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12 PHONOLOGY 10 -14 the

12 PHONOLOGY 10 -14 the O. W. period to the present day ; the sounds a, e, o, have always been represented by the characters a, e, o, a and the sound i always by i, with some exceptions in Early Ml. W., 16 ii (2). 10. The sound of a is that of the English a in father. It ' occurs long as in tad 'father', medium as in td\dol fatherly ', and short as in mam ' mother '. The sound does not occur short in English, the a of Eng. man being a more forward sound, which may be denoted by ce. This sound ce is heard in Welsh in a narrow strip stretching from the English border to Harlech, and in Glamorganshire. 11. The sound of e, when long or medium, is the middle e, as in the Eng. men, let ; thnsgwe/t ' ' smile ', gioe\nu to smile ' when short it is generally more open, tending towards the Eng. e in there ; ' ihusywenn white '. For its sound in diphthongs, see S 29, 79. 12. The sound of i is the close i of the French ^rc?', si, or the North Eng. i in king, machine. The Southern Eng. i is more open. It occurs long as in gwin ' wine medium as in ', gwi\noed(l ' ' wines short as ', v&prin scarcely '. 13. The sound of o, when long or medium, is the middle o, midway between the close o in Eng. note and the open o in not ; thus ton ' tune ', t6\nau ' tunes ' ; when short it is more open, tending towards the o of not, as tonn ' wave ', tonnau f waves'. 14. i. The sound of w is that of the French ou in sou, or the North Eng. oo in food, book. The Southern Eng. sound is more open. It occurs long as in gwr ' man ', medium as in gw\rol ' manly ', short as in trwm ' heavy '. ii. (i) The sound to was written u in O.W., and thus could not be distinguished (except by the context) from the sound w, which was also written u (though sometimes i, 15 ii). ; 15 i, (2) In Early Ml. W., the sound w, both vocalic and consonantal was written u (or v) and w, and as the former also repre- sents the sound u, and both represent the sound/", the spelling is often ambiguous. In Late Ml. W. the uncertainty is partly re- moved by the restriction of w and the use of (a peculiar shape * Here and in the following sections up to 26, a letter printed in heavy type a letter printed in italics represents the sound. represents the written letter j

15 THE VOWELS 13 of v) to represent the to sounds. The characters w and repre- sent both w and w almost indifferently. Theoretically perhaps 1 w stood for w, and the R.B. scribe wishing to distinguish between gwyr ' men ' e and gwifr knows ' writes them gwyr, g6yr respectively, R.G. 1118 ; there seems to be a slight predominance of the w value for w, but no systematic distinction is made between the sounds, whole pages frequently occurring, e.g., in W.M., where 6 is used exclusively for both.

• Page 5 and 6: A WELSH GRAMMAR . HISTORICAL AND CO
• Page 7 and 8: PREFACE " THIS book ", as V. Henry
• Page 9 and 10: PREFACE v Welsh grammar was written
• Page 11 and 12: PREFACE vii In 1908 appeared the fi
• Page 13: PREFACE ix and B.T. which have not
• Page 16 and 17: xii CONTENTS BRITISH AND LATIN CONS
• Page 18 and 19: ABBREVIATIONS I. SIGNS V 'root'. <
• Page 20 and 21: xvi ABBREVIATIONS IV. AUTHORITIES P
• Page 22 and 23: xviii ABBREVIATIONS Rhys CB. : Celt
• Page 24 and 25: xx ABBREVIATIONS B.V. : Bleddyn Var
• Page 26 and 27: xxii ABBREVIATIONS O.G. : Owain Gwy
• Page 28 and 29: xxiv ABBREVIATIONS B.B. : The Black
• Page 30 and 31: xxvi ABBREVIATIONS M.M. : Meddygon
• Page 33 and 34: INTRODUCTION ORIGIN AND GENERAL HIS
• Page 35 and 36: 2 INTRODUCTION 3 2. In the oldest f
• Page 37 and 38: 3 INTRODUCTION 5 however, is that P
• Page 39 and 40: 5 INTRODUCTION 7 period we have onl
• Page 41 and 42: PHONOLOGY ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIA
• Page 43: 8,9 THE VOWELS 11 read short) : a,
• Page 47 and 48: 16 THE VOWELS 15 A special characte
• Page 49 and 50: 16 THE VOWELS 17 examples : faclySe
• Page 51 and 52: & 17 THE CONSONANTS 19 3 iv. Voiced
• Page 53 and 54: 19 THE CONSONANTS 21 Mn. W. G.R. di
• Page 55 and 56: 20 THE CONSONANTS 23 used dd and *
• Page 57 and 58: 22 THE CONSONANTS 25 In Early Ml. W
• Page 59 and 60: 24, 25 THE CONSONANTS 27 write yr y
• Page 61 and 62: 26 THE CONSONANTS 29 a rounded ck )
• Page 63 and 64: 28, 29 SYLLABIC DIVISION 31 sound t
• Page 65 and 66: 32 FALLING DIPHTHONGS 33 Pan aeth p
• Page 67 and 68: ^ 33 FALLING DIPHTHONGS 35 ' Greek
• Page 69 and 70: 34 FALLING DIPHTHONGS 37 'I have kn
• Page 71 and 72: 36 RISING DIPHTHONGS 39 keinhauc B.
• Page 73 and 74: 37 RISING DIPHTHONGS 41 'lions', ma
• Page 75 and 76: 38 AMBIGUOUS GROUPS 43 v. The combi
• Page 77 and 78: 38 AMBIGUOUS GROUPS 45 Tawy ; also
• Page 79 and 80: 39 AMBIGUOUS GROUPS 47 ' On his ste
• Page 81 and 82: 41 ACCENTUATION 49 but appears as S
• Page 83 and 84: 42 ACCENTUATION 51 v. Disyllables i
• Page 85 and 86: 43 ACCENTUATION 53 monosyllables th
• Page 87 and 88: 44 ACCENTUATION 55 Wedi 'mrawd ymar
• Page 89 and 90: 1 45 ACCENTUATION 57 Ddyrau am urdd
• Page 91 and 92: 46 ACCENTUATION 59 of mutation requ
• Page 93 and 94: 47 ACCENTUATION 61 stress in each c
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48 ACCENTUATION 63 The ordinary O h

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49,50 ACCENTUATION 65 generally fol

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51 QUANTITY 67 Exceptions to the ab

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52 QUANTITY 69 vi. Many preposition

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54 QUANTITY 71 thus ateb is necessa

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56 QUANTITY 73 generally the same i

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59 ARYAN VOWELS IN KELTIC 75 store

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62 ARYAN VOWELS IN KELTIC 77 Ir. cr

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63 VOWEL GRADATION 79 Ved- ' eat '

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& 63 VOWEL GRADATION 81 5 outside t

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63 VOWEL GRADATION 83 R 2 and VF, s

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64, 65 VOWEL GRADATION 85 RV * 'fif

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65 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 87 e + li

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$67 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 89 (2) • Page 123 and 124: 69 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 91 beside • Page 125 and 126: 71 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 93 (2) Or • Page 127 and 128: ' ' ' 71 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 95 • Page 129 and 130: 74, 75 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 97 74 • Page 131 and 132: 75 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 99 droppe • Page 133 and 134: 75 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 101 inter • Page 135 and 136: ' 76 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 103 lio • Page 137 and 138: 76 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 105 Ifanc • Page 139 and 140: 76 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 107 forma • Page 141 and 142: 76 KELTIC VOWELS IN WELSH 109 ordin • Page 143 and 144: 77 LATER VOWEL CHANGES 111 verbs wi • Page 145 and 146: 78 LATER VOWEL CHANGES 113 ix. In M • Page 147 and 148: 79 LATER VOWEL CHANGES 115 Mn. W. o • Page 149 and 150: 81 VOWEL MUTATION 117 mains the sam • Page 151 and 152: 82 VOWEL MUTATION 119 with y. In B. • Page 153 and 154: 83 VOWEL AFFECTION 121 seems to be • Page 155 and 156: 84 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 123 NOTE i. • Page 157 and 158: 86 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 125 *do-pro • Page 159 and 160: 88, 89 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 127 ' > • Page 161 and 162: 91, 92 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 129 ber • Page 163 and 164: 93 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 131 'snow'. • Page 165 and 166: 94 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 133 tion', • Page 167 and 168: 95 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 135 iv. Ar. • Page 169 and 170: 95 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 137 W., whe • Page 171 and 172: 96 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 139 66 ii ( • Page 173 and 174: 96 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 141 In W. s • Page 175 and 176: 96 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS v 143 (1) ( • Page 177 and 178: 97 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 145 W. maid • Page 179 and 180: 99 THE AKYAN CONSONANTS 147 ei- abo • Page 181 and 182: 99 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 149 E. want • Page 183 and 184: 100 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 151 cf. ag • Page 185 and 186: 100 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 153 we hav • Page 187 and 188: 101 THE ARYAN CONSONANTS 155 ( : Gk • Page 189 and 190: 101 INTERCHANGE OF CONSONANTS 157 l • Page 191 and 192: 102 INTERCHANGE OF CONSONANTS 159 w • Page 193 and 194: 103 INTERCHANGE OF CONSONANTS 161 V • Page 195 and 196: 103 THE SOFT MUTATION 163 < tiffirn • Page 197 and 198: 104 THE SOFT MUTATION 165 \V. ceulo • Page 199 and 200: 105, 106 THE SOFT MUTATION 167 < Ke • Page 201 and 202: 106 THE NASAL MUTATION 169 (: Lat. • Page 203 and 204: 107 THE NASAL MUTATION 171 often wr • Page 205 and 206: 107 THE NASAL MUTATION 173 words, t • Page 207 and 208: 108 THE NASAL MUTATION 175 ym Mango • Page 209 and 210: 110 INITIAL MUTATION 177 rk remain • Page 211 and 212: 110 LATER CONSONANT CHANGES 179 No, • Page 213 and 214: 111 LATER CONSONANT CHANGES 181 ' u • Page 215 and 216: 111 LATER CONSONANT CHANGES 183 byt • Page 217 and 218: 1 1 1 LATER CONSONANT CHANGES 185 2 • Page 219 and 220: 112 LATER CONSONANT CHANGES 187 and • Page 221 and 222: 113 LOSS OF SYLLABLES 189 in all ca • Page 223 and 224: 113 LOSS OF SYLLABLES 191 gold.' Ot • Page 225 and 226: 114 THE ARTICLE 193 vocalic form. I • Page 227 and 228: 116,117 NOUNS 195 The dual, whether • Page 229 and 230: 118 NOUNS 197 D. 38 gives ieirch rh • Page 231 and 232: 120 NOUNS 199 badau ' boats ' tonno • Page 233 and 234: 121 NOUNS 201 Bret, kere, pi. kereo • Page 235 and 236: 122 NOUNS 203 -i was also added to • Page 237 and 238: 122 NOUNS 205 (2) Ml. W. bugeil 'sh • Page 239 and 240: 123 NOUNS 207 cathod, ttwynogod, ew • Page 241 and 242: 124 NOUNS 209 (4) Some generic name • Page 243 and 244: 125 NOUNS 211 -on (Brit. nom. sg. - • Page 245 and 246: 126 NOUNS 213 (4) celfyfyd ' art ', • Page 247 and 248: 128 NOUNS 215 Double Plurals. 128. • Page 249 and 250: 130 NOUNS 217 Ni thawaf, od af Jieb • Page 251 and 252: 132 NOUNS 219 ii. In some cases the • Page 253 and 254: 134 NOUNS 221 'swallowing'', llafur • Page 255 and 256: 136 NOUNS 223 eryr "benyw ' ' femal • Page 257 and 258: 138 NOUNS 225 iii. (i) As in other • Page 259 and 260: 140 NOUNS 227 -ig forms m. titles, • Page 261 and 262: 143 NOUNS 229 damwein W.M. 29, K.M. • Page 263 and 264: 143 NOUNS 231 ' (9) -der, -ter < *- • Page 265 and 266: 143 NOUNS 233 For W. awdr ' author • Page 267 and 268: 145 ADJECTIVES 235 pi. lleithron (l • Page 269 and 270: 145 ADJECTIVES 237 (4) Most compoun • Page 271 and 272: 146 ADJECTIVES 239 E.P. 1327; crwm • Page 273 and 274: 147 ADJECTIVES 241 W.M. 165); claer • Page 275 and 276: ADJECTIVES 243 (2) The W. spv. -haf • Page 277 and 278: 148 ADJECTIVES 245 adjectives. Bret • Page 279 and 280: 148 ADJECTIVES 247 case gwaeth is f • Page 281 and 282: ADJECTIVES 249 which differed, were • Page 283 and 284: 149 ADJECTIVES 251 pen(n) ' head ' • Page 285 and 286: 151 ADJECTIVES 253 respectively, mo • Page 287 and 288: 153 ADJECTIVES 255 P611-bell, ar dr • Page 289 and 290: 153 ADJECTIVES 257 The idea that -g • Page 291 and 292: 154 NUMERALS 259 huechet. 7, seithf • Page 293 and 294:$ 155 COMPOUNDS 261 and the meaning

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156 COMPOUNDS 263 In the example ll

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$156 COMPOUNDS 265 with a man ' : • Page 299 and 300: 156 COMPOUNDS 267 ' under ' + *ston • Page 301 and 302: 157 COMPOUNDS 269 ann- [soft] < *an • Page 303 and 304: 159 PRONOUNS 271 Meined dy wasg mew • Page 305 and 306: 159 PRONOUNS 273 (2) A pronoun of t • Page 307 and 308: 160 PRONOUNS 275 ' Mighty youth is • Page 309 and 310: 160 PRONOUNS 277 After the prep, i • Page 311 and 312: 160 PRONOUNS 279 will not know it w • Page 313 and 314: 160 PEONOUNS 281 iv. Origin of : de • Page 315 and 316: 161 PRONOUNS 283 leu ditheu, eibaw • Page 317 and 318: 162 PRONOUNS 285 mentionest ' fast • Page 319 and 320: 162 PRONOUNS 287 v. (i) The negativ • Page 321 and 322: 163 PKONOUNS 289 departed from. But • Page 323 and 324: ' 163 PRONOUNS 291 pan Soy di, yr y • Page 325 and 326: 163 PRONOUNS 293 glwy waeth L.M. D. • Page 327 and 328: 164 PRONOUNS 295 hwn ' this man '. • Page 329 and 330: 164 PRONOUNS 297 Mae'r henwyr ? Ai • Page 331 and 332: 165 PRONOUNS 299 *sundl or *sindi. • Page 333 and 334: 165 PRONOUNS 301 ii. (i) The first • Page 335 and 336: 165 PKONOUNS 303 dwfyr hwnnw do. 16 • Page 337 and 338: 166 PRONOUNS 305 by dissim. for *al • Page 339 and 340: 168 PRONOUNS 307 prefixed or infixe • Page 341 and 342: 168 PRONOUNS 309 (2) oil. This is a • Page 343 and 344: 169 PRONOUNS 311 (2) Adj. llawer [r • Page 345 and 346: 170 PRONOUNS 313 heb Dduw, keb ddim • Page 347 and 348: 171 PRONOUNS 315 early i3th cent.a • Page 349 and 350: 172 VERBS 317 as cerir fi, cerir di • Page 351 and 352: 173 VERBS 319 VEEBAL NOUN. karu ; c • Page 353 and 354: 173 VERBS (3) The vowel of the stem • Page 355 and 356: 173 VERBS 323 ' buys ' (of snow), m • Page 357 and 358: 175 VERBS 325 eg., occurs ; as y wa • Page 359 and 360: 175 VERBS 327 ' saved, took ', with • Page 361 and 362: 177 VERBS 329 lively rare : gwiscof • Page 363 and 364: 179 VERBS 331 (5) The characteristi • Page 365 and 366: 179 VERBS 333 the unaccented was, a • Page 367 and 368: 180 VERBS 335 implies a Kelt. ** ea • Page 369 and 370: 181 VERBS 337 thus Brit. *kdrass-o- • Page 371 and 372: 183, 184 VERBS 339 183. Pres. Subju • Page 373 and 374: I. a. 3- 185 VERBS 341 SUBJUNCTIVE • Page 375 and 376: 187,188 VERBS 343 Llaw Rys nid llai • Page 377 and 378: 188 VERBS 345 (2) The Ml. W. inflec • Page 379 and 380: 189 1. oefiwn, f yttoebwn 2. oeb ut • Page 381 and 382: 189 VERBS (3) In the impf. the cons • Page 383 and 384: 190 . VERBS 351 ' Compounds of the • Page 385 and 386: 191 VERBS 353 makes no sense; a bet • Page 387 and 388: 191 VERBS 355 Imperfect Tense. sg. • Page 389 and 390: 192 VERBS 357 of the tense is forme • Page 391 and 392: 193 VERBS 359 the steward to whom b • Page 393 and 394: 193 VERBS 361 VERBAL NOUN. mynet (m • Page 395 and 396: 193 VERBS A. sg. i. deuthum, doethu • Page 397 and 398: 193 VERBS 365 ethyw K.M. 104, dothw • Page 399 and 400: 193 VERBS 367 iii), beside the orig • Page 401 and 402: 194 VERBS 369 sg. impv. *-dhi might • Page 403 and 404: 194 VERBS 371 iv. (i) Ml. W. amygaf • Page 405 and 406: 196 VERBS 373 correct than the trad • Page 407 and 408: 196 VERBS 375 (3) A stem of the sam • Page 409 and 410: 198 VERBS 377 body ' ; heb y Pwyll • Page 411 and 412: 200 VERBS 379 ii. (i) The verb dlya • Page 413 and 414: 201 VERBS 381 1254 < *uo-gn-n-, Vge • Page 415 and 416: 201 VERBS 383 iii. The stems of den • Page 417 and 418: 202 VERBS 385 does not help us to d • Page 419 and 420: 202 VERBS 387 keissaw do. 487, Mn. • Page 421 and 422: 203 VERBS 389 (2) -ael or -el, in g • Page 423 and 424: 203 VERBS 391 B.T. 27, usually cysg • Page 425 and 426: 203 VERBS 393 vii. Each of the foll • Page 427 and 428: 205 VERBS 395 (3) They are adjectiv • Page 429 and 430: 207, 208 VERBS 397 The suff. -awt i • Page 431 and 432: 209 PREPOSITIONS 399 in other cases • Page 433 and 434: 210 PREPOSITIONS 401 (4) am • Page 435 and 436: 210 PREPOSITIONS 403 f. yrydi, (y}r • Page 437 and 438: 211 PREPOSITIONS 405 (7) er, Ml. W. • Page 439 and 440: 212 PREPOSITIONS 407 Lat. red-, re- • Page 441 and 442:$ 213 PREPOSITIONS 409 213. i. The

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214 PREPOSITIONS 411 to end. For ex

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215 PREPOSITIONS 413 cyn is the adv

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215 PREPOSITIONS 415 M.K. [vii] ' t

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215 PREPOSITIONS 417 (2) er mwyn '

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215 PREPOSITIONS 419 (n) heb amlaw

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216 PREPOSITIONS 421 object ; thus

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217 ADVERBS 423 = 1 ( nag) in ; ans

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218 ADVERBS 425 is the same as afte

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219 ADVERBS 427 me . . .' Na wir, y

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220 ADVERBS 431 object generally fo

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220 ADVERBS 433 Ni threithir y gwir

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220 ADVERBS 437 (4) pa le, pie ' wh

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220 ADVERBS 439 W. yn, Corn, yn, Ml

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222 CONJUNCTIONS 441 Ac yno ym medw

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222 CONJUNCTIONS 443 he was no near

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222 CONJUNCTIONS 445 same as after

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222 CONJUNCTIONS 447 that is ' ; A

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222 CONJUNCTIONS 449 wybyem pan oeS

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224 INTERJECTIONS 451 woe [to him]

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INDEX I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL WELSH

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argyweSa 322 I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL

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can, see cann I. MODERN AND MEDIEVA

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cwsg 396 I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL WEL

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deuaf 99, 359, I. MODERN AND MEDIEV

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efe 271-2 I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL WE

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I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL WELSH 465 gr

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I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL WELSH 467 ha

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llythyr 120 I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL

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oeddwn 347, 350 I. MODERN AND MEDIE

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hodia 322 I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL WE

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trwyddo 402 I. MODERN AND MEDIEVAL

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yswaetheroedd 440 ysywaeth 440, 452

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