAr-LEM TPC with

adjustable gain @ CERN-ETHZ

Charged particle beam ≈800 MeV/c exposure

e +

π +

p

10cm

10cm

J,+4#*-;&(/.0#DXR#Fl566G#+(-;%&.0#

3(#"*)@>.^;4%".#?=& (;.&%3*()#F

70cm

ETHZ 3L

250L @ J-PARC

36

36


Q

Number of Hits

een data and MC.

800

600

400

200

Tracking performance

T32 800 MeV/c Pion

+ Data

- MC

0

0 200 400 600 800

d with the • first Explain straight Landau Hit Charge line distribution are(ADC re- × µ s) (”bare” 1400 track and

J-PARC T32 chamber (ETHZ-KEK-Iwate-Waseda)

emaining hit ”dressed” coordinates track) are trans-

1200

ough space.

1000

)

JPARC T32 exposed to K1.1BR tagged beam

3: Hit charge distribution for 800 MeV/c through-going π +

• pion track (800 MeV/c) and soft800 electron (∼10

keV) has different dE/dx = recombination

600

Points and histograms correspond to data and MC, respec-

traight line using the same procedure

k)

400

• Set delta-ray cut off = 10 keV in simulation, 200 and

e is repeatedtake until ICARUS numbermeasurement of 250L remain- @ J-PARC of recombination.

s than three.

• Hit 4charge

distribution is in good agreement be-

Courtesy T. Maruyama

pped point A. Rubbia Proton is identified

tween data

as

and

the

MC.

hit with Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Number of Hits

Figure 14: Hit Charge, Hit Sigm

J.Phys.Conf.Ser. 308 (2011) 012008

Figure15 shows the hit

distance from stopped p

tions of MC simulation ar

Figure?? shows the mean

of each distance from stop

produce the charge respon

A =0.8

dE/dx region well.

Data well described by:

k =0.0486 kV/cm g/cm2

NIM A 523, 275 (2004)

Number of hits

80

T32 Kaon

data

MC simulation60

650 MeV/c

0 cm from Stopped Point

100

40

20

Hit Charge

1000

Number of Hits

800

600

400

200

MeV

T32 Proton

0

0

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500

0 500

0 1000

1000

20 1500 40 2000

1500

60

Hit charge (ADCµ

s)

Hit charge (ADC TPC µ Channe s)

Hit charge (ADCµ

s)

0

Number of Events

80

60

40

20

T32 T32 Kaon Proton data

data MC simulation

MC simulation

800 MeV/c

Good understand of tracking

37

Figure 14: Hit Charge, Hit Sigm

37


Calorimetric performance

Michel electrons form

stopping muon decay sample

/E

σ

2 4 6 8 10

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 38

Tuesday, June 26, 12

e

E

MC simulations at

higher energies:

MC

em

E

MC

had

E

11%

E(MeV)

3%

15%

E 1%

E

10%

needs to be confirmed

by experimental data

4%

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

Number of events/5.3 MeV

25

22.5

20

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

5

2.5

0

Entries

Mean

RMS

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

G3 and G4 comparison

GEANT3 π+

, A=13±

1%

GEANT4 π+

, A=15±

1%

123

27.90

12.98

Data

SM

Best fit

Energy (MeV)

E,

B=5.4±

0.3%

E,

B=10.2±

0.3%

Eur. Phys. J. C33, 233 (2004)

E (GeV)

38


Purity and vessel evacuation

★ Several independent groups performed numerical simulations and concluded that the vacuum evacuation

phase could be avoided for larger detectors:

- more favorable surface / volume ratio for large volume (also larger volumes are less sensitive to micro leaks !!)

- initial purity of argon when delivered is typ. O(1) ppmv O2 → purification from ppm to


Purity and evacuation

★ Excellent purity has been reproducibly achieved in various setups always relying on

commercially available techniques, of various sizes and capacities.

11000

10000

9000

20m drift path@1kV/cm ≈10 ms drift (GLACIER)

Courtesy F. Pietropaolo

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Meas’d e-lifetime in ICARUS T600 (West)

LAr

Record

purification

purity in ICARUS 50L

@ CERN >10 ms

(volume evacuated)

Phys.Rev. D74 (2006) 112001

Key featur

negative m

Record purity in

ICARUS T600 ≈7.5 ms

(volume evacuated)

LAr contin

measured b

on cosmic µ

Lower bound in LAPD ≈3 ms

(volume non-evacuated !)

LBNE requirement ≈1.4 ms

for S/Nmip > 9

! ele > 5ms

NB: “Outgassing” sources should

become negligible after long periods

of purification (e.g. 1 year)

40

( ~60 ppt [O

40


Electron cloud diffusion

★ The Lowke physical and limit Parker to long drifts is determined Calculation by diffusion from ➠ Magboltz7 likely 20m !

•ArgonTube (Bern University)

-tracks >4 m length observed !

-lifetime ≈ 2ms after 24hrs

•5m drift (UCLA)

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Drift path (m)

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

(mm)

σ

Longitudinal Diffusion

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

Drift fields E=0.5,0.75,1,1.25,1.5 kV/cm

0.5 kV/cm

1.5 kV/cm

DL=4 cm 2 /s

(mm)

σ

Transverse Diffusion

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0.5 kV/cm

1.5 kV/cm

DT=13 cm 2 /s

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Drift path (m)

★ Diffusion coefficients not well known (in particular for transverse diff.):

- after 20 m drift: transverse diffusion ≈ 5mm, longitudinal diffusion ≈ 3mm

★ New measurements:

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Courtesy I. Kreslo

25

Sl

28

41


Project

Future LAr TPC detectors

LAr mass

(tons)

Goal

Baseline

(km)

MicroBOONE 170 (70 fid.) short baseline 0.47 FNAL BNB

LAr1 ≈1’000

ICARUS-NESSIE

150

+ 478

MODULAr 5’000 unit

2 nd detector for

short baseline

two-detectors

short baseline

shallow depth

far detector

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

≈0.7 FNAL BNB

0.3 +

1.6

730

Where Status

CERN + new

SBL beam

Italy, new lab

nearby LNGS

Under

construction

Proposal

submitted

Proposal

submitted

GLADE 5000 surface 810 NUMI off-axis Letter of Intent

LBNE LAr (*) 2x17’000(*)

GLACIER

LAGUNA-LBNO

GLACIER

Okinoshima

initially 20’000

(incremental)

up to 100’000

underground(*)

far detector

underground far

detector

underground far

detector

1300(*)

2300

665

Homestake(*) +

new FNAL

beam(*)

Finland + new

CERN LBL beam

Japan + JPARC

neutrino beam

(*) LBNE reconfiguration for cost reduction / staging in progress (cf. Svoboda’s talk)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

plan

CD-0

Expression of

interest in

preparation

R&D proposal

at JPARC

42

42


GLACIER detector design

★ Concept unchanged since 2003: Simple, scalable

detector design, from one up to 100 kton

(hep-ph/0402110)

★ Single module non-evacuable cryo-tank based on

industrial LNG technology

- industrial conceptual design (Technodyne, AAE, Ryhal

engineering, TGE, GTT)

- two tank options: 9% Ni-steel or membrane (detailed

comparison up to costing of assembly in underground

cavern)

- three volumes: 20, 50 and 100 kton

★ Liquid filling, purification, and boiloff recondensation

- industrial conceptual design for liquid argon process

(Sofregaz), 70kW total cooling power @ 87 K

- purity < 10 ppt O2 equivalent

★ Charge readout (e.g. 20 kton fid.)

- 23’072 kton active, 824 m 2 active area

- 844 readout planes, 277’056 channels total

- 20 m drift

★ Light readout (trigger)

- 804 8” PMT (e.g. Hamamatsu R5912-02MOD) WLS

coated placed below cathode

★ The concept and the designs are reaching the

required level of maturity for submission to SPSC.

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Top readout view:

43

43


GLACIER detector parameters

Liquid argon density at 1.2 bar [T/

m 3 ]

Liquid argon volume height [m]

Active liquid argon height [m]

Pressure on the bottom due to LAr [T/

m 2 ]

Inner vessel diameter [m]

Inner vessel base surface [m 2 ]

Liquid argon volume [m 3 ]

Total liquid argon mass [T]

20 KT 50 KT 100 KT

1.38346

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

22

20

30.4 (≡ 0.3 MPa ≡ 3 bar)

37 55 76

1075.2 2375.8 4536.5

23654.6 52268.2 99802.1

32525.6 71869.8 137229.9

Active LAr area (percentage) [m 2 ] 824 (76.6%) 1854 (78%)

Active (instrumented) mass [KT]

Charge readout square panels

(1m×1m)

Charge readout triangular panels

(1m×1m)

Number of signal feedthroughs (666

channels/FT)

Number of readout channels

Number of PMT (area for 1 PMT) 804

(1m×1m)

Number of field shaping electrode

supports (with suspension SS ropes

linked to the outer deck)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

3634

(80.1%)

22.799 51.299 100.550

804 1824 3596

40 60 72

416 1028 1872

277056 660672 1246752

1288

(1.2m×1.2m)

909

(2m×2m)

44 64 92

44

44


40 cm

80 cm

GLACIER charge readout

- A. Badertscher, et al., NIM A 641 (2011) 48-57

- See also arXiv:1204.3530 [physics.ins-det]

★ Novel double phase LAr LEM-TPC readout:

- ionization electrons are drifted to the liquid-gas interface

- if the E-field is high enough (≈ 3 kV/cm) they can efficiently be extracted

- in the holes of the LEM the E-field is high enough to trigger an electron

- the multiplied charge is collected on a 2D readout

- gain allows sharing charge in collection mode for both views!!

to the gas phase

avalanche

Design of a compact, robust and

scalable readout cassette

(“sandwich”)

2D anode

O(10 6 ) holes!

80 cm

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

capacitive level meters

LEM

signal coll.

plane

HV decoupling

capacitors

2D anode

LEM

2 extr. grids

Cosmic Data from 40x80cm 2 LAr LEM TPC@CERN-ETHZ

S/N > 100 !

Landau distribution fitted to dE/dx distributions of

muons on 3L LAr LEM-TPC setup @ CERN-ETHZ

noise

80cm

gain=3

gain=27

45

45


GLACIER charge readout layout

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

46

46


GLACIER light readout layout

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

47

47


Drift high voltage multiplier

Charging up to 10 kV in air

ircuit

A. Rubbia Towards a 100 kton LAr experiment

Tuesday, June 26, 12

12

!"#$%&'()%*#"+',(-.(

jeudi, 25 mars 2010

'#!!!"

'!!!!"

&!!!"

%!!!"

$!!!"

#!!!"

!"

Extrapolation to long drift

13

Extrapolation of the ArDM design

jeudi, 25 mars 2010

Changing Cs for fixed Cp = 2.35 pF and Vpp-in = 2E = 2.5 kV

ArDM

Drift length m 1.24 5 10 20

Total output voltage for 1 kV/cm V 124k 500k 1M 2M

Input voltage Vpp-in = 2E V 820 2.5k 2.5k 3.5k

Shunt capacitance, Cp F 2.35p 2.35p 2.35p 1.18p

Capacitor F 328/164n 475n 1.90µ 1.90µ

Number of stages, N – 210 319 638 903

N per 10 cm – 16.9 6.38 6.38 4.51

Total capacitance F 125µ 303µ 2.43m 3.43m

Capacitance per 10 cm F 10.4µ 5.99µ 24.3µ 17.2µ

Total stored energy J 21.7 948 7.58k 21.5k

jeudi, 25 mars 2010

History of Thursday, 10.12. 2009

/$4(56758769(

1.5 hour (or even longer) to reach “plateau”

'!(!!" ''('#" '#(#$" ')()%" '$($&" '%(!!" '*('#" '&(#$"

/01'(02(#$'(&"3(

Actual ArDM parameters are given just for comparison.

For extrapolation, 2(N = 1.42 is always assumed.

LAr vaporization heat 160 kJ/kg

Vmax = E ,

Output volta

J.Phys.Conf.Ser. 308 (2011) 012027

arXiv:1204.3530 [physics.ins-det]

Potential vs field shaper

Voltage, V

10

8

6

4

2

3

! 10

Red : measurements

Black : linear fit

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Field shaper number


2

1/2

V = V(n) - V(n - 1), volt

!

Cp

Cs

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0

As we have 210 Greinacher stages and only 30 field shapers,

connecting to each field shaper we can get virtually equal dis

between neighboring field shapers (with small jumps of ~1/7

48

48

#

B


LAr-LEM TPC@CERN: Production of a

40x80 cm 2 charge readout sandwich

‣After successful test of LEM and 2D anode in the 3L setup we designed and produced a 40x80 cm 2

charge readout for a new 250L LAr LEM-TPC (production and assembling finished by summer 2011)

‣The ArDM cryostat @CERN was used for a first test of the new charge readout system

2D anode

40 cm

•Manufacturer: CERN TS/DEM group and ELTOS company (Italy)

•Largest LEM/THGEM and 2D readout ever produced!!!

Design of a compact, robust and

scalable readout cassette

(“sandwich”)

capacitive level meters

signal coll.

plane

HV decoupling

capacitors

2D anode

LEM

2 extr. grids

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

80 cm

LEM

O(10 6 ) holes!

80 cm

Cockcroft-Walton

HV multiplier

49

49


A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 50

Devis Lussi

Charge readout sandwich

➡ 40x80 cm 2 designed, built and tested

Tuesday, June 26, 12

signal plane 2

signal plane 1

2D anode readout

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Meeting in Paris - March 12, 2012

68 pin Erni connector

surge arrester

HV-decoupling

strip

Large Electron Multiplier (LEM)

2 extraction grids

(in liquid and gas phase)

pos. HV

7

50


electric layout

‣ Cascode design with 4 parallel JFETs

at the input (C. Boiano et al. IEEE

Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52 (2004) 1931)

‣ RC=470 µs feedback (C=1pF)

‣ RC-CR shaper with zero-pole sub. D2

Inp0

mechanism (no undershoot)

‣ over-voltage protection at input

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 51

Devis Lussi

Tuesday, June 26, 12

The ETHZ preamplifier

R10

10k

R1 10

BAV199

-3.5

Q2

BF862

Test

1 cm

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Meeting in Paris - March 12, 2012

Q1

BF862

C15

10pF

Q3

BF862

1uF

C1

Q4 Q5

BF862 BF862

R11 10k

C3

10uF

R2

270

C4

1uF R3

10k

C2

1uF

Q6

BFT92

C0 1pF

R0

470M

R4

2.7k

R5

2.2k

Q7

BFR93AW

R6

3.3k

Nicrom Novazzano

C6

100nF

R12

22

R9

5.1k

Q8

BFT92

R19

100

R14

2.7k

C14

1uF

C8

10uF

C11

220pF

realization

C9

100nF

C12 150pF

R7

3.3M

Ub

R17

100

R13

22

R16

100k

R15

15k

3

2

C10

1uF

8

4

C120 1uF

C119

1uF

V-

IC1A

AD8656

1

C13

47pF

‣preamplifier is realized

with discrete components

‣two preamplifier circuits

are implemented on a

single 4-layer PCB

R18

3.3k

+7

R121 10

-7

Outp0

12

51

V+


amplitude (ADC counts)

-200

35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

time ( µ s)

input capacitance (fC)

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 52

Devis Lussi

Performance of the ETHZ preamplifier

32 preamplifiers have been

characterized with a well defined

charge input:

I(t)

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Tuesday, June 26, 12

t

∆t

pulse shaping (varying ∆t)

100 ns

1 µs

5 µs

10 µs

fit

data

20 µs

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Meeting in Paris - March 12, 2012

RMS ENC (#e)

RMS ENC vs. input capacitance

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

Summary

13

52


TT-link

clock and

trigger

propagation

I/O

optical link

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 53

Devis Lussi

Tuesday, June 26, 12

The CAEN A2792 acquisition board

programmable

FPGA

digital

analog

32 ADCs: 2.5 MHz 12 bit

ADCs with serial interface

(no multiplexing)

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Meeting in Paris - March 12, 2012

16 preamplifier prints

input

connector

(32 ch.)

screening box

15

53


➡vacuum tightness

FR4

Signal feed-through technology

•Four layer printed circuit board (PCB)

with displaced vias (through-hole paths)

guarantees tightness

•The PCB is attached to a metal flange

•CF-standard for cryogenic

temperatures

•sealed with glue or gasket

design

metal

glue

➡High channel density

PCB technique allows to place 18

68-pin plugs on a single CF-250 lange

Examples from

different experiments

➡ See also: talk by L.Epprecht

A. Devis Rubbia Lussi

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Future liquid Meeting Argon detectors in Paris (Neutrino - 2012) March 12, 2012

21 54

Tuesday, June 26, 12

54


Devis Lussi

GN

input

Charge readout unit

Front end

Digitizers with serial interface, trigger

logic (FPGA), optical readout,...

GN

output

2 2

preamplifiers

(in cold)

Charge readout sandwich (1 m x 1 m)

High voltage,

temperature,

...

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Meeting in Paris - March 12, 2012

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 55

Tuesday, June 26, 12

ultra pure

gas argon

ultra pure

liquid argon

20 m

electron drift

in liquid argon

GN

input

2

accessible area

(electronic racks)

GN

input

2

insulation

feedthroughs

seal

support

structure

signal cables:

666 channels/sandwich

SHV cables (+/-8 kV):

anode (+)

LEM (up & down)

extraction grid (liquid & gas)

low voltage, coaxial, ...

level meters

heaters

temperature probes

* not to scale

5

55


working group

Devis Lussi

Development of a front end ASIC

CMOS preamplifier

E.Bechetoille, S.Gardien, C.Girerd, H.Mathez (electronics), Bruno Carlus (software),

Dario Autiero, Yves Déclais, Jacques Marteau

CNRS / IN2P3 / UCBL - Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon

Advantages of ASIC cold electronics

‣ Exploit intrinsic noise reduction at low T (minimum around 110K)

‣ Large scale integration and costs reduction (1~1.5 eur/ch)

Summary

‣Activity started in 2007

‣R&D on a analog ASIC preamplifier working at cryogenic

temperature for the charge readout of the LAr TPC

‣Performance of the 4th generation:

‣18 mV/fC sensitivity

‣1500 ENC at the end of the full chain with 250 pF

input capacitance @ 110K (-20%)

‣R&D on the Gigabit Ethernet readout chain + network

time distribution system PTP (IEEE1588)

LAGUNA-LBNO - General Meeting in Paris - March 12, 2012

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012) 56

Tuesday, June 26, 12

ASIC V4

Typical MIP signal

20

56


LAr-LEM TPC@CERN:The largest LEM-TPC ever

Detector fully assembled

60 cm

80 cm

40 cm

16 signal cables

charge readout

sandwich

4 capacitive

level meters

A. Rubbia Future liquid Argon detectors (Neutrino 2012)

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Chamber going into the ArDM cryostat

Cockcroft-Walton HV system

Final connection to the DAQ system

57

57


Real cosmic rays in LAr LEM-TPC

Cosmic track in double phase 80x40cm2 LAr-LEM TPC with adjustable gain : S/N > 100 for m.i.p !!

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 58

Tuesday, June 26, 12

80cm

58


Mine infrastructure extension

PyhäsalmiMine &LAGUNALBNOundergroundinfrastructure

Surfaceconnectionnexttorailyard,road

connectionandparkingplaces

TechnicalinfrashaftconnectionD3,1m

Surfaceto325

Shaftyardsandhorizontaltunnel

connectionat325

Shaftyardsandhorizontaltunnel

connectionat675+shaftdrainage

TechnicalinfrashaftconnectionD3,1m

from325via675to1100

Shaftyardsandhorizontaltunnel

connectionat1100

TechnicalinfrashaftconnectionD3,1m

from1100to1400+additionallyoutlet

duringexcavationandconstruction(brown)

LAr vents(pink)2*D0,7m

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

LAr caverns (2*237.500m3)

LSc cavern (254.700m3)

TotalLAr+LSc undergroundinfrastructure (879.000m3)

Technicalinfrashaft:

Electricity

LAr pipes

LSc pipes

Nitrogenpipes

Oxygenpipes

Hoistforinstallation

andmaintenance

H20pipes

H20ultrapurepipes

59

59


The reconstructed neutrino energy for positive and negative horn polarities are shown in Figure 73

for various

CP-phase

values of CP=0, 90 , 180 and 270 and for

sensitivity

normal mass hierarchy (NH). The same is shown

in Figure 74 but in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (IH). We note that in all cases the first and

entries / 200 MeV / 3.75e+20 pots

25

20

15

10

5

Reco ν

CP

Integral

o

δ =90 3.7e+02

CP

o

δCP=180

o

δ =270 CP

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

δ

=0

energy (GeV)

entries / 200 MeV / 1.12e+21 pots

Integral 2e+02

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

energy (GeV)

FIG. 73: Reconstructed event energy for (left) neutrino horn polarity running and (right) antineutrino horn

polarity running, for di↵erent values of true CP and for normal mass hierarchy (NH). A 25%-75% sharing

between neutrino and antineutrino running mode and a total of 1.5 ⇥ 10 21 pot have been chosen.

entries / 200 MeV / 3.75e+20 pots

25

20

15

10

5

Reco ν

CP

Integral

o

δ =90 1.6e+02

CP

o

δCP=180

o

δCP=270

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

δ

=0

energy (GeV)

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 60

Tuesday, June 26, 12

entries / 200 MeV / 1.12e+21 pots

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

Reco ν

Reco ν

δ

δ

δ

δ

CP

CP

CP

CP

=0

o

=90

=180

=270

o

o

CP

Integral

o

δ =90 4.1e+02

CP

o

δCP=180

o

δCP=270

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

FIG. 74: Same as Figure 73 but for inverted mass hierarchy (IH).

δ

=0

energy (GeV)

second maxima peaks are visible, this is particularly true for antineutrinos in the NH case, respectively 60


Tau like sample

.6 Long baseline neutrino oscillations 137

entries / 40 MeV / 1.05e+21 pots

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

all electron-like events

νe

CC Integral beam 3e+02

νµ

CC misid

0 νµ

NC π misid

ν CC + τ -> e

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

τ

Reco ν

ptmiss (GeV)

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Reco θτ-had/

π

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 61

entries / 1.05e+21 pots

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

all electron-like events

νe

CC Integral beam

2.8e+02

νµ

CC misid

0 νµ

NC π misid

ν CC + τ -> e

IG. 71: Reconstructed (left) transverse missing momentum (pmiss T ) and (right) transverse angle between tau

andidate momentum and hadronic momentum ✓⌧ had for electron-like final state events. For clarity, the ✓13

ngle has been set to zero to enhance the visibility to the tau decays.

he distribution that tau events shown in orange can be discriminated from the other sources of events.

n addition, several angular correlations in the transverse can be considered. For instance, the angle

Tuesday, June 26, 12

61

τ


CPV discovery - statistical only

2

χ

Δ

12

10

8

6

4

2

CPV discovery

δ = 0, π exclusion

CP

statistical only


90%C.L.

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

True

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 62

Tuesday, June 26, 12

1.5e+21 pots

myfitter

δCP

62


CPV discovery - statistical only

coverage (%)

CP

δ

Fraction of

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

CPV discovery

δ = 0, π exclusion

CP

statistical only

20 kt LAr

70 kt LAr

90% C.L.

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

20

Integrated SPS 400 GeV p.o.t. (x 10 )

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 63

Tuesday, June 26, 12

or HP-PS

σ

3

C.L.

myfitter

63


CP

δ

True

CP-phase determination

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

True sin

2500 2200

1600 3000

2000

1400

2000 1800 2500

1200 1600

1500

1400 2000

1000

1200

800

1000

1500

1000

600 800

1000

600

400

500 400

500

200

200

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 64

Tuesday, June 26, 12

68% and 90% C.L.

50% nu+50% antinu

1.50e+21 pots

20 kt LAr

68%

‣ PRELIMINARY

90%

2


13

64


entries / 200 MeV / 1.50e+21 pots

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Matter density effects

e-like sample

1.5e+21 pot

2 nd max

1 st max

region

Integral 7.1e+02

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Reco ν energy (GeV)

=

2.5

2.8

3.1

gcm 3

65

65


coverage (%)

CP

δ

Fraction of

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

CPV discovery

δ = 0, π exclusion

CP

statistical only90% C.L.

20 kt LAr

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Effect of matter uncertainty

★ INFLATED ERROR ON MATTER DENSITY ±10%

‣ PRELIMINARY

70 kt LAr

or HP-PS

σ

3

C.L.

20

Integrated SPS 400 GeV p.o.t. (x 10 )

myfitter

66

66


LBNE: 10 years @ 700kW

Be aware: Ash River has the best CPV sensitivity when MH is determined ! the

displayed sensitivities come mostly from parameter fitting around 1st maximum

Figure 12. The significance with which the mass ordering (top) and CP violation (bottom) is resolved with a 10

kton surface detector at Homestake (red), a 30 kton surface detector at Ash River (blue), and a 15 kton

underground A. Rubbia detector at Soudan (black) as 106th a function Meeting of the of SPSC the - June unknown 2012 CP violating phase CP. The sensitivities 67

Tuesday, are measured June 26, 12

with the experiment alone (left) and combined with NOvA running with the ME beam for 3+3 67


LBNE: Ash River & Homestake

6

810 km off-axis is totally discounted (no E-dependence !)

DRAFT

Even at 1300 km the second maximum is hard to observe !

FT

7:1 - 1 A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 68

FIG. 3. The un-oscillated ⌫µ CC spectra at the 3 candidate locations (black histograms) with the ⌫e appearance probability

2 st :2nd Tuesday, June 26, 12

68


Large

Apparatus for

Grand

Unification and

Neutrino

Astrophysics

-

Long

Baseline

Neutrino

Oscillations

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

• Deep Underground Science Facilities

for ν Physics & Proton decay

• Feasibility of a next generation ν

observatory with very large volume

detectors

• Prospects for next generation long

baseline flavor oscillations with

neutrino beams from CERN

• Present prioritization of sites:

(1) Pyhäsalmi (2) Fréjus (3) others

• Funded by the EC FP7 framework

programme since 2008 (present grant

until 2014) See talk by W Trzaska

69


LAGUNA-LBNO consortium

+Danemark+USA

Switzerland

University Bern

University Geneva

ETH Zürich (coordinator)

Lombardi Engineering*

Finland

University Jyväskylä

University Helsinki

University Oulu

Rockplan Oy Ltd*

CERN

CEA

CNRS-IN2P3

Sofregaz*

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

∼300 members (growing)

France

Germany

TU Munich

University Hamburg

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Aachen

University Tübingen

Poland

IFJ PAN

IPJ

University Silesia

Wroklaw UT

KGHM CUPRUM*

Greece

Demokritos

14 countries, 47 institutions,

Spain

LSC

UA Madrid

CSIC/IFIC

ACCIONA*

United Kingdom

Imperial College London

Durham

Oxford

QMUL

Liverpool

Sheffield

Sussex

RAL

Warwick

Technodyne Ltd*

Alan Auld Ltd*

Ryhal Engineering*

Romania

IFIN-HH

University Bucharest

Denmark

Aahrus

Italy

AGT*

Russia

INR

PNPI

Japan

KEK

USA

Virginia Tech

(*=industrial partners)

70

70


is













ement

Situation in 2023 ?

Most likely we will reach a ≈2σ MH determination

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 71

Tuesday, June 26, 12

71


Why the neutrino mass hierarchy ?

• CP-violation: necessary input to solve CPV problem. For

example, for the HyperK LOI arxiv:1109.3262 (which considers

a 540kton FV and hence has the highest statistical power):

➡ 3 MW×years (note: >10 years at present JPARC MR power)

MH known: 65% coverage → MH unknown: 35% coverage

➡ 10 MW×years needed to reach 65% coverage if MH unknown!

rather unlikely within present JPARC projections.

• 0νββ searches: necessary input to interpret both negative and

positive isotope lifetime results, in terms of neutrinos (as

opposed to some other source of lepton number violation).

• BSM/GUT theories: important ingredient for model building. An

inverted hierarchy would have interesting implications.

• We need a definitive & conclusive determination of the MH !

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

72

72


3 =0.1, right: sin 2 2✓13 =0.01.


100

80

60

40

20

HyperKamiokande CPV

sin 2 213=

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

0.1 0.03

0.01

0.003

arxiv:1109.3262


MH known

MH unknown

560kton FV


73

73


pot)

19

Integrated pot / year (10

14

12

10

SPS 400 GeV p.o.t / year

8

6

4

2

SPS today

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

13

FT protons-per-pulse (x10

ppp)

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 74

Tuesday, June 26, 12

400 GeV protons, T

cycle

200 days/yr

eff=100%, sharing=100%

= 6s

eff=80%, sharing=85%

eff=65%, sharing=60%

SPS for LBNO

19

13x10

19

7.6x10

19

4.5x10

≈300kW

74


s

2290 km on-axis 50 GeV p-driver

730 km 10 km off-axis 400 GeV p-driver

A. Longhin et al., NUTurn12

Tuesday, June 26, 12

Effect of

hierarchy

28

75


Some unique features of Pyhäsalmi

‣ Many optimal conditions satisfied simultaneously:

‣ Infrastructure in perfect state because of current exploitation of the mine

‣ Unique assets available (shafts, decline, services, sufficient ventilation,

water pumping station, pipes for liquids, underground repair shop...)

‣ Very little environmental water

‣ Could be dedicated to science activities after the mine exploitation ends

(around 2018)

‣ One of the deepest location in Europe (4000 m.w.e.)

‣ The distance from CERN (2300 km) offers unique long baseline

opportunities.

‣ The site has the lowest reactor neutrino background in Europe,

important for the observation of very low energy MeV neutrinos.

‣ Extensive site investigation with rock drilling and detailed analysis

planned during the period 2012-2014 (Finnish contribution).

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

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76


Present state of mine

CUPP at Pyhäsalmi

Present: The Pyhäsalmi mine (Inmet Mining Ltd., Canada)

I Procudes Produces Cu, Zn, and FeS2

I The deepest mine in Europe

I Depths down to 1400 m (4000 m.w.e.) possible

I The most e cient mine of its size and type

I Very modern infrastructure

I lift (of 21.5 tons of ore or 20 persons) down to 1400

metres takes ≥3 minutes

I via 11-km long decline it takes ≥40 minutes (by track)

I good communication systems

I Operation time still 7–8 years with currently known

ore reserves (presumably until 2018)

I Compact mine, small ’foot print’

I water pumping and other maintenance works not

major issues

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

NN11, Zurich, 7.-9.11.2011 – 3/27 –

Tuesday, June 26, 12

truck)

77

77


Cosmic'Ray'experiment'EMMA'at'shallow'depth

Cafeteria,))meeting)room)and)sauna)at)1400)m)below)ground 16

18

250$m$long$tunnel$and$a$cavern$at$1400m$excavated$for$LAGUNA$R&D$

15

Mobile'phones'work'and'internet'available'also'at'1400'm 17

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 78

Tuesday, June 26, 12

78


CP and Matter Asymmetries

★ CP-asymmetry in

vacuum:

★ Asymmetry due

to matter effects:

• CP asymmetries are largest at the 2 nd , 3 rd , ... maxima.

• Matter asymmetry dominates around the 1st maximum.

• Long(er) baselines, wide-band beams to cover several

maxima are needed to resolve degeneracies.

• Experimentally:

(fluxes, cross-sections, ...)

A vac

CP( CP) abs P vac ( ) P vac (¯)

P vac ( )+P vac (¯)

ACP( ) abs P mat ( ) P mat (¯)

P mat ( )+P mat (¯)

E

2nd max

0.5GeV= L 1000 km

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012 79

Tuesday, June 26, 12

79


CP-violation determination (CPV)

sin 2 (2 13) =0.09

Normal mass hierarchy

Baseline (km)

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Neutrino Energy E (GeV)

ν

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

A vac

CP( CP) abs P vac ( ) P vac (¯)

P vac ( )+P vac (¯)

3rd max

2nd max

1 st max

CP = 270

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

80

80


Mass hierarchy determination (MH)

sin 2 (2 13) =0.09

Normal mass hierarchy

Baseline (km)

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Neutrino Energy E (GeV)

ν

A. Rubbia 106th Meeting of the SPSC - June 2012

Tuesday, June 26, 12

ACP( ) abs P mat ( ) P mat (¯)

P mat ( )+P mat (¯)

3rd max

2nd max

1 st max

=2.8gcm 3

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

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